1689 Purcell composed his musical tragedy “Dido and Aeneas.”
(SFC, 9/23/00, p.B10)
1689 The White Hart Inn at Ware, England, put up 26 butchers and their wives in one bed, the “Great Bed of Ware,” in a marketing ploy to attract customers.
(WSJ, 12/6/01, p.A19)
1689 The Macedonian city of Skopje, under Ottoman rule at this time, was torched by the Austrians.
(Econ, 1/5/12, p.69)
1689 Russian and Manchu delegates met at Nerchinsk and drew up a treaty in Latin. This was Chinas first treaty with a European power. China agreed to open up trade in exchange for Russias withdrawal from the Amur.
(Econ, 12/19/09, p.71)
1689-1697 The Abnaki War [Abenaki] of in North America is better known as King William’s War. It was the first of the intercolonial wars between France and England in North America, pitting the English and their Iroquois allies against the French and their Abnaki allies. The Abnakis were a powerful Algonquian tribe from Maine. King Williams War was a component of the European War of the League of Augsburg and was based in part on the growing rivalry between France and England over the control of North America.
1690 Jan 14, The clarinet was invented in Germany.
1690 Feb 3, The first paper money in America was issued by the colony of Massachusetts. The currency was used to pay soldiers fighting a war against Quebec.
(SFC, 4/30/97, p.B3)(AP, 2/3/97)
1690 Feb 8, Some 200 French and Indian troops burned Schenectady, NY, and massacred about 60 people to avenge Iraquois raids on Canada.
(AH, 2/05, p.17)
1690 Feb 21, Christoph Stoltzenberg, composer, was born.
1690 Feb 22, Charles Le Brun (70), classical painter (Academie de Peinture), died.
1690 Mar 16, French king Louis XIV sent troops to Ireland.
1690 May 11, In the first major engagement of King Williams War, British troops from Massachusetts seized Port Royal in Acadia (Nova Scotia and New Brunswick) from the French, their objective was to take Quebec.
1690 May 20, England passed the Act of Grace, forgiving followers of James II.
1690 Jun 11, English king William III departed to Ireland.
(PC, 1992, p.265)
1690 Jun 24, King William III’s army landed at Carrickfergus, Ireland.
1690 Jul 1, England’s Protestant King William III of Orange was victorious over his father-in-law, the Catholic King James II (from Scot) in Battle of Boyne (in Ireland). This touched off three centuries of religious bloodshed. Protestants took over the Irish Parliament. This marked the beginning of the annual Drumcree parade, held by the Loyal Orange Lodge on the first Sunday of July. Due to calendar changes in 1752 this later became commemorated on Jul 12.
(PC, 1992, p.265)(WSJ, 7/11/96, p.A1)(SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1 p.6)(SFEC, 7/4/99, p.A18)
1690 Jul 1, Led by Marshall Luxembourg, the French defeated the forces of the Grand Alliance at Fleurus in the Netherlands.
1690 Jul 7, Johann Tobias Krebs, composer, was born.
1690 Jul 10, Domenico Gabrielli (39), composer, died.
1690 Jul 12, Due to British calendar changes in 1752, the July 1, 1690, Battle of Boyne (in Ireland) was adjusted for celebration on Jul 12.
(SFEC, 9/27/98, BR p.5)(AP, 7/11/05)
1690 Sep 6, King William III escaped back to England.
1690 Sep 25, One of the earliest American newspapers, Publick Occurrences,” published its first and last edition in Boston. The colonial governor and council disallowed the pamphlet due to its contents.
(AP, 9/25/00)(WSJ, 3/8/06, p.D14)
1690 Oct 7, The English attacked Quebec under Louis de Buade.
1690 Oct 8, Belgrade was retaken by the Turks.
1690 Oct 23, American colonial forces from Boston led by Sir William Phips, failed in their attempt to seize Quebec. Phips lost 4 ships on the return trip due to stormy weather.
(Arch, 1/05, p.50)(http://www.biographi.ca/EN/ShowBio.asp?BioId=34586)
1690 Oct 23, There was a revolt in Haarlem, Holland, after a public ban on smoking.
1690 Nov 11, Gerhard Hoffmann, composer, was born.
1690 Nov 24, Charles Theodore Pachelbel, composer, was born.
1690 A newspaper called Publick Occurences Both Forreign and Domestick” was published in Boston, Mass.
(WSJ, 12/29/07, p.A8)
1690 The 2nd Treatise on Government by John Locke (1632-1704) was published in order to justify the British Whig Revolution of 1688. In it he wrote that men had the natural rights of life, liberty and estate.
1690 Khushal Khan Khattak (b.1613), Pushtun poet, died. He wrote in Pashtu during the reign of the Mongol emperors in the seventeenth century. He lived in the foothills of the Hindu Kush mountains. He was a renowned fighter who became known as the Afghan Warrior Poet.
1690 Emp. Kangxi commissioned Wang Hui (1632-1717) to create a pictorial chronicle of a ceremonial tour across a swath of China. The Kangxi Emperors Southern Inspection Tour” took 6 years and became a magnus opus of some 740 feet in 12 hand scrolls.
(WSJ, 10/29/08, p.D9)
1690 An Englishman made the 1st landing on the Falkland Islands.
(Econ, 7/15/06, p.36)
c1690 “The Narrow Road” by Basho Matsuo (1644?-1694) was written during a 1,500 mile journey through the Japanese countryside. It was a 64-page collection of prose and haiku poems and became a Japanese classic. A manuscript of the work was found in 1996.
(SFC, 11/28/96, p.C16)(WUD, 1994, p.124)
1690 In Puebla, Mexico, the ornate Capilla del Rosario, Chapel of the Rosary, was consecrated.
(SFEC,11/9/97, p.T5)(SFEC, 11/8/98, p.T8)
1690-1699 In the 1690s Kit Cat Club met in London at the invitation of Jacob Tonson (1655/56-1736), a publisher and bookseller, at the inn of Christopher Cat (Christopher Catling). In 2008 Ophelia Field authored The Kit-Cat Club: Friends Who Imagined a Nation.”
(Econ, 8/16/08, p.82)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacob_Tonson)
1690s Giuseppe Ghezzi found the Codex Leicester, a notebook of Leonardo da Vinci in Rome. It was primarily a treatise on the nature of water in all its properties, manifestations and uses.
(NH, 5/97, p.11,60)
1690s Henry Laurens landed 40% of the slaves sold at Sullivan Island. He was the ancestor to the Ball family that settled in South Carolina.
(SFEC, 2/22/98, BR p.1,8)
1690-1700 Particularly severe weather hit Germany and prompted vintners use more wine sweeteners.
(NH, 7/96, p.51)
1691 Jan 13, George Fox (b.1624), English Dissenter and a founder of the Religious Society of Friends, died.
1691 Feb 8, Carlo di Girolamo Rainaldi (79), Italian architect, composer, died.
1691 Feb 17, Thomas Neale was granted a British patent for American postal service.
1691 May 16, Jacob Leisler, 1st American colonist, was hanged for treason.
1691 May 26, Jacob Leiser, leader of the popular uprising in support of William and Marys accession to the throne, was executed for treason.
1691 May 29, Cornelis Tromp (61), Admiral-General, son of Maarten Tromp, died.
1691 Jul 12, William III defeated the allied Irish and French armies at the Battle of Aughrim, Ireland.
1691 Aug 16, Yorktown, Va., was founded.
1691 Sep 17, The Massachusetts Bay Colony received a new charter. [see Oct 17]
1691 Oct 3, English and Dutch armies occupied Limerick, Ireland.
1691 Oct 17, The Massachusetts Bay Company along with Plymouth colony and Maine was incorporated into the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
(HN, 10/17/98)(HNQ, 11/23/00)
1691 Father Eusebio Kino founded the Tumacacori mission 45 miles south of Tucson, Arizona.
(SSFC, 3/29/02, p.C6)
1691 The British periodical Athenian Gazette published the first regular problem page. It was created by John Dunton who felt guilty for cheating on his wife.
(Econ, 12/19/15, p.118)
1691 In northwest Romania an icon was painted at a monastery in Nicula. According to legend, the icon of the Weeping Virgin, wept for 26 days in 1699. The first recorded miracle occurred in 1701 when it is said to have cured an army officer’s wife who was going blind. The church attached to the monastery is named after St. Mary and pilgrimages there are made every year on Aug. 15, Mary’s name day. In 1977, the church burned down, but the icon was unharmed. In 2005 low water level revealed its skeleton.
1691 The Spanish Inquisition killed 37 Jews from Mallorca for secretly practicing their faith. In 2011 the islands leading government official issued an official condemnation for the killing.
(SFC, 5/6/11, p.A2)
1691-1695 Ahmed II succeeded Suleiman II in the Ottoman House of Osman.
(Ot, 1993, xvii)
1691-1765 Giovanni Paolo Panini, Italian artist. He was later known for his portrayals of Rome.
(WSJ, 9/8/00, p.W2)
1692 Feb 13, In the Glen Coe highlands of Scotland, 38 members of the MacDonald clan, the smallest of the Clan Donald sects, were murdered by soldiers of the neighboring Campbell clan for not pledging allegiance to William of Orange. Ironically the pledge had been made but not communicated to the clans. The event is remembered as the Massacre of Glencoe.
1692 Feb 28, The Salem witch hunts began.
1692 Feb 29, Sarah Goode and Tituba were accused of witchcraft in Salem, Massachusetts, sparking the hysteria that started the Salem Witch Trials.
1692 Feb, William and Mary granted a royal license for postal service in the American colonies. It empowered Thomas Neale “to erect, settle and establish within the chief parts of their majesties’ colonies and plantations in America, an office or offices for the receiving and dispatching letters and pacquets, and to receive, send and deliver the same under such rates and sums of money as the planters shall agree to give, and to hold and enjoy the same for the term of twenty-one years.”
(Econ, 8/20/11, p.32)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Postal_Service)
1692 Mar 1, Sarah Goode, Sarah Osborne and Tituba were arrested for the supposed practice of witchcraft in Salem, Mass.
1692 Mar 14, Peter Musschenbroek, Dutch physician, physicist (Leyden jar), was born.
1692 Mar 18, William Penn was deprived of his governing powers.
1692 Mar 26, King Maximilian was installed as land guardian of South Netherlands.
1692 Apr 8, Giuseppe Tartini, Italy, violinist, composer (Trillo del Diavolo), was born.
1692 Apr 12, Giuseppe Tartini, composer (Istria), was born.
1692 Apr 22, Edward Bishop was jailed for proposing flogging as cure for witchcraft.
1692 May 18, Joseph Butler Wantage Berkshire, theologian, was born.
1692 May 18, Elias Ashmole, antiquary, died.
1692 May 29, Royal Hospital Founders Day was 1st celebrated.
1692 May 29, Battle at La Hogue: An English & Dutch fleet beat France.
1692 Jun 7, An earthquake struck Jamaica. It rearranged the geology, splitting the rocks, turning mountains to lakes, and engulfed two-thirds of Port Royal. On that day and subsequently, five thousand of the inhabitants died.
1692 Jun 10, Bridget Bishop was hanged in Salem, Mass., for witchcraft. This was the first official execution of the Salem witch trials.
(HN, 6/10/01) (WSJ, 1/18/08, p.W10)
1692 Jun 24, Kingston, Jamaica, was founded.
1692 Aug 3, French forces under Marshal Luxembourg defeated the English at the Battle of Steenkerke in the Netherlands.
1692 Aug 19, Five women were hanged in Salem, Massachusetts after being convicted of the crime of witchcraft. Fourteen more people were executed that year and 150 others are imprisoned. In 2006 the governor of Massachusetts signed legislation exonerating 5 women executed in the Salem witch trials of 1692, whose names had not yet been cleared. In 2015 Stacy Schiff authored The Witches: Salem, 1692.”
(HN, 8/19/00)(WSJ, 9/15/06, p.A10)(Econ, 11/14/15, p.84)
1692 Sep 19, Giles Corey was pressed to death for standing mute and refusing to answer charges of witchcraft brought against him. He is the only person in America to have suffered this punishment.
1692 Sep 21, Two men and seven women were executed for witchcraft in Salem, Massachusetts.
1692 Sep 22, The last person was hanged for witchcraft in Salem, Mass.
1692 Oct 8, Massachusetts Bay Governor Phipps ordered that spectral evidence no longer be admitted in witchcraft trials. Twenty people had died in the Salem witch trials. In 2005 Richard Francis authored Judge Sewalls Apology.” Sewall was one of 3 judges presiding over the Salem trials. In 2006 the governor of Massachusetts signed legislation exonerating 5 women executed in the Salem witch trials of 1692, whose names had not yet been cleared.
(http://tinyurl.com/rlj1)(WSJ, 8/9/05, p.D8)(WSJ, 9/15/06, p.A10)
1692 Oct 12, Giovanni Battista Vitali, composer, died at 60.
1692 Oct 18, Charles Eugene de Croy, a field marshal fighting for Austrian forces, laid the cornerstone for a new great fortress at Petrovaradin (later Serbia), built to guard against the Ottoman Turks.
1692 Oct 25, Elisabeth Farnese, princess of Parma and queen of Spain, was born.
1692 Nov 7, Johannes G. Schnabel, German author and surgeon (Insel Felsenburg), was born.
1692 Nov 21, Carlo Fragoni, Italian poet, was born.
1692 In Germany Rheinfels castle withstood a siege of 28,000 French troops sent by Louis XIV. French troops under Napoleon destroyed it in 1797.
(SSFC, 11/29/15, p.G6)(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rheinfels_Castle)
1692 In Portugal Taylors restaurant and lodge was founded in Porto.
(SFEC, 7/12/98, p.T10)
1692 In Russia Peter the Great granted the Stroganoff family their lands in perpetuity.
(WSJ, 9/7/00, p.A24)
1693 Jan 11, An earthquake struck parts of southern Italy near Sicily, Calabria and Malta. It destroyed at least 70 towns and cities, seriously affecting an area of 5,600 square km (2,200 sq. miles) and causing the death of about 60,000 people.
1693 Jan 28, Anna “Ivanovna”, Tsarina of Russia, was born. [see Feb 7]
1693 Feb 7, Anna Ivanova Romanova, empress of Russia (1730-40) [NS], was born. [see Jan 28]
1693 Feb 8, A charter was granted for the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Va.
1693 Feb 13, The College of William and Mary opened in Virginia.
1693 Mar 24, John Harrison (d.1776), Englishman who invented the chronometer, was born.
1693 Jun 27, The 1st woman’s magazine “The Ladies’ Mercury” was published in London.
1693 Jul 4, Battle at Boussu-lez-Walcourt: French-English vs. Dutch army.
1693 Jul 29, The Army of the Grand Alliance was destroyed by the French at the Battle of Neerwinden in the Netherlands.
1693 Aug 4, Dom Perignon invented champagne. [see 1688]
1693 English naturalist John Ray noted that whales had more in common with 4-legged mammals than with fish.
(PacDis, Winter/96, p.14)
1693 Heidelberg was torched by the troops of Louis XIV in a dispute over a royal title.
(SFEC, 9/26/99, p.T8)
1693 The French explorer Francois Leguat spent several months on Mauritius and looked hard for a dodo bird, but found none.
(NH, 11/96, p.26)
1693 The history of the Amish church began with a schism in Switzerland within a group of Swiss and Alsatian Anabaptists led by Jakob Ammann (1656-1730).
1694 Jul 5, Composer Louis-Claude Daquin was born.
1694 Jul 27, The Bank of England received a royal charter as a commercial institution. It was set up by William III, the ruler of Britain and the Netherlands, in the midst of a war against France. The mission of the bank was to provide war finance. Financiers agreed to lend the crown £1.2 million in return for a partial monopoly on the issue of currency.
(SFC, 5/7/97, p.C2)(AP, 7/27/97)(Econ, 1/10/09, p.49)(Econ, 11/5/11, p.92)(Econ, 4/29/17, p.56)
1694 Sep 22, Philip Dormer Stanhope, Lord Chesterfield, statesman of letters whose writings provide a classic portrayal of an ideal 18th-century gentleman, was born. He introduced the Gregorian calendar in 1752.
(HN, 9/22/98)(MC, 9/22/01)
1694 Nov 21, Francois Marie Arouet Voltaire (d.1778), French philosopher, historian, dramatist and essayist, was born. Born to middle class parents, he later attended the Jesuit college of Louis-le-Grand in Paris. The environment exposed him to the world of society and the arts. After the success of his tragedy “Oedipe” in 1718, he was pronounced the successor to the great dramatist Racine. He adopted the pen name Voltaire, though its exact origins and meaning are uncertain. The author of “Candide” (1759) and the “Philosophical Dictionary” (1764), Voltaire’s works often attacked injustice and intolerance and epitomized the Age of Enlightenment. He wrote that “Self-love resembles the instrument by which we perpetuate the species. It is necessary, it is dear to us, it gives us pleasure and it has to be concealed.” “All styles are good except the tiresome sort.” “Love truth, but pardon error.” “The great errors of the past are useful in many ways. One cannot remind oneself too often of crimes and disasters. These, no matter what people say, can be forestalled.” S.G. Tellentyre said on Voltaire: “I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.”
(WUD, 1994, p.1600)(G&M, 2/1/96, p.A-22)(AP, 7/17/97)(SFEC, 1/4/98, Z1p.8)(HNQ, 10/1/98)(SFEC, 10/11/98, Z1 p.8)(HN, 11/21/98)(HNQ, 11/8/00)
1694 Dec 28, George I of England got divorced. [He was crowned in 1714]
1694 Dec 28, Queen Mary II (32) of England died after five years of joint rule with her husband, King William III. The new style calendar puts her death on Jan 7, 1695.
1694 The Whigs of England persuaded King William that if he wanted to win what became the nine years war against France, he would have to embrace their political and economic agenda.
(Econ, 10/17/09, p.98)
1694 The history of English death duties began with the Stamp Act of this year which placed 5s on probates over 20 pounds.
(Econ, 10/27/07, p.90)(www.econlib.org/LIBRARY/Bastable/bastbPF29.html)
1694 John Law, Scotsman, fled England after killing rival Edward Wilson in a duel. He traveled in Europe, played the casinos and studied finance. He set up a bank in France and issued paper money and established the Mississippi Company to exploit the French-controlled territories in America. [see 1720] In 2000 Janet Gleeson authored “Millionaire,” a pseudo-biography of Law.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)(WSJ, 6/30/00, p.W9)
1694-1696 An outbreak of colic struck the region around Ulm, Germany. Eberhard Gockel, the city physician, was able to trace the cause to a wine sweetener that used a white oxide of lead.
(NH, 7/96, p.48)
1694-1773 Lord Chesterfield, English author and statesman: “In scandal, as in robbery, the receiver is always as bad as the thief.”
1695 Jan 6, Giuseppe Sammartini, composer, was born.
1695 Jan 7, Mary II Stuart 32), queen of England, died [OS=Dec 28 1694].
1695 Jan 27, Mustafa II became the Ottoman sultan in Istanbul on the death of Amhed II. Mustafa ruled to 1703.
(HN, 1/27/99)(Ot, 1993, xvii)
1695 Mar 7, In Britain John Trevor (1637-1717), the speaker of the House of Commons office, was found guilty of accepting a bribe of 1000 guineas (equivalent to around £1.6 million in 2009) from the City of London to aid the passage of a bill through the house. He was expelled from the House of Commons, a move which he initially resisted on the ground of ill-health, but retained his judicial position until his death.
1695 Apr 13, Jean de la Fontaine (b.1621), French fabulist and poet, died. He is known above all for his Fables, which provided a model for subsequent fabulists across Europe and numerous alternative versions in France.
1695 Apr 17, Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz (b.~1648), Mexican nun and poet, died of plague.
(SSFC, 9/3/06, p.M3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sor_Juana)
1695 Apr 20, Georg Caspar Weckler (63), composer, died.
1695 Apr 30, William Congreve’s “Love for Love,” premiered in London.
1695 Jul 8, Christian Huygens (66), Dutch inventor, astronomer, died. He generally wrote his name as Christiaan Hugens, and it is also sometimes written as Huyghens. In his book Cosmotheros,” published in 1698, he speculated on life on other planets.
1695 Sep 11, Imperial troops under Eugene of Savoy defeated the Turks at the Battle of Zenta.
1695 Sep 12, NY Jews petitioned governor Dongan for religious liberties.
1695 Nov 20, Zumbi, a Brazilian leader of a hundred-year-old rebel slave group, was killed in an ambush in Palmares. In January 2003 legislation established November 20 as Black Consciousness Day.
(http://tinyurl.com/gsg6wt8)(SFC, 8/16/01, p.A8)(SSFC, 11/18/12, p.G3)
1695 Nov 21, Henry Purcell (36), English composer (Indian Queen), died.
1695 Nov 28, Giovanni Paulo Colonna (58), composer, died.
c1695 Orazio Gentileschi, painted “St. Francis and the Angel.”
(WSJ, 4/28/98, p.A16)
1695 The Comediens Italiens were expelled from Paris for indiscretion in their opera parodies. The fair theaters took up where they left off with the use of vaudevilles and comedia dellarte characters.
(PNM, 1/25/98, p.4)
1695 The British Parliament voted not to renew the 1662 Licensing of the Press Act, which had censored seditious, treasonable and unlicensed Bookes and Pamphlets.” It was repealed by the Statute Law Revision Act 1863.
(Econ, 5/23/09, p.57)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Licensing_of_the_Press_Act_1662)
1695 A London rag called A Collection for Improvement of Husbandry and Trade” included what later was believed to be the first lonely-hearts advertisement: A Gentleman About 30 Years of Age, that says he had a Very Good Estate, would willingly Match himself to some Good Young Gentlewoman that has a Fortune of £3,000.”
(Econ, 2/12/11, p.92)
1695 Henry Avery (b.~1653), former Royal Navyman turned pirate, captured the Ganj-i-Sawai, the largest ship of the Mogul emperor in India.
(WSJ, 11/22/08, p.W2)
1695 Portugal established colonial rule in the eastern half of Timor Island. The western side was incorporated into the Dutch East Indies.
(SFC, 5/18/02, p.A15)
1696 Jan 31, An uprising of undertakers took place after funeral reforms in Amsterdam.
1696 Mar 5, Giambattista Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (d.1770), Venetian Rococo painter (Isaac’s Sacrifice), was born. He painted for the Dolfin family in the 1720s. His work included: “The Annunciation” (c1765-1770), “Apelles Painting a Portrait of Campaspe,” “Martyrdom of St. Agatha,” “Sacrifice of Isaac,” “The Finding of Moses,” “Nobility and Virtue” (1743), “Satyress with a Putto,” “Satyress With Two Putti and a Tambourine,” and “Halberdier in a Landscape.” His contemporaries included Francesco Fontebasso, Allesandro Longhi, and Louis-Joseph Le Lorrain.
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1483)(WSJ, 10/14/96, p.A14)(SFC, 3/25/97, p.E3)(MC, 3/5/02)
1696 Mar 7, English King William III departed Netherlands.
1696 Jun 17, Jan Sobieski (72), King of Lithuania and Poland (1674-96), died.
(MC, 6/17/02)(LHC, 5/21/03)
1696 Sep 23, A squall drove the ship Reformation aground on the east coast of Florida. Quaker merchant Jonathan Dickinson along with his family, 11 slaves, 8 seamen and Capt. Joseph Kirle were on route to Philadelphia from Jamaica.
(ON, 9/00, p.3)
1696 Sep 27, Alfonsus M. de’ Liguori, Italian theologian, bishop, and religious order founder, was born.
1696 cSep 30, The Reformation castaways encountered a 2nd Indian tribe after paddling north for 2 days in a canoe provided by Indians at their initial landing. They were taken to a village, near present-day Vero Beach, and encountered castaways from the bark Nantwich, which had sailed from Port Royal in the same convoy.
(ON, 9/00, p.5)
1696 Oct 6, Savoy Germany withdrew from the Grand Alliance.
1696 Nov 2, In Florida a Spanish company of soldiers took the Dickinson and Nantwich party into custody and escorted them north to St. Augustine. They arrive on Nov 19 after 5 people died from exposure enroute.
(ON, 9/00, p.5)
1696 Nov 11, Andrea Zani, composer, was born.
1696 Nov 19, Louis Tocque, French painter, was born.
1696 Dec 22, James Oglethorpe, England, General, author, colonizer of Georgia, was born.
1696 August III (d.1738), son of August II, was born. He was crowned King of Lithuania and Poland in 1734.
(SSFC, 4/25/04, p.D12)
1696 William Hogarth, British artist, was born. He believed that visual art could have a morally improving effect on viewers, and that individual betterment led to social improvement.
(SFEC, 1/25/98, DB p.7)(SFC, 1/28/98, p.E1)
1696 In the late 1600s the Xukuru Indians fought the Portuguese to a stand off in what was later referred to as the “War of the Barbarians.”
(WSJ, 8/20/99, p.A1)(http://tinyurl.com/bhqlp)
1696 The Chinese painter Bada Shanren created his work: “Ducks and Lotuses.”
(WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)
1696 In England a Jacobite plot to assassinate King William III and restore James II failed.
1696 In England Isaac Newton (1642-1727) became Warden of the Mint and started combing his hair.
(Econ, 8/23/03, p.68)
1696 New York sea captain William Kidd reluctantly became a privateer for England and was expected to fight pirates on the open sea, seize their cargoes, and provide a hefty share of the spoils to the Crown. According to his British accusers, Kidd turned to piracy himself as the deadline for reporting to his employers in New York approached and he had not taken enough booty to fulfill his commission. Kidd himself did not know he was a wanted man until he dropped anchor in the West Indies in April 1699. He chose to surrender to the authorities and submit to a London trial, believing to the end that he could clear his name. After a trial in which important evidence in his favor was suppressed, William Kidd was found guilty of piracy and hanged.
1696 Jacques Ozanam, a visionary Frenchman, 1st proposed a self-moving vehicle.”
(Econ, 2/5/05, p.77)
1696 Duke Eberhard Ludwig of Wurttenburg, Germany, learned of Eberhard Gockels findings on lead poisoning in wine and banned all lead-based wine additives.
(NH, 7/96, p.49)
1696 The Hotel Elephant was founded in Weimar, the capital of the German state of Thuringia.
(SFC, 8/3/99, p.A8)
1696 The Company of Scotland began raising money for a colony at Darien on the Isthmus of Panama. The venture collapsed after 4 years and only 3 of 13 ships returned home.
(Econ, 8/28/10, p.74)
1697 Mar 9, Czar Peter the Great began tour of West Europe. [see Mar 21]
1697 Mar 21, Czar Peter the Great began a tour through West Europe. [see Mar 9]
1697 Apr 1, Abbe Prevost, French novelist, journalist (Manon Lescaut), was born.
1697 Apr 16, Johann Gottlieb Gorner, composer, was born.
1697 May 10, Jean Marie I’aine Leclair, composer, was born.
1697 May 12, The fall of the Venetian Republic.
(SFC, 5/10/97, p.A10)
1697 Jun 7, John Aubrey (b.1626), author of “Monumenta Britanica,” died. In 1948 Anthony Powell authored the biography “John Aubrey.” In 2015 Ruth Scurr authored John Aubrey: My Own Life,” an autobiography in the form of a diary that he never wrote.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Aubrey)(ON, 4/02, p.12)(Econ., 4/11/15, p.76)
1697 Sep 11, Prince Eugene of Savoy led the Austrians to victory over the Ottoman Turks at Senta (Serbia). This resulted in creating the conditions for the 1699 conclusion of the peace at Karlowitz.
1697 Sep 20, The Treaty of Ryswick was signed in Holland. It ended the War of the Grand Alliance (aka War of the League of Augsburg,1688-1697) between France and the Grand Alliance. Under the Treaty Frances King Louis XIV (1638-1715) recognized William III (1650-1702) as King of England. The Dutch received trade concessions, and France and the Grand Alliance members (Holland and the Austrian Hapsburgs) gave up most of the land they had conquered since 1679. The signees included France, England, Spain and Holland. By the Treaty of Ryswick, a portion of Hispaniola was formally ceded to France and became known as Saint-Domingue. The remaining Spanish section was called Santo Domingo.
1697 Oct 19, Settlers from Mexico sailed across the Sea of Cortez to build a new settlement.
(SFEC, 5/18/97, p.T5)
1697 Oct 25, Settlers from Mexico founded the town of Loreto in honor of the Virgin Nuestra Senoro de Loreto, on the Baha Peninsula. It served as the capital of Baha California for the next 132 years.
(SFEC, 5/18/97, p.T5)
1697 Oct 30, The Treaty of Ryswick ended the War of the Grand Alliance (aka War of the League of Augsburg,1688-1697) between France and the Grand Alliance. Frances King Louis XIV (1638-1715) recognized King William IIIs (1650-1702) right to the English throne, the Dutch received trade concessions, and France and the Grand Alliance members (Holland and the Austrian Hapsburgs) gave up most of the land they had conquered since 1679.
(HN, 10/30/98)(DoW, 1999)
1697 Nov 2, Constantine Huygens Jr, poet, painter and cartoonist, was buried.
1697 Nov 10, William Hogarth, English caricaturist, was born.
1697 Dec 2, St. Paul’s Cathedral opened in London.
1697 William Dampier (1651-1715), English explorer, naturalist and privateer, authored A New Voyage Around the World.” A sequel appeared 2 years later. In 2004 Diana and Michael Preston authored “A Pirate of Exquisite Mind: Explorer, Naturalist and Bucaneer,” a biography of Dampier.
(WSJ, 4/16/04, p.W8)(NH, 6/4/04, p.59)
1697 Eberhard Gockel published: “A Remarkable Account of the Previously Unknown Wine Disease.”
(NH, 7/96, p.49)
1697 Charles Perrault first penned “La Petit Chaperon Rouge” (Little Red Riding Hood) as a sexual morality tale for the loose ladies of Louis XIVs court. In 2002 Catherine Orenstein authored “Little Red Riding Hood Uncloaked: Sex, Morality and the Evolution of a Fairy Tale.”
(WSJ, 8/7/02, p.D14)(NW, 8/26/02, p.57)
1697 The play “Le Distrait” by Regnard was written and later accompanied by the music of Joseph Haydn.
(WSJ, 7/31/97, p.A16)
1697 In Bostons Old South Church Judge Sewall told the congregation that he accepted blame and shame” for the 1692 Salem witch trials. None of the other judges joined him in repenting.
(Econ, 8/6/05, p.70)
1697 Hannah Duston in what is now New Hampshire was attacked and captured by 12 Indians who killed her daughter. She managed to kill 10 of them with a knife and took home their scalps for the bounty money. She was the first woman in the US to have a statue erected in her honor.
(SFEC, 11/17/96, zone 1 p.2)
1697 Two relatives of Galdan Boshugtu Khan surrendered to Chinas Qing Kangxi Emperor. Their people were then organized into two Oolod banners and resettled in modern Bayankhongor Province, Mongolia. The Dzungar (or Zunghar), Oirat Mongols who lived in an area that stretched from the west end of the Great Wall of China to present-day eastern Kazakhstan and from present-day northern Kyrgyzstan to southern Siberia (most of which is located in present-day Xinjiang), were the last nomadic empire to threaten China.
1697 The Royal Palace in Stockholm, Sweden, burned down. It was rebuilt in Italian Baroque style with 608 rooms.
(SSFC, 8/19/07, p.G4)
1697-1718 Charles XII (1682-1718) was king of Sweden.
(WUD, 1994, p.249)(SFC, 8/17/96, p.E5)
1697-1798 Antonio Canal, Italian topographical view painter. He was the uncle to Bernardo Belotto.
(WSJ, 9/13/01, p.A18)
1697-1773 Johann Quantz, flutist-composer.
1698 Jan 1, The Abenaki [Abnaki] Indians and the Massachusetts colonists signed a treaty ending the conflict in New England.
1698 Apr 5, Georg Gottfried Wagner, composer, was born.
1698 Aug 18, After invading Denmark and capturing Sweden, Charles XII of Sweden forced Frederick IV of Denmark to sign the Peace of Travendal.
1698 Aug 25, Czar Peter the Great returned to Moscow after his trip through West-Europe.
1698 Sep 5, Russia’s Peter the Great imposed a tax on beards.
1698 Oct 23, Ange-Jacques Gabriel, French court architect (Place de la Concorde), was born.
1698 Missionary John St. Cosme celebrated the first Mass in what became St. Louis, Mo.
(SFC, 1/28/99, p.A3)
1698 The Spanish established Presidio Santa Maria de Galve (later Pensacola, Florida).
1698 Elias “Red Cap ” Ball sailed from England to claim his inheritance, a plantation called Comingtee on the banks of the Cooper River in South Carolina. The Ball family kept a history and in 1998 descendant Edward Ball published “Slaves in the Family.”
(SFEC, 2/22/98, BR p.1,8)(SFEC, 4/19/98, p.A22)
1698 The Virginia statehouse at Jamestown burned and the capital was moved to Williamsburg.
(Arch, 1/06, p.26)
1698 The British pint, a 568 milliliter pour, was introduced. Bars were allowed to serve beer only as a pint, or a third or half of that measure. This became the standard size for beer and cider.
(SFC, 1/5/11, p.A2)
1698 English engineer Thomas Savery devised a way to pump water out of mines by the use of condensed steam.
1698 Abraham or Ibrahim (Abram Petrovich Gannibal) was born about this time in the Eritrean highland, north of the Mareb River in a town called Logon. Abraham’s father was a local chief or a “prince”. Within a few years Turks invaded the area and abducted Abraham following a battle lost by his father. Abraham spent a year in Constantinople and was sold with a bribe for service to Russias Peter the Great.
1698 Peter the Great spent several months at the Shipwrights Palace in England learning how to build the Russian navy.
(WSJ, 5/24/00, p.A24)
1698-1701 The Portuguese built the Old Fort in Stone Town on Zanzibar to defend against the sultan of Oman.
(SFEC, 4/23/00, p.T6)
1699 Jan 14, Massachusetts held a day of fasting for wrongly persecuting “witches.”
1699 Jan 26, The Treaty of Karlowitz, Croatia, ended the war between Austria and the Turks.
1699 Feb 4, Czar Peter the Great executed 350 rebellious Streltsi in Moscow.
1699 Mar 4, Jews were expelled from Lubeck, Germany.
1699 Mar 23, John Bartram, naturalist, explorer, father of American botany, was born.
1699 Apr 17, Robert Blair, Scottish poet (Grave), was born.
1699 Apr 21, Jean Racine (59), French playwright (Phèdre), died.
1699 Jul 6, Pirate Capt. William Kidd was captured in Boston.
1699 Dec 20, Peter the Great ordered Russian New Year changed from Sept 1 to Jan 1.
1699 Jonathan Dickinson, after resuming his mercantile business in Philadelphia, authored “Gods Protecting Providence,” a journal of his Florida ordeal.
(ON, 9/00, p.5)
1699 A wooden wall on the northern edge of New Amsterdam (later NYC), built for protection from the Indians, was destroyed by the British.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R43)
1699 Williamsburg became the capital of Virginia and served as the capital of the British colony until 1780.
(SSFC, 12/17/00, p.T7)(AH, 6/07, p.27)
1699 Prince Eugene of Savoy looted and burned Sarajevo, Bosnia.
(SSFC, 12/4/05, p.F5)
1699 The British established a rule over the colonies that all wool trade must be with England, and violations were punishable by stiff fines.
(NG, 5.1988, pp. 583)
1699 The Jews in London commissioned Joseph Avis, a Quaker, to build a synagogue on a street called Bevis Marks.
(WSJ, 10/28/06, p.P16)
1699 The Sikhs were founded by a series of 10 prophets or gurus and believe in one God but many paths to heaven. In 1999 some 20,000 thousands of Sikhs gathered to march in SF on the 300th anniversary of their religion. [see Nanak c1500, 1519]
(SFEC, 4/25/99, p.C1)
1699 The Republic of Lucca promulgated the first regulations designed to prevent the spread of tuberculosis.
(WP, 1952, p.29)
1699 References from the Ching dynasty of China refer to the Diaoyu Island located between Taiwan and Okinawa.
(SFEC, 10/8/96, A8)
1699 The King of Spain, due to competition, banned the production of wine in the Americas, except for that made by the church.
(SFEC, 11/7/99, p.T8)
1699-1783 Johann Adolph Hasse, popular composer of now-forgotten operas.
1699-1799 Jean Baptiste Simeon Chardin, French painter.
(WSJ, 7/6/00, p.A24)