Timeline of the Eighteenth Century: 1775-1799 3

1793-1860 Thomas Addison, English physician, discovered Addison’s disease, a usually fatal disease caused by the failure of the adrenal cortex to function and marked by a bronze-like skin pigmentation, anemia, and prostration.
(AHD, 1971, p.15)

1793-1863 Sam Houston, US soldier and political leader. He was president of the Republic of Texas from 1836-1838.
(WUD, 1994, p.689)

1794 Jan 13, President Washington approved a measure adding two stars and two stripes to the American flag, following the admission of Vermont and Kentucky to the union. The number of stripes was later reduced to the original 13.
(AP, 1/13/01)

1794 Jan 14, Dr. Jessee Bennet of Edom, Va., performed the 1st successful Cesarean section operation on his wife.
(MC, 1/14/02)

1794 Feb 4, France’s First Republic (Convention) voted for the abolition of slavery in all French colonies. The abolition decree stated that “the Convention declares the slavery of the Blacks abolished in all the colonies; consequently, all men, irrespective of color, living in the colonies are French citizens and will enjoy all the rights provided by the Constitution.” Slavery was restored by the Consulate in 1802, and was definitively abolished in 1848 by the Second Republic, on Victor Schoelcher’s initiative.
(www.ambafrance-uk.org/Slavery-Slavery-was-abolished-in.html)
1794 Feb 4, Slaves in Haiti won emancipation.
(AP, 4/7/03)(WSJ, 3/1/04, p.A16)

1794 Feb 10, Joseph Haydn’s 99th Symphony in E, premiered.
(MC, 2/10/02)

1794 Feb 11, A session of US Senate was 1st opened to the public.
(MC, 2/11/02)

1794 Feb 14, 1st US textile machinery patent was granted, to James Davenport in Phila.
(MC, 2/14/02)

1794 Feb 21, Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, Mexican Revolutionary, was born.
(HN, 2/21/98)

1794 Mar 3, 1st performance of Joseph Haydn’s 101st Symphony in D.
(SC, 3/3/02)
1794 Mar 3, Richard Allen founded AME Church.
(SC, 3/3/02)

1794 Mar 14, Eli Whitney received a patent for his cotton gin, an invention that revolutionized America’s cotton industry. He paid substantial royalties to Catherine T. Greene and this makes his claim to the invention suspect.
(AP, 3/14/97)(SFC, 10/4/97, p.E3)

1794 Mar 22, Congress passed laws prohibiting slave trade with foreign countries, although slavery remained legal in the United States. Congress banned US vessels from supplying slaves to other countries.
(HN, 3/22/01)(MC, 3/22/02)

1794 Mar 23, Josiah Pierson patented a “cold-header” (rivet) machine.
(SS, 3/23/02)
1794 Mar 23, Lieutenant-General Tadeusz Kosciusko returned to Poland.
(SS, 3/23/02)

1794 Mar 24, In Cracow a revolutionary manifesto was proclaimed. The Lithuanian and Polish nobility under the leadership of Tadas Kasciuska revolted against Russian control.
(H of L, 1931, p. 81-82)(LHC, 3/23/03)

1794 Mar 27, The US Congress approved “An Act to provide a Naval Armament” of six armed ships. [see Oct 13, 1775]
(AP, 3/27/07)

1794 Mar 28, Marie-Joseph de Condorcet (b.1743), mathematician (Theory of Comets) and philosopher, died as a fugitive from French Revolution Terrorists.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marquis_de_Condorcet)

1794 Apr 5, Georges-Jacques Danton (b.1759), French revolutionary leader, was guillotined along with Marie Jean Herault de Sechelles, French author, politician, and Camille Desmoullins, popular journalist. In 2009 Jonathan Cape authored “Danton: The Gentle Giant of Terror.”
(Econ, 7/18/09, p.80)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georges_Danton)

1794 Apr 7, In Poland at the battle of Raclawice the revolutionary forces of Tadeusz Kosciusko defeated the imperial armies.
(DrEE, 9/21/96, p.5)

1794 Apr 8, Marie-Jean-Antoine-Nicholas-Caritat, mathematician died.
(MC, 4/8/02)

1794 Apr 19, Tadeusz Kosciusko forced Russians out of Warsaw.
(HN, 4/19/97)

1794 Apr 10, Matthew Calbraith Perry, the American Navy Commodore who opened Japan, was born.
(HN, 4/10/98)

1794 Apr 11, Edward Everett, governor of Massachusetts, statesman and orator, was born.
(HN, 4/11/98)

1794 May 6, In Haiti Toussaint Louverture (L’Ouverture), Haitian rebel leader, ended his alliance with the Iberian monarchy and embraced the French Republicans. An order followed that led to the massacre of Spaniards.
(www.travelinghaiti.com/history_of_haiti/toussaint_louverture.asp)(WSJ, 1/19/07, p.W4)
1794 May 6, Jean-Jacques Beauvarget-Charpentier (59), composer, died.
(MC, 5/6/02)

1794 May 8, Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier, the father of modern chemistry (identified oxygen), was executed on the guillotine during France’s Reign of Terror. In 2005 Madison Smartt Bell authored “Lavoisier in the Year One: The Birth of a New Science in the Age of Revolution.”
(AP, 5/8/97)(SSFC, 7/3/05, p.E1)

1794 May 10, In France Elizabeth (30), the sister of King Louis XVI, was beheaded.
(HN, 5/10/99)(MC, 5/10/02)

1794 May 18, The 2nd battle of Bouvines was between France and Austria.
(SC, 5/18/02)

1794 May 27, Cornelius Vanderbilt (d.1877), owner of the B & O railroad, was born on Staten Island. He started running steamships in 1818 and shuttled passengers to the West coast across Nicaragua for the gold rush. At age 70 he entered the railroad business. He was never accepted into New York elite society and died with an estimated $105 million fortune.
(HN, 5/27/98)(WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R18)

1794 May, Richard Allen purchased a blacksmith shop in Philadelphia and had it moved near St. Thomas. There he founded an African Methodist Episcopal (AME) church he called Bethel, “House of God.” The Mother Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church in Philadelphia was founded by Richard Allen after he was pulled from his knees one Sunday by a white usher while praying at St. George Methodist Episcopal Church. It later stood as the oldest parcel of land continuously owned by African Americans. The Richard Allen Museum contains 19th century artifacts from the church. In 1997 it was the world’s oldest AME church. The church elected its first female bishop in 2000.
(SFC, 6/24/96, p.A19)(SFC, 7/12/00, p.A3)(www.pbs.org)

1794 Jun 1, English fleet under Richard Earl Howe defeated the French. (MC, 6/1/02)

1794 Jun 4, Congress passed a Neutrality Act that banned Americans from serving in armed forces of foreign powers.
(MC, 6/4/02)
1794 Jun 4, British troops captured Port-au-Prince, Haiti.
(HN, 6/4/98)
1794 Jun 4, Robespierre was unanimously elected president of the Convention in the French Revolution.
(MC, 6/4/02)

1794 Jun 5, Congress passed the Neutrality Act, which prohibited Americans from enlisting in the service of a foreign power.
(AP, 6/5/99)(HN, 6/5/98)

1794 Jun 8, Maximilian Robespierre, French Revolutionary leader, worried about the influence of French atheists and philosophers, staged the “Festival of the Supreme Being” in Paris.
(MC, 6/8/02)

1794 Jun 15, The Guillotine was moved to outskirts of Paris.
(MC, 6/15/02)

1794 Jun 18, George Grote, British historian, was born.
(MC, 6/18/02)

1794 Jun 23, Empress Catherine II granted Jews permission to settle in Kiev.
(MC, 6/23/02)

1794 Jun 26, French defeated an Austrian army at the Battle of Fleurus.
(HN, 6/26/98)

1794 Jul 5, Sylvester Graham, developed graham cracker, was born.
(MC, 7/5/02)

1794 Jul 8, French troops captured Brussels, Belgium.
(HN, 7/8/98)

1794 Jul 12, British Admiral Lord Nelson lost his right eye at the siege of Calvi, in Corsica.
(HN, 7/12/98)

1794 Jul 13, Robespierre boycotted the Committee of Public Safety and the National convention after being denounced as a dictator.
(MC, 7/13/02)
1794 Jul 13, James Lind (b.1716) Scottish doctor, died. He was a pioneer of naval hygiene in the Royal Navy. By conducting one of the first ever clinical trials, he developed the theory that citrus fruits cured scurvy. He argued for the health benefits of better ventilation aboard naval ships, the improved cleanliness of sailors’ bodies, clothing and bedding, and below-deck fumigation with sulfur and arsenic. He also proposed that fresh water could be obtained by distilling sea water. His work advanced the practice of preventive medicine and improved nutrition.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Lind)

1794 Jul 17, In Philadelphia the African Episcopal Church of St. Thomas, one of the first black churches in the country, opened its doors.
(www.pbs.org)

1794 Jul 23, Chaos and anarchy were averted temporarily when Robespierre joined conciliation talks in Paris.
(MC, 7/23/02)

1794 Jul 26, After remaining uncharacteristically silent for several weeks, Robespierre demanded that the National Convention punish “traitors” without naming them.
(MC, 7/26/02)
1794 Jul 26, The French defeated an Austrian army at the Battle of Fleurus in France.
(HN, 7/26/98)

1794 Jul 27, French revolutionary leader Maximilien Robespierre was overthrown and placed under arrest; he was executed the following day.
(AP, 7/27/00)

1794 Jul 28, Maximilien Robespierre, a leading figure of the French Revolution, was sent to the guillotine. Robespierre had dominated the Committee of Public Safety during the “Reign of Terror.” He asserted the collective dictatorship of the revolutionary National Convention and attacked factions led by men such as Jacques-René Hébert which he felt threatened the government‘s power. Factions opposed to Robespierre gained momentum in the summer of 1794. Declared an outlaw of the National Convention, Robespierre and many of his followers were captured and he—along with 22 of his supporters—were guillotined before cheering crowds.
(AP, 7/28/97)(HN, 7/28/98)(HNQ, 11//00)

1794 Jul 29, Seventy of Robespierre’s followers were guillotined.
(MC, 7/29/02)

1794 Aug 7, George Washington issued a proclamation telling a group of Western Pennsylvania farmers to stop their Whiskey Rebellion. In the US in western Pennsylvania, angry farmers protested a new federal tax on whiskey makers. The protest flared into the open warfare known as the Whiskey Rebellion between US marshals and whiskey farmers.
(http://www.ttb.gov/public_info/whisky_rebellion.shtml)(A&IP, ESM, p.16)(HNQ, 10/14/99)

1794 Aug 20, American General “Mad Anthony” Wayne defeated the Ohio Indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in the Northwest territory, ending Indian resistance in the area.
(HN, 8/20/98)

1794 Aug 21, France surrendered the island of Corsica to the British.
(HN, 8/21/98)

1794 Sep 10, America’s first non-denominational college, Blount College (later the University of Tennessee), was chartered.
(AP, 9/10/97)

1794 Sep 28, The Anglo-Russian-Austrian Alliance of St. Petersburg, which was directed against France, was signed.
(HN, 9/28/98)

1794 Oct 10, The Russian Army under Gen’l. Alexander Suvorov took Warsaw and captured Tadeus Kosciusko at Maciejowice. T. Vavzeckis was became the new commander of the revolutionary forces.
(Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.5)(HN, 10/10/98)

1794 Oct 15, US moneymakers minted some 2,000 silver dollars of which 1,750 were deemed good enough to go into circulation. The press initially used was designed for a smaller coin and large scale production on a bigger press began a year later.
(SFC, 7/27/05, p.C8)

1794 Nov 3, William Cullen Bryant, poet and journalist, was born.
(HN, 11/3/00)
1794 Nov 3, Thomas Paine was released from a Parisian jail with help from the American ambassador James Monroe. He had been arrested in 1893 for not endorsing the execution of Louis XVI and thus offending the Robespierre faction. While in prison Paine began writing his “The Age of Reason” (1794-1796).
(HN, 11/3/99)(www.ushistory.org/Paine/index.htm)

1794 Nov 11, The Treaty of Canandaigua was signed at Canandaigua, New York, by fifty sachems and war chiefs representing the Grand Council of the Six Nations of the Iroquois (Haudenosaunee) Confederacy (including the Cayuga, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Seneca and Tuscarora tribes), and by Timothy Pickering, official agent of President George Washington. The Canandaigua Treaty, a Treaty Between the United States of America and the Tribes of Indians Called the Six Nations, was signed.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Canandaigua)

1794 Nov 16, Warsaw capitulated to the Russian Army and the revolution ended.
(Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.5)

1794 Nov 19, The United States and Britain signed the Jay Treaty, which resolved some issues left over from the Revolutionary War. This was the 1st US extradition treaty.
(AP, 11/19/97)(MC, 11/19/01)

1794 Nov 21, Honolulu Harbor was discovered.
(MC, 11/21/01)

1794 Nov 22, Strasbourg, Alsace-Lorraine, prohibited circumcision and the wearing of beards.
(MC, 11/22/01)

1794 Nov 28, Friedrich WLGA von Steuben (64), Prussian-US inspector-general of Washington’s army, died in Oneida, NY. Baron von Steuben, a former Prussian captain, had arrived in Portsmouth, New Hampshire in 1777, and despite false credentials, was hired to drill and train Washington’s Continental Army. His manual of arms, known as the “Blue Book,” shaped basic training for American recruits for generations to come. In 2008 Paul Lockhart authored “The Drillmaster of Valley Forge: The Baron de Steuben and the Making of the American Army.”
(WSJ, 11/8/08, p.W9)(WSJ, 11/8/08, p.W9)

1794 Dec 27, The Portuguese slave ship Sao Jose–Paquete de Africa sank off the coast of South Africa’s Cape Town. Some 400-500 African slaves from Mozambique were on board the vessel bound for Brazil. About half of them perished. Wreckage of the ship was found in 2015.
(http://tinyurl.com/q9xyg73)(AP, 6/2/15)

1794 William Blake painted “The Ancient of Days.” “He formed golden com-passes / And began to explore the Abyss.” From the epic “The First Book of Urizen.” Urizen is a pun and stands for “Your Reason.” On display at the Whitworth Art Gallery, Manchester, England.
(T&L, 10/1980, p.42)(WSJ, 4/2397, p.A16)
1794 “The Book of Thell” was printed by Blake in 14+ sets of 8 different designs.
(LSA, Spring 1995, p.18)

1794 Spanish painter Goya completed his painting “Yard With Lunatics,” the last in a series of uncommissioned small paintings executed during his convalescence from an illness that left him deaf.
(WSJ, 6/18/08, p.D7)

1794 French Azilum near Towanda, Pa., was planned as an asylum for Marie-Antoinette, her children and other loyalists of the monarchy seeking refuge from the French Revolution. Loyalists who kept their heads did come and settle.
(HT, 5/97, p.18)

1794 In the US Richard Allen was pulled from his knees one Sunday by a white usher while praying at St. George Methodist Episcopal Church in Philadelphia. He founded the African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church in 1787.
(SFC, 6/24/96, p.A19)(SFC, 7/12/00, p.A3)

1794 The St. Louis Cathedral in New Orleans was rebuilt. Two previous structures had burned down.
(Hem., 1/97, p.63)

1794 George Washington established the first national armory at Springfield, Mass. He also authorized the arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, Md., where the Shenandoah flows into the Potomac.
(WSJ, 9/12/97, p.A20)(SFEC, 4/25/99, p.T7)

1794 The first American silver dollar was minted. Congress decided in 1785 that the country‘s monetary system would be based on a silver coin called a dollar, similar to that of the Spanish dollar.
(HNQ, 1/5/00)

1794 Twenty horse soldiers were dispatched from the Presidio of San Francisco to quell an Ohlone rebellion in the Santa Cruz mountains.
(SFC, 9/29/14, p.A1)

1794 A French inventor mixed ground graphite with clay and water and fired it to make strong pencil leads. [see 1765]
(WSJ, 11/24/00, p.A1)

1794 Gov. Diego Borica took command of Alta California and remarked on the general fecundity of the Bay Area.
(Bay, 4/07, p.25)
1794 Archibald Menzies introduced the California poppy to England. The seed that he brought to Kew Gardens did not survive. [see 1792, 1816,1825-1833]
(NBJ, 2/96, p.12)

1794 British Admiral Earl Howe defeated the French fleet.
(SFEC,10/26/97, p.T4)

1794 Ernst Chladni, German scientist, proposed that meteorites were masses of iron-rich extraterrestrial rock, which occasionally penetrated the earth’s atmosphere to strike the surface.
(ON, 7/02, p.5)
1794 The Royal Bayreuth porcelain factory was founded in Bavaria. The factory stamped this date on dishes made after 1900.
(SFC,11/5/97, Z1 p.3)

1794 In Italy the Bourbon monarchy created the Banca Nazionale di Napoli bringing together eight public banks including the Banco dei Poveri, established in 1563. The Piedmontese monarchy settled on the name Banco di Napoli in 1861.
(Econ, 12/18/10, p.165)

1794 Napoleon’s occupying army in Maastricht, Netherlands, took back to France a giant dinosaur head that was found in a dark recess of St. Peter’s mountain in 1780. It was named the Mosasaurus and roamed the seas some 70 million years ago. The head was lugged to the home of Theodorus Godding, a canon at the local church. The French say that he swapped it to Napoleon for 600 bottles of wine. Records however seem to indicate otherwise.
(NYT, 6/7/96, p.A4)

1794 Scotland, parish of Kirkmichael, Banffshire, on the holy well of St. Michael. (Statistical Account of Scotland, vol. xii, p.464): Many a patient have its water restored to health and many more have attested the efficacies of their virtues. But as the presiding power is sometimes capricious and apt to desert his charge, it now lies neglected, choked with weeds, unhonored, and unfrequented. In better days it was not so; for the winged guardian, under the semblance of a fly, was never absent from his duty… Every movement of the sympathetic fly was regarded in silent awe…
(R.M.-P.H.C.p.93)

1794 The Russian Orthodox mission was founded in Alaska. It led to the Orthodox Church in America with 600,000 members.
(WP, 6/29/96, p.B7)

1794 Ukraine’s port city of Odessa was founded.
(Econ, 12/18/04, p.86)

1794-1824 Matthias Schmutzer, artist, produced over 1000 large-format watercolors of specimens from the imperial gardens of Francis I. In 2006 H. Walter Lack authored “Florilegium Imperiale: Botanical Illustrations for Francis I of Austria.”
(WSJ, 5/27/06, p.P9)

1794-1815 An anthology of first hand reports on the naval war between France and Britain was edited by Dean King and John B. Hattendorf and published in 1997.
(SFEC,11/2/97, Par p.10)

1794-1872 Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld, German artist.
(WSJ, 7/16/98, p.A16)

1794-1925 The Kajar Dynasty ruled over Iran. The Gulistan Palace (constructed in this era), contains the much disputed Peacock Throne.
(NG, Sept. 1939, Baroness Ravensdale, p.326)

1795 Jan 3, The 3rd division of the Lithuanian Polish Republic was made between Russia and Austria.
(Voruta #27-28, Jul 1996, p.5)
1795 Jan 3, Josiah Wedgwood (b.1730), British ceramics manufacturer, died. His daughter, Susannah, was the mother of Charles Darwin. In 2004 Brian Dolan authored “Wedgwood: The First Tycoon.”
(SSFC, 12/5/04, p.E5)(www.wedgwoodmuseum.org.uk/wedgwood_chronology.htm)

1795 Jan 25, The Royal Chapel at Carmel, Ca., was dedicated with a Mass of Thanksgiving. A major renovation was undertaken in 1856.
(SSFC, 1/4/09, p.B3)

1795 Jan 26, Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach (62), composer, died.
(MC, 1/26/02)

1795 Feb 2, Joseph Haydn’s 102nd Symphony in B premiered.
(MC, 2/2/02)

1795 Feb 4, France abolished slavery in her territories and conferred slaves to citizens.
(HN, 2/4/99)

1795 Feb 7, The 11th Amendment to US Constitution was ratified.
(MC, 2/7/02)

1795 Feb 13, The University of North Carolina became the first US state university to admit students with the arrival of Hinton James, who was the only student on campus for two weeks.
(AP, 2/13/04)

1795 Feb 18, George Peabody, U.S. merchant and philanthropist, was born in South Danvers, Mass.
(HN, 2/18/98)(MC, 2/18/02)

1795 Feb 21, Francisco Manuel da Silva, composer, was born.
(MC, 2/21/02)
1795 Feb 21, Freedom of worship was established in France under constitution.
(MC, 2/21/02)

1795 Mar 11, Battle at Kurdla, India: Mahratten beat Moguls.
(MC, 3/12/02)

1795 Mar 22, A Lithuanian delegation under L. Tiskevicius went to Jekaterina II in Petersburg and declared that Lithuania’s union with Poland was ended.
(Voruta #27-28, Jul 1996, p.5)

1795 Mar 29, Beethoven (24) debuted as pianist in Vienna.
(MC, 3/29/02)

1795 Apr 7, The National Convention of Revolutionary France put into effect a new calendar system, similar to that of ancient Egypt. The year began with the autumn equinox, and had 360 days divided into twelve months of thirty days. Five extra days were placed at the end of the year. The months were divided into three 10 day groups. The day was divided into 10 new hours, each hour into 100 minutes, and each minute into 100 seconds.
(K.I.-365D, p.42)

1795 Apr 8, The Prince of Wales, later England’s King George IV, married his German cousin, Caroline, to produce an heir and increase his income. On their wedding night the drunken bridegroom spent the night “under the grate, where he fell, and where I left him.” The story is told by Flora Fraser in her book: “The Unruly Queen: The Life of Queen Caroline.” Masterpiece Theater made a TV presentation in 1997.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caroline_of_Brunswick)(SFC, 7/14/96, DB p.3)(WSJ, 1/9/97, p.A8)

1795 Apr 21, Vincenzo Pallotti, Italian saint, was born.
(MC, 4/21/02)

1795 Apr 23, In Britain the trial to impeach Warren Hastings, governor-general of India (1773-1785), on 21 charges for high crimes and misdemeanors ended after 7 years. Hastings was acquitted on all charges.
(SFEC, 11/1/98, BR p.11)(WSJ, 5/1/00, p.A24)(MC, 4/23/02)

1795 Apr 28, Charles Sturt (d.1869), explorer of Australia, was born in India. British explorer Charles Sturt is known as the “father of Australian exploration.” He was the first to penetrate deep into Australia’s interior from 1828 to 1845 during three hazardous expeditions. In 1828 he discovered the Darling River and in January 1830 the Murray River, which he followed until he reached present day Goolwa. His last expedition came to an end when his eyesight was impaired by exposure and illness. Scotsman John McDouall Stuart was part of Stuart’s final expedition and went on to become a major explorer, crossing the continent from Adelaide to Port Darwin in 1862.
(http://members.ozemail.com.au/~fliranre/home.htm)
(HN, 4/28/98)(HNQ, 5/26/98)

1795 Spring, Some 300 Indians fled Mission Dolores in San Francisco following a year of food shortages and disease that killed over 200. They sought refuge in the East Bay hills and Napa.
(SFC, 9/26/03, p.D15)

1795 May 4, Thousands of rioters entered jails in Lyons, France, and massacred 99 Jacobin prisoners.
(HN, 5/4/99)

1795 May 6, Dr. Pierre-Joseph Dessault visited the incarcerated 10-year-old dauphin, the heir to the French throne. He found the dying child in abject misery. The boy died June 8.
(WSJ, 10/18/02, p.W9)

1795 May 10, Jacques-Nicolas-Augustin Thierry, historian, was born.
(MC, 5/10/02)

1795 May 13, Joshua Ratoon Sands (d.1883), Commander (Union Navy), was born.
(MC, 5/13/02)

1795 May 15, Napoleon entered the Lombardian capital of Milan in triumph. After taking Milan he released his troops on the townspeople who became victims of an orgy of destroying, raping and killing. The events are described in the 1998 biography “Napoleon Bonaparte” by Alan Schom.
(SFEC, 1/18/98, BR p.9)(HN, 5/15/98)

1795 May 19, Johns Hopkins, founder of Johns Hopkins University, was born.
(HN, 5/19/98)
1795 May 19, James Boswell (54), friend and biographer of Samuel Johnson, died. His 1791 biography, the Life of Samuel Johnson,” changed the way biographies were written by its emphasis on character and careful research.
(ON, 11/06, p.10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Boswell)

1795 May 20, Ignac Martinovics, Hungarian physicist, revolutionary, was beheaded.
(MC, 5/20/02)

1795 May, Mungo Park, Scottish surgeon, sailed from England on behalf of the British African Association to search for the Niger River.
(ON, 7/00, p.10)

1795 Jun 8, In France the Dauphin (Louis XVII), son and sole survivor of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette, died at age 10 after succumbing to tuberculosis in the Temple prison. His heart was cut from his body when he died in prison, pickled, stolen, returned, and DNA-tested two centuries later. In 2002 Deborah Cadbury authored “The Lost King of France.”
(SFC, 4/20/00, p.A14)(WSJ, 10/18/02, p.W9)(AP, 6/3/04)

1795 Jul 7, Thomas Paine defended the principal of universal suffrage at the Constitutional Convention in Paris.
(HN, 7/7/98)

1795 Jul 9, James Swan paid off the $2,024,899 US national debt.
(MC, 7/9/02)

1795 Jul 14, “La Marseillais,” written in 1792, became the French national anthem.
(http://tinyurl.com/7a4p9)

1795 Jul 22, Spain signed the Peace of Basel, a treaty with France ending the War of the Pyrenees. The treaty ceded Santo Domingo to France.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peace_of_Basel)

1795 Aug 3, A defeated Indian coalition met with Gen. Anthony Wayne in a treaty council at Greenville, Ohio. The event is the subject of a painting by Howard Chandler Christy. From a review of 500 Nations by Alvin M. Josephy Jr., published by Knopf in 1995 to accompany an 8-hour television documentary.
(SFE Mag., 2/12/95, p. 18)

1795 Aug 15, Franz Joseph Haydn left England for the last time.
(MC, 8/15/02)

1795 Aug 20, Joseph Haydn returned to Vienna from England.
(MC, 8/20/02)

1795 Aug 31, Franxois-Andre Danican Philidor, composer, died at 68.
(MC, 8/31/01)

1795 Sep 1, James Gordon Bennet was born. He later served as the editor of the New York Sun, the first tabloid-sized daily newspaper.
(HN, 9/1/00)

1795 Sep 16, The Capitulation of Rustenburg: A Dutch garrison at the Cape of Good Hope surrendered to a British fleet under Adm. George Elphinstone.
(EWH, 4th ed, p.884)

1795 Sep 17, Giuseppi Saverio Rafaele Mercadante, composer, was born.
(MC, 9/17/01)

1795 Sep 23, A national plebiscite approved the new French constitution, but so many voters sustained that the results were suspect.
(HN, 9/23/99)
1795 Sep 23, Conseil of the Cinq-Cents (Council of 500), formed in Paris.
(MC, 9/23/01)

1795 Oct 4, General Napoleon Bonaparte led the rout of counterrevolutionaries in the streets of Paris, beginning his rise to power. France was in the midst of economic disaster—a factor that aided royalist counterrevolutionaries in their attempts to incite rebellion against the young republican government. Bonaparte, looking for a new command while on half pay in Paris, joined the defense of the Convention against overwhelming odds.
(HN, 10/4/99)(HNQ, 10/26/00)

1795 Oct 5, The day after he routed counterrevolutionaries in Paris, Napoleon Bonaparte accepted their formal surrender. Napoleon takes charge.
(HN, 10/5/99)

1795 Oct 11, In gratitude for putting down a rebellion in the streets of Paris, France’s National Convention appointed Napoleon Bonaparte second in command of the Army of the Interior.
(HN, 10/11/99)

1795 Oct 13, William Prescott, American Revolutionary soldier, died.
(MC, 10/13/01)

1795 Oct 24, Russia, Austria and Prussia held a convention in Petersburg to finalize the 3rd division of the Polish-Lithuanian Republic. Most of Lithuania with Vilnius went to Russia, Warsaw and the left bank of the Nemunas River went to Prussia and Cracow went to Austria. King Stanislovas Augustas of Poland was forced from his capital and moved to Grodno (Gardinas).
(Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.5)(MC, 10/24/01)

1795 Oct 26, Napoleon Bonaparte, second-in-command, became the army’s commander when General Paul Barras resigned his commission as head of France’s Army of the Interior to become head of the Directory.
(HN, 10/26/99)

1795 Oct 27, The United States and Spain signed the Treaty of San Lorenzo (also known as Pinckney’s Treaty), which provided for free navigation of the Mississippi River.
(AP, 10/27/97)

1795 Oct 31, John Keats (d.1821), English poet, was born in London.
(WUD, 1994, p.781)(AP, 10/31/97)(HN, 10/31/98)

1795 Nov 2, James Knox Polk, the 11th president of the United States, was born in Mecklenburg County, N.C.
(AP, 11/2/97)(HN, 11/2/98)

1795 Nov 28, US paid $800,000 and a frigate as tribute to Algiers and Tunis.
(MC, 11/28/01)

1795 Dec 3, Rowland Hill, introduced 1st adhesive postage stamp (1840), was born.
(MC, 12/3/01)

1795 Dec 4, Thomas Carlyle (d.1881), English (Scot) essayist, critic and historian, friend of Ralph Waldo Emerson, was born. His work included “The French Revolution” and “Sartor Resartus.” “A man doesn’t know what he knows, until he knows what he doesn’t know.” “No great man lives in vain. The history of the world is but the biography of great men.”
(V.D.-H.K.p.400)(SFEC, 6/28/98, Z1 p.8)(AP, 7/2/98)(HN, 12/4/00)

1795 Dec 14, John Bloomfield Jarvis, civil engineer, was born.
(HN, 12/14/00)

1795 William Blake painted his “Elohim Creating Adam.”
(SFC,1/21/97, p.A20)

c1795 Wilhelm von Kobell, German artist, made his watercolor “Staff Officers Listening to the Reading of the Day’s Orders.”
(WSJ, 7/16/98, p.A16)

1795 Charles Wilson Peale painted “The Staircase Group: Raphaelle and Titian Ramsay Peale.” He also did a portrait of Martha Washington. [see 1853]
(SFC, 1/25/97, p.E1)(SFEC, 7/27/97, DB p.35)

1795 Kitagawa Utamoro, Japanese artist, made his woodblock print “Oiran” about this time.
(WSJ, 4/24/96, A-12)

1795 Hutton’s “Theory of the Earth” appeared in book form, but did not impact the reading public due to his stiff style.
(RFH-MDHP, p.70)(DD-EVTT, p.17)

1795 Beethoven had a terrible bout of “continual diarrhea” while finishing his B-flat piano concerto.
(WSJ, 5/29/96, p.A1)

1795 Samuel Adams and Paul Revere laid the cornerstone for the Massachusetts State House in Boston. In 2014 crews removed a time capsule from the cornerstone.
(AH, 10/07, p.73)(SFC, 12/12/14, p.A11)

1795 The oldest tomato ketchup recipe, according to Andrew F. Smith author of “Pure Ketchup: A History of America’s National Condiment,” was written in Worcester, Mass.
(SFC, 7/3/96, zz-1,p.3)

1795 Jim Beam, US producer of fine Bourbon whiskey was founded.
(Hem., Dec. ’95, p.82)

1795 Franciscan priests first visited the site of San Ysabel in San Diego County.
(SFE, 9/16/96, p.A15)

1795 Britain reinforced its forces in St. Domingue. It was the largest expedition that had ever left England.
(SFCM, 5/30/04, p.12)
1795 Lime juice was issued to all British sailors to aid in prevention of scurvy. Captain James Cook (d.1779) had prepared a paper detailing his groundbreaking work against scurvy. He was awarded the gold Copley Medal-one of the highest honors of England’s Royal Society. Scurvy epidemics were once common among sailors on long voyages. Cook was the first to beat the problem, recognizing the need for an appropriate diet for his sailors.
(HNQ, 7/21/98)
1795 The British won a battle against the local Garifuna on St. Vincent’s Island.
(SFEC, 5/4/97, p.T11)
1795 In England the Coalport Porcelain Works began operations about this time.
(SFC, 5/28/08, p.G2)(www.thepotteries.org/allpotters/283.htm)

1795 In Nova Scotia, Canada, local youths on Oak Island stumbled on an unusual depression that appeared to lead to a shaft. For years treasure hunters dug down into what became known as the “Money Pit.”
(WSJ, 8/31/05, p.B1)

1795 A set of remains that the Spaniards believed to be of Christopher Columbus were dug up from behind the main altar in the newly built cathedral of Santo Domingo and shipped to a cathedral in Havana, where they remained until the Spanish-American War broke out in 1898, when Spain brought them to Seville. In 1877 workers digging inside the Santo Domingo cathedral unearthed a leaden box containing 13 large bone fragments and 28 small ones. It was inscribed “Illustrious and distinguished male, don Cristobal Colon.” The Dominicans said these were the real remains of Columbus and that the Spaniards must have taken the wrong remains.
(SFC, 1/18/05, p.A8)

1795 In Paris the Place de la Concorde, a public square designed by Ange-Jacques Gabriel in 1755, was renamed Place de la Revolution.
(WSJ, 10/26/99, p.A24)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Place_de_la_Concorde)
1795 France adopted the metric system. France had begun moving to base ten in the 16th century after using a vigesimal, base 20, system.
(Econ, 11/5/11, p.62)

1795 Georgia’s Narikala Fortress and the buildings of Old Tbilisi suffered at the hands of Persian invaders.
(Reuters, 6/2/17)

1795 Maruyama Okyo (b.1733), Japanese painter based in Kyoto, died. His work included a 50 mile scene in “Both Banks of the Yodo River.”
(WSJ, 12/1/98, p.A20)(SFC, 12/8/05, p.E1)

1795 The Loyal Orange Institution was established in Portadown to proclaim Protestant ascendancy. The Orange Order was founded as a force for uniting disparate Protestant denominations under one anti-Catholic banner. It was instrumental in creating Northern Ireland in 1921 shortly before the predominantly Catholic rest of Ireland won independence from Britain.
(SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1 p.6)(SFC, 7/12/99, p.A19)(AP, 7/12/13)

1795 Persians invaded Afghanistan’s Khurasan province.
(https://www.afghan-web.com/history/chronology/)

1795 Stanislaus Augustus Poniatowski, the last king of Poland, was forced to abdicate.
(WSJ, 2/15/00, p.A24)
1795 Poland and Lithuania were partitioned for the last time by Russia, Prussia, and Austria.
(Compuserve, Online Encyclopedia)

1795 The South African Cape was first occupied by the British.
(NG, Oct. 1988, p. 563)

1795 In Tripoli Pasha Yusef Karamanli deposed his older brother Hamet in a bloodless coup.
(ON, 10/06, p.8)

1795-1805 Elias Boudinot served as the director of the US mint.
(WSJ, 8/7/98, p.W13)

1795-1818 The US flag had 15 stars and 15 stripes over this period.
(SFC, 7/22/97, p.A11)

1795-1818 Carl Phillip Fohr, German artist.
(WSJ, 7/16/98, p.A16)

1795-1825 Joshua Johnson, the first professional African-American portrait painter, plied his art in Baltimore.
(SFC, 5/26/96, T-7)

1795-1840 New York state and local governments entered into 26 treaties and several purchase agreements with the Oneida Indians to acquire all but 32 of 270,000 acres. Almost none of the transactions were approved by Congress as required by a 1790 law.
(SFC, 1/13/99, p.A9)

1795-1874 Peter Andreas Hansen, Danish astronomer.
(WUD, 1994, p.644)

1795-1875 Christian Gottfried Ehlenberg, German naturalist, known especially for his studies of infusoria, i.e. microscopic organisms.
(OAPOC-TH, p.71)

1795-1921 The state of Poland was gobbled up by Russia, the Austro-Hungarian Empire and Prussia.
(SFC, 7/10/97, p.A7)

1796 Jan 5, Samuel Huntington (64), US judge (signed Declaration of Independence), died.
(MC, 1/5/02)

1796 Jan 8, Jean-Marie Collot d’Herbois (46), French Revolution leader, died in exile. He was a member of the Committee of Public Safety that ruled during The Terror.
(MC, 1/8/02)

1796 Feb 8, China’s Emperor Qianlong (1711-1799) abdicated in favor of his son. Despite his voluntary abdication, from 1796 to 1799 Qianlong continued to hold on to power and the Jiaqing Emperor (d.1820) ruled only in name.
(Econ, 2/5/11, p.95)(Econ, 2/5/11, p.95)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qianlong_Emperor)

1796 Feb 17, Giovanni Pacini, composer, was born.
(MC, 2/17/02)
1796 Feb 17, James Macpherson (b.1736), Scottish poet, died. In 1761 he had announced the discovery of an epic on the subject of Fingal written by Ossian (based on Fionn’s son Oisín). He then published poems by Ossian, the alleged blind 3rd century poet, which became very popular and later exposed as a fraud.
(WSJ, 7/26/08, p.W8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Macpherson)

1796 Mar 1, The 1st National Meeting was held in the Hague.
(SC, 3/1/02)

1796 Mar 9, Napoleon Bonaparte (26) married Josephine Tascher de Beauharnais (32) in Paris.
(AP, 3/9/98)(HN, 3/9/98)

1796 Mar 19, Stephen Storace (33), composer, died.
(MC, 3/19/02)

1796 Mar 31, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe’s “Egmont,” premiered in Weimar.
(MC, 3/31/02)

1796 Apr 2, Haitian revolt leader Toussaint L’Ouverture commanded French forces at Santo Domingo.
(AP, 4/2/99)

1796 Apr 3, The 1st elephant was shipped to the US from Bengal, India, by Broadway showman Jacob Croninshield.
(SFC, 11/18/00, p.B3)

1796 Apr 13, The 1st elephant arrived in US from India.
(MC, 4/13/02)
1796 Apr 13, Battle at Millesimo, Italy: Napoleon beat the Austrians.
(MC, 4/13/02)

1796 Apr 22, Napoleon defeated the Piedmontese at Battle of Mondovi.
(MC, 4/22/02)

1796 May 4, Horace Mann, “the father of American Public Education” educator and author, was born.
(HN, 5/4/99)

1796 May 10, Napoleon Bonaparte won a brilliant victory against the Austrians at Lodi bridge in Italy.
(HN, 5/10/99)

1796 May 14, English physician Edward Jenner administered the first vaccination against smallpox to his gardener’s son, James Phipps (8). A single blister rose up on the spot, but James later demonstrated immunity to smallpox. Jenner actually used vaccinia, a close viral relation to smallpox. [see July 21, 1721]
(Econ, 11/22/03, p.77)(AP, 5/14/08)

1796 May 19, A game protection law was passed by Congress to restrict encroachment by whites on Indian hunting grounds.
(DTnet 5/19/97)

1796 May 27, James S. McLean patented his piano.
(MC, 5/27/02)

1796 Jun 1, Tennessee became the 16th state of the Union.
(AP, 6/1/97)
1796 Jun 1, In accordance with the Jay Treaty, all British troops were withdrawn from U.S. soil.
(DTnet 6/1/97)

1796 Jul 4, The 1st US Independence Day celebration was held.
(Maggio)

1796 Jul 11, Captain Moses Porter led a party of American troops into Detroit. At noon, the Union Jack came down, and the flag of the United States was raised over Detroit for the first time. Under provisions of the Jay Treaty of 1794, the British had agreed to give up control of Michigan and other parts of the Northwest Territory they had occupied since the conclusion of the Revolutionary War.
(http://tinyurl.com/kuws9m3)

1796 Jul 15, Thomas Bulfinch, historian and mythologist (The Age of Fable), was born.
(HN, 7/15/01)

1796 Jul 16, Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot (d.1875), French painter, was born. His work included “Madame Corot” (1833-1835) and “Interrupted Reading” (1870-1873). He led the way toward new forms of perspective and composition that was later mined by impressionism and photography.
(SFC, 6/4/96, p.E5)(WSJ, 10/25/96, p.A15)(WSJ, 3/25/97, p.A16)(MC, 7/16/02)

1796 Jul 21, Robert Burns (b.1759), Scottish poet and a lyricist (Auld Lang Syne), died. In 2009 Robert Crawford authored “The Bard: Robert Burns.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Burns)(SSFC, 1/25/09, Books p.3)

1796 Jul 22, Cleveland, Ohio, was founded by Gen. Moses Cleaveland. Moses Cleaveland came to where the city of Cleveland now sits and surveyed the land. After three months he returned to Connecticut. The city bears his name.
(SFC, 6/2/96, T10)(AP, 7/22/97)

1796 Jul 23, Franz Adolf Berwald, Sweden, composer, was born.
(MC, 7/23/02)

1796 Jul 26, George Catlin, American artist and author, was born.
(HN, 7/26/01)

1796 Jul, Mungo Park, Scottish surgeon, reached the Niger River at Segou, (Mali). Mansong, the African chief at Segou, gave Park enough money to return to the coast. Park described his journey in his book: “Travels in the Interior Districts of Africa” (1799).
(ON, 7/00, p.10)(Econ 5/13/17, p.74)

1796 Sep 17, President George Washington delivered his “Farewell Address” to Congress before concluding his second term in office. Washington counseled the republic in his farewell address to avoid “entangling alliances” and involvement in the “ordinary vicissitudes, combinations, and collision of European politics.” Also “we may safely trust to temporary alliances for extraordinary emergencies.”
(WSJ, 5/31/96, p.A10)(WSJ, 6/17/96, p.A15)(HN, 9/17/98)

1796 Sep 19, President Washington’s farewell address was published. In it, America’s first chief executive advised, “Observe good faith and justice toward all nations. Cultivate peace and harmony with all.”
(AP, 9/19/97)

1796 Nov 3, John Adams was elected president. [see Dec 7]
(MC, 11/3/01)

1796 Nov 7, Catharina II (67), “the Great”, tsarina of Russia (1762-96), died. [see Nov 17]
(MC, 11/7/01)

1796 Nov 17, Napoleon Bonaparte defeated an Italian army near the Alpone River, Italy, in the Battle of Arcole.
(HN, 11/17/98)(MC, 11/17/01)
1796 Nov 17, Catharine II (67), empress of Russia known as Catharine the Great (1762-96), died. Over her 69 years she had at least 12 lovers including Prince Potemkin. [see Nov 7]
(MC, 11/17/01)(WSJ, 2/14/02, p.A18)

1796 Dec 7, Electors chose John Adams to be the second president of the United States. [see Nov 3]
(AP, 12/7/97)

1796 Dec 18, The Baltimore Monitor appeared as the 1st US Sunday newspaper.
(MC, 12/18/01)

1796 Dec 30, Jean-Baptiste Lamoyne (45), composer, died.
(MC, 12/30/01)

1796 Pierre-Paul Prud’hon (1758-1823), French artist, painted “Marie-Anne-Celestine Pierre de Vellefrey,” the portrait of a little girl.
(WSJ, 4/8/98, p.A20)

1796 British writer Jane Austen (b.1775) began her novel “Pride and Prejudice.” Its initial title was “first Impressions.” It was finally published in 1830.
(Econ, 12/24/05, p.104)(ON, 12/09, p.8)

1796 George Owen’s “History of Pembrokeshire” was published. It was written in 1570 and sets forth the principle of geological stratigraphy.
(RFH-MDHP, p.7)

1796 Immanuel Kant wrote his “Perpetual Peace,” advocating a world government.
(V.D.-H.K.p.317)

1796 The White House and Congress engaged in its 1st struggle over background documents. Pres. Washington denied a House request for documents on the Jay Treaty. The documents had already been shared with the Senate.
(WSJ, 2/26/02, p.A24)

1796 Supporters of John Adams in his victorious campaign against Thomas Jefferson, called Jefferson “an atheist, anarchist, demagogue, coward, mountebank, trickster, and Francomaniac.”
(WSJ, 10/8/96, p.A22)

1796 An Aleutian island named Bogoslof first appeared after an underwater eruption. Its base lay 5,500 down on the floor of the Bering Sea. By 2017 it measured 169 acres with a peak at 490 feet.
(SFC, 2/7/17, p.A6)

1796 Andrew Jackson was elected as Tennessee’s 1st congressman.
(SSFC, 10/30/05, p.M3)

1796 In [France] Michael Thonet was born in the Rhenish village of Boppard. He invented the classic bent wood chair.
(WSJ, 12/4/97, p.A20)

c1796 Austrian numbered bank accounts originated during the Hapsburg era.
(SFC, 6/13/96, p.C2)

1796 Harry Phillips (d.1840), a former clerk to James Christie, founded the Phillips auction house in London.
(Econ, 1/30/15, p.54)
1796 The British seized the island of Sri Lanka, then under the name of Ceylon.
(SFC, 6/20/96, p.A8)

c1796 The Orange Order was founded to commemorate the King William of Orange Protestant victory over Catholic King James II.
(SFC, 6/26/96, p.A8)

1796 Mary Lamb (31) killed her mother with a carving knife. England deemed her a lunatic and released into the custody of her brother Charles. In 1806 they published “Tales From Shakespeare.” In 2005 Susan Tyler Hitchcock authored “Mad Mary Lamb.”
(WSJ, 2/18/05, p.W6)

1796 Cuba exported Havana cigars to Britain.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

c1796 In Lithuania Elijah ben Solomon Zalmen, the Gaon of Vilna, urged Jews to study grammar, astronomy and other disciplines as well as the Torah. His writings survived and in 1996 were being stored under controversy in a Roman Catholic Church in Vilnius as property of the Lithuanian National Library.
(SFEC, 11/24/96, p.A15)

1796 Hacienda Santa Teresa began producing rum in Venezuela. In 1885 it was bought out by the Vollmer family.
(WSJ, 11/10/04, p.A8)

c1796 The Tutsi Banyamulenge arrived into Zaire.
(SFC, 10/10/96, p.A14)

1796-1797 Napoleon conquered northern Italy.
(SFEC, 1/18/98, BR p.9)

1796-1799 Brazilian Baroque sculptor Aleijadinho (Antonio Francisco Lisboa), completed his greatest work: the sculptures of Congonhas do Campo, 66 wooden images that include the 12 prophets.
(USA Today, OW, 4/22/96, p.10)

1796-1865 Thomas Chandler Haliburton, Canadian jurist and humorist: “When a man is wrong and won’t admit it, he always gets angry.”
(AP, 6/14/99)

1797 Jan 1, Albany became the capital of New York state, replacing New York City.
(AP, 1/1/98)

1797 Jan 11, Francis Lightfoot Lee (62), US farmer and signer Declaration of Independence, died.
(MC, 1/11/02)

1797 Jan 14, Napoleon Bonaparte defeated Austrians at Rivoli in northern Italy.
(HN, 1/14/99)

1797 Jan 31, Franz Schubert, Austrian composer, was born in Lichtenthal, Austria. His works included the C Major Symphony and The Unfinished Symphony.
(SFEC, 1/5/97, p.B11)(AP, 1/31/98)(HN, 1/31/99)(MC, 1/31/02)

1797 Feb 4, Earthquake in Quito, Ecuador, some killed 40,000 people. Riobamba was destroyed.
(www.newadvent.org/cathen/13061c.htm)(http://tinyurl.com/btbdc)

1797 Feb 9, John Quincy Adams’ (Sr.) emerged victorious from America’s first contested presidential election.
(HN, 2/9/97)

1797 Feb 12, Haydn’s song “Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser,” (popularized years later as “Deutschland Uber Alles,” by Nazis), premiered in Vienna.
(MC, 2/12/02)

1797 Feb 14, The Spanish fleet was destroyed by the British under Admiral Jervis (with Nelson in support) at the battle of Cape St. Vincent, off Portugal.
(HN, 2/14/99)

1797 Feb 15, Henry Steinway (d.1871), German-American piano maker, was born in Germany as Heinrich Steinweg. He move to the US in 1851. The name was anglicized in 1864.
(WSJ, 7/15/06, p.P8)(http://tinyurl.com/qn6dy)

1797 Feb 19, Pope Pius VI ceded papal territory to France in the Treaty of Tolentino.
(PC, 1992 ed, p.353)

1797 Feb 21, Trinidad, West Indies surrendered to the British.
(HN, 2/21/98)

1797 Feb 23, Antoine d’Auvergne (83), French opera composer (Coquette), died.
(MC, 2/23/02)

1797 Feb 26, Bank of England issued 1st £1-note.
(SC, 2/26/02)

1797 Mar 2, The Directory of Great Britain authorized vessels of war to board and seize neutral vessels, particularly if the ships were American.
(HN, 3/2/99)
1797 Mar 2, Horace [Horatio] Walpole (79), British horror writer, died.
(SC, 3/2/02)

1797 Mar 4, Vice-President John Adams, elected President on December 7, to replace George Washington, was sworn in. Adams soon selected Timothy Pickering as his secretary of state. Pickering extended aid to Haitian slaves in their ongoing revolt against French colonists. This policy was reversed under Jefferson.
(HN, 3/4/99)(SSFC, 11/2/03, p.M6)

1797 Mar 13, Cherubini’s opera “Medee,” premiered in Paris.
(MC, 3/13/02)

1797 Mar 22, Kaiser Wilhelm I, German Emperor (1871-88), was born.
(HN, 3/22/97)

1797 Mar 25, John Winebrenner, U.S. clergyman who founded the Church of God, was born.
(HN, 3/24/98)

1797 Mar 26, James Hutton, geologist, died.
(SS, 3/26/02)

1797 Mar 28, Nathaniel Briggs of New Hampshire patented a washing machine.
(AP, 3/28/97)

1797 Apr 14, Adolphe Thiers, 1st president of 3rd French Republic (1871-77), was born. [see Apr 18]
(MC, 4/14/02)

1797 Apr 18, Louis-Adolphe Thiers, president of France, was born. [see Apr 14]
(MC, 4/18/02)
1797 Apr 18, France and Austria signed a cease fire.
(MC, 4/18/02)

1797 Apr, A British armada of 68 vessels and 7,000 men under Scotsman Sir Ralph Abercromby attacked San Juan, Puerto Rico. The Spanish defenses held. A procession of women made up to look like soldiers caused the siege to be called off. An annual parade later commemorated this event.
(HT, 4/97, p.34)(SFEC, 2/13/00, p.T1)

1797 May 2, A mutiny in the British navy spread from Spithead to the rest of the fleet.
(HN, 5/2/99)

1797 May 10, The 1st American Navy ship, the “United States,” was launched.
(MC, 5/10/02)

1797 May 12, Johann Hermann Kufferath, composer, was born.
(MC, 5/12/02)
1797 May 12, George Washington addressed the Delaware chiefs and stated: “It is the duty of all nations to acknowledge the providence of almighty God, to obey his will, to be grateful for his benefits, and to humbly implore his protection and favor.”
(WSJ, 6/26/01, p.A23)

1797 May 18, Frederik Augustus II, King of Saxon (1836-54), was born.
(SC, 5/18/02)

1797 Jun 2, 1st ascent of “Great Mountain” (4,622′) in Adirondack, NY, was by C. Broadhead.
(SC, 6/2/02)

1797 Jun 11, Padre Fermin Francisco de Lasuen and a few Spanish soldiers established Mission San Jose on a little creek and grove of trees that they called Alameda. It was the 14th of 21 California missions. It was the end of a way of life for the local Ohlone Indians.
(SFC, 6/12/97, p.A17)

1797 Jun 17, Aga Mohammed Khan, cruel ruler of Persia, was castrated and killed.
(MC, 6/17/02)

1797 Jun 24, Mission San Juan Bautista, the 15th in California, was founded in the lands of the Mutsun Indians. Father Fermin de Lasuen blessed the future site of Mission San Juan Bautista in California.
(SFC, 6/21/97, p.A16)(SJSVB, 6/24/96, p.41)(SFC, 9/3/97, p.A17)

1797 Jun, In London, England, Hatchards bookstore on Piccadilly was founded.
(Hem., 5/97, p.99)

1797 Jul 7, The US House of Representatives exercised its constitutional power of impeachment, and voted to charge Senator William Blount of Tennessee with “a high misdemeanor, entirely inconsistent with his public duty and trust as a Senator.” Blount had financial problems which led him to enter into a conspiracy with British officers to enlist frontiersmen and Cherokee Indians to assist the British in conquering parts of Spanish Florida and Louisiana.
(MC, 7/7/02)

1797 Jul 9, Edmund Burke (b.1729), Irish-born British statesman, parliament leader, died. His writing included “Reflections on the Revolution in France” (1790). In 2013 Jesse Norman authored “Edmund Burke: The First Conservative.” In 2014 David Bromwich authored “The Intellectual Life of Edmund Burke: From the Sublime and Beautiful to American Independence.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Burke)(Econ, 5/25/13, p.85)(Econ, 7/5/14, p.69)

1797 Jul 10, 1st US frigate, the “United States,” was launched in Philadelphia.
(MC, 7/10/02)

1797 Jul 25, Presidente Fermin Francisco de Lasuen founded Mission San Miguel Archangel, the 16th California mission. He took possession of the land on behalf of Viceroy Branciforte. The mission facilitated travel between Mission San Luis Obispo and Mission San Antonio.
(SB, 3/28/02)

1797 Aug 30, Mary Wollstonecraft (Godwin) Shelley (d.1851), the creator of “Frankenstein,” or the Modern Prometheus, was born in London. Her mother died days later.
(AHD, p.1193)(AP, 8/30/97)(HN, 8/30/98)(Econ, 2/26/05, p.84)

1797 Sep 6, William “Extra Billy” Smith, Confederacy (Confederate Army), was born.
(MC, 9/6/01)

1797 Sep 10, Mary Wollstonecraft (b.1759), English writer, philosopher, advocate of women’s rights and the spouse of journalist William Godwin, died of septicemia. This was several days after the birth of her daughter, who later as Mary Shelley authored Frankenstein.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_Wollstonecraft)(Econ, 2/25/17, p.73)

1797 Sep 20, The US frigate Constitution (Old Ironsides) was launched in Boston. [see Oct 21]
(MC, 9/20/01)

1797 Oct 9, In Lithuania Elijahu ben Solomon Zalman (b.1720), the Great Gaon of Vilnius, died. He was one of the most influential Rabbinic authorities since the Middle Ages.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vilna_Gaon)

1797 Oct 16, Lord Cardigan, leader of the famed Light Brigade which was decimated in the Crimean War, who eventually had a jacket named after him, was born.
(HN, 10/16/98)

1797 Oct 21, The 44-gun 204-foot U.S. Navy frigate USS Constitution, also known as Old Ironsides, was launched in Boston’s harbor. It was never defeated in 42 battles. 216 crew members set sail again in 1997 for its 200th birthday. [see Sep 20]
(AP, 10/21/97)(SFC, 7/22/97, p.A1)(SFC,10/22/97, p.A6)

1797 Oct 22, French balloonist Andre-Jacques Garnerin made the first parachute descent, landing safely from a height of about 3,000 feet; at some 2,200 feet over Paris.
(AP, 10/22/97)(HN, 10/22/98)

1797 Nov 19, Sojourner Truth (d.1883), abolitionist and women’s rights advocate, was born. “Religion without humanity is a poor human stuff.”
(HN, 11/19/98)(AP, 10/29/00)

1797 Nov 29, Domenico Gaetano Maria Donizetti, composer (Lucia di Lamermoor, l’Elisir d’Amore), was born.
(MC, 11/29/01)

1797 Dec 13, Heinrich Heine (d.1856), German lyric poet, critic, satirist and journalist, was born. His works included “Trip to the Hartz Mountains” and “Germany, a Winter Tale.” “In these times we fight for ideas, and newspapers are our fortresses.”
(AHD, p.611)(AP, 7/18/97)(HN, 12/13/99)

1797 Dec 17, Joseph Henry, US scientist, inventor, pioneer of electromagnetism, was born. [see Dec 18]
(MC, 12/17/01)

1797 Dec 18, Joseph Henry, inventor, scientist and the first director of the Smithsonian Inst., was born. [see Dec 17]
(WSJ, 12/17/97, p.A20)

1797 Dec 29, John Wilkes (b.1725), British journalist and politician, died. He opposed King George’s policies in Massachusetts. In 1974 Audrey Williamson authored “Wilkes: A Friend to Liberty.”
(WSJ, 8/31/05, p.B1)(www.eastlondonhistory.com/wilkes.htm)(ON, 12/11, p.9)

1797 Franz Kruger (d.1857), German Biedermeier artist of cityscapes and rural genre scenes, was born.
(SSFC, 1/27/02, p.C7)

1797 Samuel Taylor Coleridge authored his “Rime of the Ancient Mariner.”
(CW, Winter 04, p.17)

1797 John Frere published his paper “The Beginnings of Paleolithic Archaeology.” It described his finding in 1790 Acheulean hand axes associated with the large bones of unknown animals (actually elephants).
(RFH-MDHP, p.81)

1797 Thomas Paine (1737-1809), English-American political activist, authored the pamphlet Agrarian Justice. Here he discussed the origins of property and introduced the concept of a guaranteed minimum income.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Paine)(Econ, 5/23/15, p.64)

1797 Mrs. Gannett of Mass. (1760-1827), born as Deborah Sampson, authored her memoir. She had fought in the American Revolution as a man under the alias Robert Shurtleff. In 2004 Alfred F. Young authored “Masquerade: The Life and Times of Deborah Sampson, Continental Soldier.”
(www.distinguishedwomen.com/biographies/sampson.html)(SSFC, 4/11/04, p.M4)

1797 The first recorded performance of an English-language drama, the tragedy Douglas, west of the Alleghenies took place here at Washington, Kentucky.
(HNQ, 8/8/99)

1797 In San Jose the first Juzgado (courthouse) was constructed. The Spanish Commandante Lt. Jose Moraga built a 1-story, 3-room adobe structure to house the jail, assembly hall and seat of government for the Pueblo de San Jose de Guadalupe that served until 1850.
(SFC, 7/14/97, p.A15,16)

1797 Father Juan Norberto de Santiago arrived in the area of Temecula in Riverside County, Ca., to build a mission and convert the Pechanga Indians (renamed Luiseno Indians by the Spanish).
(SSFC, 5/23/04, p.D5)

1797 James T. Callender, journalist, published charges concerning the alleged financial misdeeds of Alexander Hamilton. The information came from letters that Hamilton provided to interrogators around 1792 concerning funds paid to James Reynolds to keep quiet an affair with Reynold’s wife. The letters were passed from James Monroe to Thomas Jefferson, who passed them to Callender. Hamilton published a 28,000-word defense, Observations on Certain Documents, that revealed his relationship with Maria Reynolds and his payment of hush money.
(WSJ, 11/19/98, p.A12)(ON, 10/05, p.6)

1797 Thomas Jefferson (53) began serving as US Vice President. He was also elected president of the American Philosophical Society and continued to 1815.
(www.monticello.org/site/jefferson/private-banks-quotation)
1797 John Anderson, a Scottish farm manager, convinced George Washington that distilling whiskey would make money. In a six-week season each spring, Washington’s men netted about a million shad and herring from the Potomac River. The catch was then salted, packed in barrels, and exported. His diversified farming was less successful, largely because of his long absences from Mount Vernon.
(AM, 9/01, p.80)(HNQ, 8/30/02)

1797 A major fire in Savannah, Georgia destroyed two-thirds of the wood buildings from the pioneer period.
(SFC, 6/25/95, p.T-7)

1797 Australia’s first coal mining began at Newcastle.
(Econ, 6/6/09, p.39)

1797 A British publisher produced “The Young Man’s Valentine Writer,” a collection of writing and verses for men who couldn’t create their own.
(Econ, 2/15/14, p.54)(http://tinyurl.com/mp3582r)
1797 The Bank of England suspended the convertibility of its notes to gold in order to better finance Britain’s war with France. This continued to 1821.
(Econ, 11/5/11, p.92)

1797 Some 5,000 black Carib Indians, also known as Garifuna or Garinagu, were exiled from St. Vincent Island to Roatan Island off of Honduras. The Garifuna defined themselves not by country or territory but by language and culture.
(SFEC, 5/4/97, p.T11)(SFC, 4/27/98, p.A6)

1797 French forces attacked Britain at the port of Fishguard. The event was depicted in the tapestry “The Last Invasion of Brittain.”
(SFEC, 5/25/97, p.T5)
1797 In France Henry-Louis Pernod began to manufacture absinthe. The drink was made with fennel and aniseed and the oil of wormwood which contained thujone, a poisonous ketone.
(WSJ, 1/22/99, p.W8)
1797 The wine bottles of Chateau Lafite that date back to this year are recorked every 25 years to safeguard the wine and prevent deterioration caused by oxidation through decayed corks.
(WSJ, 11/26/97, p.A12)

1797 Switzerland began its the three-week “Fete des Vignerons,” a once-in-a-generation celebration of its winemakers. Its roots go back a century further when winemakers used to shame the country’s worst vineyard worker each year by crowning them in front of the church at Vevey, in the heart of the wine-producing canton of Vaud.
(Reuters, 7/18/19)

1797 Gammarelli was founded under Pope Pius VI as tailors to the clergy.
(SSFC, 12/28/03, p.I4)
1797 Venice, the city-state that liked to call itself La Serenissima, lost its independence and its empire. Ludovico Manin, the 120th doge of Venice, surrendered to Napoleon. A few months later Napoleon traded Venice to Austria which ruled it until 1866.
(WSJ, 1/9/97, p.A8)(SFEC, 8/24/97, p.T1)(WSJ, 9/19/97, p.A13)
1797 The Jewish ghetto in Venice was destroyed following the Napoleon’s invasion of Italy. This began the gradual liberation of the country’s ghettos.
(SFC, 12/2/08, p.E1)

1797 There was a naval battle at Cape St. Vincent off the SW tip of Portugal.
(WUD, 1994, p.1412)

1797-1801 John Adams, 2nd president of the US was in office. It was during his term that France and Britain, engaged in war with each other, insisted on the right to seize American ships. When the US protested French diplomats demanded bribes and a loan of $10 mil to stop the acts of piracy. Adams published the letters of the diplomats with the letters X,Y,Z (hence the X,Y,Z Affair) for the names of the diplomats. This enraged the populace and the country braced for war and called Washington in from Mt. Vernon to lead the army against France. Captain Thomas Truxtom captured a French frigate and defeated another French frigate in a sea battle and the French backed down. It was under Adams that the Alien and Sedition Acts were passed. These acts allowed the President sole discretion to banish aliens from the country and jail editors for writing against the President or Congress. This was vehemently opposed by Jefferson who led the Southern Republicans to adopt a resolution declaring that a state had the right to nullify a law believed to be unconstitutional.
(AHD, 1971, p.14)(A&IP, Miers, p.21)

1797-1815 Thomas Jefferson, the third president of the United States, served as president of the American Philosophical Society. A philosopher-statesman of the Enlightenment, Jefferson drafted the Declaration of Independence, was George Washington’s first Secretary of State and vice-president under John Adams. He was born in Virginia on April 13, 1743, and died on July 4, 1826.
(HNQ, 9/24/99)

1797-1849 Mary Lyon, American educator: “There is nothing in the universe that I fear but that I shall not know all my duty, or shall fail to do it.”
(AP, 4/27/98)

1797-1851 Mary Wollstonecraft (Godwin) Shelley (d.1851), English novelist, author of Frankenstein. Her mother, also Mary Wollstonecraft, died in childbirth of puerperal fever. Her death prompted Godwin to publish her memoirs.
(AHD, p.1193)(SFEM, 6/28/98, p.29)

1797-1856 Nicholas Marcellus Hentz, a pioneer collector of North American spiders. He was a skilled painter and has left some 90 intricately executed watercolors of spiders. He published descriptions in the Journal of the Boston Society of Natural History from 1842-1850.
(NH, 7/96, p.74,75)

1797-1858 Utagawa Hiroshige, Japanese artist, made numerous color woodblock prints.
(SFC, 12/26/98, p.C1)

1797-1863 Theophile Bra, French academic sculptor.
(SFC, 12/19/98, p.C18)

1797-1875 Sir Charles Lyell, British geologist. He wrote the “Principles of Geology” (1830-33) and had a profound influence upon the thinking of Charles Darwin.
(OAPOC-TH, p.71)

1798 Jan 1, Joseph Lancaster (19) opened his 1st low cost school in London, England, aimed at educating the children of poor. In 1803 he published the booklet “Improvements in Education, As It Respects The Industrious Classes Of the Community…”
(ON, 3/06, p.9)

1798 Jan 8, The 11th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was declared in effect by President John Adams nearly three years after its ratification by the states; it prohibited a citizen of one state from suing another state in federal court.
(AP, 1/8/08)

1798 Jan 11, Erekle II (b.~1720), Georgian monarch of the Bagrationi Dynasty, died. He had reigned as the king of Kakheti from 1744 to 1762, and of Kartli and Kakheti from 1762 until 1798. His name is frequently transliterated from the Latinized form Heraclius.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georgia_within_the_Russian_Empire)

1798 Jan 22, Lewis Morris (71), US farmer (signed Declaration of Independence), died.
(MC, 1/22/02)

1798 Jan 30, A brawl broke out in the House of Representatives in Philadelphia. Matthew Lyon of Vermont spat in the face of Roger Griswold of Connecticut, who responded by attacking him with a hickory walking stick. Lyon was re-elected congressman while serving a jail sentence for violating the Sedition Acts of 1798.
(AP, 1/30/98)(SFC, 4/27/00, p.A5)(WSJ, 10/29/04, p.W10)

1798 Feb 15, The first serious fist fight occurred in Congress.
(HN, 2/15/98)

1798 Feb 20, Pope Pius VI fled Rome to Siena. He was later arrested and deported 1st to Florence and then to France.
(PTA, 1980, p.500)(www.zum.de/whkmla/region/italy/papalstate17891799.html)

1798 Mar 4, Catholic women were force to do penance for kindling a Sabbath fire for Jews.
(SC, 3/4/02)

1798 Mar 9, Dr. George Balfour became 1st naval surgeon in the US Navy.
(MC, 3/9/02)

1798 Mar 13, Abigail Powers Fillmore, First Lady, was born.
(HN, 3/13/98)

1798 Mar 26, Tunis, under the rule of Bey Hamuda Pasha, signed a treaty of peace and friendship with the US following negotiations with William Eaton. The American Revolutionary War veteran had been recently appointed consul to the North African kingdom.
(ON, 10/06, p.7)

1798 Mar 29, Republic of Switzerland formed.
(MC, 3/29/02)

1798 Apr 3, Charles B. Wilkes (d.1877), American rear admiral and explorer, was born. In Jan, 1840, Wilkes coasted along part of the Antarctic barrier from about 150 degrees east to 108 degrees east, the areas that was subsequently named Wilkes Land.
(WUD, 1994, p.1634)(HNQ, 1/12/99)

1798 Apr 7, Territory of Mississippi was organized.
(HN, 4/7/97)

1798 Apr 19, Franz Joseph Glaser, composer, was born.
(MC, 4/19/02)

1798 Apr 26, Ferdinand Eugene Delacroix (d.1863), French painter, lithograph, etcher (Journal), was born.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eug%C3%A8ne_Delacroix)

1798 Apr 28, Joseph Haydn’s oratorio “The Creation” was rehearsed in Vienna, Austria, before an invited audience.
(AP, 4/29/07)

1798 Apr 30, US Department of Navy formed.
(MC, 4/30/02)

1798 May 2, The black General Toussaint L’ouverture forced British troops to agree to evacuate the port of Santo Domingo. After 5 years of fighting over 60% of 20,000 British troops were buried on St. Domingue.
(HN, 5/2/99)(SFCM, 5/30/04, p.12)(AP, 5/30/04)

1798 May 10, George Vancouver (40), British explorer, (Voyage of Discovery), died.
(MC, 5/10/02)

1798 May 19, A French armada of 335 ships carrying nearly 40,000 men set sail for Alexandria, Egypt, which Napoleon planned to conquer. In 2008 Paul Strathern authored “Napoleon in Egypt.”
(WSJ, 11/17/08, p.A17)

1798 May 24, Believing that a French invasion of Ireland was imminent, Irish nationalists rose up against the British occupation. It was put down by the Orange yeomanry who were enlisted by the government to restore peace. The slogan “Croppies lie down” originated here after some of the rebel Catholics had their hair cropped in the French revolutionary manner.
(SFEC, 7/12/98, p.A15)(HN, 5/24/99)

1798 May 26, British killed about 500 Irish insurgents at the Battle of Tara.
(MC, 5/26/02)

1798 Jun 4, Giovanni Jacopo Casanova (b.1725), fabled Italian seducer, adventurer, spy, librarian, died of prostate cancer in Dux, Bohemia. While at Dux he authored his memoirs: “History of My Life.” The standard English edition runs over 3,600 pages. In 2008 Ian Kelly authored “Casanova: Actor, Lover, Priest, Spy.”
(www.1911encyclopedia.org/Giovanni_Jacopo_Casanova_de_Seingalt)(WSJ, 10/24/08, p.W5)

1798 Jun 11, Napoleon Bonaparte took the island of Malta.
(HN, 6/11/98)

1798 Jun 13, Mission San Luis Rey [in California] was founded.
(HFA, ’96, p.32)

1798 Jul 1, Napoleon Bonaparte took Alexandria, Egypt. In 1962 J.C. Herold authored “Bonaparte in Egypt.” A corps of 150 civilian artists and scientists traveled with Napoleon’s troops to Egypt. In 2007 Nina Burleigh authored “Mirage: Napoleon’s Scientists and the Unveiling of Egypt.”
(SFC, 9/11/97, p.E3)(HN, 7/1/98)(ON, 12/99, p.4)(SFC, 12/14/07, p.E3)

1798 Jul 2, John Fitch, American inventor, clockmaker, died.
(SC, 7/2/02)

1798 Jul 7, Napoleon Bonaparte’s army began its march towards Cairo, Egypt, from Alexandria.
(HN, 7/7/98)

1798 Jul 11, The US Marine Corps was formally re-established by a congressional act. US Pres. John Adams signed legislation that established the US Marine Band, composed of 32 drummers and fifers. Continental marines had existed during the Revolutionary War, but had since been discontinued.
(SFC, 5/20/96, p.A-3)(HNQ, 8/1/99)(AP, 7/11/08)

1798 Jul 13, English poet William Wordsworth visited the ruins of Tintern Abbey.
(HN, 7/13/01)

1798 Jul 14, The Sedition Act, the last of four pieces of legislation known as the Alien and Sedition Acts, was passed by Congress, making it unlawful to write, publish, or utter false or malicious statements about the U.S. president and the U.S. government, among other things. Violations were made punishable by up to 2 years in jail and a fine of $2,000.
(AP, 7/14/97)(HN, 7/14/98)(WSJ, 10/29/04, p.W10)
1798 Jul 14, 1st direct federal tax in US states took effect on dwellings, land and slaves.
(MC, 7/14/02)

1798 Jul 16, The Marine Hospital Service was established in the Department of the Treasury under provisions of an act (1 Stat. 605) authorizing marine hospitals for the care of American merchant seamen. In 1902 it was redesignated the Public Health and Marine Hospital Service by an act of July 1, 1902 (32 Stat. 712),
(www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/090.html)
1798 Jul 16, US Public Health Service formed and a US Marine Hospital was authorized.
(MC, 7/16/02)

1798 Jul 21, Napoleon Bonaparte defeated Murad Bey and his Arab Mameluke warriors on the outskirts of Cairo at the Battle of the Pyramids, thus becoming the master of Egypt.
(WSJ, 11/17/08, p.A17)

1798 Jul 22, Napoleon captured Cairo, Egypt.
(PC, 1992, p.354)

1798 Aug 1, Admiral Horatio Nelson routed the French fleet in the Battle of the Nile at Aboukir Bay, Egypt. Nelson’s fleet of 14 ships led the attack on Napoleon’s fleet in Abu Qir Bay, capturing six and destroying seven of the 17 French vessels. The flagship of Napoleon’s fleet, L’Orient, sank in the battle. It was uncovered by a French team in 1998. More than 1,500 Frenchmen and 200 British soldiers reportedly died in the sea battle.
(AP, 4/19/05)

1798 Aug 21, Jules Michelet, French historian was born in Paris to a family with Huguenot traditions. He wrote the 24-volume “Historie de France”.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jules_Michelet)

1798 Sep 2, The Maltese people revolted against the French occupation, forcing the French troops to take refuge in the citadel of Valetta in Malta.
(HN, 9/2/98)

1798 Sep 11, Franz E Neumann, German mineralogist, mathematician and physicist, was born.
(MC, 9/11/01)

1798 Oct 12, The play “Wallenstein’s Camp” by Friedrich von Schiller premiered in Weimar. It was set in 3 parts during the 30 Years War as Gen. Albrecht von Wallenstein fought for Catholic Emp. Ferdinand II.
(www.schillerinstitute.org/fid_02-06/2005/051-2_Schiller_friends.html)(Econ, 8/25/07, p.78)

1798 Nov 1, Benjamin Lee Guinness, Irish brewer and Dublin mayor, was born.
(HN, 11/1/00)(MC, 11/1/01)

1798 Nov 4, Congress agreed to pay a yearly tribute to Tripoli, considering it the only way to protect U.S. shipping.
(HN, 11/4/98)

1798 Nov 16, Kentucky became the 1st state to nullify an act of Congress.
(MC, 11/16/01)
1798 Nov 16, The British boarded the U.S. frigate Baltimore and impressed a number of crewmen as alleged deserters, a practice which contributed to the War of 1812.
(HN, 11/16/98)

1798 Nov 19, Theobald Wolfe Tone, Irish nationalist (United Irishmen), died.
(MC, 11/19/01)(WSJ, 9/12/02, p.D8)

1798 Nov 30, Friedrich Fleischmann (32), composer, died.
(MC, 11/30/01)

1798 Dec 4, Luigi Galvani (61), Italian anatomist and physicist, died.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luigi_Galvani)

1798 Dec 14, David Wilkinson of Rhode Island patented a nut and bolt machine.
(MC, 12/14/01)

1798 Dec 17, The 1st impeachment trial against a US senator, William Blount of Ten., began.
(MC, 12/17/01)

1798 Dec 24, Russia and England signed a Second anti-French Coalition.
(MC, 12/24/01)

1798 Eugene Delacroix (d.1863), French artist, was born. His work included the “Baron Schwiter.”
(WUD, 1994, p.381)(WSJ, 7/1/96, p.A11)

1798 Thomas Robert Malthus authored his “An Essay on the Principle of Population As it affects the future improvement of society with remarks on the speculations of Mr. Godwin, M. Condorcet, and other writers.” His forecast for a population crash was based on the calculation that it was impossible to improve wheat yields as fast as people make babies. His 2nd edition in 1803 introduced the idea of moral restraint.
(www.faculty.rsu.edu/~felwell/Theorists/Malthus/essay2.htm)(Econ, 12/24/05, p.29)(Econ, 5/17/08, p.94)

1798 Samuel Solomon published “Guide to Health or, advice to both sexes with an essay on a certain disease, seminal weakness, and a destructive habit of private nature. Also an address to parents, tutors, and guardians of youth. To which one added, observations on the use and abuse of cold bathing” gave advice on topics including abortion, onanism, asthma, barrenness and bleeding. The main remedy for all ailments was Dr Solomon’s “Cordial Balm of Gilead.”
(http://tinyurl.com/2rrttq)(www.erudit.org/revue/ron/2001/v/n23/005993ar.html)

1798 Judith Sargent Murray wrote “The Gleaner,” a collection of essays pleading for changes in women’s education and alternatives to marriage.
(SFEM, 6/28/98, p.29)

1798 Samuel Taylor Coleridge and William Wordsworth published “Lyrical Ballads.”
(WSJ, 4/15/99, p.A20)

1798 Beethoven completed his piano sonata, Op. 10, No 3, begun in 1796.
(WSJ, 8/17/00, p.A20)

1798 Pres. John Adams stated: “Our constitution was made only for a moral and religious people. It is wholly inadequate to the government of any other.
(WSJ, 6/26/01, p.A23)

1798 US Vice President Thomas Jefferson and Virginia Congressman James Madison secretly wrote the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions. Jefferson became the active head of Republican Party. The Virginia Senate agreed to the Virginia Resolution on Dec 24.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kentucky_and_Virginia_Resolutions)
1798 In the Kentucky Resolutions Thomas Jefferson protested the Alien and Sedition Acts and maintained that “free government is founded in jealousy, not in confidence; it is jealousy and not confidence which prescribes limited constitutions, to bind down those whom we are obliged to trust with power.”
(WSJ, 5/18/95, p.A-14)

1798 America’s first national survey of the housing stock was completed by the federal government in order to set property values for taxation.
(AH, 4/07, p.48)

1798 The US Supreme Court ruled in the Calder vs. Bull case that Congress and the states could not pass any “ex post facto law.”
(SFC, 5/2/00, p.A3)

1798 Vermont Congressman Matthew Lyon (1749-1822), Irish-born former indentured servant, became the 1st person indicted under the Sedition Act of 1918. Lyon was convicted of sedition after he printed his honest opinion of Pres. John Adams. Vermont re-elected Lyon to Congress while he served his jail time. He later represented Kentucky (1803-1811) in the US House of Representatives.
(SFC, 3/24/00, p.B3)(WSJ, 10/29/04, p.W10)

1798 American seamen began paying 20 cents a month for a pension and hospitalization fund. US Navy service records date back to this time.
(AH, 2/06, p.12)(www.archives.gov/research/order/vets-records.html)

1798 The first big US bank robbery was at the Philadelphia Carpenter’s Hall, which was leased to the Bank of Philadelphia.
(SFEC, 2/20/00, Z1 p.2)

c1798 The Peabody Essex Museum was founded in Marblehead, Mass., by 22 sea captains to preserve the exotic treasures they brought back from their voyages. It is the oldest museum in the US.
(SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T9)

1798 Henry Cavendish, English chemist, came up with a reliable measure of the gravitational constant, G. His value was 0.000000000067 cubic meters per kilogram per second squared.
(NH, 11/1/04, p.20)

1798 Benjamin Thompson disproved the caloric theory of heat proposed by Antoine Lavoisier. Thompson went on to marry Lavoisier’s widow.
(WSJ, 12/10/99, p.W12)

1798 Edmund Fanning, an American explorer, 1st charted Tabuaeran coral atoll (part of the Gilbert Islands, Kiribati). Fanning Island Plantations Ltd. owned the island through the 1800s and exported coconuts.
(SSFC, 4/21/02, p.C22)

c1798 In Germany Aloys Hirt, founder of the Berlin Academy of Art, laid plans for an art museum to present art in a systematic fashion. This led to the 1830 Altes Museum.
(WSJ, 7/29/98, p.A13)

1798 Napoleon annexed Egypt.
(SFC, 9/11/97, p.E3)
1798 Ferdinand IV, King of Naples, fled in front of advancing French troops. He took with him some 20 art works from the Farnese collection, which included “Antea” by Parmigianino.
(Econ, 1/26/08, p.82)
1798 Napoleon expelled the Knights of Malta from their base in Malta. The Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem (SMOM), without citizens or territory, became a permanent observer at the UN in 1994.
(WSJ, 6/28/01, p.A1)
1798 The French National Assembly began sitting in the Palais Bourbon.
(Econ, 7/27/19, p.51)
1798 Henri Jomini (d.1869), began his military career volunteering his services to the French Army. With the peace of Amiens, he left the army and wrote his “Treatise of Grand Military Operations.” The book impressed Napoleon enough to have Jomini appointed a staff colonel in 1805, Jomini having volunteered again in 1804. Jomini rose to become chief of staff under Marshall Ney, but left the French army to fight for Russia in 1813 as a general and aide-de-camp of Alexander I.
(HNQ, 9/1/00)

1798 Oct, In Saint-Domingue (later Haiti) Gen. Toussaint L’Ouverture negotiated a secret peace agreement in which the British renounced all claim to the colony’s lands in exchange for the right to trade freely on an equal basis with France.
(ON, 2/10, p.7)

1798 Lord Edward Fitzgerald, an Irish rebel, was killed. He had fathered a daughter with Elizabeth Linley (d.1792), the wife of Richard Brinsley Sheridan.
(WSJ, 11/20/98, p.W6)

1798-1857 Auguste Comte, the French founder of the philosophical system of Positivism.
(WUD, 1994, p.303)(WSJ, 6/22/99, p.A22)

1798-1868 Jacques Boucher Crevecoeur de Perthes, French customs official, collected bones and chipped implements at Abbeville and Amiens that he recognized as the remains of man’s handiwork.
(RFH-MDHP, p.95)

1798-1993 Instances of use of US forces abroad, a report of 234 instances over this period other than peace time use.
http://www.history.navy.mil/wars/foabroad.htm

1779 Jan 5, Stephen Decatur, U.S. naval hero during actions against the Barbary pirates and the War of 1812, was born.
(HN, 1/5/99)

1799 Jan 30, The US Logan Act was enacted. It prohibited citizens from working against the government’s foreign policy.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logan_Act)(Econ 7/15/17, p.24)

1799 Feb 9, The USS Constellation captured the French frigate Insurgente off the coast of Wisconsin.
(HN, 2/9/97)

1799 Feb 10, Napoleon Bonaparte left Cairo, Egypt, for Syria, at the head of 13,000 men.
(AP, 2/10/99)

1799 Jan 14, Eli Whitney received a government contract for 10,000 muskets.
(MC, 1/14/02)

1799 Jan 25, Eliakim Spooner of Vermont received the 1st US patent for a seeding machine.
(MC, 1/25/02)

1799 Feb 7, China’s Emperor Qianlong (b.1711) died. He was the sixth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing Dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China (1735-1796).
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qianlong_Emperor)

1799 Feb 15, The 1st US printed ballots were authorized in Pennsylvania.
(440 Int’l., 2/15/99)

1799 Feb 24, Georg Christoph Lichtenberg, German scientist, satirist, and Anglophile, died. He is remembered for his posthumously published notebooks, which he himself called Sudelbücher, a description modelled on the English bookkeeping term “scrapbooks”, and for his discovery of the strange tree-like patterns now called Lichtenberg figures. “It is almost impossible to carry the torch of truth through a crowd without singeing somebody’s beard.”
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georg_Christoph_Lichtenberg)(http://tinyurl.com/qzlpuna)

1799 Mar 2, Congress standardized US weights and measures.
(SC, 3/2/02)

1799 Mar 6, Napoleon captured Jaffa, Palestine.
(MC, 3/6/02)

1799 Mar 7, In Palestine, Napoleon captured the Turkish citadel at Jaffa and his men massacred more than 2,000 Albanian prisoners. [see Mar 26] The prisoners were massacred because Napoleon claimed that he could not feed them. About this time bubonic plague broke out among his troops.
(HN, 3/7/99)(ON, 12/99, p.2)

1799 Mar 8, Simon Cameron, political boss, was born.
(HN, 3/8/01)

1799 Mar 12, Austria declared war on France.
(MC, 3/12/02)

1799 Mar 17, Napoleon Bonaparte and his army reached the Mediterranean seaport of St. Jean d’Acra, only to find British warships ready to break his siege of the town.
(HN, 3/17/00)

1799 Mar 19, Joseph Haydn’s “Die Schopfung,” premiered in Vienna.
(MC, 3/19/02)
1799 Mar 19, Napoleon Bonaparte began the siege of Acre ( later Akko, Israel), which was defended by Turks.
(AP, 3/19/03)

1799 Mar 26, Napoleon Bonaparte captured Jaffa, Palestine. [see Mar 7]
(HN, 3/26/99)

1799 Mar 28, NY state abolished slavery.
(MC, 3/28/02)

1799 Mar, Napoleon moved on to the Turkish fortress at Acre. His 2 month siege was unsuccessful. In 1999 N. Schur authored Napoleon in the Holy Land.”
(ON, 12/99, p.2,4)

1799 Apr 1, Narciso Casanovas (52), composer, died.
(MC, 4/1/02)

1799 Apr 14, Napoleon called for establishing Jerusalem for Jews.
(MC, 4/14/02)

1799 Apr 20, Friedrich Schiller’s “Wallensteins Tod,” the third part of his Wallenstein trilogy, premiered in Weimar.
(MC, 4/20/02)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wallenstein_%28play%29)

1799 Apr 27, In Saint-Domingue (later Haiti) Gen. Toussaint L’Ouverture signed a treaty of friendship with the US under Pres. John Adams.
(ON, 2/10, p.8)

1799 Apr 28, Francois Giroust (62), composer, died.
(MC, 4/28/02)

1799 May 4, In India Tipu Sultan was killed in a battle against 5,000 British soldiers who stormed and razed his capital, Seringapatanam. British forces defeated the sultan of Mysore at the Battle of Seringapatam.
(www.ndtv.com/convergence/ndtv/story.aspx?id=NEWEN20080048779)(SSFM, 4/1/01, p.42)

1799 May 17, Napoleon’s army began its overland retreat from Acre. The march to Jaffa took one week.
(ON, 12/99, p.4)

1799 May 18, Pierre de Beaumarchais (b.1732), French inventor and dramatist, died. In 2007 Hugh Thomas authored “Beaumarchais in Seville.” In 2009 Susan Emanuel translated to English “Beaumarchais: A Biography” by Maurice Lever (d.2006).
(www.theatrehistory.com/french/beaumarchais001.html)(SFC, 5/30/09, p.E2)

1799 May 20, Honore de Balzac, French novelist, was born in Tours, France. He is considered the founder of the realistic school and wrote “The Human Comedy” and “Lost Illusions.”
(AP, 5/20/99)(HN, 5/20/99)
1799 May 20, Napoleon Bonaparte ordered a withdrawal from his siege of St. Jean d’Acre in Egypt. Plague had run through his besieging French forces, forcing a retreat. Napoleon, in pursuance of his scheme for raising a Syrian rebellion against Turkish domination, appeared before Acre, but after a siege of two months (March–May) was repulsed by the Turks.
(HN, 5/20/00)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acre,_Israel)

1799 May 23, Thomas Hood (d.1845), English poet, composer (Song of the Shirt), was born. “I saw old Autumn in the misty morn Stand shadowless like silence, listening To silence.”
(AP, 9/23/98)(MC, 5/23/02)

1799 May 26, Alexander Pushkin, Russian poet (d.1837), was born (OC). His bicentennial in Russia was celebrated Jun 6,1999. [see Jun 6]
(HFA, ’96, p.30)(AHD, p.1062)(SFC, 6/3/99, p.C2)

1799 May 28, Napoleon ordered the retreat of all troops back to Egypt from Jaffa. The march lasted 17 days with one week to cross the Sinai.
(ON, 12/99, p.4)

1799 May, In Saint-Domingue (later Haiti) Gen. Toussaint L’Ouverture signed a trade agreement with Britain. Certain elements were kept secret in order not to alienate France.
(ON, 2/10, p.8)

1799 Jun 6, Patrick Henry, American orator, died at Red Hill Plantation, Va. Henry urged the restoration of the property and rights of Loyalists after the Revolutionary War. He believed that Loyalists would make good citizens of the new republic. Henry also bitterly opposed the Constitution as a threat to the liberties of the people and rights of the states. He believed that once the war had been won, a central authority was no longer needed. In 1998 Henry Mayer (d.2000) authored a biography of Patrick Henry.
(SFC, 7/28/00, p.D5)(HN, 7/12/02)(AP, 6/6/08)
1799 Jun 6, Alexander Pushkin (d.1837), Russian poet and the founder of modern Russian literature, was born (NC). He was the descendant of an Abyssinian slave of royal blood who was given to Peter the Great as a gift. His works included “Boris Godunov,” “Eugene Onegin,” and “The Queen of Spades.” [see May 26]
(HFA, ’96, p.30)(AHD, p.1062)(SFC, 6/3/99, p.C2)(HN, 6/6/99)(WSJ, 7/15/99, p.A16)

1799 Jun 17, Napoleon Bonaparte incorporated Italy into his empire.
(HN, 6/17/98)

1799 Jun 22, In France a scientific congress adopted the length of the meter as one ten-millionth of the distance along the surface of the Earth from its equator to its pole, in a curved line of latitude passing through the center of Paris. The congress used data gathered by astronomers, Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Delambre and Pierre-François-André Mechain. The established meter proved to be .2 millimeters too short, due to incorrect latitude data gathered by Mechain.
(http://etherwave.wordpress.com/2009/01/21/hump-day-history-the-length-of-the-meter/)(ON, 2/09, p.9)

1799 Jul 3, In Saint-Domingue (later Haiti) Gen. Toussaint L’Ouverture formally declared Gen. Andre Rigaud, the leader of a revolutionary army in the south and west of Saint-Domingue, a rebel.
(ON, 2/10, p.8)

1799 Jul 11, An Anglo-Turkish armada bombarded Napoleon Bonaparte’s troops in Alexandria Egypt. The attack was ineffective.
(HN, 7/11/00)

1799 Jul 17, Ottoman forces, supported by the British, captured Aboukir, Egypt from the French.
(HN, 7/17/99)

1799 Jul 25, On his way back from Syria, Napoleon Bonaparte defeated the Ottomans at Aboukir, Egypt.
(HN, 7/25/98)

1800 Jul 29, In Saint-Domingue (later Haiti) Gen. Andre Rigaud, defeated by Gen. Dessalines, set sail for France.
(ON, 2/10, p.9)

1799 Jul 30, The French garrison at Mantua, Italy surrendered to the Austrians.
(HN, 7/30/98)

1799 Aug 2, Jacques-Etienne Montgolfier (54), balloonist, died.
(MC, 8/2/02)

1779 Aug 10, Louis XVI of France freed the last remaining serfs on royal land.
(HN, 8/10/98)

1799 Aug 16, Vincenzo Manfredini (b.1737), Italian composer, died.
(MC, 8/16/02)

1799 Aug 22, Napoleon slipped through the British blockade of the Egyptian coast and returned to France.
(ON, 12/99, p.4)

1799 Aug 29, Pope Pius VI (b.1717) died in Valence, France.
(www.newadvent.org/cathen/12131a.htm)

1799 Sep 1, Bank of Manhattan Company opened in NYC. It was the forerunner to Chase Manhattan.
(MC, 9/1/02)

1799 Oct 7, Napoleon landed at Saint Raphael, 50 miles east of Toulon.
(ON, 1/02, p.11)

1799 Oct 16, Napoleon arrived in Paris and met with government leaders.
(ON, 1/02, p.11)

1799 Oct 24, Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf (59), Austrian composer, died.
(MC, 10/24/01)

1799 Nov 5, The Danish ship Oldenborg was wrecked on her outward passage by being beached in the roadstead at Cape Town, South Africa, during a north-westerly gale, thus becoming one of the 127 ships that have been lost on this minuscule portion of the South African coast.
(www.milhist.dk/weapons/oldenbur/oldenbur.htm)

1799 Nov 9, Napoleon Bonaparte instigated coup of 18 Brumaire and declared himself dictator, 1st consul, of France.
(HN, 11/9/98)(Econ, 9/20/14, p.77)

1799 Nov 22, Baroness van Dorth, organist, was executed.
(MC, 11/22/01)

1799 Nov 29, Amos Bronson Alcott, US educator and poet (Concord Days), was born.
(MC, 11/29/01)

1799 Dec 10, The metric system was established in France.
(MC, 12/10/01)

1799 Dec 12, Two days before his death, George Washington composed his last letter, to Alexander Hamilton, his aide-de-camp during the Revolution and later his Secretary of the Treasury. In the letter he urged Hamilton to work for the establishment of a nationally military academy. Washington wrote that letter at the end of a long, cold day of snow, sleet and rain that he had spent out-of-doors. He remained outside for more than five hours, according to his secretary Tobias Lear, did not change out of his wet clothes or dry his hair when he returned home.
(HNQ, 10/25/02)

1799 Dec 13, Washington awoke the following morning with a sore throat.
(HNQ, 10/25/02)

1799 Dec 14, George Washington (b.1732), the first president of the United States, died at his Mount Vernon, Va., home. Richard Brookhiser authored “Founding Father: Rediscovering George Washington.” The Washingtons at this time had 317 slaves. His 5 stills in Virginia turned out some 12,000 gallons of corn whiskey a year. In 1993 Richard Norton Smith authored “George Washington and the New American Nation.” In 2010 Ron Chernow authored “Washington: A Life.”
(A&IP, ESM, p.16)(AP, 12/14/97)(WSJ, 11/6/98, p.W15)(SFEC, 5/2/99, Z1 p.8)(SFC, 12/11/99, p.B6)(WSJ, 2/22/00, p.A40)(Econ, 10/23/10, p.102)

1799 Dec 18, George Washington’s body was interred at Mount Vernon.
(MC, 12/18/01)

1799 Dec, 21, William Wordsworth (29) and his sister, Dorothy, returned from a year in Germany to Grasmere in the Lake District. His Lyrical Ballads written jointly with Samuel Taylor Coleridge (27) had just been published. The ballads launched the Great Romantic Period in English literature.
(Hem, Dec. 94, p.71)

1799 Dec 24, A Jacobin plot against Napoleon was uncovered.
(MC, 12/24/01)

1799 Dec 25, Napoleon’s new constitution went into effect. It gave him, as First Consul, powers to promulgate laws, nominate senior officials, control finances and conduct negotiations with foreign powers.
(ON, 1/02, p.12)
1799 Dec 25, Chevalier De Saint Georges (b.1739), violinist and composer, died in Paris, France.
http://ChevalierDeSaintGeorges.Homestead.com/Page1.html

1799 Dec 26, The late George Washington was eulogized by Col. Henry Lee as “first in war, first in peace and first in the hearts of his countrymen.”
(AP, 12/26/97)

1799 In England Richard Sheridan wrote his play “Pizzaro.” It implied an equivalence between persecuted Indians and the Irish.
(WSJ, 11/20/98, p.W6)

1799 Jacques-Louis David created his painting “Rape of the Sabines.”
(WSJ, 4/6/05, p.D11)
1799 In Paris, France, the Passage de Panoramas, a covered arcade, was built on the site of the former Hotel de Montmorency-Luxembourg. It was the first building in Paris equipped for gas lighting.
(SSFC, 2/23/14, p.M4)

1799 Goya (1746-1828) made his famous etching “The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters,” in which fluttering bats hover darkly above a man dozing at his desk.
(WSJ, 11/3/95, p.A-12)

1799 Antonio Salieri (1750-1825), Italian composer, wrote his opera “Falstaff.”
(WSJ, 1/14/04, p.D10)

1799 The Musun Indians built a chapel at the California Mission San Juan Bautista.
(SFC, 9/3/97, p.A17)

1799 Sitka, Alaska, was founded by Alexander Baranof of the Russian American Company.
(AH, 6/07, p.69)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sitka,_Alaska)

1799 In Pennsylvania the Lazaretto Quarantine Station was built in Tinicum Township to protect the Port of Philadelphia against the introduction of diseases that could lead to epidemics. The Lazaretto closed as a hospital in 1890 but then served as a resort and seaplane base before the start of World War I. In 2019 plans called for converting the structure into township offices.
(AP, 8/22/19)

1799 Lord Elgin was appointed British ambassador to Constantinople. He was responsible for taking down the Metopes, sculptured by Phidias, from the Parthenon, and transporting them to England.
(RFH-MDHP, p.218)

1799 Pierre Bouchard [Boussart], an officer in Napoleon‘s army, discovered the Rosetta Stone in the city of Rosetta [Rashid], Egypt. The Rosetta Stone is a tablet with hieroglyphic translations into Greek. The stone is black basalt… and bears three texts: the uppermost is in early Egyptian hieroglyphic; the middle one in the Neo-Egyptian demotic script often used in writing papyri; and the lowermost text is Greek. Deciphering the stone, the work of English physicist Thomas Young and then French archaeologist Jean-Francois Champollion, led to an understanding of Egyptian hieroglyphic writing. Champollion published memoirs on the decipherment in 1822.
(NG, May 1985, R. Caputo, p.584)(RFH-MDHP, p.182)(HN, 7/19/98)(HNQ, 7/7/00)

1799 A South African hunter shot the last blaauwboch, the blue antelope (Hippotragus leucophaeus). Its numbers had been severely reduced by the introduction of domestic sheep by native Africans as early as 400AD.
(NH, 11/96, p.24)

c1799 In China at the close of the 18th century the White Lotus Movement led a violent uprising in northeastern China.
(WSJ, 4/26/99, p.A6)

1799 In Jaipur, India, the Hawa Mahal (the palace of wind) a five-storied sandstone building, was built by a Hindu king for his queen.
(Reuters, 5/14/08)

1799 The Dutch East India Company liquidated and the Dutch government took control over the islands of Indonesia.
(SFC, 9/8/99, p.A17)

1799 In Naples, Italy, a massacre of innocents occurred that was blamed on British Admiral Horatio Nelson.
(WSJ, 11/5/99, p.W12)

1799 Nagasawa Rosetsu (b.1754), Japanese painter based in Kyoto, died. His work included “Monkey on a Rock.”
(SFC, 12/8/05, p.E1)(SFC, 1/14/06, p.E10)

1799 The Russian-American Co. was chartered by Tsar Paul I. It expanded into Spanish California (see 1812) when sea otter populations declined in Alaska.
(SFC, 6/15/01, WBb p.7)

1799 Some 70 ships were lost in the Scottish Firth of Tay.
(SFEC, 10/3/99, BR p.3)

1799 Pope Pius VI died.
(WSJ, 4/28/00, p.W8)

1799-1804 Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859), German explorer, and Aime Bonpland, botanist, led an expedition to South America. They collected over 60,000 plants.
(http://geography.about.com/library/weekly/aa020298.htm)(CW, Spring ‘99, p.49)

1799-1914 This period in France was covered by Robert Gildea in his 2008 book: Children of the Revolution: The French 1799-1914.”
(Econ, 8/2/08, p.87)

References

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