Timeline Seventeenth Century: 1661-1699

1661 Feb 5, Kangxi ascended the throne of China as a child. He was the 1st of three Qing emperors who reigned for 133 years until 1795. Kangxi ruled over China until 1722. The film “Forbidden City: The Great Within,” depicts the period. Kangxi was followed by Yongzheng and Qianlong.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kangxi_Emperor)(WSJ, 11/2/95, p.A-12)(Econ, 11/5/05, p.90)

1661 Mar 9, Cardinal Jules Mazarin (58), the chief minister of France, died, leaving King Louis the 14th in full control.
(AP, 3/9/01)

1661 Mar 19, English occupied St. Andrew Island and other Courlander possessions in Gambia. They renamed the island James Island with administration by the Royal Adventurers in Africa Company.

1661 Mar 24, William Leddra became the last Quaker to be hanged in Boston. Quakers were last hanged on Boston Common. Charles II ordered the executions stopped.
(WSJ, 4/4/01, p.A18)(MC, 3/24/02)

1661 Apr 23, English king Charles II was crowned in London.
(MC, 4/23/02)

1661 Apr 29, Chinese Ming dynasty occupied Taiwan.
(HN, 4/29/98)

1661 May 25, King Charles II married Portuguese princess Catherina the Bragança. India’s city of Mumbai, formed from seven islands, was given by Portugal to Charels II of England as dowry for his marriage to Catherine of Braganza.
(SC, 5/25/02)(Econ, 12/22/12, p.119)

1661 May 27, Archibald Campbell (~53), Scottish politician, was beheaded.
(MC, 5/27/02)

1661 Jun 3, Gottfried Scheidt (67), composer, died.
(MC, 6/3/02)

1661 Jun 5, Isaac Newton was admitted as a student to Trinity College, Cambridge.

1661 Aug 6, Holland sold Brazil to Portugal for 8 million guilders.
(MC, 8/6/02)

1661 Aug 29, Louis Couperin (b.1626), French composer, died.

1661 Oct 1, A yacht race from Greenwich to Gravesend between King Charles and James, Duke of York, made the sport fashionable.

1661 Oct 11, Melchior de Polignac, French diplomat (Anti-Lucretius), was born.
(MC, 10/11/01)

1661 Oct 13, “I went to see Major General Harrison being drawn and quartered. He was looking as cheerful as any man could in that condition.” Harrison (b.1606) had sided with Parliament in the English Civil War. During the Interregnum he was a leader of the Fifth Monarchists. In 1649 he signed the death warrant of Charles I and in 1660, shortly after the Restoration, he was found guilty of regicide.
(Samuel Pepys Diary)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Harrison_%28soldier%29)

1661 Massachusetts merchant William Payne willed a spectacular 35-acre seafront property for the benefit of public school children, decreeing the land should never be sold or wasted. The land gift was intended to help Ipswich comply with a 1647 colonial law that required communities with more than 100 families to set up a grammar school to prepare students for admission to Harvard.
(AP, 2/24/12)

1661 White Virginians who wanted to keep their servants legalized the enslavement of African immigrants.
(SFC, 12/18/96, p.A25)

1661 The Bourla Theatre of Antwerp, Belgium can be traced back to this date.
(Hem., 7/95, p.28)

1661 Robert Boyle (1627-1691), English chemist, authored “The Sceptical Chymist: or Chymico-Physical Doubts & Paradoxes.”
1661 Charles II appointed Christopher Wren (29) assistant to the surveyor general of the king’s works (assistant to the royal architect).
(NYTBR, 2/2/03, p.12)
1661 Henry Slingsby, master of the London Mint, proposed the “standard solution” a mix of fiat rules and free markets, to resolve the ongoing problem of money supply and coin value. Britain adopted the idea in 1816 and the US followed in 1853.
(WSJ, 4/2/02, p.A20)

1661 The Paris Opera Ballet was founded.
(WSJ, 7/10/96, p.A16)
1661 In France Nicolas Fouquet, treasurer to Louis XIV, invited the king to his new chateau Vaux le Vicomte. The king, peeved by the wealth of the nonroyal, ordered his arrest and had him imprisoned for embezzlement. The property was confiscated and Louis hired Fouquet’s architects and designers to build Versailles.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1661 In Japan the Takanoshi family started producing food seasonings and became known for its soy sauce.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1661 Sweden became the first European country to introduce bank notes.
(AP, 3/17/12)

1661-1714 Peter Strudel, Austrian painter. He was a court painter of the Habsburgs and founded an art school that later became the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna.
(StuAus, April ’95, p.47)

1661-1722 Di Zi Gui (Standards for being a Good Pupil and Child) was written in the Qing Dynasty during the reign of the Kangxi Emperor (r. 1661-1722) by Li Yuxiu.

1662 Jan 27, 1st American lime kiln began operation in Providence, RI.
(MC, 1/27/02)

1662 Feb 11, The Prins Willem, built in 1643 as flagship of the Dutch East India Company, sank off Madagascar. A replica, built in the 1980s, burned down at Den Helder in 2009.
(AP, 7/30/09)(http://tinyurl.com/mteqbf)

1662 Apr 20, Gerard Terborch, the elder, painter, died.
(MC, 4/20/02)

1662 Apr 23, Connecticut was chartered as an English colony.
(MC, 4/23/02)

1662 Apr 27, Netherlands and France signed a treaty of alliance in Paris.

1662 May 3, John Winthrop the Younger, the son of the first governor of Massachusetts was honored by being made a fellow of the Royal Society, England’s new scientific society. Winthrop gained a new charter from the king, uniting the colonies of Connecticut and New Haven.
(HN, 5/3/99)

1662 Jun, Mary Sanford (~39) of Hartford, Connecticut, was convicted of “familiarity with Satan.” Historians later surmised that she was hanged for her crimes. In 2006 a descendant of Sanford worked on legislation to clear her ancestor as well as a dozen or so other women and men convicted for witchcraft in Connecticut from 1647 to the 1660s.
(WSJ, 9/15/06, p.A1)

1662 Aug 24, An Act of Uniformity, a part of the Clarendon Code (1661-1665), was passed by the English Parliament and required that England’s college fellows and clergymen accept the newly published Book of Common Prayer. Charles II attempted to suspend the operation of the Clarendon Code by issuing a 2nd Declaration of Indulgence, but opposition from Parliament forced him to retract it in 1663.
(PC, 1992, p.249)(www.everything2.com/index.pl?node=the%20Clarendon%20Code)

1662 Sep 12, Gov. Berkley of Virginia was denied his attempts to repeal the Navigation Acts.
(HN, 9/12/98)

1662 Oct 26, Charles II of England sold Dunkirk to France.
(MC, 10/26/01)

1662 Moliere authored his satirical play “The School for Wives.”
(SFC, 8/17/05, p.G9)

1662 Edward Collier painted a still life that sold for $442,500 in 1999.
(WSJ, 6/4/99, p.W10)

1662 Rembrandt depicted himself in a painting as the fifth-century Greek painter Zeuxis. His work this year also included “The Syndics of the Clothmakers’ Guild.”
(WSJ, 8/11/99, p.A16)(Econ, 6/23/07, p.96)

1662 Cavalli composed his opera “Ercole Amante” (Hercules in Love). It was written to celebrate the marriage of Louis XIV and Maria Theresa of Austria.
(WSJ, 6/21/99, p.A24)

1662 John Bowne (34) was arrested in Vlissingen (later Flushing, Queens, NY) on orders from Gov. Peter Stuyvesant for aiding and abetting an “abomination” (Quakerism). In a hearing 19 months later Bowne invoked a 1657 declaration of religious freedom called the Flushing Remonstrance.
(SSFC, 4/17/05, Par p.12)

1662 The British Parliament approved the Licensing of the Press Act, which censored “seditious, treasonable and unlicensed Bookes and Pamphlets.” It failed renewal in 1695 and was repealed by the Statute Law Revision Act 1863.
1662 British law established that mourning clothes had to be made of English wool. [see 1667]
(NG, 5.1988, pp. 574)
1662 Englishman Christopher Merret presented a paper to the Royal Society on making sparkling wine. This was noted in the 1998 “World Encyclopedia of Champagne and Sparkling Wine” by Tom Stevenson.
(WSJ, 10/16/98, p.W13)
1662 London haberdasher John Graunt published the first quantitative account of death.
(Econ, 4/29/17, p.9)
1662 John Tradescant the younger (b.1608), English traveler, horticulturalist, collector and gardener to Queen Henrietta Maria, died. His home in South Lambeth, called The Ark, was filled with his Museum Tradescantianum, a collection of rarities which included birds, fish, shells, insects, minerals, coins, medals and unusual plants. After his death the collection went to Elias Ashmole, who subsequently presented it to Oxford University, where it formed the basis of the Ashmolean Museum. In 2008 Jennifer Potter authored “Strange Blooms: The Curious Lives and Adventures of the John Tradescants.
(www.npg.org.uk/live/search/person.asp?LinkID=mp04533)(WSJ, 4/3/08, p.B19)

1662 Dutch fortune seekers killed over 400 members of the Nayar warrior caste in Kerala, India.
(SFEM, 7/18/99, p.12)

1662-1938 This period is examined by Judy L. Klein in Statistical Visions in Time: a History of Time Series Analysis: 1662-1938, from Cambridge Univ. Press.
(WSJ, 9/28/95, p.A-18)

1663 Jan 6, There was a great earthquake in New England.
(MC, 1/6/02)

1663 Jan 10, King Charles II affirmed the charter of Royal African Company.
(MC, 1/10/02)

1663 Jan 29, Robert Sanderson, Bishop of Lincoln (1660-63), died.
(MC, 1/29/02)

1663 Feb 12, Cotton Mather (d.1728), American clergyman and witchcraft specialist, was born.
(WUD, 1994, p.884)(MC, 2/12/02)

1663 Feb 28, Thomas Newcomen, English co-inventor of the steam engine, was born.
(MC, 2/28/02)

1663 Mar 7, Tomaso Antonio Vitali, composer, was born.
(MC, 3/7/02)

1663 Mar 24, Charles II of England awarded lands known as Carolina in America to eight members of the nobility who assisted in his restoration. [see Apr 6]
(HN, 3/24/99)

1663 Apr 6, King Charles II signed the Carolina Charter. [see Mar 24]
(MC, 4/6/02)

1663 Apr 10, Samuel Pepys, London-based diarist, noted that he had enjoyed a French wine called Ho Bryan at the Royal Oak Tavern. This same year the Pontacs, a top wine-making family in Bordeaux, founded a fashionable London restaurant called Pontack’s Head. Ho Bryan later came to be called Chateau Haut Brion.
(Econ, 12/19/09, p.131)

1663 Apr 18, Osman declared war on Austria.
(MC, 4/18/02)

1663 May 7, Theatre Royal in Drury Lane, London, opened.
(MC, 5/7/02)

1663 May 20, William Bradford, printer, was born.
(HN, 5/20/01)

1663 Jul 15, King Charles II of England granted John Clarke a charter for the colony of Rhode Island guaranteeing freedom of worship. He granted the charter giving the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations an elected governor and legislature. Roger Williams (1603-1683) authored the Rhode Island and Providence Plantation Charter, which stated that religion and conscience should never be restrained by civil supremacy.
(http://avalon.law.yale.edu/17th_century/ri04.asp)(AH, 4/07, p.21)

1663 Jul 27, British Parliament passed a second Navigation Act, requiring all goods bound for the colonies be sent in British ships from British ports.
(HN, 7/27/98)

1663 Sep 13, The 1st serious American slave conspiracy occurred in Virginia.
(MC, 9/13/01)

1663 Dec 5, Severo Bonini (80), composer, died.
(MC, 12/5/01)

1663 Rembrandt depicted himself as a bit player in his painting “The Raising of the Cross.”
(WSJ, 8/11/99, p.A16)

1663 Reverend John Eliot (1604-1690) published the first Bible in North America in the Algonquian language. An English missionary in Massachusetts called the “Apostle to the Indians,” the Puritan Eliot learned the Algonquian language and preached to the Indians. He translated the Bible into Algonquian and published it in 1663.
(HNQ, 6/7/98)

1663 The 1998 historic thriller “An Instance of the Fingerpost” by Iain Pears was set in this year.
(WSJ, 3/18/98, p.A20)

1663 Robert Boyle (1627-1691), English chemist and author of “The Sceptical Chymist: or Chymico-Physical Doubts & Paradoxes” (1661), wrote an essay apologizing for his interest in chrysopoeia, the chemical pursuit of transmutation of base metals into gold.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Sceptical_Chymist)(Econ, 2/26/11, p.85)

1663 London featured 82 coffee houses.
(Econ, 12/20/03, p.89)

1663 The 1st turnpike was authorized to collect tolls in order to cover maintenance costs.
(Econ, 10/23/04, p.78)

1663 Quebec became the capital of New France.
(HNQ, 10/3/99)

1663 The Reichstag, the imperial parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, began sitting permanently.
(Econ, 4/16/15, p.72)

1663 Abraham Blauvelt, Dutch pirate, died about this time. In the early 1630’s He explored the coasts of Honduras and Nicaragua. Afterwards, he went to England and with a proposal for a settlement at site in Nicaragua, which is near the town and river of Bluefields, Nicaragua.

1663-1665 Jan Steen, Dutch painter, painted “The Drawing Lesson.”
(SFC, 6/4/96, p.E5)

1663-1742 Jean Baptiste Massillon, French clergyman: “To be proud and inaccessible is to be timid and weak.”
(AP, 7/23/97)

1663-1789 This period in US history is covered in the 1st volume of the Oxford History of the US by Robert Middlekauff titled: “The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution, 1663-1789.”
(WSJ, 6/7/96, p.A12)

1664 Jan 21, Count Miklos of Zrinyi set out to battle the Turkish invasion army.
(MC, 1/21/02)

1664 Mar 12, England’s King Charles II granted land in the New World, known as New Netherland (later New Jersey), to his brother James, the Duke of York.
(HN, 3/12/98)(AP, 3/12/08)

1664 Mar 22, Charles II gave large tracks of land from west of the Connecticut River to the east of Delaware Bay in North America to his brother James, the Duke of York and Albany. The entire Hudson Valley and New Amsterdam was given to James.
(AP, 3/22/99)(ON, 4/00, p.2)

1664 Apr 4, Adam Willaerts, Dutch seascape painter, died.
(MC, 4/4/02)

1664 May 28, 1st Baptist Church was organized (Boston).
(MC, 5/28/02)

1664 May, Benoit Rencorel, a shepherd girl in the French Alps, alleged that she began receiving apparitions of the Virgin Mary. Her apparitions continued to 1718. In 2008 the Vatican officially recognized the “supernatural origin” of the apparitions and made the site of Notre-Dame-du-Laus an official pilgrimage site.
(SFC, 5/5/08, p.A13)

1664 Jun 24, New Jersey, named after the Isle of Jersey, was founded.
(HN, 6/24/98)

1664 Jul 21, Matthew Prior, English poet, was born.
(MC, 7/21/02)

1664 Jul 23, Wealthy non-church members in Massachusetts were given the right to vote.
(HN, 7/23/98)
1664 Jul 23, 4 British ships arrived in Boston to drive the Dutch out of NY.
(MC, 7/23/02)

1664 Aug 1, The Turkish army was defeated by French and German troops at St. Gotthard, Hungary.
(HN, 8/1/98)

1664 Aug 4, Louis Lully, composer, was born.
(MC, 8/4/02)

1664 Aug 6, Johann Christoph Schmidt, composer, was born.
(MC, 8/6/02)

1664 Aug 28, Four English warships under Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into New Amsterdam. 450 English soldiers disembarked and took control of Brooklyn, a village of mostly English settlers.
(ON, 4/00, p.2)

1664 Aug 29, Adriaen Pieck/Gerrit de Ferry patented a wooden firespout in Amsterdam.
(MC, 8/29/01)

1664 Sep 5, After days of negotiation, the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam surrendered to the British, who would rename it New York. The citizens of New Amsterdam petitioned Peter Stuyvesant to surrender to the English. The “Articles of Capitulation” guaranteed free trade, religious liberty and a form of local representation. In 2004 Russell Shorto authored “The Island At the Center of the World,” a history of New York’s Dutch period.
(HN, 9/5/98)(ON, 4/00, p.3)(WSJ, 3/16/04, p.D6)

1664 Sep 8, The Dutch formally surrendered New Amsterdam to 300 English soldiers. The British soon renamed it New York.
(AP, 9/8/97)(ON, 4/00, p.3)

1664 Sep 20, Maryland passed the 1st anti-amalgamation law to stop intermarriage of English women and black men.
(MC, 9/20/01)

1664 Stephen Blake wrote “The Compleat Gardeners Practices.”
(WSJ, 7/7/98, p.A14)

1664 Moliere wrote Tartuffe, his satire on holier-than-thou hypocrites and their fatuous dupes.
(SFC, 8/16/96, p.D1)

1664 The Jesuit scholar Athanasius Kircher wrote the “Mundus subterraneus.” His work also included an ethnography of China and major treatises on music and magnetism. He also assembled in Rome a natural history collection.
(NH, 5/97, p.58)(NH, 6/00, p.32)

1664 There was no litigation in London, England due to the Black plague.
(SFC, 7/14/96, zone 1 p.2)

1664 Michael Sweerts (b.1618), Belgium-born artist, died in Goa, India. He did much of his important work in Rome, moved to the Netherlands, and traveled in Asia with a band of missionaries. His major work included a series depicting the Seven Acts of Mercy.
(WSJ, 7/2/02, p.D7)

1664-1667 The Second Anglo-Dutch War.
(HN, 6/21/98)

1664-1769 The French East India Company was chartered to carry on trade in the East Indies.
(WUD, 1994, p.449)

1665 Jan 12, Pierre de Fermat (b.1601), French lawyer, mathematician (Fermat’s Principle), died. His equation xn + yn = zn is called Fermat’s Last Theorem and remained unproven for many years. The history of its resolution and final proof by Andrew Wiles is told by Amir D. Aczel in his 1996 book Fermat’s Last Theorem. “Fermat’s Enigma: The Epic Quest to Solve the World’s Greatest Mathematical Problem” by Simon Singh was published in 1997. In 1905 Paul Wolfskehl, a German mathematician, bequeathed a reward of 100,000 marks to whoever could find a proof to Fermat’s “last theorem.” It stumped mathematicians until 1993, when Andrew John Wiles made a breakthrough.
(MC, 1/12/02)(SFC, 10/2/02, p.D7)

1665 Feb 6, Anne Stuart, queen of England (1702-14), was born.
(MC, 2/6/02)

1665 Feb 12, Rudolph J. Camerarius, German botanist, physician (sexuality plant), was born.
(MC, 2/12/02)

1665 Feb 20, Michel Dorigny (b.1617), French painter, died.

1665 Mar 4, English King Charles II declared war on Netherlands.
(SC, 3/4/02)

1665 Mar 6, Philosophical Transactions of Royal Society started publishing.
(MC, 3/6/02)

1665 Mar 11, A new legal code was approved for the Dutch and English towns, guaranteeing religious observances unhindered.
(HN, 3/11/99)

1665 May 15, Pope Alexander VII condemned Jansenism.
(MC, 5/15/02)

1665 May 31, Jerusalem’s rabbi Sjabtai Tswi proclaimed himself Messiah.
(MC, 5/31/02)

1665 Jun 12, England installed a municipal government in New York, formerly the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam.
(AP, 6/12/97)

1665 Aug 15-22, The London weekly “Bill of Mortality” recorded 5,568 fatalities with teeth holding the no. 5 spot. 4,237 were killed by the plague.
(SFEC, 8/2/98, BR p.7)

1665 Aug 27, “Ye Bare & Ye Cubb,” the 1st play performed in N. America, was performed at Acomac, Va.
(MC, 8/27/01)

1665 Sep 22, Moliere’s “L’amour Medecin,” premiered in Paris.
(MC, 9/22/01)

1665 Nov 7, The London Gazette, the oldest surviving journal, was first published.
(HN, 11/7/98)

1665 Dec 4, Jean Racine’s “Alexandre le Grand,” premiered in Paris.
(MC, 12/4/01)

c1665 Gerrit Dou, Dutch artist, painted “Woman at the Clavichord” and a “Self-Portrait” in which he resembled Rembrandt.
(WSJ, 5/24/00, p.A24)
1665 Jacob van Ochtervelt (1634-1682), Dutch artist, painted his “Street Musicians in the Doorway of a House.”
(WSJ, 1/30/09, p.W2)(http://wwar.com/masters/o/ochtervelt-jacob.html)

1665 Robert Hooke authored “Micrographia,” in which he described not only the microscopic world, but also astronomy, geology and the nature of light. This was the first great scientific book written in English.
(WSJ, 4/14/07, p.P10)

1665 The 1st horse racing track in America was laid out on Long Island.
(SFEC, 10/17/99, Z1 p.3)

1665 In France Louis XIV began to systematically hollow out formal guarantees to the Protestants until they became little more than scraps of paper.
(WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R23)
1665 French finance minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert founded the Saint Gobain company to replace imports of Venetian glass with home-made wares. The glass was to be used for the mirrors at the Palace of Versailles.
(Econ, 3/25/06, p.71)(Econ, 11/17/07, p.74)

1665 The villagers of Eyam in Derbyshire, England, voluntarily isolated themselves so as not to spread the plague. 250 of 350 people died and the town became known as the Plague Village.
(SFEM, 10/11/98, p.22)

1665 The British briefly recaptured the Banda Island of Run from the Dutch.
(WSJ, 5/21/99, p.W7)
1665 In London at least 68,000 people died of the plague this year. In 1722 Daniel Defoe published his novel “A Journal of the Plague Year.” The novel posed as a historical document covering the London plague. The Lord Mayor of London exterminated all the city’s cats and dogs, which allowed the rats, the real transmitters of the disease, to increase exponentially.
(NG, 5/88, p.684)(WSJ, 9/9/06, p.P8)(WSJ, 10/21/06, p.P8)

1665 Nicolas Poussin (b.1594), painter, known as the founder of French Classicism, died. He spent most of his career in Rome which he reached at age 30 in 1624. His Greco-Romanism work includes “The Death of Chione” (1622-1623) and “The Abduction of the Sabine Women.” [WUD ends his life in 1655] In 1997 Elizabeth Cropper and Charles Dempsey authored “Nicholas Poussin: Friendship and the Love of Painting.”
(WSJ, 2/26/96, p.A-10)(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1126)(SFC,11/22/97, p.D5)(WSJ, 11/6/02, p.D8)y

1665 Dutch artist Johannes Vermeer painted his “Girl With a Pearl Earring” about this time. [see Vermeer, 1632-1675] In 1999 Tracy Chevalier authored the novel “Girl With a Pearl Earring,” a fictionalization based on one of Vermeer’s models.
(WSJ, 11/15/95, p.A-20)(SFEC, 1/2/00, BR p.3)(SFC, 1/24/13, p.E1)

1665-1666 Over a span of 18 months Isaac Newton invented calculus, explained how gravity works, and discovered his laws of motion. This period came to be called his annus mirabilis.
(Econ, 1/1/05, p.59)

1666 Jan 22, Shah Jahan died. He had built the Taj Mahal.
(HT, 4/97, p.24)

1666 Feb 15, Antonio M. Valsalva, Italian anatomist (eardrums, glottis), was born.
(MC, 2/15/02)

1666 Apr 19, Sarah Kembel Knight, diarist, was born.
(HN, 4/1901)

1666 Aug 4, Johan Evertsen, Italian admiral of Zeeland, was lynched in Brielle.
(MC, 8/4/02)

1666 Sep 2, The Great Fire of London, having started at Pudding Lane, began to demolish about four-fifths of London. It started at the house of King Charles II’s baker, Thomas Farrinor, after he forgot to extinguish his oven. The flames raged uncontrollably for the next few days, helped along by the wind, as well as by warehouses full of oil and other flammable substances. Approximately 13,200 houses, 90 churches and 50 livery company halls burned down or exploded. But the fire claimed only 16 lives, and it actually helped impede the spread of the deadly Black Plague, as most of the disease-carrying rats were killed in the fire.
(CFA, ’96, p.54)(AP, 9/2/97)(HNPD, 9/2/98)(HNQ, 12/2/00)

1666 Sep 5, The great fire of London, begun on Sep 2, was extinguished. Old St. Paul’s was among the 87 churches burned down.
(HN, 9/5/98)(www.stpauls.co.uk)

1666 Nov 5, Attilio Ariosti, composer, was born.
(MC, 11/5/01)

1666 Nov 14, Samuel Pepys reported the on 1st blood transfusion, which was between dogs.
(HFA, ’96, p.42)(MC, 11/14/01)

1666 Dec 5, Francesco Antonio Nicola Scarlatti, composer, was born.
(MC, 12/5/01)

c1666 Sir Peter Lely painted Barbara Villiers 1640-1709, mistress to King Charles II, as a Shepherdess. Charles had raised her stature to Countess of Castlemaine and later Duchess of Cleveland.
(WSJ, 3/7/02, p.A22)

1666 Moliere wrote his play The Misanthrope. It condemned the falseness and intrigue of French aristocratic society.
(WSJ, 10/11/95, p. A-10)

1666 Pierre-Paul Riquet convinced French finance minister Colbert for a canal from the Mediterranean port of Sete to Toulouse and the River Garonne. He oversaw the Canal du Midi project for 15 years and died 6 months before it was completed.
(SSFC, 1/14/01, p.T9)

1666 John Locke met Sir Anthony Ashley Cooper, later the Earl of Shaftsbury, and served him as physician, secretary and counselor for the next 15 years.

1666 The plague decimated London and Isaac Newton moved to the country. He had already discovered the binomial theorem at Cambridge and was offered the post of professor of mathematics. Newton formulated his law of universal gravitation.
(V.D.-H.K.p.206)(JST-TMC,1983, p.70)

1666 The French Academy of Sciences was founded.
(Econ, 1/9/10, p.57)

1666 Giovanni Domenico Cassini (1625-1712), Italian-born French astronomer, discovered one of the polar ice caps of Mars.
1666 Giovanni Francesco Barbieri Guercino, Italian painter, died. His work included “Erminia finding the wounded Tancred.” In 1996 it was purchased by the Scottish National Gallery for $3.1 million.
(TOH, 1982, p.1591d)(SFC, 8/17/96, p.E4)
1666 Pier Francesco Mola (b.1612), Italian Baroque artist, died in Rome.

1666 Franz Hals (b.1581?), painter, died in the Oudemannenhuis almshouse in Haarlem. The almshouse later became the Frans Hals Museum.
(SFEC, 9/3/00, p.T7)

1666 In Cholula, Mexico, the chapel Nuestra de los Remedios was built atop a Teotihuacan pyramid.
(SFEC, 11/8/98, p.T10)

1666 Russia’s orthodox “Old Believers” split over liturgical reforms.
(Econ, 2/2/13, p.73)

1667 Jan 30, Lithuania, Poland and Russia signed a 13.5 year treaty at Andrusov, near Smolensk. Russia received Smolensk and Kiev.
(LHC, 1/30/03)

1667 Feb 20, David ben Samuel Halevi, rabbi, author (Shulchan Aruch), died.
(MC, 2/20/02)

1667 Apr 9, 1st public art exhibition (Palais Royale, Paris).
(MC, 4/9/02)

1667 Apr 29, John Arbuthnot (d.1735), Scottish mathematician, was born. With Alexander Pope, Jonathan Swift, John Gay and Thomas Parnell he founded the Scriblerus Club in 1714, whose purpose was to satirize bad poetry and pedantry. The club was short-lived.
(MC, 4/29/02)

1667 May 6, Johann Jacob Froberger (50), German singer, organist, composer, died.
(MC, 5/6/02)

1667 May 7, Johann Jakob Froberger (50), German organist, singer, composer, died.
(MC, 5/7/02)

1667 May 9, Marie Louise de Gonzague-Nevers, French Queen of Poland (1645-48), died.
(MC, 5/9/02)

1667 May 26, Abraham De Moivre, mathematician, was born.
(HN, 5/26/98)

1667 Jun 15, Dr. Jean-Baptiste Denys, French doctor, performed the 1st animal to human blood transfusion. He successfully transfused a few ounces of blood from a lamb into boy (15). Another experimental transfusion this year resulted in the patient’s death and Denys was accused of murder. In 2011 Holly Tucker authored “Blood Work: A Tale of Medicine and Murder in the Scientific Revolution.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_transfusion)(Econ, 3/19/11, p.95)

1667 Jun 18, The Dutch fleet sailed up the Thames and threatened London. They burned 3 ships and captured the English flagship in what came to be called the Glorious Revolution, in which William of Orange replaced James Stuart.
(HN, 6/18/98)(WSJ, 3/14/00, p.A28)

1667 Jul 21, The Peace of Breda ended the Second Anglo-Dutch War and ceded Dutch New Amsterdam to the English. The South American country of Surinam, formerly Dutch Guiana, including the nutmeg island of Run was ceded by England to the Dutch in exchange for New York in 1667 after the second Anglo-Dutch War.
(WUD, 1994, p.961)(HN, 7/21/98)(HNQ, 8/21/98)(WSJ, 5/21/99, p.W7)

1667 Aug 3, Francesco Borromini (b.1599), Italian Baroque architect and sculptor, died. He designed the San Ivo della Sapienza church in Rome. In 2005 Jake Morrissey authored “The Genius in the Design: Bernini, Borromini and the Rivalry that Transformed Rome.”
(www.bookrags.com/biography-francesco-borromini/)(Econ, 7/25/05, p.71)

1667 Aug 20, John Milton published “Paradise Lost,” an epic poem about the fall of Adam and Eve.
(HN, 8/20/98)

1667 Aug 31, Johann Rist, composer, died at 60.
(MC, 8/31/01)

1667 Sep 23, Slaves in Virginia were banned from obtaining their freedom by converting to Christianity.
(HN, 9/23/98)

1667 Sep 24, Jean-Louis Lully, composer, was born.
(MC, 9/24/01)

1667 Nov 7, Jean Racine’s “Andromaque,” premiered in Paris.
(MC, 11/7/01)

1667 Nov 30, Jonathan Swift (d.1745), English satirist who wrote “Gulliver’s Travels,” was born in Ireland. “We have enough religion to make us hate, but not enough to make us love one another.”
(WUD, 1994, p.1437)(HN, 11/30/98)(AP, 4/16/00)

1667 Connecticut adopted America’s first divorce law.
(SFC, 7/18/98, p.A15)

1667 British law required that everyone be buried in wool. [see 1662]
(NG, 5.1988, pp. 574)
1667 The first insurance company was formed in London.
(Econ, 2/25/12, SRp.4)

1667 A Baroque palace was built in Dubrovnik, Croatia. It later became a 400 student elementary school.
(Hem. 1/95, p. 67)

1667 In France Louis XIV opened the 1st stretch of the Champs-Elysees: a short extension of the Tuileries Gardens leading to the palace at Versailles.
(SSFC, 2/11/07, p.G3)

1667 Arequipa, Peru, was hit by an earthquake.
(SSFC, 6/24/01, p.A16)

1667 The Cossack Stench Razing led a peasant uprising.
(SFC,10/28/97, p.A8)

1667 Cassiopeia A, the gaseous remains of a supernova, would have been visible from Earth at about this time, but no record indicates that it was noticed. It was first detected in 1947 as a radio source.
(Econ, 9/2/06, p.72)

1667-1668 The War of Devolution was fought between France and Spain as a result of the claim by Louis XIV of France that the ownership of the Spanish Netherlands devolved to his wife, Marie Therese, upon the death of her father, Philip IV of Spain. France conquered the area, now Belgium, and also seized the Franche-Comte, a Spanish possession that bordered on Switzerland.
(HNQ, 2/7/00)

1667-1748 Johan Bernouilli, Swiss mathematician, brother of Jacob.
(WUD, 1994, p.141)

1668 Feb 7, English King William III danced in the premiere of “Ballet of Peace.”
(MC, 2/7/02)
1668 Feb 7, The Netherlands, England and Sweden concluded an alliance directed against Louis XIV of France.
(HN, 2/7/99)

1668 Mar 5, Francesco Gasparini, composer, was born.
(MC, 3/5/02)

1668 Mar 25, The first horse race in America took place.
(HN, 3/24/98)

1668 Mar 26, England took control of Bombay, India.
(SS, 3/26/02)

1668 Mar 27, English king Charles II gave Bombay to the East India Company.
(MC, 3/27/02)

1668 Apr 13, John Dryden (36) became 1st English poet laureate.
(MC, 4/13/02)

1668 May 2, Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle ended the War of Devolution in France.
(HN, 5/2/99)

1668 May 8, Alain Rene Lesage, French novelist and dramatist, was born. He is best known for his works “The Adventures of Gil Blas” and “Turcaret.”
(HN, 5/8/99)

1668 May 27, Three colonists were expelled from Massachusetts for being Baptists.
(HN, 5/27/99)

1668 Sep 16, King John Casimer II of Poland abdicated the throne.
(HN, 9/16/98)(PCh, 1992, p.241)

1668 Oct 23, Jews of Barbados were forbidden to engage in retail trade.
(MC, 10/23/01)

1668 Nov 10, Francois Couperin, composer and organist (Concerts Royaux), was born in Paris, France.
(MC, 11/10/01)

1668 Dec 22, Stephen Day, 1st British colonial printer, died.
(MC, 12/22/01)

1668 Bernini sculpted a terra cotta study for one of the angels of Rome’s Port Santa Angelo.
(WSJ, 10/22/96, p.A20)

1668 The British trading ship Nonsuch 1st sailed into Hudson Bay.
(SSFC, 12/22/02, p.C6)

1668 Louis XIV of France purchased the 112 carat blue diamond from John Baptiste Tavernier for 220,000 livre. Tavernier was also given a title of nobility.
(THC, 12/3/97)(EB, 1993, V6 p.51)
1668 Charles Alphonse Dufresnoy (b.1611), French artist, died. His work included the painting “The Death of Socrates” (1650).
(WSJ, 11/24/07, p.W8)

1668 The Spaniards established a permanent settlement on Guam. They forced the Chamorros to convert to Catholicism. Under Spanish rule the Chamorro numbers were reduced to some 2,000.
(SFEC, 3/7/99,Z1 p.4)

1668 A fortified wall was completed at Campeche, Mexico, to ward off pirate attacks.
(SSFC, 1/25/09, p.E4)

1668 Arequipa, Peru, was hit by another earthquake.
(SSFC, 6/24/01, p.A16)

1668 Sweden’s Sveriges Riksbank, the first central bank, was set up as a tool of government financial management.
(Econ, 2/25/12, SR p.4)(Econ, 4/29/17, p.56)

1669 Feb 1, French King Louis XIV limited the freedom of religion.
(MC, 2/1/02)

1669 Mar 11, Mount Etna in Sicily began erupting. Lava flows that destroyed at least 10 villages on its southern flank before reaching the city walls of the town of Catania five weeks later, on 15 April. Contemporaneous accounts written both in Italian and English mention no deaths related to this eruption (but give very precise figures of the number of buildings destroyed, the area of cultivated land lost, and the economic damage).

1669 Jul 6, LaSalle left Montreal to explore Ohio River.
(MC, 7/6/02)

1669 Jul 21, John Locke’s Constitution of English colony Carolina was approved.
(MC, 7/21/02)

1669 Aug 24, Alessandro Marcello (d.1747), composer, was born in Venice.
(MC, 8/24/02)

1669 Sep 26, The island of Crete fell to the Ottoman Turks after 465 years as a colony of Venice.
(WSJ, 7/21/08, p.A11)

1669 Oct 4, Rembrandt H. van Rijn (b.1606), painter and etcher (Steel Masters, Night Watch), died. In 1999 Simon Schama published the biography “Rembrandt’s Eyes.”
(WSJ, 11/24/99, p.A16)(MC, 10/4/01)

1669 Dec 20, The 1st American jury trial was held in Delaware. Marcus Jacobson was condemned for insurrection and sentenced to flogging, branding & slavery.
(MC, 12/20/01)

1669 Vermeer painted “The Art of Painting.” The 3′ by 4′ work was larger than most of his paintings.
(SFC, 11/24/99, p.E8)

1669 Nils Steensen’s “Prodromus” was first published in Italy and translated to English two years later. It explained the authors determination of the successive order of the earth strata.
(RFH-MDHP, p.7)

1669 The semicircular Sheldonian Theater at Oxford, England, designed by Christopher Wren, was completed.
(SSFC, 2/4/01, p.T8)

1669 Emperor Leopold I sanctioned the foundation of a higher school in Innsbruck, Austria. This is considered to mark the founding of the Univ. of Innsbruck.
(StuAus, April ’95, p.97)

1669 A French ordnance created a forest code.
(Econ, 9/2/17, p.46)

1669 While Mount Etna erupted, German scholar Athanasius Kircher was busy devising a machine that would clean out volcanoes the way a chimney sweep cleaned out clogged chimneys.
(PacDisc. Spring/’96, p.26)

1670 Jan 3, George Monck (61), English general (to the-sea), died.
(MC, 1/3/02)

1670 Feb 10, William Congreve, English writer (Old Bachelor, Way of the World), was born.
(MC, 2/10/02)

1670 Feb 14, Roman Catholic emperor Leopold I chased the Jews out of Vienna.
(MC, 2/14/02)

1670 Feb 27, Jews were expelled from Austria by order of Leopold I.
(MC, 2/27/02)

1670 Apr, Colonists landed on the western bank of the Ashley River, five miles from the sea, and named their settlement Charles Town in honor of Charles II, King of England.
(Hem., 1/95, p.70)

1670 May 2, The Company of Adventurers of England Trading into Hudson Bay (the Hudson Bay Co.) was chartered by England’s King Charles II to exploit the resources of the Hudson Bay area. By 2006 it had mutated into Canada’s largest non-food retailer.
(AP, 5/2/97)(HN, 5/2/98)(AH, 4/01, p.36)(Econ, 2/4/06, p.36)

1670 May 12, August II, the Strong One, King of Poland (355 children), was born.
(MC, 5/12/02)

1670 May 26, A treaty was signed in secret in Dover, England, between Charles II and Louis XIV ending hostilities between them.
(HN, 5/26/99)

1670 Jul 18, Giovanni Battista Bononcini, Italian (opera) composer, was born.
(MC, 7/18/02)

1670 Jul 25, Jews were expelled from Vienna, Austria.
(SC, 7/25/02)

1670 Oct 13, Virginia passed a law that blacks arriving in the colonies as Christians could not be used as slaves.
(HN, 10/13/98)

1670 Nov 28, Pierre Corneille’s “Tite et Berenice,” premiered in Paris.
(MC, 11/28/01)

1670 Vermeer painted his “A Young Woman Standing at a Virginal” and “A Young Woman Seated at a Virginal.” Estimates for auction in 2004 for the seated one reached $5.4 million.
(WSJ, 6/19/00, p.a42)(SFC, 4/1/04, p.E7)

1670 John Ray printed a book of aphorisms such as: “Blood is thicker than water…” and “Haste makes waste.”
(SFC, 11/23/96, p.E4)

1670 Spinoza (1632-1677), Dutch philosopher, authored “Tractatus Theologico-Politicus” an enlightened assessment of the Old Testament and a plea for religious toleration.
(WSJ, 12/15/05, p.D8)

1670 Cafe Procope, the first cafe in Paris, began serving ice cream.
(SFC, 11/23/96, p.E4)

1670 Le Notre, the royal landscaper of Louis XIV, laid out the Triumphal Way in Paris.
(SSFC, 1/25/04, p.C12)

1670 Minute hands on watches first appeared.
(SFC, 7/14/99, p.3)

1670 Ashanti, a West African chiefdom (later part of Ghana), prospered from trade of cola nuts, gold and slaves.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1670-1680 In Oman the Nizwa Fort was built 100 miles southwest of Muscat.
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.46)

1670-1712 Osei Tutu, ruler of the Ashanti Empire in what later became Ghana. He amassed a fortune by supplying slaves to British and Dutch traders in exchange for firearms.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1670-1752 In 2006 Jonathan I. Israel authored “Enlightenment Contested: Philosophy, Modernity, and the Emancipation of Man 1670-1752.”
(Econ, 12/2/06, p.85)

1670-1850 Daniel Cohen’s 1993 Pillars of Salt, Monuments of Grace is a book that follows the shifts in social authority and attitudes toward authority in New England as demonstrated by changes in the crime literature of this period.
(LSA., Fall 1995, p.19)

1670s French explorer Rene Robert Cavelier (LaSalle), Sieur de La Salle, explored the Great Lakes region of the New World.
(SFC, 11/30/96, p.A7)

1671 Jan 18, Pirate Henry Morgan defeated Spanish defenders and captured Panama.
(MC, 1/18/02)

1671 Jan 27, Welsh pirate Sir Henry Morgan (1635-1688) landed at Panama City.
(WUD, 1994 p.931)(MC, 1/27/02)

1671 Feb 19, Charles-Hubert Gervais, composer, was born.
(MC, 2/19/02)

1671 Apr 6, Jean-Baptiste Rousseau, French playwright, poet (Sacred Odes & Songs), was born.
(MC, 4/6/02)

1671 Apr 22, King Charles II sat in on English parliament after which he gave his Royal Assent to the several Bills that were presented to him, fourteen private Acts, and eighteen public, including an act for exporting “Beer, Ale, and Mum.”

1671 Apr 30, Peter Zrinyi (49), Hungarian banished to Croatia, was beheaded.
(MC, 4/30/02)

1671 May 9, Colonel Thomas Blood (1618-1680), Irish adventurer, attempted to steal the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London.
(MC, 5/9/02)(Reuters, 8/24/01)

1671 Jun 6 (OS), Stenka, Stepan Razin, Russian Cossack, was killed. [see Jun 16]
(MC, 6/6/02)

1671 Jun 8, Tomaso Albinoni, Italian composer (Adagio in G-minor), was born.
(MC, 6/8/02)

1671 Jun 16 (NS), Stenka Razin, Cossack rebel leader, was tortured & executed in Moscow. [see Jun 6]
(MC, 6/16/02)

1671 Nov 6, Colley Cibber, England, dramatist, poet laureate (Love’s Last Shift), was born.
(MC, 11/6/01)

1671 Dec 1, Francesco Stradivari, Italian violin maker and son of Antonius, was born.
(MC, 12/1/01)

1671 Vermeer painted his “Allegory of Faith.” [see Vermeer, 1632-1675]
(WSJ, 11/15/95, p.A-20)

1671 Moliere wrote his farce “Les Fourberies de Scapin” (The Wiles of Scapin or Scapin the Cheat).
(WSJ, 1/10/97, p.A9)(SFC, 6/15/98, p.D3)

1671 Rice arrived in South Carolina from Madagascar but nobody knew how to husk it for food.
(Hem., 12/96, p.82)

1671 Charles II banned anyone without property worth £100 a year from owning guns, bows or ferrets. Game stocks were the motive.
(Econ, 6/5/10, p.63)
1671 English Protestants became alarmed when they learned that James, Duke of York, had converted to Catholicism.
(ON, 7/06, p.8)

1671 In Germany Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz (Leibniz) devised a mechanical calculator to add, subtract, multiply and divide.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1671 Mar 7, In Scotland Rob Roy MacGregor (d.1734) was baptized. He was later forced to become a highland fugitive.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rob_Roy_MacGregor)(SFC, 8/19/96, p.D7)(Econ, 12/22/12, p.109)

1671-1743 Kaigetsudo Ando (d.1743), Japanese artist, was born. He is also called Okazaki Genshichi.

1671-1729 John Law, Scotsman and financier for France. He controlled France’s foreign trade, mints, revenue, national debt and the Louisiana territory. [see 1694]
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1672 Jan 1, The beginning of the current Dionysian Period, named for the monk Dionysius Exiguous who, in the AD 500s, introduced the present custom of reckoning time by counting the years from the birth of Christ.
(CFA, ’96, p.22)

1672 Feb 8, Isaac Newton read his 1st optics paper before Royal Society in London.
(MC, 2/8/02)

1672 Mar 15, England’s King Charles II enacted a 3rd Declaration of Indulgence.

1672 Apr 2, Pedro Calungsod (b.1654), a Filipino teenager, was killed in Tumon, Guam, along with Diego Luis de San Vitores, his Jesuit missionary priest, by natives resisting their conversion efforts. In 2012 Pedro was named a saint in the Catholic church.
(AP, 10/20/12)( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pedro_Calungsod)

1672 Apr 6, Andre Ardinal Destouches, composer, was born.
(MC, 4/6/02)

1672 Apr 29, King Louis XIV of France invaded the Netherlands.
(HN, 4/29/99)

1672 Apr 30, Marie of the Incarnation (b.1599, French Ursuline nun and the leader of the group of nuns sent to establish the Ursuline Order in New France, died in Quebec City. She was canonized a saint on April 2, 2014.

1672 May 1, Joseph Addison (d.1719), English essayist (Spectator) and poet, was born. “We are always doing, says he, something for posterity, but I would fain see posterity do something for us.” “A man must be both stupid and uncharitable who believes there is no virtue or truth but on his own side.”
(AHD, 1971, p.14)(AP, 11/21/97)(AP, 7/14/98)(MC, 5/1/02)

1672 May 15, 1st copyright law was enacted by Massachusetts.
(MC, 5/15/02)

1672 May 17, Frontenac became governor of New France (Canada).
(MC, 5/17/02)

1672 May 30, Peter I (the Great) Romanov, great czar (tsar) of Russia (1682-1725), was born. [see Jun 9]
(HN, 5/30/98)(MC, 5/30/02)

1672 Jun 9, Peter I (d.1725), “The Great,” was born. He grew to be almost 7 feet tall and was the Russian Czar from 1682 to 1725 and modernized Russia with sweeping reforms. He moved the Russian capital to the new city he built, St. Petersburg. [see May 30]
(CFA, ’96, p.48)(WUD, 1994, p.1077)(HN, 6/9/99)(SFC, 12/25/99, p.C3)

1672 Jun 15, The Sluices were opened in Holland to save Amsterdam from the French.
(HT, 6/15/00)

1672 Jun 25, 1st recorded monthly Quaker meeting in US was held at Sandwich, Mass.
(MC, 6/25/02)

1672 Jul 4, States of Holland declared “Eternal Edict” void.

1672 Aug 9, Jose Ximenez (70), Spanish composer, died.
(MC, 8/9/02)

1672 Aug 20, Jan de Witt, Dutch politician and mathematician, was assassinated by a carefully organized lynch “mob” after visiting his brother Cornelis de Witt in prison. He was killed by a shot in the neck; his naked body was hanged and mutilated and the heart was carved out to be exhibited.

1672 Nov 1, Heinrich Schutz (87), composer, died. Pupil of Giovanni Gabrielli from 1609-1672, he was employed by the Elector of Saxony in 1615 and became Kapellmeister two years later. While employed by the Elector, Schütz made several visits to Italy and served three two-year terms as guest court conductor in Copenhagen. Schütz’s works include one opera (a first in the German language), Easter and Christmas oratorios, three passions, numerous polychoral Psalm settings in the style of his teacher, Gabrielli, other sacred concerted works in Latin and German, and Italian madrigals.

1672 Dec 10, Gov. Lovelace announced monthly mail service between NY and Boston.
(MC, 12/10/01)

1672 Peter Stuyvesant died on his farm in NY. In 1959 Henry H. Kessler and Eugene Rachlis authored “Peter Stuyvesant and his New York.” In 1970 Adele de Leeuw authored “Peter Stuyvesant.”
(ON, 4/00, p.3)

1672 In Bolivia the Royal Mint in Potosi was established. It required the construction of reservoirs, dams and a canal system to deliver water used in the minting process.

1672 Gerhard Altzenbach (b.1609), German artist, died.
(SFC, 9/23/06, p.E2)

1672 Christian Huygens of Holland discovered the southern polar caps on Mars.

1672 The Royal African Co. was granted a charter to expand the slave trade and its stockholders included philosopher John Locke. The operation supplied English sugar colonies with 3,000 slaves annually.
(SFC, 10/19/98, p.D3)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1673 Feb 17, Moliere, [Jean Baptiste Poquelin], French author (Tartuffe, Le Malade Imaginaire), died.
(MC, 2/17/02)

1673 Feb 20, The 1st recorded wine auction was held in London.
(MC, 2/20/02)

1673 Mar 28, Adam Pijnacker (51), Dutch landscape painter, etcher, was buried.
(MC, 3/28/02)

1673 Mar 29, The English Parliament passed the Test Act. It in effect excluded Roman Catholics from public functions. King Charles II was unable to stop the action.

1673 Apr 5, Francois Caron (~72), admiral, governor (Formosa), drowned.
(MC, 4/5/02)

1673 May 17, Louis Joliet and Jacques Marquette began exploring the Mississippi.
(MC, 5/17/02)

1673 May 29, Cornelis van Bijnkershoek, lawyer, president of High Council, was born.
(SC, 5/29/02)

1673 Jun 25, In France Charles de Batz (b.1611), a commander known as D’Artagnan, was slain in the service of Louis XIV. He died at the Siege of Maastricht in the Franco-Dutch War and was one of the musketeers who inspired Dumas’ fiction.
(SSFC, 4/13/08, p.E4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/D’Artagnan)

1673 Jul 24, Edmund Halley entered Queen’s College, Oxford, as an undergraduate.
(MC, 7/24/02)

1673 Aug 9, Dutch recapture NY from English. It was regained by English in 1674.
(MC, 8/9/02)

1673 Sep 21, James Needham returned to Virginia after exploring the land to the west, which would become Tennessee.
(HN, 9/21/98)

1673 Dec 28, Joan Blaeu (77), Dutch cartographer, publisher (Atlas Major), died.
(MC, 12/28/01)

1673 In London the Worshipful Society of Apothecaries started the Chelsea Physic Garden as an educational tool for apprentices learning to grow medicinal plants.
(SFC, 3/26/08, p.G1)

1673 Cuba began a program of scientific research.
(SFC, 3/17/99, p.A14)

1673 The most important of Christian Huygens’ written works, the “Horologium Oscillatorium,” was published in Paris. It discussed the mathematics surrounding pendulum motion and the law of centrifugal force for uniform circular motion.
1673 The French Blue Diamond was recut to a 67 carat stone.
(EB, 1993, V6 p.51)

1673 In Japan the Mitsukoshi store introduced fixed prices.
(Econ, 8/25/07, p.58)

1674 Feb 9, English reconquered NY from Netherlands.
(MC, 2/9/02)

1674 Feb 19, Netherlands and England signed the Peace of Westminster. NYC became English.
(MC, 2/19/02)

1674 Feb 21, Johann Augustin Kobelius, composer, was born.
(MC, 2/21/02)

1674 Mar 6, Johann Paul Schor (58), German baroque painter, died.
(MC, 3/6/02)

1674 May 20, John Sobieski became Poland’s first King. [see May 11, 1573]
(HN, 5/20/98)

1674 May 21, Gen. Jan Sobieski was chosen King of Poland. [see May 20]
(MC, 5/21/02)

1674 Jun 6, Sivaji crowned himself King of India.
(HN, 6/6/98)

1674 Jun 20, Nicholas Rowe, poet laureate of England, was born.
(HN, 6/20/98)

1674 Jul 17, Isaac Watts, English minister and hymn writer, was born.
(HN, 7/17/01)

1674 Aug 18, Jean Racine’s “Iphigenie,” premiered in Versailles.
(MC, 8/18/02)

1674 Oct 15, Robert Herrick, British poet (Together), was born in Mass.
(MC, 10/15/01)

1674 Nov 8, John Milton (65), English poet (Paradise Lost), died. His work included “Paradise Lost,” Paradise Regained,” and “Samson Agonistes.” Milton lost one eye at 36 and the other when he was 44. In 1952 Prof. Sensabaugh (d.2002 at 95) authored “In That Grand Whig, Milton,” an examination of Milton’s political tracts. In 1996 Paul West wrote a novel: “Sporting with Amaryllis,” that begins in 1626 and gives a fictional account of his life. In 1997 Peter Levy wrote a biography of Milton titled: “Eden Renewed.”
(WUD, ’94, p.911)(WSJ, 5/6/97, p.A20)(AP, 12/9/97)(MC, 11/8/01)(SFC, 2/28/02, p.A20)

1674 Nov 10, Dutch formally ceded New Netherlands (NY) to English.
(MC, 11/10/01)

1674 Nov 24, Franciscus van Enden (72), Flemish Jesuit and free thinker, was executed.
(MC, 11/24/01)

1674 Dec 4, Father Marquette built the 1st dwelling at what is now Chicago.
(MC, 12/4/01)

1675 Jan 20, Christian Huygens, Dutch scientist, transformed a theoretical insight on springs into a practical mechanism with the 1st sketch of a watch balance regulated by a coiled spring.
(www.princeton.edu/~mike/articles/huygens/timelong/timelong.html)(Econ, 2/4/06, p.73)

1675 Jan 31, Cornelia Dina Olfaarts was found not guilty of witchcraft.
(MC, 1/31/02)

1675 Mar 2, Prince William III was installed as Governor of Overijssel.
(SC, 3/2/02)

1675 Mar 4, John Flamsteed was appointed 1st Astronomer Royal of England.
(SC, 3/4/02)

1675 May 18, Jacques Marquette (37), Jesuit, missionary in Chicago, died.
(SC, 5/18/02)

1675 Jun 8, Three Wampanoag Indians were hanged in Plymouth, Massachusetts. On the testimony of a Native American witness, Plymouth Colony arrested three Wampanoags, including a counselor to Metacom, a Pokanoket sachem. A jury among whom were some Indian members convicted them of the recent murder of John Sassamon, an advisor to Metacom.

1675 Jun 11, France and Poland formed an alliance.
(AP, 6/11/03)

1675 Jun 20, King Philip’s War began when Indians–retaliating for the execution of three of their people who had been charged with murder by the English–massacred colonists at Swansea, Plymouth colony. Abenaki, Massachusetts, Mohegan & Wampanoag Indians formed an anti English front. Wampanoag warriors attacked livestock and looted farms.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King_Philip%27s_War)(AH, 6/02, p.46)

1675 Jun 21, Sir Christopher Wren (1632-1723) began to rebuild St Paul’s Cathedral in London, replacing the old building which had been destroyed by the Great fire. St Paul’s Cathedral was dedicated in 1708 but work continued.
(Econ, 6/7/08, p.98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St_Paul%27s_Cathedral)

1675 Jun 22, Royal Greenwich Observatory was established in England by Charles II.
(YarraNet, 6/22/00)

1675 Jun 23, An English youth shot a Marauding Wampanoag warrior.
(AH, 6/02, p.46)

1675 Jun 28, Frederick William of Brandenburg crushed the Swedes.
(HN, 6/28/98)

1675 Aug 6, Russian Czar Aleksei banned foreign haircuts.
(MC, 8/6/02)

1675 Aug 10, King Charles II laid the foundation stone of Royal Observatory, Greenwich. [see Jun 22]
(MC, 8/10/02)

1675 Aug 27, The Strasbourg Agreement, signed between France and the Holy Roman Empire, banned the use of poison bullets in conflict.
(AP, 12/4/12)

1675 Sep 9, New England colonial authorities officially declared war on the Wampanoag Indians. The war soon spread to include the Abenaki, Norwottock, Pocumtuck and Agawam warriors.
(MC, 9/9/01)(AH, 6/02, p.47)

1675 Nov 22, English king Charles II adjourned parliament.
(MC, 11/22/01)

1675 Dec 19, Some 1,000 colonial troops attacked the Narragansett winter village in Rhode Island. The Great Swamp Fight ended with some 80 English killed and 600 Indians dead, mostly women and children. Wakefield, Rhode Island, USA, The Great Swamp Memorial marks the site where 4,000 Indians died in defense of a secret fort.
(Postcard, Wakefield Chamber of Commerce)(AH, 6/02, p.48)

1675 Lely painted a portrait of Nell Gwynn, the favorite mistress of Charles II. It is now in the London National Gallery. Charles II acknowledged 14 illegitimate children and historians identified 13 mistresses.
(SFEC, 2/1/98, p.T8)(SFC, 7/22/00, p.E4)

1675 In Boston, Mass., a law forbade American Indians from setting foot in the city, as settlers warred with area tribes. In 2005 although the law wasn’t enforced for centuries it was a lingering source of anger for American Indians.
(AP, 5/20/05)

1675 English king Charles II issued a proclamation deploring the “evil and dangerous effects” of coffee houses.
(Econ, 12/20/03, p.90)

1675 In France Lully composed “Thesee.” The librettist was Philippe Quinault. This work established the tragedie lyrique operatic form.
(WSJ, 7/5/01, p.A10)
1675 In France taxes imposed by Louis XIV led to an uprising in Brittany. Protesters wore bonnets rouges (red wooly hats).
(Econ, 11/30/13, p.50)

1675 The 9th Sikh guru was executed in Delhi, India. His son, Gobind Rai, took up arms and organized a new fraternity called the Khalsa (the pure), and gave them the common surname Singh (lion), and changed his own name to Gobind Singh.
(WSJ, 10/12/01, p.W17)

1675 Wojciech Bobowski (b.1610), Polish-Jewish musician and dragoman, died. He had been taken prisoner by Crimean Tartars and was sold to the Ottoman court where he converted to Islam and served as an interpreter, treasurer and musician. He translated the Bible into Turkish and composed Turkish psalms.
(Econ, 9/15/07, p.104)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wojciech_Bobowski)

1675 Johannes Vermeer (b.1632), Dutch painter, died in poverty. In 2001 Anthony Bailey authored “Vermeer: A View of Delft.”
(WSJ, 11/15/95, p.A-20)(SSFC, 3/25/01, BR p.5)

1675 In northern Russia Solovki monks resisted church reforms. Tsarist forces broke through, but only following a 7-year siege.
(Econ, 12/18/04, p.83)

1675-1710 In London Old St. Paul’s Cathedral was replaced with a new design by Sir Christopher Wren.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.14)

c1675-1741 Antonio Vivaldi, Italian violinist and composer. [see 1678]
(WUD, 1994, p.1598)

1675-1900 McDade’s Annals of Murder is an annotated bibliography that provides a list and description of individual items and identifies multiple accounts of the same crimes over this time period by career FBI man McDade.
(LSA., Fall 1995, p.17)

1676 Feb 10, In King Philip’s War Narragansett and Nipmuck Indians raided Lancaster, Mass. Over 35 villagers were killed and 24 were taken captive including Mary Rowlandson (1637-1711) and her 3 children. Rowlandson was freed after 11 weeks and an account of her captivity was published posthumously in 1682.
(AH, 6/02, p.48)(Econ, 2/21/09, p.83)(http://tinyurl.com/cvrhcv)

1676 Feb, Mohawk Indians attacked and killed all but 40 Wampanoag Indians under Philip. NY Gov. Edmund Andros had urged the Mohawks to attack the Wampanoags.
(AH, 6/02, p.48)

1676 Mar 29, Wampanoag allies including Narragansetts destroyed Providence, Rhode Island. The house of Roger Williams was destroyed as he negotiated with Indian leaders on the outskirts of town.
(AH, 6/02, p.48)(AH, 4/07, p.29)

1676 Apr 14, Ernst Christian Hesse, composer, was born in Thuringian town of Gros sengottern.

1676 Apr 17, Frederick I, king of Sweden, was born.
(HN, 4/17/98)

1676 Apr 18, Sudbury, Massachusetts was attacked by Indians.
(HN, 4/18/98)

1676 Apr 29, Michiel A. de Ruyter (69), Dutch rear-admiral, (Newport), was killed.
(MC, 4/29/02)

1676 May 10, Bacon’s Rebellion began. It pitted frontiersmen against the government. Bacon’s Rebellion in Virginia involved an attack on a local Indian community and the sacking of the colonial capital in Jamestown. It is described by Catherine McNicol Stock in her 1997 book “Rural Radicals; Righteous Rage in the American Grain.”
(SFEC, 2/2/97, BR. p.8)(HN, 5/10/98)

1676 Jul 21, Anthony Collins, English philosopher (A discourse on free-thinking), was born.
(MC, 7/21/02)

1676 Jul 29, Nathaniel Bacon was declared a rebel for assembling frontiersmen to protect settlers from Indians. [see May 10, Sep 1]
(MC, 7/29/02)

1676 Aug 12, Indian chief King Philip, also known as Metacom, was killed by a Pocasset Indian named Alderman in the swamps of Rhode Island. This ended the King Philip’s War. Benjamin Church, a Plymouth volunteer, ordered that Philip be beheaded and quartered. [see Aug 28]
(AH, 6/02, p.50)

1676 Aug 26, Sir Robert Walpole (d.1745), the first and longest serving prime minister of England, was born. He was not then called the prime minister as the king held all honors. He collected a large number of paintings by old masters at his Houghton Hall home in Norfolk.
(WSJ, 3/3/97, p.A16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Walpole)

1676 Aug 28, Indian chief King Philip, also known as Metacom, was killed by English soldiers, ending the war between Indians and colonists. [see Aug 12]
(HN, 8/28/98)

1676 Sep 1, Nathaniel Bacon led an uprising against English Governor William Berkeley at Jamestown, Virginia, resulting in the settlement being burned to the ground. Bacon’s Rebellion came in response to the governor’s repeated refusal to defend the colonists against the Indians. [see May 10, Sep 19]
(HN, 9/1/99)

1676 Sep 19, Rebels under Nathaniel Bacon set Jamestown, Va., on fire. [see Sep 1]
(MC, 9/19/01)

1676 Sep 21, Benedetto Odescalchi was elected as Pope Innocent XI.
(MC, 9/21/01)

1676 Oct 18, Nathaniel Bacon, who rallied against Virginian government, was killed at 29.
(MC, 10/18/01)

1676 Nov 16, 1st colonial prison was organized at Nantucket Mass.
(MC, 11/16/01)

1676 Roger Williams published “George Fox Digg’d Out of His Burrowes.” It was an account of his debates with the Quakers in Newport and Providence.
(AH, 4/07, p.28)

1676 Canonchet, the Narragansett sachem, was executed.
(AH, 6/02, p.48)

1676 Lully composed his tragic opera “Atys.”
(SFEC, 1/18/98, DB p.33)

1676 Isaac Newton wrote: “If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of Giants.”
(Econ, 8/7/04, p.64)

1676 Jean-Domenique Cassini, director of the Paris Observatory, reported that there were 2 rings around Saturn separated by a gap that came to be called the Cassini Division.
(NH, 10/1/04, p.29)

1676 Ole Christensen Romer (Roemer), Danish astronomer, derived a speed of light of 130,000 miles per second based on his observations of Io, the innermost moon of Jupiter.
(http://inkido.indiana.edu/a100/timeline2.html)(NH, 2/05, p.19)

1676 Geminiamo Montanari, Italian astronomer, documented a meteor with a sound “like the rattling of a great Cart running over Stones.” It was later understood that meteors can detectable generate radio waves.
(NH, 7/02, p.38)

1676 Jeong Seon (d.1759), Korean landscape painter, was born.

1676 King Carlos II of Spain, having successfully outlawed a drink suspected of leading to homicides, inattentiveness at church and moral turpitude, warned his colonial rulers in Bogota of a drink “that is, beyond all comparison, more dangerous and which goes by the name of aguardiente.” In 1988 Gilma Mora de Tovar’s authored, “Aguardiente and Social Conflicts in 18th Century New Granada,”
(AP, 9/2/03)

1676-1759 Chong Son, Korean painter. His work included “Pine Tree at Sajik Altar” and “Landscape.”
(SFC, 7/26/97, p.E1)

1677 Feb 15, King Charles II reported an anti-French covenant with Netherlands.
(MC, 2/15/02)

1677 Feb 16, Earl of Shaftesbury was arrested and confined to the London Tower. [see Oct 24, 1681]
(MC, 2/16/02)

1677 Feb 21, [Benedictus] Baruch Spinoza (b.1632), Dutch philosopher, died. In 2003 Antonio Damasio authored “Looking for Spinoza,” a look at contemporary neurological research in contrast with the opposing philosophical views of Spinoza and Descartes. In 2005 Matthew Stewart authored “The Courtier and the Heretic: Leibniz, Spinoza, and the Fate of God in the Modern World.”
(WUD, 1994 p.1371)(SSFC, 2/2/03, p.M4)(WSJ, 12/15/05, p.D8)

1677 Mar 13, Massachusetts gained title to Maine for $6,000.
(MC, 3/13/02)

1677 Apr 27, Colonel Jeffreys became the governor of Virginia.
(HN, 4/27/98)

1677 May 29, King Charles II and 12 Virginia Indian chiefs signed a treaty that established a 3-mile non-encroachment zone around Indian land. The Mattaponi Indians in 1997 invoked this treaty to protect against encroachment.
(SFC, 6/2/97, p.A3)

1677 Sep 21, John and Nicolaas van der Heyden patented a fire extinguisher.
(MC, 9/21/01)

1677 Nov 4, William and Mary were married in England on William’s birthday. William of Orange married his cousin Mary (daughter to James, Duke of York and the same James II who fled in 1688).
(HNQ, 12/28/00)(HN, 11/4/02)

1677 Racine wrote his drama Phedre in alexandrine meter. It was based on Euripides’ tragic Greek tale of Phaedra’s love for her stepson Hippolytus, son of Theseus.
(WSJ, 5/21/97, p.A12)(Econ, 6/20/09, p.89)(Econ, 6/27/09, p.92)

1677 Pope Innocent XII confirmed the imperial foundation of the Univ. of Innsbruck in a papal bull that emphasized the Catholic character of the Univ. and decreed that the important chairs of the Faculty of Theology be filled by members of the Jesuit order.
(StuAus, April ’95, p.97)

1677 The Episcopal Parish called St. Michaels was established on the east coast of the Chesapeake Bay. The town of St. Michaels derives its name after the parish.
(SMBA, 1996)

1677 Christopher Wren redesigned the burned Church of St. Mary the Virgin in Aldermanbury, England. His monument at St. Paul’s Cathedral in London reads: “Si monumentum requires circumspice” (If you seek his monument, look around you).
(SFC, 3/30/97, p.T5)(WSJ, 5/21/97, p.A15)

1678 Feb 18, John Bunyan’s “Pilgrim’s Progress” was published. [see Sep 28]
(MC, 2/18/02)

1678 Mar 4, Antonio Vivaldi (d.1741), Italian Baroque composer (4 Seasons) and violinist, was born in Venice. [see 1675]
(HN, 3/4/01)(SC, 3/4/02)

1678 May 31, The Godiva procession, commemorating Lady Godiva’s legendary ride while naked, became part of the Coventry Fair.
(HN, 5/31/01)

1678 Jun 17, Giacomo Torelli (69), composer, died.
(MC, 6/17/02)

1678 Jul 26, Joseph I Habsburg, German king, Roman catholic emperor (1705-11), was born.
(MC, 7/26/02)

1678 Aug 3, Robert LaSalle built the 1st ship in America, Griffon.
(SC, 8/3/02)(AP, 12/10/03)

1678 Aug 16, Andrew Marvell (b.1621), English poet (Definition of Love), died.
(MC, 8/16/02)

1678 Sep 28, “Pilgrim’s Progress” by John Bunyan (b.1628) was published. [see Feb 18]
(MC, 9/28/01)

1678 Nov 18, Giovanni Maria Bononcini (36), composer, died.
(MC, 11/18/01)

1678 Nov 28, England’s King Charles II accused his wife, Catherine of Braganza, of treason. Her crime? She had yet to bear him children.
(DTnet, 11/28/97)

1678 Nov 30, Roman Catholics were banned from English parliament.
(MC, 11/30/01)

1678 Dec 3, Edmund Halley received an MA from Queen’s College, Oxford.
(MC, 12/3/01)

1678 Titus Oates (b.1649), failed Catholic seminarian, and Israel Tonge concocted the Popish Plot. They alleged that plotters planned to raise a Catholic army, massacre Protestants, and poison Charles II in order to get James on the throne. 9 Jesuit priests were executed. In 1681 it was revealed to be a fabrication.
(www.newadvent.org/cathen/11173c.htm)(ON, 7/06, p.9)

1678 Anthony Ashley Cooper, the Earl of Shaftesbury and Protestant Parliamentary leader formed the County Party, later known as the Whigs, to prevent James from becoming king of England.
(ON, 7/06, p.9)

1678 Louis XIV claimed the region of Alsace from Germany.
(SFEC, 1/31/99, p.T4)

1678 Frederick William, Brandenburg’s Great Elector, gave Bielefeld the privilege of certifying the quality of local linen. This cemented its position as a center for the textile trade.
(Econ, 4/14/12, p.30)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brandenburg)

1678-1707 Georg Farquhar, Anglo-Irish dramatist.
(WSJ, 10/3/96, p.A12)
1678-1707 Aurangzeb was the 1st Muslim ruler to fire his cannon at the giant Buddhas at Bamiyan, Afghanistan.
(WSJ, 11/16/01, p.W12)

1679 Jan 24, King Charles II disbanded the English parliament.
(MC, 1/24/02)

1679 Jan 31, Jean-Baptiste Lully’s opera “Bellerophon” premiered in Paris.
(MC, 1/31/02)

1679 Mar, King Charles II sent his brother James to the Netherlands for safety.
(ON, 7/06, p.9)

1679 Apr 3, Edmund Halley met Johannes Hevelius in Danzig.
(MC, 4/3/02)

1679 Apr 17, John van Kessel (53), Flemish painter, died.
(MC, 4/17/02)

1679 May 12, Giovanni Antonio Ricieri, composer, was born.
(MC, 5/12/02)

1679 May 14, Peder [Nielsen] Horrebow, Danish astronomer, was born.
(MC, 5/14/02)

1679 May 15, The Earl of Shaftesbury introduced his Exclusion Bill into Parliament proposing that James, the Catholic brother of King Charles II, be permanently barred from the line of succession to the English throne.
(ON, 7/06, p.9)

1679 May 27, England’s House of Lords passed the Habeas Corpus Act (have the body) to prevent false arrest and imprisonment. King Charles adjourned Parliament before the final reading of Shaftesbury’s Exclusion Bill.
(WUD, 1994 p.634)(www.british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=11707)(ON, 7/06, p.9)

1679 Jun 1, Battle at Bothwell Bridge on Clyde: Duke of Monmouth beat the Scottish. (MC, 6/1/02)

1679 Jul 10, The British crown claimed New Hampshire as a royal colony.
(HN, 7/10/98)

1679 Jul 12, Britain’s King Charles II ratified Habeas Corpus Act.
(MC, 7/12/02)

1679 Sep 18, New Hampshire became a county Massachusetts Bay Colony.
(MC, 9/18/01)

1679 Oct 16, Jan Dismas Zelenka, composer, was born.
(MC, 10/16/01)

1679 Oct 23, The Meal Tub Plot took place against James II of England.
(MC, 10/23/01)

1679 Nov 3, A great panic occurred in Europe over the close approach of a comet.
(MC, 11/3/01)

1679 Dec 4, Thomas Hobbes (b.1588), English philosopher, died. “The reputation of power IS power.” Hobbes sought to separate politics from religion. In his book “Leviathan” he argues that the only way to secure civil society is through universal submission to the absolute authority of a sovereign.
(www.thefreedictionary.com/Hobbesian)(WSJ, 7/30/03, p.A12)(WSJ, 9/15/07, p.W10)

1679 Dec 17, Don Juan, ruler of Spain, died.
(MC, 12/17/01)

1679 Louis Hennepin, a Catholic priest, sailed up the Detroit River aboard the Griffon, through Lake St. Clair, which he named, and into Lake Huron and beyond. The French ship Le Griffon, built by explorer Rene-Robert Sieur de La Salle disappeared during its maiden voyage.
(DFP, 7/24/01, p.5A)(SFC, 6/5/13, p.A6)
1679 Elections in England produced a new House of Commons, but King Charles II declined to let it assemble.
(ON, 7/06, p.9)

1679-1947 Some 8,500 vessels have been lost in Lake Michigan over this period.
(Hem., 7/96, p.25)

1680 Apr 3, Shivaji Raje Bhosle (b.1627), warrior king and founder of the Maratha empire of western India, died.
(Econ, 7/12/08, p.73)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shivaji)

1680 May 5, Giuseppe Porsile, composer, was born.
(MC, 5/5/02)

1680 May 29, Abraham Megerle (73), composer, died.
(SC, 5/29/02)

1680 Jul 26, John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester, poet, courtier, died.
(MC, 7/26/02)

1680 Aug 13, War started when the Spanish were expelled from Santa Fe, New Mexico, by Indians under Chief Pope.
(HN, 8/13/98)

1680 Aug 21, Pueblo Indians took possession of Santa Fe, N.M., after driving out the Spanish. They destroyed almost all of the Spanish churches in Taos and Santa Fe.
(AP, 8/21/97)(SFEC, 6/21/98, Z1 p.8)

1680 Aug 24, Colonel Thomas Blood, Irish adventurer who stole the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London in 1671, died. Captured after the theft, he insisted on seeing King Charles II, who pardoned him.
(Reuters, 8/24/01)

1680 Sep 25, Samuel Butler (b.1612), poet and satirist, died.
(MC, 9/25/01)

1680 Oct 13, Daniel Elsevier, book publisher and publisher, died at 54.
(MC, 10/13/01)

1680 Oct, King Charles II of England was forced to recall Parliament in order to ask for money to fortify the port of Tangier, Morocco, which was under assault by Moorish forces.
(ON, 7/06, p.9)

1680 Nov 18, Jean-Baptiste Loeillet, composer, was born.
(MC, 11/18/01)

1680 Nov 27, Athanasius Kircher, German Jesuit and inventor of a lantern, died.
(MC, 11/27/01)

1680 Nov 28 Giovanni “Gian” Lorenzo Bernini (b.Dec 7,1598), Sculptor, Painter, Architect, Italian, the greatest sculptor of the 17th century, died.
(DTnet, 11/28/97)

1680 Pierre Puget made his bronze sculpture of Herakles (Hercules) struggling in the burning tunic. Sophocles around 440-420 composed his tragedy “The Trachinian Women.” It described what happened when Hercules put on the robe woven by his wife Deianeira.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.55)

1680 John Locke completed two works requested by the Earl of Shaftsbury. “The First Treatise on Civil Government” was written to counter Robert Filmer’s old book “Patriarcha.” “The Second Treatise on Civil Government” was a more general approach. It concerns the interconnection of three great ideas: property, government, and revolution. Government comes into existence, said Locke, because of property. If there is no property, then government is not needed to protect it. For Locke the question revolved around whether property was legitimate.

1680 Kateri Tekakwitha (b.1656), known as the “Lily of the Mohawks,” died in Canada. She was born to a pagan Iroquois father and an Algonquin Christian mother in upstate New York. Her parents and only brother died when she was 4 during a smallpox epidemic that left her badly scarred and with impaired eyesight. She went to live with her uncle, a Mohawk, and was baptized Catholic by Jesuit missionaries. But she was ostracized and persecuted by other natives for her faith. In 2012 she was named a saint in the Catholic church.
(AP, 10/20/12)

1680 Benedetto Ferrari composed his oratorio “Il Sansone,” (Samson). It was later discovered that he wrote the text and probably the music for “Pur to miro,” the final duet for Monteverdi’s “L’Incoronazione di Poppea.”
(SFC, 1/20/98, p.E1)(SFC, 6/9/98, p.D1)

1680 In Hamburg, Germany, a cymbal was used for the 1st time in an orchestra.
(SFC, 9/18/99, p.B3)

1680 The original parish of the Nuestra Senora de la Purisima Concepcion church in Socorro, Texas, also known as San Miguel because it contains a statue of the archangel Michael, was founded.
(AWAM, Dec. 94, p.65)

1680 Maryland colonists ran out of supplies and survived starvation by eating oysters.
(SFC, 9/18/99, p.B3)

c1680 The first American tall case clock, later called a “grandfather clock,” was built.
(SFC,10/22/97, Z1 p.7)

1680 Chief Justice William Scroggs was impeached for, among other things, browbeating witnesses, cursing and drinking to excess.
(WSJ, 1/25/99, p.A19)

1680 An eclipse of the sun occurred in this year. The oral tradition of one African culture speaks of a strange darkness during chief Bo Kama Bomenchala’s reign.
(ATC, p.147)

1680 Light from the supernova of the star Cassiopeia A reached Earth. A remnant was observed by the Chandra X-ray Observatory in 1999.
(USAT, 8/27/99, p.14A)(Econ, 8/28/04, p.71)

1680 Kateri Tekakwitha, a Mohawk Indian, died. She became the first Native American to be beatified by the Catholic Church in 1980.
(SFEC, 9/14/97, p.A18)

1680 Leavened bread was developed in Egypt.
(SFC, 9/18/99, p.B3)

1680 Hykos tribesmen wore sandals and successfully overcame barefoot Egyptians.
(SFC, 9/18/99, p.B3)

1680 Portuguese founded Colonia del Sacramento (Uruguay) for smuggling contraband across the Rio de la Plata to Spanish-controlled Argentina.
(SSFC, 10/30/05, p.F7)

c1680-1685 Simon Pietesz, Verelst, painted a portrait of “Nell Gwyn,” Protestant mistress to Charles II.
(WSJ, 3/7/02, p.A22)

1680-1786 On Senegal it was estimated that over 2 million slaves passed through Goree Island on their way to the American colonies.
(SFC, 4/3/98, p.B3)

1681 Jan 6, 1st recorded boxing match was between the Duke of Albemarle’s butler and his butcher.
(MC, 1/6/02)

1681 Jan 8, The treaty of Radzin ended a five year war between the Turks and the allied countries of Russia and Poland.
(HN, 1/8/99)

1681 Jan 18, England’s King Charles II suspended Parliament and set its next meeting for March in Oxford.
(ON, 7/06, p.10)

1681 Mar 4, England’s King Charles II granted a charter to William Penn (37) for 48,000 square miles that later became Pennsylvania. Penn’s father had bequeathed him a claim of £15,000 against the king. Penn later laid out the city of Philadelphia as a gridiron about 2 miles long, east to west, and a mile wide.
(PCh, 1992, p.259)(AP, 3/4/98)(SFEC, 8/16/98, p.T1)

1681 Mar 14, Georg Philipp Telemann, late baroque composer, was born in Magdeburg, Germany.
(MC, 3/14/02)

1681 Apr 8, England’s King Charles II received the 1st installment of a 5-million livre subsidy from King Louis of France. This provided him independence from Parliament and he ruled without it until his death in 1685.
(ON, 7/06, p.10)

1681 Apr 11, Anne Danican Philidor, composer, was born.
(MC, 4/11/02)

1681 May 17, Louis XIV sent an expedition to aid James II in Ireland. As a result, England declared war on France.
(HN, 5/17/99)

1681 May 25, Caldéron de la Barca (b.1600), Spanish dramatist & poet, died.
(WUD, 1994 p.210)(SC, 5/25/02)

1681 Aug 22, Pierre Danican Philidor, composer, was born.
(MC, 8/22/02)

1681 Oct 24, Earl of Shaftesbury (d.1683) was accused of high treason in London. The Earl of Shaftesbury had challenged the king on the question of succession. The king dissolved Parliament and threw Shaftesbury into the Tower of London and charged him with treason. Shaftesbury was acquitted and went to Holland with John Locke.
(V.D.-H.K.p.220)(MC, 10/24/01)(PCh, 1992, p.260)

1681 Nov 9, Hungarian parliament promised Protestants freedom of religion.
(MC, 11/9/01)

1681 Fa Jo-chen, Chinese artist, created a 45-foot-long handscroll of a winding river with the land on both sides rolled up in round, furry lumps.
(WSJ, 5/15/02, p.AD7)

1681 Nehemiah Grew, the first scientist to call sloths by their common English name, described the animal in his catalog of specimens owned by the Royal Society of London.
(Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.20-21)

1681 The dodo bird was last seen on Mauritius. The dodo bird became extinct on Mauritius. In 2005 scientists reported the discovery of a complete skeleton of the bird on Mauritius.
(SFC, 7/7/96, BR p.5)(NH, 11/96, p.24)(SFEC, 6/21/98, Z1 p.8)(SSFC, 12/25/05, p.A2)

1681-1730 French Protestants, known as Huguenots, migrated in large numbers to England due to persecutions known as dragonnades wherein rowdy soldiers were billeted in their homes. They also lost a semblance of security in the 1685 revocation of the Edict of Nantes.
(Econ, 12/20/03, p.85)

1681-1764 Johann Mattheson, German composer, friend of Handel.
(LGC-HCS, p.38)

1682 Feb 13, Giovanni Piazzetta, painter, was born.
(HN, 2/13/98)

1682 Apr 3, Esteban Murillo (b.1617), Spanish painter, died. Some of his mid-century work in Seville portrayed the effects of the Plague that killed 50% of the population in 4 months.
(WSJ, 4/9/02, p.D19)(MC, 4/3/02)

1682 Apr 9, The French explorer Rene Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, reached the Mississippi River. La Salle claimed lower Mississippi River and all lands that touched it for France.
(AP, 4/9/97)(SFC, 11/30/96, p.A7)(HN, 4/9/98)

1682 Apr 11, Jean-Joseph Mouret, composer, was born.
(MC, 4/11/02)

1682 May 6, King Louis XIV moved his court to Versailles, France.
(HN, 5/6/98)

1682 Jun 10, The first tornado of record in colonial America hit New Haven, Conn.
(SFEC, 7/4/99, Z1 p.8)

1682 Jun 27, Charles XII (d.1718), King of Sweden (1697-1718), was born.
(WUD, 1994, p.249)(SFC, 8/17/96, p.E5)(HN, 6/27/98)

1682 Jul 14, Henry Purcell was appointed organist of Chapel Royal, London.
(MC, 7/14/02)

1682 Aug 24, Duke James of York gave Delaware to William Penn.
(MC, 8/24/02)

1682 Aug 30, William Penn left England to sail to New World. He took along an insurance policy.
(MC, 8/30/01)

1682 Sep 4, English astronomer Edmund Halley saw his namesake comet.
(MC, 9/4/01)

1682 Oct 26, William Penn accepted the area around Delaware River from Duke of York.
(MC, 10/26/01)

1682 Oct 29, The founder of Pennsylvania, William Penn, landed at what is now Chester, Pa. William Penn founded Philadelphia. Penn founded Pennsylvania as a “Holy Experiment” based on Quaker principles.
(AP, 10/29/97)(SFEC, 6/21/98, Z1 p.8)(SSFC, 8/5/01, p.C10)

1682 Nov 23, Claude Lorrain, French painter (also known as Claude Gelée), died. His birth is variously noted from 1600-1604.
(WSJ, 11/6/02, p.D8)(www.britannica.com/eb/article-9024243/Claude-Lorrain)

1682 Nehemiah Grew (1641-1712), English botanist and physician, postulated that plants reproduce sexually in his book “Anatomy of Plants.” His 1st book on plant anatomy was titled “The Anatomy of Vegetable Begun” (1672).
(www.britannica.com/eb/article-9038079)(Econ, 11/12/05, p.88)

1682 Thomas Otway wrote his Restoration tragedy “Venice Preserv’d.”
(WSJ, 2/6/97, p.A12)

1682 John Playford organized the Musick’s Recreation on the Viol.
(EMN, 1/96, p.4)

1682 Wren’s Royal Hospital Chelsea was founded by Charles II as a hostel for old soldiers.
(WSJ, 3/11/02, p.A16)

1682 William Penn established Bucks County as one of Pennsylvania’s 3 original counties.
(WSJ, 3/22/08, p.R7)

1682 Nicholas Wise founded Norfolk, Va.
(SFEC, 7/4/99, Z1 p.8)

1682 Pere Lachaise, a French Jesuit priest, was confessor to Louis XIV. His order built a house on the future site of the Paris cemetery named after him.
(SFC, 6/16/96, T-6)

1682 In Russia a rebellion by government Streltsy regiments killed the grandfather, aunts and other relatives of Peter the Great. The Monastery of Peter the Metropolitan was reconstructed and as served as the family necropolis.
(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.38)

1682 In Tibet the Fifth Dalai Lama (b.1617) died. His death kept hidden for 15 years by his prime minister and possible son Desi Sangay Gyatso in order that the Potala Palace could be finished and Tibet’s neighbors not take advantage of an interregnum in the succession.

1682-1725 The rule of Peter the Great. The original stone cathedral of the Monastery of the Epiphany in Moscow was built during this time. It was built over the remnants of an earlier wooden church.
(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.37)

1683 Feb 12, A Christian Army, led by Charles, the Duke of Lorraine and King John Sobieski of Poland, routed a huge Ottoman army surrounding Vienna.
(HN, 2/12/99)

1683 Feb 20, Philip V, first Bourbon King of Spain, was born. [see Dec 19]
(HN, 2/20/01)

1683 Apr 1, Roger Williams (b.1603) died in poverty in Rhode Island. Williams died at Providence between, his wife Mary having predeceased him in 1676. Williams was the first champion of complete religious toleration in America. In 2005 Edwin S. Gaustad authored the biography “Roger Williams.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_Williams_%28theologian%29)(WSJ, 6/21/05, p.D10)

1683 Apr 15, Catherine I (d.1727), empress of Russia (1725-1727), was born as Martha Skravonskaya in Jacobstadt, Latvia. Catherine was the daughter of Samuil Skavronski, a Lithuanian peasant.
(HN, 4/15/98)(www.arthistoryclub.com/art_history/Catherine_I_of_Russia)

1683 Jun 23, William Penn signed a friendship treaty with Lenni Lenape Indians in Pennsylvania. It became the only treaty “not sworn to, nor broken.”
(HN, 6/23/98)(MC, 6/23/02)

1683 Jul 3, Edward Young, English poet, dramatist and literary critic, was born. He wrote “Night Thoughts.”
(HN, 7/3/99)

1683 Jul 21, Lord William Russell, English plotter against Charles II, was beheaded.
(MC, 7/21/02)

1683 Jul 24, The 1st settlers from Germany to US left aboard the ship Concord.

1683 Sep 3, Turkish troops broke through the defense of Vienna.
(MC, 9/3/01)

1683 Sep 6, Jean-Baptiste Colbert (b.1619), French finance minister (1665-1683) under Louis XIV, died. He pioneered “dirigisme,” i.e. state control of the economy and state intervention in industry. “The art of taxation consists in so plucking the goose as to obtain the largest possible amount of feathers with the smallest possible amount of hissing.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean-Baptiste_Colbert)(Econ, 3/25/06, p.71)(Econ, 2/22/14, SR p.5)

1683 Sep 9, Algernon Sidney, English Whig politician and plotter, was beheaded.
(MC, 9/9/01)

1683 Sep 12, A combined Austrian and Polish army defeated the Ottoman Turks at Kahlenberg and lifted the siege on Vienna, Austria. Prince Eugene of Savoy helped repel an invasion of Vienna, Austria, by Turkish forces. Marco d’Aviano, sent by Pope Innocent XI to unite the outnumbered Christian troops, spurred them to victory. The Turks left behind sacks of coffee which the Christians found too bitter, so they sweetened it with honey and milk and named the drink cappuccino after the Capuchin order of monks to which d’Aviano belonged. An Austrian baker created a crescent-shaped roll, the Kipfel, to celebrate the victory. Empress Maria Theresa later took it to France where it became the croissant. In 2006 John Stoye authored “The Siege of Vienna.”
(Hem., Dec. ’95, p.69)(WSJ, 3/27/96, p.A-16)(HN, 9/12/98)(SFEC, 2/6/00, p.A1)(Reuters, 4/28/03)(WSJ, 6/3/03, p.D5) (WSJ, 12/6/06, p.D12)

1683 Sep 17, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek reported the existence of bacteria.
(MC, 9/17/01)

1683 Sep 24, King Louis XIV expelled all Jews from French possessions in America.
(MC, 9/24/01)

1683 Sep 25, Jean-Philippe Rameau, composer, was born in Dijon, France.
(MC, 9/25/01)

1683 Sep 29, A small armada sailed from the Mexican mainland across the Sea of Cortez to the Baha Peninsula. Hostile natives had forced them back to the mainland on a first landing and a storm forced them back on a 2nd attempt.
(SFEC, 5/18/97, p.T5)(WSJ, 12/26/97, p.A9)

1683 Oct 6, 13 Mennonite families from Krefeld, Germany, arrived in present-day Philadelphia to begin Germantown, one of America’s oldest settlements. They were encouraged by William Penn’s offer of 5,000 acres of land in the colony of Pennsylvania and the freedom to practice their religion.
(AP, 10/6/97)(www.ulib.iupui.edu/kade/germantown.html)
1683 Oct 6, The small armada from the Mexican mainland landed on their 3rd attempt at crossing to the Baha peninsula and settled at the mouth of a river that they named San Bruno. The site was abandoned after 2 years. Spanish settlement on the Baha was later described by Father James Donald Francez in “The Lost Treasures of Baha California.”
(SFEC, 5/18/97, p.T5)(WSJ, 12/26/97, p.A9)

1683 Oct 30, George II, King of Great Britain (1727-60), was born. [see Oct 30]
(MC, 10/30/01)

1683 Nov 10, George II, king of England (1727-60), was born. [see Nov 10]
(MC, 11/10/01)

1683 Nov 22, Purcell’s “Welcome to All the Pleasures,” premiered in London.
(MC, 11/22/01)

1683 Dec 19, Philip V, King of Spain (1700-24, 24-46), was born in Versailles, France. [see Feb 20]
(MC, 12/19/01)

1683 Dec 25, Kara Mustapha (b.~1634), chief of the Ottoman janissaries, appeared before the grand vizier in Belgrade. He was sentenced to death and executed for the military loss at Vienna.
(WSJ, 12/5/06, p.D12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kara_Mustafa)

1683 Giovanni Battista Foggini created his sculpture “The Mass of Saint Andrea Corsini.”
(WSJ, 1/29/02, p.A18)

1683 The Ashmolean Museum was built in Oxford to house natural-history artifacts. It was the first such public museum. It gained its name and its first collections from Elias Ashmole (1617-1692), whose own collections were derived in part from those of John Tradescant (1608-1662).
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)(http://myweb.tiscali.co.uk/speel//otherart/ashmole.htm)

1683 Alessandro Scarlatti (father of Domenico Scarlatti) wrote the score for his opera “L’Aldimiro.” The only know score extant was found in a library in Berkeley, Ca., in 1989.
(SFC, 5/26/96, DB p.26)

1683 Secatogue Indians deeded land on the South Shore of Long Island to William Nicoll.
(WSJ, 10/9/07, p.D6)

1683 French King Louis XIV married Madame de Maintenon (1635-1719), his mistress for the last 11 years, shortly after the death of his wife. The marriage was kept secret for the next 3 decades.
(Econ, 7/26/08, p.96)

1683 Taiwan was claimed by China’s Manchu dynasty after large-scale immigration from the Chinese mainland to the island.
(AP, 8/12/06)

1683-1707 Adriaen Coorte (b.1665), a Dutch Golden Age painter of still lifes, signed his work during this period. His work included “Still Life With Sea Shells” (1698).

1684 Jan 11, In Switzerland this day “was so frightfully cold that all of the communion wine froze,” said an entry by Brother Josef Dietrich, governor and “weatherman” of the Einsiedeln Monastery. The Einsiedeln abbots, princes within the Holy Roman Empire until 1798, were powerful leaders who ruled over large swaths of central Switzerland’s mountainous terrain.
(AP, 9/15/07)

1684 Apr 25, A patent was granted for the thimble.
(SS, 4/25/02)

1684 Jun 21, King Charles II revoked the 1629 Massachusetts Bay Colony charter. [see 1691]
(HNQ, 11/23/00)(MC, 6/21/02)

1684 Jun 22, Francesco Onofrio Manfredini, composer, was born.
(MC, 6/22/02)

1684 Oct 1, Pierre Corneille, French lawyer and dramatist (El Cid, Polyeucte), died at 42.
(MC, 10/1/01)

1684 Oct 10, Jean Antoine Watteau (d.1721), French rococo painter, was born.
(WUD, 1994 p.1614)(AAP, 1964)(MC, 10/10/01)

1684 Dec 3, Ludvig Baron Holberg, founder of Danish & Norwegian literature, was born.
(MC, 12/3/01)

1684 For one year Paris was the world’s biggest city.
(SFEC, 2/22/98, Z1 p.8)
1684 French explorer Rene Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, set sail for what is now Louisiana with 4 ships commissioned from King Louis XIV. On the way one ship was lost to pirates, another broke apart on a sand bar and a third returned home. The 4th was sunk in a storm in 1686.
(SFC, 11/30/96, p.A7)
1684 Lorenzo de Tonti (b.~1602), governor of Gaeta, Italy, and a Neapolitan banker, died about this time. He is sometimes credited with the invention of the tontine, a form of life insurance, although it has also been suggested that he simply modified existing procedures.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lorenzo_de_Tonti)(Econ 6/17/17, p.68)

1685 Jan, French explorer Rene Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, landed at Matagorda Bay, Texas. He thought that he was at the mouth of the Mississippi River but soon realized his mistake and went of looking for the river.
(SFC, 11/9/96, p.A12)(SFC, 11/30/96, p.A7)

1685 Feb 6, Charles II (54), King of England, Scotland, Ireland (1660-85), died and was succeeded by his Catholic brother James II. He made a deathbed conversion to the Roman Catholic faith. He had earlier ordered Christopher Wren to build an observatory and maritime college at Greenwich. In 2000 Stephen Coote authored the biography: “Royal Survivor.”
(WSJ, 2/28/00, p.A36)(http://tinyurl.com/hkkln)

1685 Feb 11, David Teniers III (46), Flemish painter, died.
(MC, 2/11/02)

1685 Feb 23, George Frideric Handel (d.1759), composer and musician, was born in Halle, Germany.
(LGC-HCS, p.37)(AP, 2/23/98)(HN, 2/23/98)

1685 Mar 21, Composer Johann Sebastian Bach (d.1750) was born in Eisenach, Germany, the youngest of eight children. 2nd source says Mar 21. He composed cantatas, sonatas, preludes, fugues and chorale preludes, and whose works included “Brandenburg Concerto” and “Well-Tempered Clavier.”
(AP, 3/21/97)(LGC-HCS.p.17)(HN, 3/21/99)

1685 May 28, Pieter de la Court (~67), economist, historian, died.
(MC, 5/28/02)

1685 Jun 11, James Scott, Duke of Monmouth, rebelled against Catholic king James II.
(AP, 6/11/03)

1685 Jun 30, John Gay, playwright, was born. He wrote the Beggars’ Opera which attacked the court of George II,
(HN, 6/30/99)
1685 Jun 30, Dominikus Zimmermann, German architect, painter (Liebfrauenkirche), was born.
(MC, 6/30/02)
1685 Jun 30, Archibald Campbell (~55), Scottish politician, was beheaded.
(MC, 6/30/02)

1685 Jun, Qing Emperor Kangxi sent Manchu, Chinese and Daurian forces in a siege against Russians at Albazino on the far eastern Amur River. Some 100 of 800 Russians were killed on the first day of the attack. The survivors surrendered and returned to Nerchinsk.
(Econ, 12/19/09, p.71)

1685 Jul 6, James II defeated James, the Duke of Monmouth, at the Battle of Sedgemoor, the last major battle to be fought on English soil.
(HN, 7/6/98)

1685 Jul 15, James Scott, the Duke of Monmouth and illegitimate son of Charles II, was executed on Tower Hill in England, after his army was defeated at Sedgemoor.
(HN, 7/15/98)(MC, 7/15/02)

1685 Oct 18, King Louis the XIV signed the Edict of Fontainebleau, revoking the Edict of Nantes that had established legal toleration of France’s Protestant population, the Huguenots. The French Parliament recorded the new edict four days later. The edict signed at Nantes, France, by King Henry IV in 1598, had given the Huguenots religious liberty, civil rights and security. By revoking the Edict of Nantes, Louis XIV abrogated their religious liberties. He declared France entirely Catholic again.
(HN, 4/13/98)(HN, 10/18/98)(AP, 10/18/07)

1685 Oct 26, Domenico Scarlatti (d.1757, composer and harpsichordist was born in Naples, Italy. Scarlatti, son of Alessandro, composed over 550 short, keyboard sonatas or exercises.
(WUD, 1994 p.1275)(LGC-HCS, p.38)(MC, 10/26/01)

1685 Nov 8, Fredrick William of Brandenburg issued the Edict of Potsdam, offering Huguenots refuge.
(HN, 11/6/98)

1685 Dec 3, Charles II barred Jews from settling in Stockholm, Sweden.
(MC, 12/3/01)

1685 Dec 12, Lodovico Giustini, composer, was born.
(MC, 12/12/01)

1685 Sylvestre Dufour published “Traitez Nuveaux et Curieux de Cafe, du The, et du Chocolat.”
(WSJ, 7/7/98, p.A14)

1685 Dutch mapmaker, Johannes van Keulen, produced a map of New York and Long Island. He charted the Hudson and Connecticut rivers with greater accuracy than ever before. Long Island was labeled on the map as “Lange Eyland.”
(WSJ, 11/24/95, p.B-8)

1685 In Canada there was a shortage of currency and playing cards were assigned monetary values for use as money.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1685 The Venetians returned to the Peloponnesus.
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.56)

1685-1712 Celia Fiennes’ journal about her travels throughout England have provided historians with valuable insight into the social conditions of the country in the late 1600s. Celia Fiennes, an enterprising young, single woman, rode side-saddle through every county in England. She traveled alone except for two servants, and the journal she kept, later published as “The Journeys of Celia Fiennes 1685-c.1712,” is the only evidence we have of her travels.
(HNQ, 4/22/01)

c1685-1753 George Berkeley, Irish bishop and philosopher. He argued that the things we see around us exist only as ideas. This was in opposition to naive realism which held that we perceive objects as they really are.
(WUD, 1994, p.140)(WSJ, 8/21/98, p.W13)

1685-1768 Hakuin Ekaku, Japanese Zen painter. His work included “Side View of Daruma.”
(SSFC, 9/23/01, DB p.48)

1686 Jan, A storm arose and sank the French ship “La Belle,” of explorer Rene Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, in Matagorda Bay, Texas. La Salle was off searching for the Mississippi River. This ended La Salle’s plan for a French colony and opened the door to Spain to come and occupy Texas. Archeologists found the ship in 1995 in 12-feet of water and began a recovery project. In 1996 a skeleton was bound onboard. In 2014 the remains of the ship were transported to the Bullock State History Museum in Austin.
(SFC, 11/9/96, p.A12)(SFC, 11/30/96, p.A7)(SFC, 8/16/12, p.A7)(AP, 7/18/14)

1686 Feb 15, Jean Baptiste Lully’s opera “Armide,” premiered in Paris.
(MC, 2/15/02)

1686 Apr 4, English king James II published a Declaration of Indulgence.
(MC, 4/4/02)

1686 May 14, Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit German physicist and instrument maker, was born. He invented the thermometer. [see May 24]
(HN, 5/14/98)

1686 May 24, Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit (d.1736), German physicist, was born. He devised a temperature scale and introduced the use of mercury in thermometers. He assigned the number 32 for the melting point of ice, 96 to the temperature of blood and 212 to the steam point.[see May 14]
(WUD, 1994, p.510)(SFEC, 3/22/98, Par. p.8)(HN, 5/24/98)

1686 Jul 8, The Austrians took Buda, Hungary, from the Turks and annexed the country. Hapsburg rule lasted to 1918.
(HN, 7/8/98)(Sm, 3/06, p.76)

1686 Jul 22, Albany, New York, began operating under an official charter.
(SFEC, 4/2/00, Z1 p.2)

1686 Jul 24, Benedetto Marcello, composer, was born. [see Aug 1]
(MC, 7/24/02)

1686 Aug 1, Benedetto Marcello, Italian author, composer (Lettera Famigliare), was born in Venice, Italy. [see Jul 24]
(MC, 8/1/02)

1686 Dec 19, Robinson Crusoe left his island after 28 years (as per Defoe).
(MC, 12/19/01)

1686 The British Royal Society published “Historia Piscium” by John Ray and Francis Willughby. The expense of the high quality illustrations almost bankrupted the academy.
(Econ, 4/21/12, p.95)

1686 The NYC Charter of this year incorporated the rights of the 1664 New Amsterdam “Articles of Capitulation.”
(WSJ, 3/16/04, p.D6)

1686 The Lenape Indians allegedly sold land along the Lehigh River to William Penn.
(ON, 1/03, p.6)

1686 Two Mohican Indians signed a mortgage for their land in Schaghticoke, New York, with simple markings. It was notarized by Robert Livingston, whose family became one of the greatest agricultural landlords and int’l. merchants in the colony of New York.
(WSJ, 11/19/99, p.W10)

1686 A Spaniard by the name of Francisco Lazcano named a group of about 500 small coral islands east of the Philippines, the Caroline Islands, after King Charles II of Spain who funded the expedition.

1686 Russians returned to Albazino on the far eastern Amur River and were again attacked by the Manchus. After a year’s siege they surrendered with only 40 of 900 alive.
(Econ, 12/19/09, p.71)

1687 Feb 19, Johann Adam Birkenstock, composer and sandal designer, was born.
(MC, 2/19/02)

1687 Feb 22, Jean-Baptiste Lully, composer, died in Paris. Lully, Paris Opera director, had stabbed himself in the foot with a baton and died of blood poisoning.
(SFC, 8/21/99, p.B3)(MC, 2/22/02)

1687 Mar 19, French explorer Robert Cavelier (b.1643), Sieur de La Salle, the first European to navigate the length of the Mississippi River, was murdered by mutineers while searching for the mouth of the Mississippi, along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico in present-day Texas.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ren%C3%A9-Robert_Cavelier,_Sieur_de_La_Salle)(AP, 3/19/97)

1687 Mar 28, Constantine Huygens (90), diplomat, poet, composer (Bluebottles), died.
(MC, 3/28/02)

1687 Apr 4, King James II ordered his Declaration of Indulgence read in church.

1687 Jul 5, The first volume of Isaac Newton’s “Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica” (“Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy”) was published in Latin by Edmund Halley. His invention of differential and integral calculus is here presented. Here also are stated Newton’s laws of motion, that obliterated the Aristotelian concept of inertia.
1) Every physical body continues in its state of rest, unless it is compelled to change that state by a force or forces impressed upon it.
2) A change of motion is proportional to the force impressed upon the body and is made in the direction of the straight line in which the force is impressed.
3) To every action there is always opposed an equal reaction.
Book Three of the Principia opens with two pages headed “Rules of Reasoning in Philosophy.” There are four rules as follows:
1) We are to admit no more causes of natural things than such as are both true and sufficient to explain the appearances. [A restatement of Ockham’s Razor: “What can be done with fewer is done in vain with more.”]
2) Therefore to the same natural effects we must, as far as possible, assign the same causes.
3) The qualities of bodies which are found to belong to all bodies within the reach of our experiments, are to be esteemed the universal qualities of bodies whatsoever.
4) In experimental philosophy we are to look upon propositions inferred by general induction from phenomena as accurately or very nearly true notwithstanding any contrary hypothesis that may be imagined, till such time as other phenomena occur, by which they may either be made more accurate, or liable to exceptions.
(V.D.-H.K.p.207-10)(http://tinyurl.com/6772jj)(Econ, 4/21/12, p.95)

1687 Aug 12, At the Battle of Mohacs, Hungary, Charles of Lorraine defeated the Turks.
(HN, 8/12/98)

1687 Sep 26, The Venetian army attacked the Acropolis in Athens while trying to eject Turks. Marauding Venetians sent a mortar through a gable window of the Parthenon and ignited a Turkish store of gunpowder. This damaged the northern colonnade of the Parthenon. The Parthenon was destroyed in the war between Turks and Venetians.
(SFEC, 6/6/99, p.A26)(MC, 9/26/01)

1687 Sep 28, Venetians took Athens from the Turks.
(MC, 9/28/01)

1687 Oct 20, In Peru a massive earthquake leveled most of Lima. It triggered a tsunami and overall about 5,000 people died.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1687_Peru_earthquake)(SSFC, 11/3/13, p.A6)

1687 Oct 27, The Connecticut colony’s charter was stolen during a public meeting in which Gov. Robert Treat defended the colony against demands by Sir Edmund Andros. It was soon hidden under an oak tree (the Charter Oak) in Hartford to protect it from seizure by agents of the King James II.

1687 Nov 13, Nell [Eleanor] Gwyn (37), mistress of Charles II of England, died.
(MC, 11/13/01)

1687 Dec 5, Francesco Xaverio Geminiani, composer, was born.
(MC, 12/5/01)

1687 Dec 16, William Petty (b.1623), English designer, inventor and pioneering economist, died in London. He came up with the “quantity theory of money” and was the first to measure gross domestic product (GDP).
(Econ, 12/21/13, p.116)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Petty)

1687 Giovanni Battista Foggini created a portrait bust of “Cosimo III de’ Medici.”
(WSJ, 1/29/02, p.A18)

1687 William Penn authored “The Excellent Privilege of Liberty and Property Being the Birth-Right of the Free-born subjects of England.”
(www.magnacartaworldheritage.com/magna-carta-us-history/)(Econ, 12/20/14, p.35)

1687 The Austrian Army captured Petrovaradin (Serbia) after 150 years of Turkish control during the Great Turkish War. The Austrians began to tear down the old fortress and build new fortifications according to contemporary standards.

1687 Clocks began to be made with 2 hands for the first time
(SFEC, 9/7/97, Z1 p.5)

1687 James II, a Roman Catholic, supported unpopular policies that, by 1687, led to many English subjects urging William to intervene. With the birth of a son to James in 1688, fears of a Roman Catholic succession led to opponents sending an invitation to William in July.
(HNQ, 12/28 /00)

1687 Newton declared that time is absolute… “It flows equably without relation to anything external.” This view was held until Einstein’s relativity in 1905.
(NG, March 1990, J. Boslough p. 118)

1687-1691 Suleiman II succeeded Mehmed IV in the Ottoman House of Osman.
(Ot, 1993, xvii)

1688 Feb 18, At a Quaker meeting in Germantown, Pa, German Mennonites penned a memorandum stating a profound opposition to Negro slavery. Quakers in Germantown, Pa., adopted the fist formal antislavery resolution in America.
(HN, 2/18/99)(www.germanheritage.com/Publications/cronau/cronau4.html)

1688 Apr 15, Johann Friedrich Fasch, composer, was born.
(MC, 4/15/02)

1688 Apr 27, King James II issued another Declaration of Indulgence: “conscience ought not to be constrained nor people forced in matters of mere religion.”

1688 May 21, Alexander Pope (d.1744), England, poet (Rape of the Lock), was born. His “Essay on Criticism” contains the line: “A little learning is a dangerous thing…”
(NH, 9/97, p.24)(MC, 5/21/02)

1688 May 25, Christian August Jacobi, composer, was born.
(SC, 5/25/02)

1688 Jun 10, Mary of Modena, the wife of Britain’s King James II, gave birth to a male heir. This placed England, much to the dismay of Parliament, in line for a succession of Catholic monarchs.
(Econ, 2/4/06, p.77)(ON, 7/06, p.10)

1688 Jun 30, A jury proclaimed 7 English bishops not guilty of seditious libel against James II. They had refused to comply with his April 27 Declaration of Indulgence because it had not been approved by Parliament.

1688 Aug 15, Frederick-William I, king of Prussia (1713-1740), was born.
(MC, 8/15/02)

1688 Aug 31, John Bunyan, preacher, novelist (Pilgrim’s Progress), died.
(MC, 8/31/01)

1688 Sep 6, Imperial troops defeated the Turks and took Belgrade, Serbia.
(HN, 9/6/98)

1688 Oct 1, Seven British noblemen sent a letter to Prince William of Orange inviting him to invade England and rescue the country from James’ “popery.” William accepted.
(Econ, 2/4/06, p.77)(ON, 7/06, p.10)

1688 Oct 27, King James II fired premier Robert Spencer.
(MC, 10/27/01)

1688 Nov 1, William of Orange set sail for England at the head of a fleet of 500 ships and 30,000 men. He intended too oust his father-in-law King James II. The Dutch parliament, the States General, funded William with 4 million guilders. Amsterdam financiers provided another 2 million. Some of this was used to print 60,000 copies of his “Declaration” (of the reasons inducing him to appear in arms in the Kingdom of England), which were distributed in England. In 2008 Lisa Jardine authored “Going Dutch: How England Plundered Holland’s Glory.”
(WSJ, 8/28/08, p.A13)

1688 Nov 5, William of Orange landed in southern England and marched with his army nearly unopposed to London.
(WSJ, 8/28/08, p.A13)

1688 Nov 24, General strategist John Churchill met William III.
(MC, 11/24/01)

1688 Nov 25, Princess Anne fled from London to Nottingham.
(MC, 11/25/01)

1688 Nov 26, King James II escaped back to London.
(MC, 11/26/01)
1688 Nov 26, Louis XIV declared war on the Netherlands.
(HN, 11/26/98)

1688 Dec 4, General strategist John Churchill (later Duke of Marlborough) joined with William III.
(MC, 12/4/01)

1688 Dec 9, King James II’s wife and son fled England for France.
(MC, 12/9/01)

1688 Dec 11, King James II attempted to flee London as the “Glorious Revolution” replaced him with King William (of Orange) and Queen Mary. James attempted to flee to France, first throwing the Great Seal of the Realm into the River Thames. He was, however, caught in Kent. Having no desire to make James a martyr, the Prince of Orange let him escape on December 23, 1688. James was received by Louis XIV, who offered him a palace and a generous pension. In 2007 Michael Barone authored “Our First Revolution: The Remarkable British Upheaval That Inspired America’s Founding Fathers.”
(HN, 12/11/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_II_of_England)

1688 Dec 18, William of Orange made a triumphant march into London as James II fled in the “Glorious Revolution.” William of Orange, son of William II (Prince of Orange) and Mary (daughter of Charles I of England), was fourth in line to the English throne. In 2006 Edward Valance authored “The Glorious Revolution: 1688 – Britain’s Fight for Liberty.”
(WSJ, 2/6/02, p.A16)(Econ, 2/4/06, p.77)(ON, 12/10, p.12)

1688 Dec 23, English King James II fled to France.
(MC, 12/23/01)
1688 Dec 23, Jean-Louis Lully (21), composer, died.
(MC, 12/23/01)

1688 Dec 25, English king James II landed in Ambleteuse, France.
(MC, 12/25/01)

1688 French writer Pierre d’Ortigue de Vaumoriere published anonymously his book, “The Art of Pleasing Conversation.”
(WSJ, 5/13/05, p.W6)(http://tinyurl.com/d8tac)

1688 Joseph de la Vega published his work “Confusion de Confusiones.” It offered trading strategies to speculators and was built around a conversation between a merchant, a philosopher, and a shareholder. The book was republished in 1996.
(WSJ, 3/5/96, p. A-12)

1688 The Notre-Dame-des-Victoires, the oldest stone church in North America, was built in Quebec City, Canada.
(SSFC, 7/30/06, p.G8)

1688 In England Edward Lloyd opened a London coffee shop where shipping insurance was bought and sold.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1688 In France a blind Benedictine monk named Dom Perignon discovered the fermentation process that led to champagne. [see 1662] He later devised a cork stopper to hold the bubbles.
(WSJ, 10/16/98, p.W13)(Hem., 10/97, p.103)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1688 Persecuted Huguenots, French Protestants, arrived in South Africa and improved the quality of wine production.
(SSFC, 12/3/00, p.T6)

1688-1689 James II was replaced by the Dutch King William. This process was masterminded by the group of seven, which included the Earl of Devonshire, who was then promoted to Duke in reward. William of Orange was a good Dutch Protestant and Mary was his queen. From this point on the king was but a figurehead and Parliament ruled England.
(NG, Nov. 1985, M. Girouard, p.671), (V.D.-H.K.p.222,300)

1688-1763 Pierre Marivaux, French playwright and master of super-subtle dialogue.
(WSJ, 10/20/95, p. A-12)

1689 Jan 18, Charles Louis de Montesquieu (d.1755), French philosopher and writer (Letters Persanes), was born. “In most things success depends on knowing how long it takes to succeed.” He authored “The Spirit of the Laws,” the 1st great comparative study of civilizations.
(AP, 4/13/99)(WSJ, 11/1/00, p.A24)(MC, 1/18/02)

1689 Jan 22, England’s “Bloodless Revolution” reached its climax when parliament invited William and Mary to become joint sovereigns. A specially-called parliament declared that James had abdicated and offered the throne to William and Mary. In 1938 G.M. Trevelyan authored “The English Revolution.” In 2009 Steve Pincus authored “The First Modern Revolution.”
(HN, 1/22/99)(HNQ, 12/28/00)(Econ, 10/17/09, p.97)

1689 Feb 13, The British Parliament adopted the Bill of Rights. It limited the right of a king to govern without the consent of Parliament.
(MT, Dec. ’95, p.16)(ON, 12/10, p.12)

1689 Feb 14, English parliament placed Mary Stuart and Prince William III on the throne.
(MC, 2/14/02)

1689 Feb 23, Dutch prince William III was proclaimed King of England.
(MC, 2/23/02)

1689 Mar 12, Former English King James II landed in Ireland.
(MC, 3/12/02)

1689 Mar, In Northern Ireland the gates of Londonderry were shut in the face of Catholic forces. The event was later celebrated by the Protestant Apprentice Boys as the Lundy’s Day demonstration. [see August 1, 1689]
(SFEC,12/14/97, p.A26)

1689 Apr 11, (OS) William III and Mary II were crowned as joint sovereigns of Britain. As part of their oaths, the new King William III and Queen Mary were required to swear that they would obey the laws of Parliament. At this time, the Bill of Rights was read to both William and Mary. “We thankfully accept what you have offered us,” William replied, agreeing to be subject to law and to be guided in his actions by the decisions of Parliament.
(AP, 4/11/97)(www.bessel.org/billrts.htm)

1689 Apr 15, French king Louis XIV declared war on Spain.
(MC, 4/15/02)

1689 Apr 18, George Jeffreys, 1st Baron Jeffreys of Wem, infamous judge, died.
(MC, 4/18/02)

1689 Apr 19, Residents of Boston ousted their governor, Edmond Andros.
(HN, 4/19/97)
1689 Apr 19, Christina (b.1626), Queen of Sweden (1644-54), died. In 2004 Veronica Buckley authored “Christina: Queen of Sweden.”
(www.sweden.se)(WSJ, 10/29/04, p.W10)

1689 Apr 21, (NS) William III and Mary II were crowned joint king and queen of England, Scotland and Ireland.
(HN, 4/21/98)(HNQ, 12/28/00)

1689 May 11, The French and English naval battle took place at Bantry Bay.
(HN, 5/11/98)

1689 May 12, England’s King William III joined the League of Augsburg and the Netherlands. The “Grand Alliance” was formed to counter the war of aggression launched by Louis XIV against the Palatinate states in Germany. This is known as The War of the League of Augsburg (1689-97) also The Nine Years’ War, and the War of the Grand Alliance.

1689 May 24, English Parliament passed the Act of Toleration, protecting Protestants. Roman Catholics were specifically excluded from exemption.
(HN, 5/24/99)

1689 May 26, Mary Wortley Montagu, English essayist, feminist, eccentric, was born.
(MC, 5/26/02)

1689 Jul 27, Government forces defeated the Scottish Jacobites at the Battle of Killiecrankie.
(HN, 7/27/98)

1689 Jul, Maryland colonist known as the Protestant Associators marched on St. Mary’s City and seized the State House while Lord Baltimore was in England. They went on to take over his plantation at Mattapany.
(Arch, 1/05, p.49)

1689 Aug 1, A siege of Londonderry, Ireland, by the Catholic Army of King James II ended in failure. The Protestants were victorious and the event led to the annual Apprentice Boy’s March. The group is named in honor of 13 teenage apprentices, all Protestants, who bolted the city gates in front of the advancing Catholic forces at the start of the 105-day siege.
(SFEC, 8/11/96, p.A13)(HN, 8/1/98)(AP, 8/13/06)

1689 Aug 4-5, War between England and France led them to use their native American allies as proxies. In retaliation for the French attack on the Seneca in 1687, one thousand, five hundred Iroquois, with English support, attacked Lachine down river from the mission of the Mountain of Ville-Marie (Montreal), killing some 400. They put everything to fire and axe. Some suggest that this is a gross exaggeration and that only 24-25 were killed and likely 90 were captured by the Iroquois, but never returned.

1689 Aug 19, Samuel Richardson (d.1761), English novelist (Pamela, Clarissa), was born in Derbyshire.
(MC, 8/19/02)

1689 Aug 25, Battle at Charleroi: Spanish and English armies chased the French.
(MC, 8/25/02)
1689 Aug 25, The Iroquois took Montreal.
(MC, 8/25/02)

1689 Sep 1, Russia began taxing men’s beards.
(MC, 9/1/02)

1689 Oct 11, Peter the Great became tsar of Russia.
(MC, 10/11/01)

1689 Dec 16, English Parliament adopted a Bill of Rights after Glorious Revolution. The Bill of Rights included a right to bear arms. William and Mary gave it Royal Assent which represented the end of the concept of divine right of kings.
(WSJ, 8/6/02, p.D6)(www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon49.html)

1689 Dec 30, Henry Purcell’s opera “Dido and Aeneas,” premiered in Chelsea.
(MC, 12/30/01)

1689 “Memorable Providences, Related to Witchcrafts and Possessions,” published by Cotton Mather, contributed to the hysteria that led to the Salem witch trials of 1692. Mather was a Puritan clergyman and the eldest son of Increase Mather. While Cotton Mather advised witch trial judges that executions would not be necessary, during the mass executions he remained uncritical. In his 1693 Wonders of the Invisible World Mather defended the verdicts of various trials.
(HNQ, 10/31/98)

1689 John Locke returned to England with his two Treatises which were published late in the same year. He also published his letter on Toleration, in opposition to the strong religious intolerance then prevalent.



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