Timeline of the Eighteenth Century: 1775-1799

1775 Jan 8, John Baskerville (68), English printer, type designer, died.
(MC, 1/8/02)

1775 Jan 11, In South Carolina Francis Salvador became the 1st Jew elected to office in America. [see Aug 1]
(AH, 2/05, p.16)

1775 Jan 17, 9 old women were burned as witches for causing bad harvests in Kalisk, Poland.
(MC, 1/17/02)

1775 Jan 22, Marshal Oscar von Lubomirski expelled Jews from Warsaw, Poland.
(MC, 1/22/02)

1775 Jan 25, Americans dragged cannon up hill to fight the British at Gun Hill Road, Bronx.
(MC, 1/25/02)

1775 Jan 28, Peter the Great, Czar of Russia, was born.
(HN, 1/28/99)

1775 Feb 9, English Parliament declared the Mass. colony was in rebellion.
(MC, 2/9/02)

1775 Feb 10, Charles Lamb (d.1834), critic, poet, essayist, was born in London, England. “No one ever regarded the first of January with indifference. It is the nativity of our common Adam.”
(AP, 12/31/97)(MC, 2/10/02)

1775 Feb 12, Louisa Adams, wife of John Quincy Adams was born.
(HN, 2/12/98)

1775 Feb 21, As troubles with Great Britain increased, colonists in Massachusetts voted to buy military equipment for 15,000 men.
(HN, 2/21/99)

1775 Feb 22, Jews were expelled from the outskirts of Warsaw, Poland.
(MC, 2/22/02)

1775 Feb, Englishman Thomas Paine became editor of the Pennsylvania Magazine, owned by printer Robert Aitken.
(ON, 6/2011, p.1)

1775 Mar 17, Richard Henderson, a North Carolina judge, representing the Transylvania Company, met with three Cherokee Chiefs (Oconistoto, chief warrior and first representative of the Cherokee Nation or tribe of Indians, and Attacuttuillah and Sewanooko) to purchase (for the equivalent of $50,000) all the land lying between the Ohio, Kentucky and Cumberland rivers; some 17 to 20 million acres. It was known as the Treaty of Sycamore Shoals or The Henderson Purchase. The purchase was later declared invalid but land cession was not reversed.

1775 Mar 19, In Italy 4 people were buried by avalanche for 37 days and 3 survived. [not clear if this was the date of the avalanche or the recovery date.]
(MC, 3/19/02)
1775 Mar 19, Portuguese fleet was repulsed in attack on Montevideo, Uruguay.
(AP, 3/19/03)

1775 Mar 22, British statesman Edmund Burke made a speech in the House of Commons, urging the government to adopt a policy of reconciliation with America.
(AP, 3/22/99)

1775 Mar 23, In a speech to the Virginia Provincial Convention, assembled at Henrico Church in Richmond, American revolutionary Patrick Henry made his famous plea for independence from Britain, saying, “Give me liberty, or give me death!”
(AP, 3/23/97)(AH, 2/06, p.50)

1775 Apr 7, Francis C. Lowell was born. He founded the 1st raw cotton-to-cloth textile mill.
(MC, 4/7/02)

1775 Apr 8, Adam A. earl von Neipperg, Austrian general, Napoleon’s wife Marie lover, was born.
(MC, 4/8/02)

1775 Apr 13, Lord North extended the New England Restraining Act to South Carolina, Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland. The act forbade trade with any country other than Britain and Ireland.
(HN, 4/13/99)

1775 Apr 14, The first American society for the abolition of slavery was organized by Benjamin Franklin and Benjamin Rush in Philadelphia.
(AP, 4/14/97)(HN, 4/14/97)
1775 Apr 14, Gen. Thomas Gage, commander of British forces in North America, received orders from Parliament authorizing him to use aggressive military force against the American rebels.
(ON, 3/01, p.2)

1775 Apr 18, Several post riders set out to warn colonists of the British attack that started the American Revolution. One patriotic myth that grew out of that movement began with a poem Henry Wadsworth Longfellow called “Paul Revere’s Ride.” Paul Revere began his famous ride from Charlestown to Lexington, Mass., warning American colonists that the British were coming. American revolutionaries Paul Revere, William Dawes and Samuel Prescott warned that “the British are coming”. Only Prescott galloped all the way to Concord. Revere was corralled by a British cavalry patrol near Lexington, MA; Dawes and Prescott escaped. A company of over 700 British troops marched toward Concord. 23-year-old church sexton Robert Newman hung two lanterns in the Old North Church to warn riders that the British were leaving Boston by boat to march on Concord. Every April, a descendant of the 18th-century patriot still climbs to the steeple of Old North Church and hangs two small tin and glass lanterns.
(HN, 4/18/98)(ON, 3/01, p.2)(HNQ, 7/5/01)(AP, 4/18/07)

1775 Apr 19, Alerted by Paul Revere the American Revolutionary War began at Lexington Common with the Battle of Lexington-Concord. Capt. John Parker mustered 78 militiamen on the town green of Lexington to send a warning to the 700 British soldiers marching to Concord to seize weapons and gunpowder. Maj. Gen. Thomas Gage sent a force of 700 British troops to Concord, west of Boston, to capture colonial weapons and arrest Patriot leaders Samuel Adams and John Hancock. Arriving at Lexington on their way to Concord, the British were met on the town common by about 70 Minutemen. The “shot heard ‘round the world” ignited the American Revolutionary War. No one knows who fired the first shot, but when the smoke cleared, eight Americans lay dead. The British suffered more than 250 casualties as they opposed more than 1,500 Massachusetts men. The events are documented in the 1997 book “Liberty by Thomas Fleming.” Isaac Davis was among the first to die at Lexington and Concord.
(HFA, ’96, p.28)(V.D.-H.K.p.224)(AP, 4/19/97)(SFEC,11/23/97, Par p.14) (HN, 4/19/97)(HNPD, 4/19/99)(HNQ, 10/17/00)

1775 Apr 20, British troops began the siege of Boston.
(HN, 4/20/98)

1775 Apr 23, Joseph Mallord William Turner (d.1851), landscape painter, was born in England.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._M._W._Turner)(SFC, 6/20/15, p.E3)
1775 Apr 23, Mozart’s Opera “Il Re Pastore” was produced (Salzburg).
(MC, 4/23/02)

1775 May 5, Benjamin Franklin arrived in Philadelphia from London where he had lived since 1757. He soon began working with Thomas Paine on a pamphlet urging independence from Britain, an idea proposed by physician Benjamin Rush.
(AH, 2/06, p.52)(ON, 6/2011, p.2)

1775 May 10, The Second Continental Congress convened in Pennsylvania. It named George Washington as supreme commander. Benjamin Franklin represented Pennsylvania soon presented his reworked Plan of Union under the title The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Continental_Congress)(AH, 2/06, p.47)
1775 May 10, Ethan Allen and his 83 Green Mountain Boys captured the British-held fortress at Ticonderoga, N.Y., on the western shore of Lake Champlain. They took the entire garrison captive without firing a shot. This was the 1st aggressive American action in the War of Independence.
(AP, 5/10/97)(HN, 5/10/98)(ON, 3/00, p.4)

1775 May 20, North Carolina became the first colony to declare its independence. Citizens of Mecklenburg County, NC, declared independence from Britain.
(HN, 5/20/98)(MC, 5/20/02)

1775 May, George Washington went to the Philadelphia State House where the Second Continental Congress was meeting and John Adams moved to name him Commander-in-chief of the Continental army.
(A & IP, ESM, p.13)

1775 Jun 7, The United Colonies changed name to United States.
(HN, 6/7/98)

1775 Jun 12, In the 1st naval battle of Revolution the US ship Unity captured the British ship Margaretta.
(MC, 6/12/02)

1775 Jun 14, The Continental Army, forerunner of the United States Army, was founded when the Continental Congress first authorized the muster of troops under its sponsorship.
(HN, 6/14/98)(AP, 6/14/07)

1775 Jun 15, Word reached the Americans that the British intended to occupy the Charlestown peninsula.
(HT, 3/97, p.30)
1775 Jun 15, The Second Continental Congress voted unanimously to appoint George Washington head of the Continental Army.
(AP, 6/15/97)(HN, 6/15/98)

1775 Jun 16, American Col. William Prescott led 1200 men from Cambridge to dig in at Bunker’s Hill but arrived at night and dug in at Breed’s Hill. A siege on Boston by Colonial militia generals John Stark and Israel Putnam prompted the British to attack.
(HT, 3/97, p.30)(SFC, 4/2/97, Z1 p.6)

1775 Jun 17, The Battle of Bunker Hill was actually fought on Breed’s Hill near Boston. It lasted less than 2 hours and was the deadliest of the Revolutionary War. The British captured the hill on their third attempt but suffered over 1,000 casualties vs. about 400-600 for the Americans. Patriotic hero Dr. Joseph Warren died in the battle. Patriot General William Prescott allegedly told his men, “Don’t one of you fire until you see the whites of their eyes!” British casualties were estimated at 226 dead and 828 wounded, while American casualties were estimated at 140 dead and 301 wounded.
(SFC, 4/2/97, Z1 p.6)(AP, 6/17/98)(HNQ, 4/1/99)(AH, 10/07, p.72)

1775 Jul 2, George Washington arrived in Boston and took over as commander-in-chief of the new Continental Army.
(HT, 3/97, p.33)

1775 Jul 3, Gen. George Washington took command of the Continental Army at Cambridge, Mass.
(AP, 7/3/97)

1775 Jul 5, William Crotch, composer, was born.
(MC, 7/5/02)
1775 Jul 5, The Olive Branch Petition was adopted by the Continental Congress and professed the attachment of the American people to George III. It expressed hope for the restoration of harmony and begged the king to prevent further hostile actions against the colonies. The following day, Congress passed a resolution written by Thomas Jefferson and John Dickinson, a “Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms,” which rejected independence but asserted that Americans were ready to die rather than be enslaved. King George refused to receive the Olive Branch Petition on August 23 and proclaimed the American colonies to be in open rebellion.
(HNQ, 7/2/99)

1775 Jul 10, Gen Horatio Gates, issued an order excluding blacks from Continental Army. [see Oct 8]
(MC, 7/10/02)

1775 Jul 16, John Adams graduated from Harvard.
(MC, 7/16/02)

1775 Jul 25, Anna Symmes Harrison, 1st lady, was born.
(SC, 7/25/02)
1775 Jul 25, Maryland issued currency depicting George III trampling the Magna Carta.
(SC, 7/25/02)

1775 Jul 26, The Continental Congress established a postal system for the colonies with Benjamin Franklin as the first postmaster general in Philadelphia.
(AP, 7/26/97)(HN, 7/26/98)

1775 Jul 30, Captain Cook returned to England.
(MC, 7/30/02)

1775 Aug 1, Francis Salvador and his men were ambushed by a group of Cherokees and Loyalists near present-day Seneca, South Carolina, while leading a militia group under the general command of Major Wilkinson. Salvador was wounded and then scalped by the Cherokees.
(MC, 1/11/02)

1775 Aug 5, Spanish Lieutenant Juan Manuel de Ayala and his crew of 30 became the first European explorers to sail into the San Francisco Bay. He anchored at Angel Island and waited for the overland expedition of Captain Juan Bautista de Anza. Angel Island was one of the first landforms named by the Spanish when they entered SF Bay. The 58-foot Spanish fregata, Punta de San Carlos, was the first sailing vessel to enter the SF Bay while on a voyage of exploration. Ayala named Alcatraz Island after a large flock of pelicans, called alcatraces in Spanish.
(CAS, 1996, p.19)(SFEC, 2/9/97, p.W4)(SFEC, 3/8/98, p.W38)(SFC, 12/26/01, p.A28)(SFC, 8/16/14, p.C1)

1775 Aug 23, Britain’s King George III refused the American colonies’ offer of peace and proclaimed the American colonies in a state of “open and avowed rebellion.”
(HN, 8/23/98)(AP, 8/23/07)

1775 Sep 13, Gotthold Lessing’s “Die Juden,” premiered in Frankfurt-am-Main.
(MC, 9/13/01)

1775 Sep 25, British troops captured Ethan Allen, the hero of Ticonderoga, when he and a handful of Americans led an attack on Montreal, Canada.
(AP, 9/25/97)(HN, 9/25/98)

1775 Sep 29, Mexican Captain Juan Bautista de Anza (39) and his party of Spanish soldiers and setters departed Tubac, Arizona, on a journey to the SF Bay Area following reports of a great river flowing into the bay. Anza led 240 soldiers, priests and settlers to Monterey. Jose Manuel Valencia was one of the soldiers. His son, Candelario Valencia, later served in the military at the Presidio and owned a ranch in Lafayette and property next to Mission Dolores. One of the soldiers was Don Salvio Pacheco.
(SFEC, 9/21/97, p.C7)(SFC, 12/31/99, p.A22)(SFC, 9/14/13, p.C4)

1775 Oct 8, Officers decided to bar slaves and free blacks from Continental Army. [see Jul 10, Oct 23, Nov 12, Dec 31]
(MC, 10/8/01)

1775 Oct 13, The U.S. Navy had its origins as the Continental Congress ordered the construction of a naval fleet. The Continental Congress authorized construction of two warships. The 1st ship in the US Navy was the schooner Hannah. It was commissioned by George Washington and outfitted at Beverly, Mass. In 2006 Ian W. Toll authored “Six Frigates: The Epic History of the Founding of the US Navy.
(AP, 10/13/97)(HN, 10/13/98)(SFC, 2/12/00, p.B3)(Econ, 11/4/06, p.94)

1775 Oct 16, Portland, Maine, was burned by British.
(MC, 10/16/01)

1775 Oct 23, Continental Congress approved a resolution barring blacks from army.
(MC, 10/23/01)

1775 Oct 30, Fr. Lasuen founded Mission San Juan Capistrano, but the site was abandoned after eight days when they received word of an attack at the San Diego Mission. They quickly buried the bells for safe keeping and fled to the Presidio (fort) in San Diego for shelter.

1775 Nov 5, In southern California Indians infuriated by Spanish soldier rapes of native women attacked the mission at San Diego bludgeoning a priest to death and killing two other church workers.
(SFC, 12/6/14, p.C2)

1775 Nov 7, Lord Dunmore promised freedom to male slaves who would join the British army.
(MC, 11/7/01)

1775 Nov 10, The US Marines were organized under authority of the Continental Congress. Congress commissioned Samuel Nicholas to raise two Battalions of Marines. That very day, Nicholas set up shop in Philadelphia’s Tun Tavern. He appointed Robert Mullan, then the proprietor of the tavern, to the job of chief Marine Recruiter serving, of course, from his place of business at Tun Tavern.
(AP, 11/10/97)(www.usmcpress.com/heritage/usmc_heritage.htm)

1775 Nov 12, General Washington forbade the enlistment of blacks.
(MC, 11/12/01)
1775 Nov 12, US Gen. Montgomery began his siege of St. John’s and brought about the surrender of 600 British troops.
(ON, 3/00, p.6)

1775 Nov 13, American forces under Gen. Richard Montgomery captured Montreal. This was part of a two-pronged attack on Canada, with the goal of capturing Quebec entrusted to Benedict Arnold, who was leading a 1,100 man force through a hurricane ravaged Maine wilderness. In 2006 Thomas A. Desjardin authored “Through A Howling Wilderness,” an account of Arnold’s march to Quebec.
(AP, 11/13/97)(WSJ, 5/12/06, p.W5)

1775 Nov 17, George Washington was in Boston with his ragtag army facing 12,000 Redcoat regulars.
(SFEC, 10/15/00, p.T12)

1775 Nov 28, The Second Continental Congress formally established the American Navy.
(DTnet 11/28/97)

1775 Nov 29, The American Congress formed the Committee of Secret Correspondence with the mission of corresponding with friends in Great Britain, Ireland and other parts of the world. It April, 1777, its title was changed to Committee for Foreign Affairs. Members included Benjamin Franklin, Benjamin Harrison, John Jay, Thomas Johnson and John Dickinson.
(AH, 2/06, p.54)
1775 Nov 29, Sir James Jay invented invisible ink.
(MC, 11/29/01)

1775 Dec 6, Nicolas Isouard, composer, was born.
(MC, 12/6/01)

1775 Dec 9, Lord Dunmore (1730-1809), governor of Virginia, lost decisively at the American Revolution Battle of Great Bridge. Following that defeat, Dunmore loaded his troops, and many Virginia Loyalists, onto British ships. Smallpox spread in the confined quarters, and some 500 of the 800 members of his Ethiopian Regiment died.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Murray,_4th_Earl_of_Dunmore)(Econ, 8/10/13, p.26)

1775 Dec 16, Jane Austen (d.1817), novelist, was born in [Steventon] Hampshire, England, as the 6th of 7 children [7th of 8]. Her well-educated parents encouraged reading and writing. Her work included “Sense and Sensibility” (1811), “Pride and Prejudice” (1812), “Mansfield Park” (1814) “Lady Susan” and “Emma” (1815). Her books “Persuasion” (1817) and “Northanger Abbey” were published posthumously. Austen’s witty, well-constructed stories about realistic middle-class characters challenged the limits of women writers. Although she called herself a “merely domestic” novelist, she greatly influenced the development of the modern novel. Austen’s most famous works were published between 1811 and 1816, shortly before she died in July 1817. Later in the 19th century critics appreciated Austen’s writing more, and her novels remain popular today–for both literary critics and moviegoers, as they are widely read and adapted for the silver screen. “One does not love a place the less for having suffered in it unless it has all been suffering, nothing but suffering.” Two biographies were published in 1997 with the same title: “Jane Austen: A Life,” one by Calire Tomalin and the other by David Nokes.
(SFEC, 5/11/97, BR p.10)(Hem., 5/97, p.102)(AP, 5/31/97)(SFEC, 11/9/97, BR p.4)(WSJ, 11/17/97, p.A24)(HN, 12/16/98)(HNPD, 12/18/98)

1775 Dec 18-1775 Dec 27, In Philadelphia Benjamin Franklin, John Jay and Francis Daymon, members of the Committee of Secret Correspondence, met 3 times at Carpenter’s Hall with French agent Chevalier Julien-Alexandre Achard de Bonvouloir regarding French support for American Independence.

1775 Dec 22, Esek Hopkins was named the first commander of the US Navy. He took command of the Continental Navy, a total of seven ships.
(HFA,’96,.44)(AP, 12/22/97)(HN, 12/22/98)

1775 Dec 31, George Washington ordered recruiting officers to accept free blacks into the army.
(HN, 12/31/98)

1775 Dec 31, The British repulsed an attack by Continental Army generals Richard Montgomery and Benedict Arnold at Quebec during a raging snowstorm; Montgomery was killed.
(AP, 12/31/97)(SFEC, 1/10/99, p.T5)

1775 James Adair (~65) authored “The History of the American Indians,” based on his experiences living in their midst. In 2005 Kathryn E. Holland Braund edited a new edition.
(WSJ, 2/11/05, p.W6)

1775 Beaumarchais wrote his farce “The Barber of Seville.” Beaumarchais reconceived his Barber opera as a play and turned it into a triumph at the Comedie Francaise.
(WSJ, 12/19/96, p.A16)(SFC, 8/13/96, p.A20)

1775 Joseph Priestley published his book “Experiments and Observations on Different Kinds of Air.” He refuted some opinions of Lavoisier, who had recently named oxygen based on experiments modeled after Priestley’s work. In 1777 German chemist Karl Wilhelm Schele verified that he had independently isolated oxygen in 1772.
(www.woodrow.org/teachers/chemistry/institutes/1992/Priestley.html)(ON, 10/05, p.2)

1775 Richard Brinsley Sheridan’s wrote “The Duenna.” In 1940 Prokofiev composed the opera “Betrothal in a Monastery,” based on Sheridan’s work. The Prokofiev work had its premiere in Prague.
(WSJ, 5/7/98, p.A21)(SFC, 11/25/98, p.D1)

1775 Mozart at 19 composed Il Re Pastore, K. 208. It is considered the last major stage work from Mozart’s Salzburg period.
(EMN, 1/96, p.3)

1775 Presbyterians made up the third largest denomination in America with more than 400,000 members. The largest denomination was made up of Congregationalists, with the second largest being Anglicans.
(HNQ, 7/6/99)

1775 Tucson, Arizona was founded as a Spanish presidio.
(AWAM, Dec. 94, p.31)

1775 Bodega Bay, Ca., was founded by the Spanish.
(SFEC, 9/14/97, p.T3)
1775 Spanish Lieutenant Juan Manuel de Ayala named SF Bay’s northernmost island Isla Plana (Flat Island). In 1835 Gen. Vallejo later renamed it Mare Island.
(SSFC, 8/11/02, p.C1)(SFC, 1/3/15, p.D1)

1775 The 7th Virginia Volunteers first fought as militia in the War of Independence.
(RC handout, 5/27/96)
1775 Lord Dunmore, Royal Governor of Virginia, called on local slaves to join the British side to suppress the American Revolution: “When we win we will free you from your shackles.” The British issued similar proclamations throughout their North American colonies and enticed thousands of indentured servants and slaves, known as Black Loyalists, to the British side.
(MT, summer 2003, p.8)

1775 The Hornet and the Wasp were frigates of the Continental Navy that fought British ships in Chesapeake Bay.
(SFC, 8/17/98, p.A22)

1775 The Swedish chemist Scheele found a way to detect arsenic in the body.
(SFEC, 12/22/96, zone1 p.2)

1775 Captain Cook on his 2nd voyage around the southern continent landed on an island (South Georgia) that he named after his sponsor, George III of England. He described the land as “savage and horrible.”
(NH, 2/97, p.54)

1775 Daniel Boone blazed a trail through the Cumberland Gap in Kentucky.
(WSJ, 1/28/00, p.W8)

1775 Kabul became the capital of Afghanistan.
(NG, V184, No. 4, Oct. 1993, p.66)

1775 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe moved to Weimar after Carl August asked him to be his secretary of state.
(SSFC, 8/1/04, p.D10)

1775 Altar was founded in Mexico’s Sonora state as a military base. It’s location 60 miles south of Arizona later proved valuable as a jumping off point for immigrant smuggling to the US.
(Econ, 8/12/06, p.31)
1775 In Mexico the Monte de Piedad (Mount of Pity), or National Pawn Shop, stands on the site of Montezuma’s brother’s palace in Mexico City. It was founded by the Count of Regla. As a lender of last resort the shop provided loans worth one-fifth to one-third an item’s value at interest rates of 4% a month.
(Hem., 1/96, p.50)(SFC, 1/15/98, p.A10)
1775 In Mexico Manuel Arroyo of Real del Monte confessed to 30 counts of oral sex on men. He claimed that his doctor told him it was good for his health and a way to avoid evil thoughts about women. He was sentenced to 3 years in prison by the Inquisition.
(SFC, 9/18/96, p.A11)

1775 Szymon Antoni Sobiekrajski, cartographer to King Stanislaus Augustus Poniatowski, calculated that the center of Europe was in Suchowola, Eastern Poland.
(WSJ, 7/14/04, p.A7)

1775 Catherine the Great of Russia received an ornament containing over 1000 diamonds, the “Sultan Feather” from the Turkish Sultan Abdulhamid.
(WSJ, 2/10/98, p.A16)

1775 In Russia the Cossack Yemelyan Pugachev was captured and beheaded.
(SFC,10/28/97, p.A8)

1775-1776 Juan Bautista de Anza led 198 colonists and 1,000 cattle from Sonora, Mexico, to California.
(SFC, 6/7/00, p.A15)

1775-1781 George Washington got his brother-in-law, Fielding Lewis, to take charge of provisioning his regiments for the 6 years of the Revolutionary War. In 2002 Gordon S. Wood authored “The American Revolution: A History.”
(HT, 5/97, p.47)(WSJ, 3/8/02, p.AW9)
1775-1781 Some 5,000 Black Americans fought in the Revolutionary War. A silver coin commemorating their contribution was issued in 1998 to help finance a new memorial on the National Mall.
(SFC, 2/26/98, p.A22)
1775-1781 The Royal Welch Fusiliers, a British regiment, was among the British troops that fought in the American Revolution during this period. In 2007 mark Urban authored “Fusiliers: the Saga of a British Redcoat Regiment in the American Revolution.
(WSJ, 11/15/07, p.D6)

1775-1782 More Revolutionary War engagements were fought in New Jersey–238–than in any other state. New York was second with 228. New Hampshire. The only one of the original 13 colonies not invaded by the British during the Revolutionary War was New Hampshire.
(HNQ, 4/17/99)(HNQ, 7/31/99)

1775-1844 John Rubens Smith, British born painter. He came to the US in 1806 and produced numerous paintings of the emerging American landscape. He authored such books as: A Compendium of Picturesque Anatomy (1827), The Key to the Art of Drawing the Human Figure (1831), and the Juvenile Drawing-Book (1839). A collection of almost 700 drawings, paintings and engravings was acquired by the Library of Congress in 1993.
(Civil., Jul-Aug., ’95, p.66)

1775-1847 Daniel O’Connell, Irish political leader: “Bigotry has no head, and cannot think; no heart, and cannot feel.”
(AP, 8/12/98)

1775-1851 Joseph Mallord William Turner, English painter. In 1999 Anthony Bailey published “Standing in the Sun: A Life of J.M.W. Turner.”
(SFC, 4/29/97, p.B5)(SFEC, 2/7/99, BR p.6)

1775-1880 The Shaker community produced handmade furniture until 1880 when manufactured furniture became acceptable and their workshops were forced to close. The watercolors “Tree of Light” by Hannah Cohoon and “Gift Drawing” by Polly Collins were found in 1996 and put up for auction.
(WSJ, 1/30/96, p.A-12)

1776 Jan 1-1776 Dec 31, In 2005 David McCullough authored “1776,” and an account of Washington’s Continental Army throughout this year.
(SSFC, 6/19/05, p.C1)

1776 Jan 2, 1st US revolutionary flag was displayed.
(MC, 1/2/02)

1776 Jan 5, Assembly of New Hampshire adopted its 1st state constitution.
(MC, 1/5/02)

1776 Jan 10, Thomas Paine (1737-1809), British émigré and propagandist, anonymously published “Common Sense,” a scathing attack on King George III’s reign over the colonies and a call for complete independence. The first 1,000 sold within days at 2 shillings. By the end of the year some 150,000 copies were sold, greatly affecting public sentiment and the deliberations of the Continental Congress leading up to the Declaration of Independence. An instant bestseller in both the colonies and in Britain, Paine baldly stated that King George III was a tyrant and that Americans should shed any sentimental attachment to the monarchy. America, he argued, had a moral obligation to reject monarchy.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Paine)(AP, 1/10/98)(ON, 6/2011, p.3)

1776 Jan 14, George Washington commanded an army that consisted of some 9,000 men, up to half of whom were not fit for duty.
(WSJ, 5/19/05, p.W10)

1776 Jan 16, Continental Congress approved the enlistment of free blacks. This led to the all-black First Rhode Island Regiment, composed of 33 freedmen and 92 slaves, who were promised freedom if they served to the end of the war. The regiment distinguished itself at the Battle of Newport.
(SFEC,11/23/97, Par p.19)(MC, 1/16/02)

1776 Feb 8, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe’s “Stella” premiered in Hamburg.
(MC, 2/8/02)

1776 Feb 17, Edward Gibbon (1737-1794), English historian, published his 1st volume of “The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.” He completed the 6-volume classic in 1788.
(WUD, 1994 p.596)(WSJ, 5/26/07, p.P6)

1776 Mar 1, French minister Charles Gravier advised his Spanish counterpart to support the American rebels against the English.
(HN, 3/1/99)

1776 Mar 2, Americans began shelling British troops in Boston. Henry Knox had managed to drag 58 canon and mortars from Fort Ticonderoga to the Dorchester Heights above Boston.
(HN, 3/2/99)(WSJ, 5/20/05, p.W10)
1776 Mar 2, The American Secret Committee of Correspondence appointed Connecticut lawyer Silas Deane as a special envoy to negotiate with the French government for aid.
(AH, 2/06, p.59)

1776 Mar 3, US commodore Esek Hopkins occupied Nassau, Bahamas.
(SC, 3/3/02)

1776 Mar 3, US commodore Esek Hopkins occupied Nassau, Bahamas.
(SC, 3/3/02)

1776 Mar 5, A terrific storm wrecked British hope of a counterattack on Dorchester Heights in Boston, Mass.
(WSJ, 5/20/05, p.W10)

1776 Mar 10, The expedition of Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza arrived in Monterey, Ca. Colonists were left in Monterey as a smaller party departed for the SF Bay.
(http://tinyurl.com/pltuw96)(SFC, 9/14/13, p.C4)

1776 Mar 17, British forces evacuated Boston to Nova Scotia during the Revolutionary War. Suffolk Ct. Massachusetts declared this day Evacuation Day
(AP, 3/17/97)(HN, 3/17/98)(SFEC, 4/25/99, Z1 p.8)

1776 Mar 25, The Continental Congress authorized a medal for General George Washington.
(HN, 3/24/98)

1776 Mar 27, Mexican Captain Juan Bautista de Anza and his party of Spanish explorers spent their first night in the future city of San Francisco at what came to be called Mountain Lake in the Presidio.
(SFC, 9/14/13, p.C4)(SFC, 11/2/19, p.C4)

1776 Mar 28, Mexican Captain Juan Bautista de Anza, Lt. Jose Moraga, and Franciscan priest Pedro Font arrived at the tip of San Francisco. De Anza planted a cross at what is now Fort Point. They camped at Mountain Lake and searched inland for a more hospitable area and found a site they called Laguna de los Dolores or the Friday of Sorrows since the day was Friday before Palm Sunday. Anza became known as the “father of SF.” Mission Dolores was founded by Father Francisco Palou and Father Pedro Cambon. Rancho San Pedro, near what is now Pacifica, served as the agricultural center. Laguna de los Dolores was later believed to be a spring near the modern-day corner of Duboce and Sanchez.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juan_Bautista_de_Anza)(SFEC, 9/21/97, p.C7)(SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W34)(SFC, 2/19/11, p.A10)

1776 Mar 31, Abigail Adams wrote to her husband John that women were “determined to foment a rebellion” if the new Declaration of Independence failed to guarantee their rights.
(HN, 3/31/98)
1776 Mar 31, Captain Juan Bautista de Anza and a crew that included such names as Castro, Peralta, Bernal, Moraga, Alviso and Berryessa, among others, arrived at the eastern side of the San Francisco Bay on a 5-day expedition to explore the area.
(SFC, 12/5/11, p.A1)

1776 Mar, “An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations” was published by Adam Smith. He was the first to describe and explain the workings of the labor market and argued for a laissez faire economy. [see 1723-1790, Smith]
(WSJ, 11/30/95, p.A-20)(V.D.-H.K.p.214,253)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1776 Apr 1, Friedrich von Klinger’s “Sturm und Drang,” premiered in Leipzig.
(MC, 4/1/02)

1776 Apr 3, George Washington received an honorary doctor of law degree from Harvard College.
(AP, 4/3/97)

1776 Apr 12, North Carolina’s Fourth Provincial Congress adopted the Halifax Resolves, which authorized the colony’s delegates to the Continental Congress to support independence from Britain.
(AP, 4/12/07)

1776 Apr 22, Johann Adolph Scheibe (67), German music theorist, composer, died.
(MC, 4/22/02)

1776 Apr 26, Joan M. Kemper, Dutch lawyer (designed civil code law book), was born.
(MC, 4/26/02)

1776 Apr, Charles Gravier, comte de Vergennes, the French foreign minister, enlisted Pierre Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais, playwright and French spy, to establish a commercial firm to supply America with arms, munitions and equipment.
(AH, 2/06, p.59)

1776 May 1, Adam Weishaupt founded the secret society of Illuminati.
(MC, 5/1/02)

1776 May 2, France and Spain agreed to donate arms to American rebels.
(HN, 5/2/98)

1776 May 4, Rhode Island declared its freedom from England, two months before the Declaration of Independence was adopted.
(AP, 5/4/97)(HN, 5/4/98)

1776 May 10, George Thomas Smart, composer, was born.
(MC, 5/10/02)

1776 May 12, Turgot, French minister of Finance, resigned.
(MC, 5/12/02)

1776 May 13, Rodrigo Ferreira da Costa, composer, was born.
(MC, 5/13/02)

1776 May 15, Virginia took the lead in instructing its delegates to go for complete independence from Britain at the Continental Congress.
(Civil., Jul-Aug., ’95, p.60)

1776 May-1776 Jun, Betsy Ross finished sewing the 1st American flag.

1776 Jun 7, Richard Henry Lee of Virginia proposed to the Continental Congress the resolution calling for a Declaration of Independence: that “these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States…” Congress delayed the vote on the resolution until July 1. In the meantime, a committee consisting of Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Roger Sherman, Benjamin Franklin and Robert R. Livingston was created to prepare a declaration of independence.
(Civil., Jul-Aug., ’95, p.60)(AP, 6/7/97)(HNQ, 7/3/98)

1776 Jun 10, The Continental Congress appointed a committee to write a Declaration of Independence.
(HN, 6/10/98)

1776 Jun 11, John Constable (d.1837), English landscape painter (Hay Wain), was born.
(SFC, 4/29/97, p.B5)(SC, 6/11/02)
1776 Jun 11, A committee to draft the document of Independence met. John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Robert Livingston, Roger Sherman and Thomas Jefferson were the members. They immediately delegated the writing to Adams and Jefferson, and Adams gave it over to Jefferson. The events were later documented by Pauline Maier in her 1997 book: “American Scripture: Making the Declaration of Independence.”
(Civil., Jul-Aug., ’95, p.60)(AP, 6/11/97)(SFEC, 6/29/97, BR p.5)

1776 Jun 11-1776 Jul 4, The Continental Congress met and Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence, based on the principals of John Locke. But where Locke had used the word “property,” Jefferson used the term “the pursuit of happiness.”

1776 Jun 12 Virginia’s colonial legislature became the first to adopt a Bill of Rights. The Virginia Declaration of Rights granted every individual the right to the enjoyment of life and liberty and to acquire and possess property. The Virginia document was written by George Mason and was a precursor to the Declaration of Independence. In 1787 Mason refused to endorse the Declaration of Independence because it did not include a Bill of Rights.
(SFEC, 7/27/97, Par p.8)(AP, 6/12/97)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R55)

1776 Jun 15, Delaware declared independence from both England and Pennsylvania with whom it had shared a royal governor.
(WSJ, 5/30/00, p.A24)

1776 Jun 23, The final draft of Declaration of Independence was submitted to US Congress.
(MC, 6/23/02)

1776 Jun 26, In San Francisco the St. Francis of Assisi Church, later Mission Dolores, was founded by Father Francisco Palleu.
(SFEC, 1/30/00, DB p.26)

1776 Jun 27, Thomas Hickey, who plotted to hand George Washington over to British, was hanged.
(MC, 6/27/02)

1776 Jun 28, Jefferson’s document was placed before the Congress after some minor changes by Adams and Franklin. This event was immortalized in the painting by John Trumball.
(Civil., Jul-Aug., ’95, p.61)
1776 Jun 28, Colonists repulsed a British sea attack on Charleston, South Carolina.
(HN, 6/28/98)
1776 Jun 28, Thomas Hickey, American sergeant convicted of treason, was hanged.
(MC, 6/28/02)

1776 Jun 29, Settlers who had been waiting in Monterey headed north and gathered for Mass under a crude shelter at the new mission in San Francisco.
(SFC, 5/19/96,City Guide, p.16)

1776 Jun, Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais established Hortalez et Cie, a fictitious company, to facilitate the transfer of arms to revolutionaries in America. It facilitated the transfer of weapons and munitions from France and Spain to the Americans. Under the scheme, France and Spain each loaned funds to the company for the purchase of munitions and the Americans would in turn pay for the material with rice, tobacco and other products. The scandal-plagued operation continued after the signing of the Franco-American alliance permitting open shipments of military aid between the two countries.
(HNQ, 4/20/00)

1776 Jul 1, The Continental Congress, sitting as a committee, met on July 1, 1776, to debate a resolution submitted by Virginia delegate Richard Henry Lee on June 7. The resolution stated that the United Colonies “are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States.” The committee voted for the motion and, on July 2 in formal session took the final vote for independence.
(HNQ, 7/1/99)
1776 Jul 1, The British fleet anchored off Sandy Hook in New York Bay.
(WSJ, 11/16/99, p.A28)

1776 July 2, The Continental Congress passed Lee’s resolution that “these united Colonies are, and of right, ought to be, Free and Independent States,” and then spent two days over the wording of Jefferson’s document.
(Civil., Jul-Aug., ’95, p.61)(AP, 7/2/97)(HN, 7/2/98)

1776 cJul 3, Caesar Rodney rode 80 miles from Dover to Philadelphia to vote for the Declaration of Independence. In 1998 the ride was commemorated by the US mint on the back of a new quarter.
(SFC, 1/5/99, p.A2)

1776 Jul 4, The Continental Congress approved adoption of the amended Declaration of Independence, prepared by Thomas Jefferson and signed by John Hancock–President of the Continental Congress–and Charles Thomson, Congress secretary, without dissent. However, the New York delegation abstained as directed by the New York Provisional Congress. On July 9, the New York Congress voted to endorse the declaration. On July 19, Congress then resolved to have the “Unanimous Declaration” inscribed on parchment for the signature of the delegates. Among the signers of the Declaration of Independence, two went on to become presidents of the United States, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson. The Declaration of Independence was signed by president of Congress John Hancock and secretary Charles Thomson. John Hancock said, “There, I guess King George will be able to read that.” referring to his signature on the Declaration of Independence. Most delegates signed the parchment copy on August 2. Other signers later included Benjamin Rush and Robert Morris. Of the 56 signers of the Declaration of Independence, eight were born outside North America. In 2007 David Armitage authored “The Declaration of Independence: A Global History.”
(SFC,12/19/97,p.B6)(SFC,2/9/98, p.A19)(WSJ, 1/4/07, p.B11)(SFC, 7/4/13, p.A14)

1776 Jul 5, The Declaration of Independence was first printed by John Dunlop in Philadelphia. 200 copies were prepared July 5-6 and distributed to the states.
(HN, 7/5/98)(HNQ, 7/4/99)(SFC, 7/4/01, p.A3)

1776 Jul 6, The US Declaration of Independence was announced on the front page of “PA Evening Gazette.”
(MC, 7/6/02)

1776 Jul 8, Col. John Nixon gave the first public reading of the Declaration of Independence to a crowd gathered at Independence Square in Philadelphia. The reading was announced by the “Liberty Bell.” The bell had the inscription: “proclaim liberty throughout all the land onto all the inhabitants thereof.”
(AP, 7/8/97)(SFEC, 8/16/98, p.T5)

1776 Jul 9, The Declaration of Independence was read aloud to Gen. George Washington’s troops in New York.
(AP, 7/9/97)
1776 Jul 9, New York was the 13th colony to ratify the Declaration of Independence.
(SFC, 7/7/96, T1)

1776 Jul 10, The statue of King George III was pulled down in New York City.
(HN, 7/10/98)

1776 Jul 12, Capt. Cook departed with Resolution for 3rd trip to Pacific Ocean.
(MC, 7/12/02)

1776 Jul 14, Jemima Boone (13), the daughter of Daniel Boone, and 2 friends were kidnapped by a group of 5 Shawnee and Cherokee Indians near Boonesborough, Kentucky. They were rescued on July 16 by Daniel Boone and 7 other Boonesborough men.
(ON, 8/08, p.6)

1776 Jul 15, Declaration of Independence was read to every brigade in NYC.

1776 Jul 19, After New York’s Provincial Congress voted to endorse the declaration, Congress resolved on July 19 to have the “Unanimous Declaration” engrossed on parchment for the signature of the delegates.
(HNQ, 7/4/99)

1776 Jul 27, Silas Deane (1737-1789), secretly sent to France as America’s first official envoy, wrote a letter to the US Congress informing them that he has been successful beyond his expectations. Deane had served as the Connecticut delegate to the Continental Congress.

1776 Aug 2, In Philadelphia most members of the Continental Congress began attaching their signatures to the parchment copy of the Declaration of Independence. Benjamin Harrison was one of the signers. His son and grandson later became the 9th and 23rd presidents of the US. Most of the 55 signatures were affixed on August 2, but Matthew Thornton of New Hampshire, who was not a member of Congress when the declaration was adopted, added his name in November.
(Civil., Jul-Aug., ’95, p.61)(SFC, 5/7/96, p.A-6)(AP, 8/2/97)(HNQ, 7/4/99)

1776 Aug 8, John Paul Jones was commissioned as a captain and appointed to command the Alfred. His orders were to harass enemy merchant ships and defend the American coast.
(ON, 2/04, p.6)(Internet)

1776 Aug 27, The Americans were defeated by the British at the Battle of Long Island, New York.
(HN, 8/27/98)

1776 Aug 29, General George Washington retreated during the night from Long Island to New York City.
(HN, 8/29/98)
1776 Aug 29, Americans withdrew from Manhattan to Westchester.
(MC, 8/29/01)

1776 Sep 2-9, The Hurricane of Independence killed 4,170 people from North Carolina to Nova Scotia.
(WSJ, 9/13/01, p.B11)

1776 Sep 6, The Turtle, the 1st submarine invented by David Bushnell, attempted to secure a cask of gunpowder to the HMS Eagle, flagship of the British fleet, in the Bay of NY but got entangled with the Eagle’s rudder bar, lost ballast and surfaced before the charge was planted. Sergeant Ezra Lee released the bomb the next morning as a British barge approached. The british turned back and the bomb soon exploded. A month later the turtle was lost under British attack as it was being transported on a sailboat.
(SFEC,11/23/97, Par p.14)(Arch, 5/05, p.36)
1776 Sep 6, A hurricane hit Martinique; 100 French & Dutch ships sank and 600 died.
(MC, 9/6/01)

1776 Sep 9, The term “United States” was adopted by the second Continental Congress to be used instead of the “United Colonies.”
(AP, 9/9/97)(HN, 9/9/98)

1776 Sep 10, George Washington asked for a spy volunteer and Nathan Hale volunteered.
(MC, 9/10/01)

1776 Sep 11, An American delegation consisting of Benjamin Franklin, John Adams and Edward Rutledge met with British Admiral Richard Lord Howe to discuss terms upon which reconciliation between Britain and the colonies might be based. The talks were unsuccessful. In 2003 Barnet Schecter authored “The Battle for New York: The City at the Heart of the American Revolution.”
(AH, 6/03, p.61)(www.patriotresource.com/people/howe/page2.html)

1776 Sep 12, Nathan Hale left Harlem Heights Camp (127th St) for a spy mission.
(MC, 9/12/01)

1776 Sep 15, British forces occupied New York City during the American Revolution. British forces captured Kip’s Bay, Manhattan, during the American Revolution.
(AP, 9/15/97)(HN, 9/15/99)(MC, 9/15/01)

1776 Sep 17, The Presidio of SF was formally possessed as a Spanish fort. The Spanish built the Presidio on the hill where the Golden Gate Bridge now meets San Francisco.
(WSJ, 9/17/96, p.A12)(www.sfmuseum.org/hist6/founding.html)

1776 Sep 20, American soldiers, some of them members of Nathan Hale’s regiment, filtered into British-held New York City and stashed resin soaked logs into numerous buildings and a roaring inferno was started. A fourth of the city was destroyed including Trinity Church. The events are documented in the 1997 book “Liberty by Thomas Fleming.”
(SFEC,11/23/97, Par p.14)(WSJ, 9/14/01, p.W13)

1776 Sep 21, Nathan Hale was arrested in NYC by the British for spying for American rebels.
(SFC, 9/20/03, p.A2)
1776 Sep 21, NYC burned down in the Great Fire 5 days after British took over.
(MC, 9/21/01)

1776 Sep 22, American Captain Nathan Hale was hanged as a spy with no trial by the British in New York City during the Revolutionary War. He was considered as one of the incendiaries of the burning of NYC. Hale was commissioned by General George Washington to cross behind British lines on Long Island and report on their activity. His last words are reputed to have been, “I only regret that I have but one life to give for my country.”
(AP, 9/22/97)(SFEC,11/23/97, Par p.14)(HN, 9/22/98)

1776 Oct 3, Congress borrowed five million dollars to halt the rapid depreciation of paper money in the colonies.
(HN, 10/3/98)

1776 Oct 9, A group of Spanish missionaries settled in present-day San Francisco. The formal dedication of Mission San Francisco de Asis was made.
(SFC, 5/19/96,City Guide, p.16)(AP, 10/9/97)

1776 Oct 11, C. Randle painted: “A View of the New England Arm’d Vessels on Valcure Bay on Lake Champlain.” It depicted the fleet of Benedict Arnold just before the Battle of Valcour Island on this day. The fleet was defeated but it slowed the British advance from Canada.
(SFC, 7/1/97, p.A3)
1776 Oct 11, The naval Battle of Valcour Island on Lake Champlain was fought during the American Revolution. American forces led by Gen. Benedict Arnold suffered heavy losses, but managed to stall the British.
(AP, 10/11/07)

1776 Oct 12, British Brigade began guarding Throgs Necks Road in Bronx.
(MC, 10/12/01)

1776 Oct 13, Benedict Arnold was defeated at Lake Champlain by the British, who then retreated to Canada for the winter. Arnold’s efforts bought the colonists 9 months to consolidate their hold in northern New York. In 2006 James L. Nelson authored “Benedict Arnold’s Navy.”
(HN, 10/13/98)(WSJ, 5/12/06, p.W5)

1776 Oct 18, In a NY bar decorated with bird tail, a customer ordered a “cocktail.”
(MC, 10/18/01)
1776 Oct 18, At the Battle of Pelham Col. John Glover and the Marblehead regiment collided with British Forces in the Bronx.
(MC, 10/18/01)

1776 Oct 28, The Battle of White Plains was fought during the Revolutionary War, resulting in a limited British victory. Washington retreated to NJ.
(AP, 10/28/06)

1776 Oct 29, Benjamin Franklin departed for France one month to the day after being named an agent of a diplomatic commission by the Continental Congress. He served from 1776-1778 on a three-man commission to France charged with the critical task of gaining French support for American independence.

1776 Nov 1, Father Junipero Serra arrived at the site of Mission of San Juan Capistrano and re-founded it. His mission was to convert the members of the Acagchemem tribe called Juanenos by the Spaniards. The tribe at the time was experiencing the end of a 7-year draught.
(HT, 3/97, p.58)(http://gocalifornia.about.com/cs/missioncalifornia/a/capistranohist.htm)

1776 Nov 16, British troops captured Fort Washington on the north end of Manhattan during the American Revolution.
(AP, 11/1697)(MC, 11/16/01)

1776 Nov 18, Hessians captured Ft Lee, NJ.
(MC, 11/18/01)

1776 Nov 20, The British invaded New Jersey.
(NH, 5/97, p.76)

1776 Nov 28, Washington and his troops crossed the Delaware River.
(DTnet 11/28/97)

1776 Nov 30, Captain Cook began his 3rd and last trip to the Pacific South Seas.
(MC, 11/30/01)

1776 Dec 2, George Washington’s army began retreating across the Delaware River from New Jersey to Pennsylvania. In 2004 David Hackett Fischer authored “Washington’s Crossing.”
(WSJ, 2/6/04, p.W8)

1776 Dec 5, Phi Beta Kappa was organized as the first American college scholastic Greek letter fraternity, at William and Mary College, Williamsburg, Va. In 2005 the honor society had some 600,000 members with about 15,000 new members joining annually.
(AP, 12/5/97)(HN, 12/5/98)(WSJ, 11/4/05, p.W12)

1776 Dec 8, George Washington’s retreating army in the American Revolution crossed the Delaware River from New Jersey to Pennsylvania.
(AP, 12/8/97)

1776 Dec 19, Thomas Paine published his first “American Crisis” essay, writing: “These are the times that try men’s souls.” In the first of his Crises papers, Thomas Paine wrote, “These are the times that try men’s souls. The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of their country.” Written as Paine took part in the Revolutionary Army‘s retreat across New Jersey in 1776, the pamphlet was ordered read to the troops in the Revolutionary encampments.
(HFA, ’96, p.44)(AP, 12/19/97)(HNQ, 9/21/99)

1776 Dec 23, Continental Congress negotiated a war loan of $181,500 from France.
(MC, 12/23/01)
1776 Dec 23, Thomas Paine’s pamphlet, “The American Crisis,” which included the line “These are the times that try men’s souls…” was read out loud by George Washington to the Continental Army.
(ON, 6/2011, p.4)

1776 Dec 25, Gen. George Washington and his troops crossed the Delaware River for a surprise attack against 1,400 Hessian forces at Trenton, N.J.
(AP, 12/25/97)(MC, 12/25/01)

1776 Dec 26, The British suffered a major defeat in the Battle of Trenton during the Revolutionary War. After crossing the Delaware River into New Jersey, George Washington led an attack on Hessian mercenaries and took 900 men prisoner. Two Americans froze to death on the march but none died in battle. There were 30 German casualties, 1,000 prisoners and 6 cannon captured. Four Americans were wounded in the overwhelming American victory, while 22 Hessians were killed and 78 wounded. The surprise attack caught most of the 1,200 Hessian soldiers at Trenton sleeping after a day of Christmas celebration. The Americans captured 918 Hessians, who were taken as prisoners to Philadelphia. The victory was a huge morale booster for the American army and the country. The victory at Trenton was a huge success and morale booster for the American army and people. However, the enlistments of more than 4,500 of Washington’s soldiers were set to end four days later and it was critical that the force remain intact. General George Washington offered a bounty of $10 to any of his soldiers who extended their enlistments six weeks beyond their December 31, 1776, expiration dates. The American Revolution Battle of Trenton saw the routing of 1,400 Hessian mercenaries, with 101 killed or wounded and about 900 taken prisoner, with no Americans killed in the combat. Four Americans were wounded and two had died of exhaustion en route to Trenton.
(AP, 12/26/97)(HN, 12/26/98)(SFC, 12/26/98, p.A3)(HNQ, 3/20/99)(HNQ, 4/11/99)(HNQ, 12/26/99)
1776 Dec 26, Johann Gottlieb Rall, Hessian colonel and mercenary, died in battle of Trenton.
(MC, 12/26/01)

1776 Dec 29, Charles Macintosh, patented waterproof fabric, was born in Scotland.
(MC, 12/29/01)

1776 Augustin Pajou, French sculptor, completed his “Monument to Buffon.”
(WSJ, 3/18/98, p.A20)

1776 Fort Sullivan, outside the town of Charleston, S.C., was built primarily of palmetto logs and sand. Commanded by Colonel William Moultrie–for whom it was later renamed–the partially uncompleted Fort Sullivan on Sullivan’s Island bore the brunt of gunfire from a British naval force when the British tried to invade Charleston on June 28, 1776. The palmetto logs and sand from which the fort was primarily constructed absorbed most of the British shot, while the fort’s defenders managed to inflict disproportionate punishment to the British warships, one of which, the frigate Actaeon, ran hard aground and had to be abandoned and blown up by her crew. The successful defense of Charleston effectively left the Carolinas in the hands of the rebelling Patriots until a new invasion force returned to Charleston in February 1780.
(HNQ, 10/25/01)

1776 Nano Nagle, a wealthy Irish woman, founded the Sisters of Presentation. At this time it was a crime in Ireland for a Catholic to teach or be taught.
(SFC, 11/12/04, p.F11)

1776 A New York tavern keeper mixed a rum and “cocktail.” The name was derived from rooster feathers used as ornaments for glasses.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1776 George Washington ordered his chief of artillery, Henry Knox, to establish an American arsenal to manufacture guns and ammunition for his army. Knox chose Springfield, Mass., on the Connecticut River. The Springfield Armory stayed open 173 years and was closed in 1967, but continues as a museum.
(WSJ, 3/9/95, p.A-16)

1776 Col. George Rogers Clark was charged by the Virginia Assembly to seize the Northwest Territory. By 1778, Clark was in control of the land between Virginia and the Mississippi River—except Fort Sackville.
(HNQ, 7/24/00)

1776 Margaret Corbin, the wife of an artilleryman, was badly wounded while serving in her husband’s gun crew at the Battle of Harlem Heights.
(SFEC,11/23/97, Par p.19)

1776 The first issue of the US $2 bill was 49,000 notes by the Continental Congress as “bills of credit for the defense of America.”
(SFC, 9/14/96, p.A4)

1776 The Quakers of Pennsylvania abolished slavery within the Society of Friends and then took their crusade to society at large by petitioning the state legislature to outlaw the practice.
(AH, 10/02, p.50)

1776 Don Marcos Briones came to San Francisco. His daughter, Juana Briones, was the first settler on Powell St. in North Beach. She was a battered wife and was the first California woman to get a divorce.
(SFC, 5/26/97, p.A11)

1776 Spanish explorers encountered the native Havasupai Indians in Arizona.
(SSFC, 2/19/06, p.F4)

1776 The southernmost of the Bantu peoples, the Xhosa, arrived at the Fish River in South Africa.
(Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.169)

1776 The Russian Bolshoi Theater was founded.
(SFC, 3/29/01, p.A11)

1776 Ike Taiga (b.1723), Japanese painter based in Kyoto, died.
(SFC, 12/8/05, p.E1)

1776 David Hume, Scottish philosopher, died. He was the first prominent European atheist. Hume said “the overriding force in all our actions is… the desire for self-gratification. In order to survive, society has to devise strategies to channel our passions in constructive directions.” “The most unhappy of all men is he who believes himself to be so.”
(WSJ, 5/10/96, p.A-8)(SFC, 3/20/99, p.B4)(WSJ, 12/14/01, p.W14)

1776 The Dutch built a slave house on Goree Island off the coast of Senegal.
(SFC, 7/9/03, p.A10)

1776-1781 During this period Britain sent 60,000 troops to America.
(WSJ, 5/16/96, p.A-12)
1776-1781 It is estimated that 30,000 Hessian soldiers fought for the British during the American Revolution. After Russia refused to provide troops for the war, the German states of Brunswick, Hesse-Cassel, Hesse-Hanau, Waldeck, Anspach-Bayreuth and Anhalt-Zerbst supplied mercenary soldiers, collectively referred to as Hessians. Seven thousand Hessians died in the war and another 5,000 deserted and settled in America. The British paid the German rulers for each soldier sent to North America and an additional sum for each killed.
(HNQ, 3/31/99)
1776-1781 During the Revolutionary War some 100 ships were scuttled in the Elizabeth River in Portsmouth, Virginia, to prevent their capture by the British.
(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.15)

c1776-1781 Molly Corbin manned a cannon during the American Revolution and was wounded. She was cited for bravery and sent to the Invalid Regiment at West Point where she received half the male pay. She was also denied the daily rum ration until her complaints were heard.
(SFEC, 6/4/00, Z1 p.3)

1776-1789 Charles Burney wrote “A General History of Music” that covers this period.
(LGC-HCS, p.36)

1776-1822 E.T.A. Hoffman, German poet and novelist, author of “The Tales of Hoffman.” The ballet “Coppelia” was based on one of his tales.
(Harvard BDM, p.294)(SFC, 11/19/96, p.E1)(WSJ, 6/10/97, p.A16)

1776-1836 The correspondence between Thomas Jefferson and James Madison is documented in “The Republic of Letters” by James Morton Smith in 3 volumes published by Norton 1995. The two men are believed to have met in 1776 in the Virginia House of Delegates.
(WSJ, 2/2/95, p.A-16)

1776-1841 Jane Austin, English author. She wrote “Sense and Sensibility.”
(WSJ, 3/25/96, p.A-1)

1776-1856 Amadeo Avogadro, Italian chemist.

1776-1876 The population of California Native Americans diminished from about 300,000 to 20,000.
(SFC, 5/19/96,City Guide, p.16)

1777 Jan 3, Gen. George Washington’s army routed the British led by Cornwallis in the Battle of Princeton, N.J.
(AP, 1/3/98)(HN, 1/3/99)

1777 Jan 12, Franciscans founded Mission Santa Clara de Asis, the 8th of California’s original 21 missions.
(SFC, 8/19/00, p.A13)(MC, 1/12/02)

1777 Jan 15, The people of New Connecticut, a chunk of upstate New York, declared their independence. The tiny republic became the state of Vermont in 1791.
(AP, 1/15/99)(ST, 3/2/04, p.A1)(Econ., 2/28/15, p.26)

1777 Feb 13, The Marquis de Sade was arrested without charge and imprisoned in Vincennes fortress.
(MC, 2/13/02)

1777 Mar 13, Congress ordered its European envoys to appeal to high-ranking foreign officers to send troops to reinforce the American army.
(HN, 3/13/99)

1777 Mar 31, A young Abigail Adams encouraged her husband John to give women voting privileges in the new American government. She wrote to her husband on this day while he was a delegate to the Constitutional Convention: “I desire you would remember the ladies and be more generous to them than were your ancestors. Do not put such unlimited power into the hands of husbands. Remember all men would be tyrants if they could. If particular care and attention are not paid to the ladies we are determined to foment a rebellion, and will not hold ourselves bound to obey any laws in which we have no voice or representation.” Twenty years later her husband was a candidate in America’s first real election.
(HNPD, 3/30/99)

1777 Mar, The Rev. Patrick Bronte was born on St. Patrick’s Day in County Down, Ireland. He married Maria Branwell of Cornwall in 1812 and they had six children that included the writers Charlotte and Emily. Mrs. Branwell died in 1821 at 38.
(WP, 1952, p.34)

1777 Apr 12, Henry Clay, the “Great Compromiser”, American politician and statesman, was born. He ran unsuccessfully for president three times. [see Apr 22]
(HN, 4/12/99)

1777 Apr 14, NY adopted a new constitution as an independent state. Governeur Morris was the chief writer of the state constitution. [see Apr 20]
(MC, 4/14/02)(WSJ, 5/28/03, p.D8)

1777 Apr 16, New England’s minute men, Green Mountain Boys, routed British regulars at the Battle of Bennington.
(HN, 4/16/98)(MC, 4/16/02)

1777 Apr 20, New York adopted a new constitution as an independent state. [see Apr 14]
(MC, 4/20/02)

1777 Apr 22, Henry Clay, American statesman, the “Great Compromiser,” was born. Henry Clay of Kentucky was a master politician in the era preceding the Civil War. Clay was a lawyer by trade. He began his lengthy political career in the Kentucky legislature and made three unsuccessful bids as the Whig Party’s presidential candidate. [see Apr 12]
(HN, 4/22/98)(HNPD, 6/29/98)

1777 Apr 26, Sybil Ludington (16) rode from NY to Ct rallying her father’s militia.
(MC, 4/26/02)

1777 Apr 30, Karl Friedrich Gauss, German mathematician, was born. He researched infinitesimal calculus, algebra and astronomy. He was also a pioneer in topology and is considered one of the world’s great mathematicians. His methods in World War II helped disarm magnetic mines
(HN, 4/30/99)

1777 May 1, Richard Brinsley Sheridan’s “School for Scandal,” premiered in London with Georgiana Cavendish as Lady Teazle. “Its assumptions are that lust and greed – when allied with beauty and cunning – deserve to triumph over dullness and age.” He also wrote “A Trip to Scarborough,” a rewrite of a Restoration original.
(WSJ,11/24/95, p.A-6)(WSJ, 11/20/98, p.W6)(MC, 5/1/02)

1777 May 12, The 1st ice cream advertisement appeared in the Philip Lenzi NY Gazette.
(MC, 5/12/02)

1777 May 13, University library at Vienna opened.
(MC, 5/13/02)

1777 May 16, Button Gwinnet, US revolutionary leader, died from wounds.
(MC, 5/16/02)

1777 Jun 13, Marquis de Lafayette landed in the United States to assist the colonies in their war against England.
(HN, 6/13/99)

1777 Jun 14, The Continental Congress in Philadelphia adopted the Stars and Stripes, created by Betsy Ross, as the national flag. America’s Flag Day, commemorates the date when John Adams spoke the following words before the Continental Congress in Philadelphia. “Resolved, that the Flag of the thirteen United States shall be thirteen stripes, alternate red and white; that the Union be thirteen stars, white on a blue field, representing a new constellation.” Over the years, there have been 27 versions of the American flag. The present version was adopted on July 4, 1960, when Hawaii became the 50th state. In 2005 Marc Leepson authored “Flag: An American Biography.”
(AP, 6/14/97)(HNQ, 6/14/98)(WSJ, 7/1/05, p.W4)

1777 Jul 1, British troops departed from their base at the Bouquet river to head toward Ticonderoga, New York.
(HN, 7/1/00)

1777 Jul 8, Vermont became the 1st American colony to abolish slavery.

1777 Jul 4, No member of Congress thought about commemorating the adoption of the Declaration of Independence until July 3 – one day too late. So the first organized elaborate celebration of independence occurred the following day: July 4, 1777, in Philadelphia.

1777 Jul 6, British forces under Gen. Burgoyne captured Fort Ticonderoga from the Americans.
(AP, 7/6/97)(MC, 7/6/02)

1777 Jul 7, American troops gave up Fort Ticonderoga, on Lake Champlain, to the British.
(HN, 7/7/98)

1777 Jul 8, The Continental frigate Hancock was captured by the British ships Rainbow and Flora. The prisoners, including cabin-boy John Blatchford, were taken to Halifax.
(ON, 1/00, p.4)

1777 Jul 27, Thomas Campbell, Scottish writer (The Pleasures of Hope), was born.
(HN, 7/27/01)
1777 Jul 27, The Marquis of Lafayette arrived in New England to help the rebellious colonists fight the British.
(HN, 7/27/98)

1777 Jul 31, The Marquis de Lafayette, a 19-year-old French nobleman, was made a major-general in the American Continental Army.
(AP, 7/31/97)

1777 Jul, John Paul Jones was given command of the 20-gun ship Ranger at Portsmouth, New Hampshire. He was then ordered to report to a Secret Committee in Paris, that included Benjamin Franklin.
(ON, 2/04, p.6)

1777 Aug 14, Hans Christian Oersted, Danish scientist, was born. He discovered electromagnetism.
(HN, 8/14/00)

1777 Aug 16, American forces won the Revolutionary War Battle of Bennington, Vt.
(AP, 8/16/97)

1777 Aug 16, France declared a state of bankruptcy.
(HN, 8/16/98)

1777 Aug 22, With the approach of General Benedict Arnold’s army, British Colonel Barry St. Ledger abandoned Fort Stanwix and returns to Canada.
(HN, 8/22/98)

1777 Sep 3, The American flag (stars & stripes), approved by Congress on June 14th, was carried into battle for the first time by a force under General William Maxwell.
(HN, 9/3/00)

1777 Sep 11, General George Washington and his troops were defeated by the British under General Sir William Howe at the Battle of Brandywine in Pennsylvania. Posing as a gunsmith, British Sergeant John Howe served as General Gage’s eyes in a restive Massachusetts colony.
(HN, 9/11/98)

1777 Sep 16, Nathan Rothschild (d.1836), banker, was born in Frankfurt. He was the son of Mayer Rothschild (1744-1812), who rose from the Frankfurt ghetto to become the banker to Prince William of Prussia. Nathan worked in London as a banker and invested Prussian money in the Napoleonic Wars and smuggled it to Wellington in Spain. He was the first to hear news from Waterloo and sold stock to convince other investors that the British had lost. His agents bought the stock at low prices. His 4 brothers established banks in Vienna, Naples and Paris.
(WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R18)(www.rothschildarchive.org/ib/?doc=/ib/articles/BW3bNathan)y

1777 Sep 19, During the Revolutionary War, American soldiers won the first Battle of Saratoga, aka Battle of Freeman’s Farm (Bemis Heights). American forces under Gen. Horatio Gates met British troops led by Gen. John Burgoyne at Saratoga Springs, NY.
(AP, 9/19/97)(www.americanrevolution.com/BattleofSaratoga.htm)

1777 Sep 20, British Dragoons massacred sleeping Continental troops at Paoli, Pa. Prior to launching a surprise night attack on Anthony Wayne’s Continental division at Paoli, General Charles Grey ordered his troops to rely entirely on their bayonets. To ensure that his troops obeyed, he had his men remove the flints from their weapons so they could not be fired.
(MC, 9/20/01)(HNQ, 8/19/02)

1777 Sep 26, The British army launched a major offensive during the American Revolution, capturing Philadelphia.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philadelphia_campaign)(AP, 9/26/97)

1777 Sep 30, The Congress of the United States, forced to flee in the face of advancing British forces, moved to York, Pennsylvania.
(AP, 9/30/00)

1777 Oct 4, George Washington’s troops launched an assault on the British at Germantown, Penn., resulting in heavy American casualties. British General Sir William Howe repelled Washington’s last attempt to retake Philadelphia, compelling Washington to spend the winter at Valley Forge.
(AP, 10/4/97)(HN, 10/4/98)

1777 Oct 7, The second Battle of Saratoga began during the American Revolution. During the battle General Benedict Arnold was shot in the leg. Another bullet killed his horse, which fell on Arnold, crushing his leg. The “Boot Monument” sits close to the spot where Arnold was wounded, and is a tribute to the general’s heroic deeds during that battle. Although Arnold’s accomplishments are described on the monument, it pointedly avoids naming the man best known for betraying his country. The British forces, under Gen. John Burgoyne, surrendered 10 days later.
(AP, 10/7/97)(HNQ, 7/20/01)
1777 Oct 7, Simon Fraser, English general, died in the battle of Saratoga, NY.

1777 Oct 15, Tory Maj. James Graves Simcoe was appointed commandant of Queen’s Rangers to combat American rebels.
(MC, 10/15/01)

1777 Oct 17, General John Burgoyne with British forces of 5,000 men surrendered to General Horatio Gates, commander of the American forces at Schuylerville, NY. In the fall of 1777, the British commander Gen’l. Burgoyne and his men were advancing along the Hudson River. After Burgoyne had retreated to the heights of Saratoga, the Americans stopped and surrounded them. The surrender was a turning point in the American Revolution, demonstrating American determination to gain independence. After the surrender, France sided with the Americans, and other countries began to get involved and align themselves against Britain.
(AP, 10/17/97)(HN, 10/17/98)(HNPD, 10/17/99)(SSFC, 6/30/02, p.C10)

1777 Nov 15, The Continental Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation in York, Pa. These instituted the perpetual union of the United States of America and served as a precursor to the U.S. Constitution. The structure of the Constitution was inspired by the Iroquois Confederacy of six major northeastern tribes. The matrilineal society of the Iroquois later inspired the suffragist movement.
(PCh, 1992, p.325)(AP, 11/15/97)(SFEC, 4/19/98, BR p.2)(HN, 11/15/98)

1777 Nov 30, San Jose, California, was founded by the Spanish as El Pueblo de San Jose de Guadeloupe, California’s first town.
(SFEC, 7/11/99, BR p.1)(SFC, 9/2/99, p.A12)(SFC, 11/30/07, p.B4)
1777 Nov 30, Jean-Marie Leclair (74), composer, died.
(MC, 11/30/01)

1777 Dec 2, British officers under Gen. Howe met in the Philadelphia home of Lydia Darragh to discuss plans to the attack American forces on December 5, just prior to Gen. Washington’s planned move to Valley Forge. Mrs. Darragh listened in on the plans and sent word to Whitemarsh of the impending attack.
(ON, 8/07, p.8)

1777 Dec 8, Britain’s Gen. Howe withdrew to Philadelphia following a failed attempt on American forces encamped at Whitemarsh.
(ON, 8/07, p.8)
1777 Dec 8, Captain Cook left the Society Islands (French Polynesia).
(MC, 12/8/01)

1777 Dec 12, Rev. Benjamin Russen was hanged at Tyburn, England, for rape.
(MC, 12/12/01)

1777 Dec 17, France recognized American independence.
(AP, 12/17/97)

1777 Dec 18, The 1st America Thanksgiving Day commemorated Burgoyne’s surrender at Saratoga. A national Thanksgiving was declared by Congress after the American victory over the British at the Battle of Saratoga in December 1777. For many years Thanksgiving celebrations were haphazard with Presidents Washington, Adams and Madison declaring occasional national festivities.
(HNPD, 11/26/98)(MC, 12/18/01)

1777 Dec 19, Gen. George Washington led his army of about 11,000 men to Valley Forge, Pa., to camp for the winter. [see Dec 17]
(AP, 12/19/97)

1777 Dec 23, Alexander I, Czar of Russia, was born.
(HN, 12/23/98)

1777 Dec, Moroccan sultan Muhammad III included the United States of America in a list of countries to which Morocco’s ports were open. Morocco thus became the first country whose head of state publicly recognized the new United States.

1777 Jean-Baptiste Greuze painted a portrait of Benjamin Franklin.
(WSJ, 8/26/97, p.A14)

1777 The Acagchemem Indians built a small adobe church at Mission San Juan Capistrano. It’s been renamed the Serra Chapel and is the oldest building still in use in California. In 1791 a bell tower was completed.
(HT, 3/97, p.60)(http://gocalifornia.about.com/cs/missioncalifornia/a/capistranohist.htm)

1777 George Washington wrote a letter offering Nathaniel Sackett $50 a month to set up an intelligence network.
(SFC, 7/17/02, p.A3)
1777 George Washington led a campaign against the British and their Iroquois allies in Pennsylvania, New York, and the Ohio country. These included the Six Nations Indians: Mohawk, Cayuga, Onondaga, Seneca, Oneida, and Tuscarora. In 2005 Glenn F. Williams published “The Year of the Hangman: George Washington’s Campaign Against the Iroquois.
(WSJ, 7/26/05, p.D8)
1777 Thomas Jefferson (34), US President (1801-1809), drafted Virginia’s Statute for Religious Freedom. It was passed by Virginia’s General Assembly in 1786.

1777 In San Francisco an Ohlone man name Chamis (20) became the first adult Indian to be baptized at Mission Dolores.
(SFC, 11/2/19, p.C4)

1777 The circular saw was invented.
(SFC, 7/14/99, p.4)

1777 Captain James Cook, while exploring the Pacific, reported on long-board surfers in Tahiti and Oahu and observed that the sport appeared recreational rather than competitive.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1777 Marie Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, the Marquis de Lafayette, arrived in the US in his own boat and offered his services to Gen’l. George Washington.
(WSJ, 1/15/97, p.A12)

1777 An Italian scientist became the 1st to identify a certain eel as female. In 1882 another scientist figured out how to identify a male eel.
(SFC, 7/22/00, p.E4)

1777 In England Charles Hall founded a brewery in Dorset. In 1847 the Woodhouses married into the family and it became the Hall & Woodhouse brewery.
(Econ, 5/10/14, SR p.3)

1777 Stavropol was founded in south-western Russia during the Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774 as a military encampment. In 1785 it was designated as a city.

1777-1778 Some 2,000 American soldiers died at Washington’s Valley Forge encampment in Penn. over a harsh weather period of 7 months.
(WSJ, 1/3/02, p.A7)

1777-1787 Juan Bautista de Anza served as the governor of New Mexico.
(SFC, 6/7/00, p.A15)

1777 Vermont including the town of Killington declared independence from New York and New Hampshire. It became a country unto itself, coined its own money, set up its own postal service and elected its own president. The Republic of Vermont stayed independent until 1791.
(SFEC, 4/2/00, p.A6)(ST, 3/2/04, p.A5)

1777-1810 Phillip Otto Runge, German artist.
(WSJ, 7/16/98, p.A16)

1777-1811 Heinrich von Kleist, writer. His work included “St. Cecilia or The Power of Music.”
(SFC, 2/19/96, p.E1)

1777-1851 Hans Christian Ursted (Oersted), Danish physicist.
(AHD, 1971, p.911)

1778 Jan 10, Carolus Linnaeus [Carl von Linné, b.1707], Swedish botanist, died. His system for classifying living organisms in a hierarchy placed kingdoms at the top and species at the bottom.
(HN, 5/23/01)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carolus_Linnaeus)

1778 Jan 18, English navigator Captain James Cook discovered the Hawaiian Islands, which he dubbed the “Sandwich Islands” after the First Lord of the Admiralty, Lord Sandwich. About 350,000 Hawaiians inhabited them. Cook first landed on Kauai and then Niihau where his men introduced venereal disease.
(Wired, 8/95, p.90)(AP, 1/18/98)(HN, 1/18/99)

1778 Jan 27, Nicolo Piccinni’s (1728-1800) opera “Roland” premiered in Paris.
(WUD, 1994 p.1088)(MC, 1/27/02)

1778 Feb 6, The United States won official recognition from France as the nations signed a treaty of aid in Paris. The Franco-American Treaty of Alliance bound the 2 powers together “forever against all other powers.” It was the first alliance treaty for the fledgling US government and the last until the 1949 NATO pact. Benjamin Franklin signed for the US.
(WSJ, 6/17/96, p.A15)(AP, 2/6/97)(AH, 2/06, p.59)
1778 Feb 6, England declared war on France.
(MC, 2/6/02)

1778 Feb 13, Fernando Sor, composer, was born.
(MC, 2/13/02)

1778 Feb 14, The American ship Ranger carried the recently adopted Star and Stripes to a foreign port for the first time as it arrived in France.
(AP, 2/14/98)

1778 Feb 22, Rembrandt Peale, American painter who painted excellent portraits of the founding fathers of the United States, was born.
(HN, 2/22/99)

1778 Feb 23, Baron von Steuben joined the Continental Army at Valley Forge.
(HN, 2/23/98)

1778 Feb 25, Jose Francisco de San Martin (d.1850) was born in Argentina. He liberated Argentina, Chile and Peru. Protector of Peru (1821-1822).
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jos%C3%A9_de_San_Mart%C3%ADn)(ON, 10/09, p.8)

1778 Feb 28, Rhode Island General Assembly authorized the enlistment of slaves.
(MC, 2/28/02)

1778 Mar 5, Thomas A. Arne (67), English composer (Alfred, Rule Britannia), died.
(MC, 3/5/02)

1778 Mar 7, Capt. James Cook 1st sighted the Oregon coast and named Perpetua Cape in honor of St. Perpetua’s Day.
(SSFC, 9/21/08, p.E7)

1778 Mar 15, In command of two frigates, the Frenchman la Perouse sailed east from Botany Bay for the last lap of his voyage around the world.
(HN, 3/15/99)

1778 Mar 15, Nootka Sound, Vancouver Island, was discovered by Captain Cook.
(HN, 3/15/98)(MC, 3/15/02)

1778 Mar 22, Captain Cook sighted Cape Flattery in Washington state.
(MC, 3/22/02)

1778 Apr 1, Oliver Pollock, a New Orleans businessman, created the “$” symbol.
(HN, 4/1/98)(OTD)

1778 Apr 10, William Hazlitt (d.1830), essayist, critic, was born in Maidstone, Kent, England.
(AP, 11/10/99)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Hazlitt)

1778 Apr 18, John Paul Jones attacked the British revenue cutter Husar near the Isle of Man, but it escaped. Soon thereafter he raided Whitehaven and burned one coal ship.
(ON, 2/04, p.6)

1778 Apr 22, James Hargreaves, inventor (spinning jenny), died.
(MC, 4/22/02)

1778 Apr 23, US Captain John Paul Jones attempted to kidnap the Earl of Selkirk, but he only got Lady Selkirk’s silverware.
(ON, 2/04, p.6)

1778 Apr 24, US Ranger Captain John Paul Jones captured the British ship Drake.
(ON, 2/04, p.6)(Internet)

1778 May 11, William Pitt Sr. (69), English premier (1756-61, 66-68), died.
(MC, 5/11/02)

1778 May 30, Voltaire (b.1694), French writer born as Francois-Marie Arouet, died. His books included Candide (1759).

1778 Jun 7, George Byran “Beau” Brummell (d.1840), English wit, was born. He influenced men’s fashion and introduced trouser to replace breeches.
(HN, 6/7/99)

1778 Jun 18, American forces entered Philadelphia as the British withdrew during the Revolutionary War.
(AP, 6/18/97)(HN, 6/18/98)

1778 Jun 19, General George Washington’s troops finally left Valley Forge after a winter of training. Washington left to intercept the British force on its way to New York City.
(HN, 6/19/98)(MC, 6/20/02)

1778 Jun 27, The Liberty Bell came home to Philadelphia after the British left.
(MC, 6/27/02)

1778 Jun 28, “Molly Pitcher,” Mary Ludwig Hays McCauley, wife of an American artilleryman, carried water to the soldiers during the Revolutionary War Battle of Monmouth, N.J. and, supposedly, took her husband’s place at his cannon after he was overcome with heat. Temperatures reportedly reached 96 degrees in the shade. According to myth she was presented to General George Washington after the battle. Her actual existence is a matter of historical debate and the outcome of the battle was inconclusive.
(SFEC,11/23/97, Par p.19)(HNQ, 7/25/99)(AP, 6/28/08)(SSFC, 6/28/09, p.B12)

1778 Jun, George Washington appointed Benedict Arnold as military governor of Philadelphia.
(ON, 11/01, p.1)

1778 Jul 2, Jean-Jacques Rousseau (b.1712), Swiss-born writer and philosopher, died in France. He was considered part of the French Enlightenment along with Voltaire and Diderot. In 2005 Leo Damrosch authored “Jean-Jacques Rousseau: Restless Genius.”
(www.infed.org/thinkers/et-rous.htm)(WSJ, 6/7/00, p.A24)

1778 Jul 3, The Wyoming Massacre occurred during the American Revolution in the Wyoming Valley of Pennsylvania. As part of a British campaign against settlers in the frontier during the war, 360 American settlers, including women and children, were killed at an outpost called Wintermoot’s Fort after they were drawn out of the protection of the fort and ambushed.
(HNQ, 11/5/98)(MC, 7/3/02)

1778 Jul 8, George Washington headquartered his Continental Army at West Point.
(MC, 7/8/02)

1778 Jul 10, In support of the American Revolution, Louis XVI declared war on England.
(HN, 7/10/98)

1778 Jul 27, British and French fleets fought to a standoff in the first Battle of Ushant.
(HN, 7/27/98)

1778 Jul, In Indiana American Captain Leonard Helm occupied Fort Sackville, formerly named Fort Vincennes, the British having withdrawn to Detroit.

1778 Aug 3, In Milan the Teatro alla Scala, originally known as the Nuovo Regio Ducale Teatro alla Scala (New Royal-Ducal Theatre alla Scala), was inaugurated. It was built by Giuseppe Piermarini in neo-Classical style.

1778 Aug 9, Captain Cook reached Cape Prince of Wales in the Bering straits.
(MC, 8/9/02)

1778 Aug 14, Augustus Montague Toplady (b.1740), English Calvinist hymn writer (Rock of Ages), died. His best prose work is the “Historic Proof of the Doctrinal Calvinism of the Church of England” (London, 1774).
(MC, 8/14/02)(Wikipedia)

1778 Aug 20, Bernardo O’Higgins was born in Chile. He later won independence for Chile.
(MC, 8/20/02)

1778 Aug 31, British killed 17 Stockbridge Indians in Bronx during Revolution.
(MC, 8/31/01)

1778 Sep 3, Jean Nicolas Auguste Kreutzer, composer, was born.
(MC, 9/3/01)

1778 Sep 5, Gideon Olmstead and 3 fellow Americans took over the British sloop Active and sailed it toward the New Jersey coast, where it was intercepted by the American brig Convention, owned by the state of Pennsylvania. A state court ruled the sloop a prize of the state. An appeals committee overturned the Philadelphia court. Olmstead spent the next 30 years fighting for his claim and won in 1808. [see Mar 6, 1779]
(ON, 12/01, p.9)

1778 Sep 7, Shawnee Indians attacked and laid siege to Boonesborough, Kentucky.
(HN, 9/7/98)

1778 Sep 17, The 1st treaty between the US and Indian tribes was signed at Fort Pitt.
(MC, 9/17/01)

1778 Oct 3, Capt. Cook anchored off Alaska.
(MC, 10/3/01)

1778 Nov 9, Giovanni Battista Piranesi (58), Italian etcher, died.
(MC, 11/9/01)

1778 Nov 11, British redcoats, Tory rangers and Seneca Indians in central New York state killed more than 40 people in the Cherry Valley Massacre. A regiment of 800 Tory rangers under Butler (1752-1781) and 500 Native forces under the Mohawk war chief Joseph Brant (1742-1807), fell upon the settlement, killing 47, including 32 noncombatants, mostly by tomahawk.
(www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Cherry-Valley-Massacre)(AP, 11/11/07)

1778 Nov 14, Johann Nepomuk Hummel, composer, was born.
(MC, 11/14/01)

1778 Nov 26, Captain Cook discovered Maui in the Sandwich Islands, later named Hawaii.
(MC, 11/26/01)

1778 Nov 27, John Murray, publisher, was born.
(MC, 11/27/01)

1778 Dec 17, Humphrey Davy (d.1829), English chemist who discovered the anesthetic effect of laughing gas (1799), was born.
(HN, 12/17/98)(Dr, 7/17/01, p.2)(ON, 12/01, p.7)
1778 Dec 17, The British—under Lt. Col. Henry Hamilton—returned and recaptured Fort Sackville (near Vincennes, Indiana).
(HNQ, 7/24/00)

1778 Dec 26, Juan Lovera, artist, was born: ‘artist of independence’: originator of Venezuelan historical painting: paintings commemorate Venezuela’s independence dates.

1778 Dec 29, British troops, attempting a new strategy to defeat the colonials in America, captured Savannah, the capital of Georgia.
(HN, 12/29/98)

1778 John Singleton Copley, American artist, painted “Watson and the Shark.” The work was based on a real life incident from 1749 in Cuba’s Havana Harbor, where Brook Watson (14) lost half a leg to a shark. Watson went on to become the Lord Mayor of London.
(WSJ, 4/9/99, p.W16)

1778 Thomas West, a Jesuit priest (c.1720-1779), wrote the “Guide to the Lakes,” the first guidebook to the Lake District of England.
(Econ, 4/3/10, p.88)(http://tinyurl.com/y4prxbr)

1778 Federalists won over anti-Federalists in a crucial New York state ratifying convention for the Constitution.
(WSJ, 6/10/98, p.A18)

1778 In the winter of 1778, American troops stationed at West Point on the Hudson River nicknamed the place “Point Purgatory.” Now the site of the famous military academy, during the Revolutionary War West Point was a strategic highland on the Hudson. Both the British and the Americans considered it very important for controlling the vital Hudson.
(HNQ, 5/29/00)

1778 British troops ordered ships in Newport Harbor, R.I., to be sunk as French naval forces approached.
(SFC, 3/12/99, p.A9)

1778 Benjamin Franklin, on a diplomatic mission in France, approved a plan by John Paul Jones to disrupt British merchant shipping along Britain’s undefended west coast.
(ON, 2/04, p.6)

1778 Ethan Allen, the hero of Ticonderoga, was released from prison in England as part of a prisoner exchange.
(ON, 3/00, p.6)

1778 In New York City Robert Edwards, a Welsh buccaneer, or his son supposedly leased 77 acres of prime land to Trinity Church on a 99-year lease. The land later included what became Wall street. The land was supposed to revert to his descendants but that didn’t happen. The case was to go to court in 1999.
(SFEC, 1/10/99, p.A13)
1778 Benjamin Tallmadge, under orders from George Washington, organized a spy network in NYC, the heart of the British forces. The code name for the group was Samuel Culper and it became known as the Culper Gang.
(MT, Fall/99, p.6)

1778 A census in Argentina showed that about 30% of the 24,363 residents of Buenos Aires were African.
(SSFC, 11/27/05, p.A24)

1778 Juan Bautista de Anza led a punitive expedition across new Mexico and Colorado against the Comanches. His forces cornered and killed Comanche Chief Cuerno Verde and other leaders at what later became Rye, Colo.
(SFC, 6/7/00, p.A15)

1778 The king of the Big Island of Hawaii sent his warrior-general Kamehameha to Lana’i, under the rule of Maui, after being thwarted in a bid to conquer Maui. Kamehameha’s troops destroyed everyone on the island, which event gave the island its name. Lana’i means “day of conquest.”
(SFEM, 10/13/96, p.24)

1778 Joshua Spoontree was murdered by three ruffians hired by his wife.
(LSA., Fall 1995, p.21)

1778 In England the Catholic Relief Act was enacted. It inspired London riots in Jun 1780.
(HNQ, 2/24/99)
1778 Botanist Joseph Banks (1743-1820) became president of the British Royal Society. He had accompanied Capt. Cook to catalog plants and animals of Australia and New Zealand on the 3-year journey (1768-1771).
(Econ, 7/11/09, p.87)(www.nndb.com/people/077/000100774/)

1878 A repressive general of the Russian Czar was shot and wounded by revolutionary Vera Zasulich. She was able to talk a jury into acquitting her. Oscar Wilde’s first play, “Vera” (1883), was inspired by her actions.
(SFC, 9/24/08, p.E1)

1778 King Carlos III of Spain sent Spanish settlers from the Canary Islands to Louisiana. They settled in St. Bernard Parish and became known as Islenos or Spanish Cajuns.
(SFC, 9/4/00, p.B2)

1778-1781 Under the Treaty of Commerce and Friendship, France aided the American revolutionaries. Some 44,000 French troops served during the American War of Independence.
(AP, 5/3/03)

1778-1788 John Adams began a series of numerous missions to Europe. He was the first American ambassador to the court of St. James. Adams was able to negotiate a treaty with the Dutch government and secured a loan of $2 million. He also arranged a secret treaty with Brittain that recognized American territorial rights in the Mississippi Valley.
(A&IP, Miers, p.20)(WSJ, 12/22/98, p.A16)

1778-1829 Sir Humphrey Davy, British chemist. He discovered 12 chemical elements.
(AHD, 1971 p.337)

1779 Jan 5, Stephen Decatur (d.1820), U.S. naval hero during actions against the Barbary pirates and the War of 1812, was born. [see 1820 Decatur-Barron duel]
(HFA, ’96, p.26)(HN, 1/5/99)
1779 Jan 5, Zebulon Montgomery Pike, explorer, (Pike’s Peak), was born.
(MC, 1/5/02)

1779 Feb 14, American Loyalists were defeated by Patriots at Kettle Creek, Ga.
(HN, 2/14/98)

1779 Jan 18, Peter Roget, thesaurus fame, inventor (slide rule, pocket chessboard), was born.
(MC, 1/18/02)

1779 Feb 7, William Boyce (67), composer, died. [see Feb 16]
(MC, 2/7/02)

1779 Feb 10, A shootout at Carr’s Fort in Georgia turned back men sent to Wilkes County to recruit colonists loyal to the British army. In 2012 archeologists located the site.
(AP, 5/6/13)

1779 Feb 14, Captain James Cook (b.1728), English explorer, was killed on the Big Island in Hawaii. In 2002 Tony Horwitz authored “Blue Latitudes,” and Vanessa Collingridge authored “Captain Cook: A Legacy Under Fire.”
(WSJ, 10/2/02, p.D12)(www.royal-navy.mod.uk/static/pages/3521.html)

1779 Feb 16, William Boyce, English organist, composer (Cathedral Music), died. [see Feb 7]
(MC, 2/16/02)

1779 Feb 25, Fort Sackville, originally named Fort Vincennes, was captured by Colonel George Rogers Clark in 1779. Col. Clark led a force of some 170 men from Kaskaskia to lay siege to Fort Sackville in January, and received Hamilton‘s surrender on February 25. With the surrender of Fort Sackville, American forces gained effective control of the Old Northwest, thereby affecting the outcome of the Revolutionary War. The fort, which Clark described as “a wretched stockade, surrounded by a dozen wretched cabins called houses,” was located near present-day Vincennes, Indiana.
(HNQ, 7/24/00)(AP, 2/25/08)

1779 Mar 6, The US Congress declared that only the federal government, and not individual states, had the power to determine the legality of captures on the high seas. This was the basis for the 1st test case of the US Constitution in 1808.
(ON, 12/01, p.9)

1779 Mar 31, Russia and Turkey signed a treaty by which they promised to take no military action in the Crimea.
(HN, 3/31/99)

1779 Apr 24, Mr. H. Sykes, an English optician living in Paris, wrote to Ben Franklin and explained a delay in sending an order for special spectacles, complaining that he was having difficulty making them. Franklin is believed to have ordered his first pair of bifocals from Sykes.

1779 May 13, War of Bavarian Succession ended.
(SS, Internet, 5/13/97)

1779 May 23, Benedict Arnold, military governor of Philadelphia, wrote a query to the British asking what they would pay for his services. He had already begun trading with the British for personal profit and faced charges.
(ON, 11/01, p.1)

1779 May 25, Henry M. Baron de Kock, Dutch officer, politician, was born.
(SC, 5/25/02)

1779 May 28, Thomas Moore, Irish poet, was born.
(HN, 5/28/01)

1779 Jun 16, Spain, in support of the US, declared war on England.
(MC, 6/16/02)
1779 Jun 16, Vice-Admiral Hardy sailed out of Isle of Wight against the Spanish fleet.
(MC, 6/16/02)

1779 Jun 18, French fleet occupied St Vincent.
(MC, 6/18/02)

1779 Jul 4, A French fleet occupied Grenada.

1779 Jul 10, Alois Basil Nikolaus Tomasini, composer, was born.
(MC, 7/10/02)

1779 Jul 15, Clement Moore, founder of the General Theological Seminary in New York City, was born.
(HN, 7/15/98)

1779 Jul 16, American troops under General Anthony Wayne, aka Mad Anthony Wayne, captured Stony Point, NY, with a loss to the British of more than 600 killed or captured.
(HN, 7/16/98)(http://hhr.highlands.com/stpt.htm)

1779 Jul 24, The Siege of Gibraltar by the Spanish and French was begun. British Gen. George Eliott led the 5,000 man Gibraltar garrison. The siege was finally lifted on Feb 7, 1783. In 1965 T.H. McGuffie authored “The Siege of Gibraltar, 1779-1783).
(HN, 2/7/99)(ON, 7/01, p.8)

1779 Aug 1, Francis Scott Key, author of the “Star Spangled Banner,” was born.
(HN, 8/1/98)

1779 Aug 7, Carl Ritter, cofounder of modern science of geography, was born in Quedlinberg, Prussia.
(MC, 8/7/02)

1779 Aug 19, Americans under Major Henry Lee took the British garrison at Paulus Hook, New Jersey.
(HN, 8/19/98)

1779 Sep 2, Louis Napoleon Bonaparte (d.1844), French king of the Netherlands (1806-10), was born in Corsica. He was one of 3 younger brothers of Napoleon I.

1779 Sep 10, Louis Alexandre Piccinni, composer, was born.
(MC, 9/10/01)

1779 Sep 13, Frederick II of Prussia issued a manifesto in which he bemoaned the increased use of coffee and called for more consumption of beer.
(SFC, 1/30/99, p.D3)

1779 Sep 23, During the Revolutionary War, the American navy under John Paul Jones, commanding from Bonhomie Richard, defeated and captured the British man-of-war Serapis. An American attack on a British convoy pitted the British frigate HMS Serapis against the American Bon Homme Richard. The American ship was commanded by Scotsman John Paul Jones, who chose to name the ship after Benjamin Franklin’s “Poor Richard’s Almanack.” Fierce fighting ensued, and when Richard began to sink, Serapis commander Richard Pearson called over to ask if Richard would surrender and Jones responded, “I have not yet begun to fight!”–a response that would become a slogan of the U.S. Navy. Pearson surrendered and Jones took control of Serapis. The Bonhomie Richard sank 2 days after the battle. In 1959 the film Jean Paul Jones starred Robert Stack.
(TVM, 1975, p.294)(AP, 9/23/97)(HN, 9/23/98)(HNPD, 9/23/98)(Arch, 9/02, p.17)

1779 Sep 27, John Adams was named to negotiate the Revolutionary War’s peace terms with Britain.
(AP, 9/27/97)

1779 Oct 9, The Luddite riots being in Manchester, England in reaction to machinery for spinning cotton.
(HN, 10/9/00)

1779 Oct 11, Polish nobleman General Casimir Pulaski died two days after being mortally wounded while fighting for American independence during the Revolutionary War Battle of Savannah, Ga. Brig. Gen. Casimir Pulaski had come to America in 1777. In 2005 an attempt to confirm his remains using DNA was inconclusive.
(AH, 10/04, p.15)(AP, 6/24/05)(AP, 10/11/07)

1779 Dec 25, A court-martial was convened against Benedict Arnold. He defended himself successfully on 6 of 8 charges but was convicted of illegally issuing a government pass and using government wagons to transport personal goods.
(ON, 11/01, p.2)

1779 Nov 4, John W. Pieneman, historical painter (Battle at Waterloo), was born.
(MC, 11/4/01)

1779 Nov 12, A group of 20 slaves who had fought in the war submitted a petition to the New Hampshire General Assembly, while the war was still being fought. Lawmakers decided the time was not right. 6 of the slaves were later freed. In 2013 a state Senate committee recommended that the state posthumously emancipate 14 of the slaves who died in bondage. On June 7, 2013, they were granted posthumous emancipation when Gov. Maggie Hassan signed a largely symbolic bill that supporters hope will encourage future generations to pursue social justice.
(SFC, 3/7/13, p.A5)(AP, 6/7/13)

1779 Nov 13, Thomas Chippendale (61), English furniture maker, died.
(MC, 11/13/01)

1779 Dec 6, Jean Baptiste Simeon Chardin (b.1699), French painter, died.

1779 Dec 19, Auguste-Gaspard-Louis Desnoyers, engraver, was born in Paris, France.
(MC, 12/19/01)

1779 Dec 23, Benedict Arnold was court-martialed for improper conduct. He followed the time-honored military tradition of using government carts to transport his personal items. He was routinely sentenced to be censured by Gen. Washington- a formality which the thin-skinned Arnold took personally, ultimately leading him to switch allegiance to the British cause.
(MC, 12/23/01)

1779 Frances Trollope was born the daughter of a clergyman and raised near Bristol. She produced 35 novels and 5 travel books. In 1998 Pamela Neville-Sington wrote the biography “Fanny Trollope: The Life and Adventures of a Clever Woman.”
(WSJ, 12/11/98, p.W10)

1779 Charles Willson Peale (1741-1827) painted the portrait “George Washington at Princeton.” In 2006 it was auctioned for a $21.3 million, a record price for an American portrait.
(SFC, 1/11/06, p.G2)(SSFC, 1/22/06, p.A3)

1779 Richard Samuel (d.1787), British painter, sent the Royal Academy exhibition his “Nine Living Muses of Great Britain.” The 1778 painting featured a group of female writers and artists that included the Swiss-Austrian painter Angelica Kauffman (1741-1807).
(Econ, 3/22/08, p.97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angelica_Kauffmann)

1779 The captured journal of British officer Henry De Berniere was published by John Gill, member of the Sons of Liberty. Gill had printed many anti-British pamphlets including the rebel newspaper Boston Gazette.
(AH, 10/01, p.56)

1779 The play “Nathan der Weise” (Nathan the Wise) by Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, German playwright, was 1st produced. It is set in Jerusalem in 1193 and shows a humane Jewish merchant, Nathan, spreading benevolence and reconciliation among local Muslims and Christians. Nathan tells Saladin a story: “My council is: Accept the matter wholly as it stands …Let each one believe his ring to be the true one.”
(WSJ,11/24/95, p.A-6)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R55)(WSJ, 1/4/02, p.A11)

1779 Richard Brinsley Sheridan wrote his play “The Critic.” It was a rewrite of a Restoration original.
(WSJ, 11/20/98, p.W6)

1779 Ethan Allen authored “A Narrative of Ethan Allen’s Captivity.”
(ON, 3/00, p.6)

1779 The Gluck opera “Iphigenie en Tauride” was composed.
(WSJ, 8/12/97, p.A12)

1779 There were 21 regiments of loyalists in the British army estimated at 6500-8000 men. Washington reported a field army of 3468 men.
(SFEC,11/23/97, Par p.19)

1779 Thomas Jefferson (36), US President (1801-1809), was elected as the 2nd Governor of Virginia succeeding Patrick Henry. Jefferson served for 2 years with James Madison (28) in his cabinet.
(www.monticello.org/site/jefferson/timeline-jeffersons-life)(WSJ, 2/2/95, p.A-16)

1779 John Adams drafted most of the Massachusetts state constitution.
(WSJ, 12/22/98, p.A16)

1779 Samuel Crompton invented the spinning mule, so called because it is a hybrid of Arkwright’s water frame and James Hargreaves’ spinning jenny in the same way that mule is the product of crossbreeding a female horse with a male donkey.

1779 The British adopted a strategy to seize parts of Maine, especially around Penobscot Bay, and make it a new colony to be called “New Ireland.” In July a British naval and military force under the command of General Francis McLean sailed into the harbor of Castine, Maine, landed troops, and took control of the village. After peace was signed in 1783, the New Ireland proposal was abandoned.
{Maine, USA, Britain, Canada}

1779 The Italian grappa distillery, Ditta Bortolo Nardini, was founded.
(Econ, 12/18/04, p.104)

1779 Catherine the Great of Russia bought 204 works of art from the collection of Sir Robert Walpole (d.1745) from Walpole’s grandson. The sale was brokered by pioneering auctioneer James Christie. In 1789 the Picture Gallery at Walpole’s Houghton estate was destroyed by fire.
(WSJ, 1/04/00, p.A16)(Econ, 5/18/13, p.89)(Econ, 9/28/13, p.63)

1779-1780 In Russia the Molokans split from the Doukhobors because they thought that the Doukhobors neglected the Bible in their belief that God had placed the Word directly into their hearts. The first recorded use of the term “Molokan” appears in the 1670s, in reference to the people who had the practice of drinking milk on the 200 fasting days stipulated by the Orthodox Church.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molokan)(SSFC, 3/17/19, p.A2)

1780-1789 xxxx

1780 Jan 2, A blizzard hit Washington’s army at the Morristown, NJ, winter encampment.
(AH, 2/05, p.16)
1780 Jan 2, Johann Ludwig Krebs (b.1713), German composer, died.

1780 Feb 9, Walenty Karol Kratzer, composer, was born.
(MC, 2/9/02)

1780 Feb 14, William Blackstone (56), English lawyer, died.
(MC, 2/14/02)

1780 Mar 1, Pennsylvania became the first U.S. state to abolish slavery (for new-borns only). It was followed by Connecticut and Rhode Island in 1784, New York in 1785, and New Jersey in 1786. Massachusetts abolished slavery through a judicial decision in 1783 (see July 8 1777).

1780 Mar 17, Thomas Chalmers, 1st moderator (Free Church of Scotland 1843-47), was born.
(MC, 3/17/02)

1780 Mar 21, The Marquis de Lafayette set sail for the US aboard the Hermione after persuading French King Louis XVI to provide military and financial aid to support George Washington’s troops.
(SSFC, 4/19/15, p.A2)

1780 Mar 26, The 1st British Sunday newspaper appeared as the British Gazette and Sunday Monitor.
(SS, 3/26/02)

1780 Mar 27, August L. Crelle, German inventor, mathematician (1st Prussian Railway), was born.
(MC, 3/27/02)

1780 Apr 4, Edward Hicks (d.1849), Quaker preacher and painter, was born. His work included over 60 paintings that were all titled “The Peaceable Kingdom.’
(WSJ, 11/16/99, p.A28)(SFC, 9/25/00, p.F1)(HN, 4/4/01)

1780 Apr, George Washington censured Benedict Arnold for his misdeeds as governor of Philadelphia.
(ON, 11/01, p.2)

1780 May 4, American Academy of Arts & Science was founded.
(MC, 5/4/02)

1780 May 12, Charleston, SC, fell to the British in the US Revolutionary War.
(SC, internet, 5/12/97)(HN, 5/12/98)

1780 May 19, A mysterious darkness enveloped much of New England and part of Canada in the early afternoon; the cause has never been determined.
(HFA, ’96, p.30)(DTnet 5/19/97)

1780 May, The Virginia continentals surrendered to Lieutenant Colonel Banastre Tarleton, commander of the British Legion, following his victory at Waxhaws, SC. Tarleton then led the British troops to a massacre of the surrendering Virginia regulars and militiamen, eliminating the last organized force in South Carolina. During the course of the Revolutionary War, Tarleton became one of the most hated men in America.
(HNQ, 9/26/00)(AH, 10/07, p.29)

1780 Jun, The East India ship Princess Royal landed at Bengkulu on Sumatra with American rebels. The prisoners were sent to Fort Marlboro to be trained as British soldiers.
(ON, 1/00, p.5)

1780 Jun, The London riots led by George Gordon in opposition to the Catholic Relief Act of 1778 took place. Anti-Catholic protesters wrought anarchy for a week in the Gordon riots.
(HNQ, 2/24/99)(Econ, 10/19/13, p.88)

1780 Aug 5, Benedict Arnold took over the command of West Point from American Major Gen. Robert Howe.
(ON, 11/01, p.2)

1780 Aug 16, American troops under Gen. Horatio Gates were badly defeated by the British at the Battle of Camden, South Carolina.
(HFA, ’96, p.36)(HN, 8/16/98)(ON, 12/01, p.9)

1780 Aug 22, HMS Resolution returned to England without Capt Cook.
(MC, 8/22/02)

1780 Aug 24, King Louis XVI abolished torture as a means to get suspects to confess.
(HN, 8/24/98)

1780 Aug 29, Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (d.1867), French painter, was born. His work included the “Portrait of Monsieur de Norvins” and “Valpincon Bather.”
(WUD, 1994, p.731)(WSJ, 7/1/96, p.A11)(MC, 8/29/01)

1780 Aug 30, General Benedict Arnold betrayed the US when he promised secretly to surrender the fort at West Point to the British army. Arnold whose name has become synonymous with traitor fled to England after the botched conspiracy. His co-conspirator, British spy Major John Andre, was hanged in an act of spite by Washington (“it’s good for the armies”).
(MC, 8/30/01)

1780 Sep 21-22, General Benedict Arnold, American commander of West Point, met with British spy Major John André to hand over plans of the important Hudson River fort to the enemy. Unhappy with how General George Washington treated him and in need of money, Arnold planned to “sell” West Point for 20,000 pounds–a move that would enable the British to cut New England off from the rest of the rebellious colonies. Arnold’s treason was exposed when André was captured by American militiamen who found the incriminating plans in his stocking. Arnold received a timely warning and was able to escape to a British ship, but André was hanged as a spy on October 2, 1780. Condemned for his Revolutionary War actions by both Americans and British, Arnold lived until 1801.
(HNPD, 9/21/98)

1780 Sep 23, British spy John Andre was captured along with papers revealing Benedict Arnold’s plot to surrender West Point to the British. Arnold had switched sides partly because he disapproved of the US French alliance.
(AP, 9/23/97)(SFEC,11/23/97, Par p.19)

1780 Sep 25, American General Benedict Arnold joined the British.
(MC, 9/25/01)(ON, 11/01, p.5)

1780 Oct 2, British spy John Andre was hanged in Tappan, N.Y., for conspiring with Benedict Arnold.
(AP, 10/2/97)

1780 Oct 6, Over 1500 Patriot fighters assembled on the outskirts of Cowpens, South Carolina, to confront Loyalist forces of British Major Patrick Ferguson.
(ON, 12/07, p.6)

1780 Oct 7, Colonial patriots slaughtered a loyalist group at the Battle of King’s Mountain in South Carolina. Patrick Ferguson (36), English Major in South Carolina, died in the battle along with some 200 Loyalists. Patriot losses numbered 30 with 62 wounded.
(HN, 10/7/99)(ON, 12/07, p.7)

1780 Oct 10, A Great Hurricane killed 20,000 to 30,000 in Caribbean.
(MC, 10/10/01)

1780 Oct 20, M. Pauline Bonaparte, Corsican duchess of Parma and Guastalla, was born.
(MC, 10/20/01)

1780 Oct 31, The HMS Ontario was lost with barely a trace and as many as 130 people aboard during a gale on Lake Ontario. In 2008 explorers found the 22-gun British warship. Canadian author Arthur Britton Smith chronicled the history of the HMS Ontario in a 1997 book, “The Legend of the Lake.”
(AP, 6/14/08)

1780 Oct, Gen. Washington ordered Major General Nathanael Greene to replace Gen. Horatio Gates and take command of the southern Department of the Continental Army.
(ON, 12/01, p.9)

1780 Nov 29, Maria Theresa Hapsburg (63), Queen of Austria, died.
(MC, 11/29/01)

1780 Dec 4, At the Battle of Rugeley’s Mill, South Carolina, Colonel William Washington attacked a fortified log barn with 107 Loyalists inside. When the Patriot‘s small arms proved ineffective, Washington cut a log to resemble a cannon and demanded the surrender of the Loyalists. The “Quaker guns” used in the American War of Independence were fashioned out of logs to resemble cannon. Fooled by the fake cannon, the promptly gave up. Quaker guns were also decisive at the May 1780 Battle of Hunt‘s Bluff, also in South Carolina.
(HNQ, 4/24/00)

1780 George Stubbs, British painter, created his portrait of a poodle.
(SFC, 6/25/99, p.A3)

1780 Goethe published a fragment of Faust.

1780 In San Francisco stone foundations were laid for a building at the military garrison in the Presidio. The Presidio’s Officer’s Club was later built on the same site.
(SFC, 9/29/14, p.A9)

1780 The Warren Tavern was built in Charlestown (Boston) and named after Gen’l. Joseph Warren, who was killed at the battle of Bunker Hill.
(HT, 3/97, p.34)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warren_Tavern)

c1780 It was Alexander Hamilton’s idea to establish a central bank and consolidate the state debts left over from the Revolutionary War.
(WSJ,2/13/97, p.A18)

1780 John Paul Jones’ “Continental Ship of War,” Ranger, was captured by the British at the fall of Charleston, South Carolina, and was added to the Royal Navy under the name of Halifax.
(NG, Sept. 1939, J. Maloney p.362)

1780 US Gen’l. Benedict Arnold, newly married and strapped for cash to maintain an extravagant lifestyle, began providing information to the British. He eventually joined the British as a brigadier general.
(SFC, 7/1/97, p.A3)

1780 The first inflation-linked bonds were issued in Massachusetts.
(Econ, 2/25/12, SRp.4)

1780 Guillaume Raynal, a French historian, proclaimed Puerto Rico to be “in proportion to its size the very best island in the New World.”
(SFEC, 4/26/98, p.A3)

1780 The mission of San Lorenzo in the Native American pueblo of Picuris was built. It has no bell towers, is flanked by curved buttresses, and is one of the 6 adobe missions scattered along the western shoulder of the Sangre de Cristo mountains between Taos and Santa Fe, New Mexico.
(SFC, 5/12/96, p.T-5)

1780 A Japanese whaling ship ran aground near the western end of the Aleutian Islands. Rats from the ship reached the nearest island giving it the name Rat Island. The incident introduced the non-native Norway rat, also known as the brown rat, to Alaska. The rats terrorized all but the largest birds on the island. In the Fall of 2008 poison was dropped onto the island from helicopter-hoisted buckets for a week and a half. By mid 2009 there were no signs of living rats and some birds had returned.
(Econ, 1/20/07, p.43)(Reuters, 6/12/09)

1780 The giant Mosasaurus dinosaur head was found in the Netherlands near Maastricht. [see 1794]
(NYT, 6/7/96, p.A4)

1780 A deadly hurricane hit the Windward and Leeward Islands and 20-22,000 people were killed.
(SFC, 11/30/98, p.A2)

1780 In England Richard Brinsley Sheridan, playwright, entered Parliament as a supporter of the Whig politician Charles James Fox, who supported the American colonies against George III.
(WSJ, 11/20/98, p.W6)(WSJ, 1/7/00, p.W4)

1780 In France a communal grave at the Cemetery of the Innocents in Paris cracked and spilled into the cellars of adjoining houses and prompted its closure.
(Hem., 3/97, p.129)

1780 Salomon Gessner, printer, poet and friend of Goethe, founded the Neue Zurcher Zeitung (NZZ). In 2005 the newspaper celebrated its 225th birthday.
(Econ, 4/2/05, p.45)

1780 The Ottomans build the al-Ajyad Castle in Mecca to protect the city and its Muslim shrines from invaders. The castle was torn down by the Saudis in 2001 to make way for a trade center and hotel complex. Turkey called this a “cultural massacre.”
(SFC, 1/8/02, p.A6)

1780 Sheep were introduced to Ireland from Scotland.
(SFCM, 10/14/01, p.25)

1780 In Peru Jose Gabriel Condorcanqui led a failed Indian revolt against the Spanish.
(SFC, 12/20/96, p.B4)

1780s Steel pens were developed as more durable than quills.
(SFC, 7/26/04, p.F4)

1784 Feb 28, John Wesley (1703-1791) chartered the Methodist Church. His teaching emphasized field preaching along with piety, probity and respectability. In 2003 Roy Hattersley authored “A Brand from the Burning: The Life of John Wesley.”
(MC, 2/28/02)(WSJ, 6/13/03, p.W19)

1784 Feb 29, Marquis de Sade was transferred from Vincennes fortress to the Bastille.
(HN, 2/29/00)

1784 Mar 1, E. Kidner opened the 1st cooking school in Great Britain.
(SC, 3/1/02)

1784 Apr 2, Pierre Leclair (74), composer, died.
(MC, 4/2/02)

1784 Apr 5, Louis [Ludwig] Spohr, German violin virtuoso, composer (Faust), was born.
(MC, 4/5/02)

1784 Apr 15, The first balloon flight occurred in Ireland. [see Jun 5, 1783 in France]
(HN, 4/15/98)

1784 Apr 29, Premiere of Mozart’s Sonata in B flat, K454 (Vienna).
(MC, 4/29/02)

1784 Apr, The idea of resetting clocks forward an hour in the spring and back an hour in the fall was first suggested by Benjamin Franklin in his essay “An Economical Project for Diminishing the Cost of Light,” published in the Journal de Paris, as a way to save electricity.

1784 May 20, Peace of Versailles ended the war between France, England, and Holland.
(HN, 5/20/98)

1784 May 25, Jews were expelled from Warsaw by Marshall Mniszek.
(SC, 5/25/02)

1784 Jun 4, Elizabeth Thible became the first woman to fly aboard a Montgolfier hot-air balloon, over Lyon, France.
(AP, 6/4/07)

1784 Jun 9, John Carroll was appointed supervisor of US Catholic Missions.
(MC, 6/9/02)

1784 Jun 16, Holland forbade orange clothes.
(MC, 6/16/02)

1784 Jun 24, In a tethered flight from Baltimore, Maryland, Edward Warren (13) became the 1st to fly in a balloon on US soil.
(NPub, 2002, p.3)

1784 Jun 29, Caesar Rodney (b.1728), US judge, Delaware representative as a signer of the Declaration of Independence, died. He was later depicted on the Delaware state quarter

1784 Jul 1, Wilhelm Friedmann Bach (73), composer (Sinfonias 64), died.
(MC, 7/1/02)

1784 Jul 30, Denis Diderot (b.1713), French philosopher, critic, and encyclopedist, died. “Men will never be free until the last king is strangled with the entrails of the last priest.”
(WSJ, 6/15/99, p.A16)( www.giga-usa.com/quotes/authors/denis_diderot_a001.htm)

1784 Aug 14, The 1st Russian settlement in Alaska was established on Kodiak Island. Grigori Shelekhov, a Russian fur trader, founded Three Saints Bay.
(MC, 8/14/02)

1784 Aug 23, Eastern Tennessee settlers declared their area an independent state and named it Franklin; a year later the Continental Congress rejected it.
(MC, 8/23/02)

1784 Sep 20, Packet and Daily, the first daily publication in America, appeared on the streets.
(HN, 9/20/98)

1784 Aug 28, Father Junipero Serra (b.1713) died of tuberculosis at the adobe church of San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo, later Carmel.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jun%C3%ADpero_Serra)(SFEC, 3/12/00, p.T4)

1784 Oct 13, Ferdinand VII, king of Spain, was born.
(HN, 10/13/98)

1784 Oct 19, Leigh Hunt (d.1859), English journalist, essayist, poet and political radical, was born. He was a friend and advisor to Shelley and Lord Byron and wrote the poems “Abou Ben Adhem” and “Jenny Kissed Me.”
(HN, 10/19/99)(www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/PRleigh.htm)
1784 Oct 19, John McLoughlin (d.1857), Hudson’s Bay Co. pioneer at Fort Vancouver and in Oregon Country, was born in Quebec.

1784 Oct, Pierre Eugene Du Simitiere (b.1736), artist and philosopher, died. He helped design the 1st Great Seal of the US.
(WSJ, 5/19/05, p.D8)(http://tinyurl.com/d23rr)

1784 Nov 1, Maryland granted citizenship to Lafayette and his descendents.
(MC, 11/1/01)

1784 Nov 24, Zachary Taylor, the 12th president of the United States, was born in Orange County, Va.
(AP, 11/24/97)

1784 Nov 28, Ferdinand Reis, composer, was born.
(MC, 11/28/01)

1784 Nov 29, American Dr. John Jeffries paid Frenchman Jean-Pierre Blanchard £100 pounds for a balloon flight in England during which he made some atmospheric measurements.
(ON, 10/03, p.6)

1784 Dec 13, Samuel Johnson (b.1709), English lexicographer, essayist, poet and moralist best known for “The Dictionary of the English Language,” died. “Patriotism is the last refuge of a scoundrel.” — (To which Ambrose Bierce replied, “I beg to submit that it is the first.”) Johnson, an antagonist of slavery, left behind an annuity and much of his personal property to his black valet, Francis Barber (b.1735-1801). In 1791 Boswell wrote the celebrated “The Life of Samuel Johnson.” In 1955 Walter Jackson Bate (1918-1999) published “The Achievement of Samuel Johnson” and in 1977 the biography “Samuel Johnson.” In 2000 Adam Potkay authored “The Passion for Happiness,” in which he argued that Samuel Johnson should be included in the Anglo-Scottish Enlightenment along with David Hume, Adam Smith and Edward Gibbon. In 2000 Peter Martin authored “A Life of James Boswell.” In 2008 Peter Martin authored “Samuel Johnson: A biography.”
(AP, 10/8/97)(WSJ, 11/29/00, p.A24)(ON, 11/06, p.10)(SSFC, 10/28/07, p.M3)(WSJ, 9/18/08, p.A23)

1784 John Filson, schoolmaster, published the stories of Daniel Boone as narrated to him by Boone.
(SFEC, 7/23/00, Z1 p.2)

1784 Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais wrote “The Marriage of Figaro,” the sequel to “The Barber of Seville.” A 1997 film, “Beaumarchais,” was a look at the artist, who was also a womanizer, a spy and an arms runner.
(WSJ, 12/19/96, p.A16)(SFEC,11/23/97, DB p.14)

1784 William Blake coined the term “transmography,” to describe artistic processes of continual invention and cumulative transformation.
(LSA, Spring 1995, p.17)

1784 German philosopher Emmanuel Kant wrote his essay “What is enlightenment?” Here he crystallized the essence of the metaphysics movement in the motto Sapere aude (Dare to know).
(WSJ, 9/1/04, p.AD10)(Econ, 9/3/16, p.72)

1784 Mozart composed four piano concertos. The G Major is K. 453 (K is for Kochel who catalogues all of Mozart’s work in chronological order).
(T&L, 10/80, p. 103)

1784 Trenton, North Carolina, was founded.
(SFC, 3/10/99, p.A3)

1784 George Washington met a 16-year-old slave named Venus, who later bore a mulatto son named West Ford who lived in special favor at Mt. Vernon. In 1998 descendants of Ford set out to prove that Washington was his father.
(SFC, 11/23/98, p.A6)

1784 Thomas Jefferson excavated an Indian burial mound on his property in Virginia.
(TV Doc.)
1784 Virginia Congressman Thomas Jefferson (41) became the US Commissioner and Minister to France. He continued there to 1798 and negotiated commercial treaties with European nations along with Ben Franklin and John Adams.
1784 Ben Franklin, while serving as US Minister to France, came up with the idea of manipulating the hours of the business day so that shops would both open and close earlier, when it was still light outside.
(WSJ, 10/26/95, p.A-22)

1784 NY state awarded Thomas Paine 227 acres in New Rochelle.
(SSFC, 4/1/01, p.A7)

1784 Phillis Wheatley, black poet, died. Only a child of about eight when she was kidnapped and brought to America as a slave, Phillis Wheatley was given the name of her Boston master, tailor John Wheatley. With his wife Susanna, John Wheatley treated the young girl kindly, providing an education that included the classical languages and literature. Her work, lost and forgotten until the publication of a new edition in 1834, was used by abolitionists to prove that blacks were not intellectually inferior to white.
(HNPD, 2/21/00)

1784 The British gave their Indian allies from New York a large parcel of land southwest of Toronto after they fled to Canada following the American war of independence. In 2006 the Six Nations Iroquois Confederacy claimed that part of this land had been sold without their proper consent for a new housing development in Caledonia.
(Econ, 9/16/06, p.46)
1784 England’s Quarry Bank Mill on the river Bollin at Styal was built by merchant Samuel Greg to supply cotton to the weavers of Lancashire. Raw cotton from America was processed on the latest machinery, Richard Arkwright’s water frame.
(Econ, 9/24/11, SR p.3)

1784 The Hotel de Salm, a palace, was built in Paris. It became the headquarters of Napoleon’s Legion of Honor.
(WSJ, 11/16/95, p.A-18)

1784 King Louis XVI appointed a French commission to examine the theory of “animal magnetism,” developed by German Dr. Franz Anton Mesmer (1734-1815). The commission, which included American ambassador Benjamin Franklin, branded Mesmer a fraud.
(WSJ, 12/8/04, p.A1)

1784 The 1st Spanish military officer who explored the Mayan ruins of Palenque thought it was Atlantis risen.
(SSFC, 12/7/03, p.C10)

1784-1785 The Mrauk U kingdom was conquered by the Konbaung dynasty of Burma, after which Rakhine became part of the Konbaung kingdom of Burma.

1784-1789 Thomas Jefferson’s years in Paris are depicted in a film titled “Jefferson in Paris.” He served as an American minister and Sally Hemmings accompanied him as his daughter’s servant.
(WSJ, 4/6/95, p.A-12)(WSJ, 11/6/98, p.W15)

1784-1849 Peter De Wint, watercolorist.
(SFC, 4/29/97, p.B5)

1785 Jan 1, The Daily Universal Register (Times of London) published its 1st issue. It became The Times on Jan 1, 1788.

1785 Jan 4, Jacob Ludwig Carl Grimm, German philosopher who wrote Grimm’s Fairy Tales, was born.
(HN, 1/4/99)(MC, 1/4/02)

1785 Jan 6, Haym Salomon (44) died in Philadelphia. He helped finance the US revolution.
(MC, 1/6/02)

1785 Jan 7, The first balloon flight across the English Channel was made. Frenchman Jean-Pierre Blanchard and the American Dr. John Jeffries crossed the English Channel for the first time in a hydrogen balloon.
(HN, 5/15/98)(HN, 1/7/99)

1785 Jan 11, Continental Congress convened in NYC.
(MC, 1/11/02)

1785 Jan 21, Chippewa, Delaware, Ottawa and Wyandot Indians signed a treaty of Fort McIntosh, ceding present-day Ohio to the United States.
(HN, 1/21/99)

1785 Feb 24, Carlo Bonaparte (39), Corsican attorney, died.
(MC, 2/24/02)

1785 Mar 1, Philadelphia Society for the Promotion of Agriculture was organized.
(SC, 3/1/02)

1785 Mar 7, Alessandro Manzoni, poet, novelist (Betrothed), was born in Italy.
(MC, 3/7/02)

1785 Mar 10, Thomas Jefferson was appointed minister to France, succeeding Benjamin Franklin.
(AP, 3/10/98)(HN, 3/10/98)

1785 Mar 19, Pierre-Joseph-Guillaume Zimmermann, composer, was born.
(MC, 3/19/02)

1785 Mar 27, Louis XVII, Pretender to the throne (1793-1795) during the French Revolution, was born. His father may have been Marie Antoinette’s Swedish lover, Count Axel von Fersen.
(HN, 3/27/98)(SFC, 4/20/00, p.A18)(MC, 3/27/02)

1785 Apr 21, Russian Tsarina Catharina II ended nobility privileges.
(MC, 4/21/02)

1785 Apr 26, John James Audubon (d.1851), American naturalist, bird watcher (ornithologist) and artist, was born in Haiti and educated in France. The engraving of America’s indigenous turkey, which Benjamin Franklin nominated as the national bird, appeared in John James Audubon’s classic work “Birds of America,” a book of 435 hand-colored engravings prepared from his wildlife paintings begun in 1820. An artist and naturalist, Audubon was one of the first to study and paint American birds in their natural surroundings. Audubon came to America at 18 and failed in several business ventures.
(440 Int’l. internet,4/26/97, p.5)(AP, 4/26/98)(HN, 4/26/98)(HNPD, 7/15/98)

1785 Apr, Elizabeth Marsh (b.1735), traveler and writer, died of breast cancer in Calcutta, India. In 1769 she had published “The Female Captive,” an account of her captivity in a Muslim court. In 2007 Linda Colley authored “The Ordeal of Elizabeth Marsh: A Woman in World History.”
(Econ, 7/14/07, p.89)(www.lrb.co.uk/v29/n12/mant01_.html)

1785 May 9, James Pollard Espy, meteorologist (Philosophy of Storms), was born in Pennsylvania.
(MC, 5/9/02)
1785 May 9, British inventor Joseph Bramah patented a beer-pump handle.
(MC, 5/9/02)

1785 May 23, Benjamin Franklin in Paris spoke of his invention of bifocals in a letter to friend and philanthropist George Whatley.

1785 Jun 15, Two Frenchmen attempting to cross the English Channel in a hot-air balloon were killed when their balloon caught fire and crashed, in possibly the first fatal aviation accident.
(AP, 2/26/13)(www.space.com/16595-montgolfiers-first-balloon-flight.html)

1785 Jul 4, The first Fourth of July parade was held in Bristol, Rhode Island. It served as a prayerful walk to celebrate independence from England.
(SFC, 7/5/97, p.A3)

1785 Jul 17, France limited the importation of goods from Britain.
(HN, 7/17/98)

1785 Jul 20, Mahmud II, sultan of Turkey (1808-39), Westernizer, reformer, was born.
(MC, 7/20/02)

1785 Jul 23, Prussia’s Frederick the Great formed Die Furstenbund (League of German Princes).
(AP, 7/23/97)

1785 Aug 15, Thomas De Quincey, English writer (Confessions of English Opium Eater), was born.
(MC, 8/15/02)
1785 Aug 15, French Cardinal De Rohan (51), Bishop of Strasbourg, was arrested in the affair of the diamond necklace. He was accused of forging the queen’s signature to gain possession of a necklace containing 647 diamonds. In 2014 Jonathan Beckman authored “How to Ruin a Queen: Marie Antoinette, the Stolen Diamonds, and the Scandal that Shook the French Throne.”
(PC, 1992, p.335)(Econ, 7/12/14, p.76)

1785 Aug 20, Oliver Hazard Perry, US Naval hero (“We have met the enemy”), was born in Rhode Island.
(MC, 8/20/02)

1785 Sep 1, Mozart published his 6th string quartet opus 10 in Vienna.
(MC, 9/1/02)

1785 Sep 28, Napoleon Bonaparte (16) graduated from the military academy in Paris. He was 42nd in a class of 51.
(MC, 9/28/01)

1785 Oct 18, Benjamin Franklin was elected president of Pennsylvania. Special balloting unanimously elected Franklin the sixth President of the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania, replacing John Dickinson.
(AH, 2/06, p.47)(http://help.com/post/275760-why-is-benjamin-franklin-important)

1785 Nov 17, Church of England was organized in New England.
(MC, 11/17/01)

1785 Nov 21, William Beaumont, surgeon, was born. He later studied digestion by peering through a natural opening of the stomach wall in a young Indian in Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin.
(MC, 11/21/01)

1785 Nov 23, John Hancock was elected President of the Continental Congress for the second time.
(HN, 11/23/98)

1785 Dec 8, Antonio Maria Mazzoni (68), composer, died.
(MC, 12/8/01)

1785 Dec 26, Laurent Clerc, teacher, was born: 1st deaf teacher in U.S., helped establish American School for the Deaf in Connecticut.

1785 Dec 29, Johann Heinrich Rolle (69), composer, died.
(MC, 12/29/01)

1785 Jean-Antoine Houdon sculpted a white marble bust of the Marquis de Condorcet.
(WSJ, 8/26/97, p.A14)

1785 Romney painted Emma, Lady Hamilton, the passion of sea-hero Nelson.
(SFEC, 2/1/98, p.T8)

1785 James Madison wrote the petition “Memorial and Remonstrance” for circulation in Virginia to oppose the use of public funds for Christian education.
(WSJ, 9/1/99, p.A24)

1785 William Paley (1743-1805), an orthodox Anglican and conservative moral and political thinker, published “The Principles of Moral and Political Philosophy.”

1785 US Congress decided that the country‘s monetary system would be based on a silver coin called a dollar, similar to that of the Spanish dollar. The first American silver dollar was minted in 1794.
(HNQ, 1/5/00)

1785 John Adams, the new US ambassador to Britain, presented himself to King George.
(Econ, 1/28/06, p.80)
1785 Thomas Jefferson succeeded Benjamin Franklin as US ambassador to France.

1785 The American Continental Congress’ Land Grant Act of 1785 set aside land for schools. In anticipation of the country expanding with new states, the Continental Congress took possession of all land won during the Revolution, dividing it into 640-acre sections and selling it for $1 an acre. Thirty-six sections comprised a township, and within each township, one section was set aside to support public schools.
(HNQ, 4/3/99)

1785 The University of Georgia was the first state university chartered, in 1785, but was not established until 1801. The University of North Carolina was chartered in 1789 and was the first state university in the U.S. to begin instruction, in 1795.
(HNQ, 12/3/01)

1785 Barbary pirates seized American ships and imprisoned their crew in Algiers for 11 years. Military and ransom operations raised issues of Congressional approval and appropriations that bedeviled Thomas Jefferson as both Sec. of State and as president. The issue is covered in the 1997 book: Separating Power: Essays on the Founding Period” by Gerhard Casper.
(SFEC, 1/4/98, BR p.9)

1785 James Hutton presented his Theory of the Earth. Here he formulated the principle of “uniformitarianism,” which stated that geological features were understandable as having resulted from processes still occurring (i.e. volcanism, erosion, and deposition). Hutton had studied physiology at Leyden and wrote his thesis on the circulation of the blood. He wrote of Earth as a kind of super-organism, whose proper study is planetary physiology.
(RFH-MDHP, p.70)(DD-EVTT, p.16)(NOHY, 3/90, p.192)

1785 Manual Gonzalez, the 3rd mayor of Pueblo San Jose de Guadelupe (California), conscripted local residents to build the town’s 1st City Hall.
(SFC, 8/10/05, p.B4)

1785 Prince George of England after mentioning to his wife that he liked her right eye, was presented with a Christmas painting of the eye. It started a London fad and eye paintings flourished for a brief time.
(SFEC, 10/5/97, Z1 p.6)
1785 Major John Money (1752–1817) took off in a balloon from Norwich, in an attempt to raise money for the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital. He passed over Lowestoft at 6pm and came down about 18 miles (29 km) into the North Sea and was saved by a revenue cutter about five hours later.
(Econ, 5/11/13, p.89)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_ballooning)
1785 Lt. Col. John Money set up a British balloon observation corps, but it did not gain much support.

1785 In Canada Loyalist graduates of Harvard and King’s College founded the Univ. of New Brunswick.
(SFEC, 5/25/97, p.T7)

1785 Chechen people launched an armed struggle for freedom and independence under the leadership of Sheikh Mansur.

1785 Marie-Joseph de Condorcet (1743-1794), French philosopher and mathematician, wrote the “Essay on the Application of Analysis to the Probability of Majority Decisions,” one of his most important works. This work described several now famous results, including Condorcet’s jury theorem, which states that if each member of a voting group is more likely than not to make a correct decision, the probability that the highest vote of the group is the correct decision increases as the number of members of the group increases.
1785 The Marquis de Sade (1740-1814) authored “The 120 Days of Sodom.” It tells the story of four wealthy male libertines who resolve to experience the ultimate sexual gratification in orgies.

1785 In Sweden the first Illis Quorum Meruere Labores (For Those Whose Labors Have Deserved It), a gold medal, was awarded.
(NH, 4/97, p.31)



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