Timeline of the Eighteenth Century: 1775-1799 2

1785 In Sweden the first Illis Quorum Meruere Labores (For Those Whose Labors Have Deserved It), a gold medal, was awarded.
(NH, 4/97, p.31)

1785-1812 This period in the life of Martha Ballard, Maine herbalist and mid-wife, was covered by Ballard in her diaries and later uncovered by historian Laurel Thatcher Ulrich and portrayed in a 1998 TV documentary for “The American Experience.”
(WSJ, 1/8/98, p.A7)

1786 Jan 4, Mozes Mendelssohn (56), Jewish-German philosopher (Haksalah), died.
(MC, 1/4/02)

1786 Jan 8, Nicholas Biddle, head of the first United States bank, was born.
(HN, 1/8/99)

1786 Jan 16, The Council of Virginia passed the Virginia Act for Establishing Religious Freedom. Thomas Jefferson had drafted The Virginia Act for Establishing Religious Freedom in 1779 three years after he wrote the Declaration of Independence.
(HN, 1/16/99)(WSJ, 12/14/02, p.W17)(http://religiousfreedom.lib.virginia.edu/sacred/vaact.html)

1786 Jan 26, Benjamin Robert Haydon, painter (Waiting for The Times, Wordsworth Ascending), was born in Plymouth.
(MC, 1/26/02)

1786 Feb 24, Wilhelm Carl Grimm (d.1859), compiler of “Grimm’s Fairytales,” was born in Germany.
(HN, 2/24/98)(WUD, 1994, p.623)
1786 Feb 24, Charles Cornwallis, whose armies had surrendered to US at Yorktown, was appointed governor-general of India. [see Sep 12]
(MC, 2/24/02)

1786 Mar 22, Joachim Lelevelis was born in Warsaw. He became a renowned historian and Prof. at Vilnius Univ. He died May 29, 1861 in Paris.
(LHC, 3/22/03)

c1786 Apr 6, Sacagawea (also Sacajawea), American explorer, was born.
(HN, 4/6/01)

1786 Apr 16, Sir John Franklin, arctic explorer, was born. He discovered the North-West Passage.
(HN, 4/16/99)

1786 Apr 20, John Goodricke (21), English deaf and dumb astronomer, died.
(MC, 4/20/02)

1786 Apr, The process of moving the bones from the Cemetery of the Innocents to the new site in the limestone quarries began. The process took 2 years. The Revolutionary Government of Paris had decided to relieve congestion and improve sanitary conditions by emptying the city cemeteries into an official ossuary. The Cemetery of the Innocents and other church cemeteries were moved to the limestone quarries south of the city.
(Hem., 3/97, p.129)(SSFC, 11/12/06, p.G3)

1786 May 1, The opera “The Marriage of Figaro,” by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, premiered in Vienna.
(AP, 5/1/97)

1786 May 19, John Stanley (74), composer, died.
(MC, 5/19/02)

1786 May 21, Carl W. Scheele (43), Swedish pharmacist, chemist, died.
(MC, 5/21/02)

1786 Jun 13, Winfield Scott, U.S. Army general famous for his victories in the War of 1812 and the War with Mexico, was born.
(HN, 6/13/98)

1786 Jun 19, Gen. Nathanael Greene died of sunstroke at his Georgia plantation. In 1960 Theodore Thayer authored “Nathanael Greene, Strategist of the American Revolution.” In 1973 William Johnson authored “Life and Correspondence of Nathanael Greene.”
(ON, 12/01, p.12)

1786 Jul 11, Morocco agreed to stop attacking American ships in the Mediterranean for a payment of $10,000.
(HN, 7/11/98)

1786 Jul 24, Jean-Louis Nicollet, French explorer, was born.
(HN, 7/24/02)

1786 Aug 8, The US Congress adopted the silver dollar and decimal system of money.
(MC, 8/8/02)
1786 Aug 8, Jacques Balmat and Dr. Michel-Gabriel Paccard became the first men to climb Mont Blanc in France.
(HN, 8/8/98)(ON, 4/04, p.1)

1786 Aug 17, Davy Crockett, American frontiersman and politician who died in the defense of the Alamo, was born.
(HN, 8/17/98)
1786 Aug 17, Frederick the Great (b.1712) died. In 2000 Giles MacDonogh authored “Frederick the Great.” In 2001 David Fraser authored “Frederick the Great: King of Prussia.” In 2015 Tim Blanning authored “Frederick the Great: King of Prussia.”
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_the_Great)(WSJ, 4/27/00, p.A24)(Econ, 9/12/15, p.77)(http://tinyurl.com/qeeh657)

1786 Aug 25, Ludwig I (d.1868), King of Bavaria, was born. He later had an affair with international courtesan, Lola Montez.
(MC, 8/25/02)

1786 Aug 29, Shays’ Rebellion began in Springfield, Mass. Daniel Shays led a rebellion in Massachusetts to protest the seizure of property for the non-payment of debt. Shays was a Revolutionary War veteran who led a short-lived insurrection in western Massachusetts to protest a tax increase that had to be paid in cash, a hardship for veteran farmers who relied on barter and didn‘t own enough land to vote. The taxes were to pay off the debts from the Revolutionary War, and those who couldn‘t pay were evicted or sent to prison. [see Jan 25, 1787]
(HNQ, 7/6/00)(www.shaysnet.com/dshays.html)(SFC, 8/3/16, p.A5)

1786 Sep 9, George Washington called for the abolition of slavery.
(HN, 9/9/98)

1786 Sep 11, The US Convention of Annapolis opened with the aim of revising the articles of confederation.
(HN, 9/11/98)

1786 Sep 12, Despite his failed efforts to suppress the American Revolution, Lord Cornwallis was appointed governor general of India. [see Feb 24]
(HN, 9/12/98)

1786 Sep 14, Two French ships appeared off the coast of Monterey, the first foreign vessels to visit Spain’s California colonies. Aboard was a party of eminent scientists, navigators, cartographers, illustrators, and physicians. For the next ten days Jean Francois de La Pérouse, the commander of this expedition, took detailed notes on the life and character of the area. Perouse’s notes were later published under the title “Life in a California Mission: Monterey in 1786: The Journals of Jean Francois De LA Perouse.”
(http://tinyurl.com/fbuud)

1786 Sep 26, France and Britain signed a trade agreement in London.
(HN, 9/26/99)

1786 Oct 20, Harvard University organized the 1st astronomical expedition in US.
(MC, 10/20/01)

1786 Nov 18, Karl Maria Friedrich Ernst von Weber, German composer (Der Freischutz), was born.
(MC, 11/18/01)

1786 Dec 18, Carl Maria von Weber, German romantic composer (Der Freischutz), was born.
(MC, 12/18/01)

1786 Dec 20, Pietro Raimondi, composer, was born.
(MC, 12/20/01)

1786 Dec 26, Daniel Shays led a rebellion in Massachusetts to protest the seizure of property for the non-payment of debt. Shays was a Revolutionary War veteran who led a short-lived insurrection in western Massachusetts to protest a tax increase that had to be paid in cash, a hardship for veteran farmers who relied on barter and didn‘t own enough land to vote. The taxes were to pay off the debts from the Revolutionary War, and those who couldn‘t pay were evicted or sent to prison. [see Jan 25, 1787]
(HN, 12/26/98)(HNQ, 7/6/00)

1786 Scotsman Gregor MacGregor (d.1845), later known as His Serene Highness Gregor I, Prince of Poyais, was born in Scotland. [see 1811]
(SSFC, 1/18/04, p.M2)(WSJ, 1/30/04, p.W9)

1786 Andres Lopez of Mexico painted “Sacred Heart of Jesus.”
(WSJ, 3/3/98, p.A16)

1786 George Morland painted “The Wreck of the Haswell.”
(WSJ, 9/3/98, p.A20)

1786 Tiepolo painted “The Third Temptation of Jesus.”
(SSFC, 12/17/06, p.M6)

1786 Robert Burns published his first book of poetry in Kilmarnock, Scotland.
(SFC, 9/30/98, Z1 p.3)

1786 Nicolas-Edme Restif de la Bretonne began writing in a new genre, the nighttime prowl. His “Les Nuits de Paris ou Le Spectateur nocturne” was a rambling account of 1,001 nights wandering the streets of Paris.
(SFCM, 10/14/01, p.35)

1786 Relations were formalized with the Moroccan–American Treaty of Friendship negotiated by Thomas Barclay, and signed by Thomas Jefferson, John Adams and Muhammad III.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moroccan%E2%80%93American_Treaty_of_Friendship)

1786 Rev. Henry Channing gave a sermon on the occasion of the hanging of a 12-year old mulatto girl, Hannah Ocuish, in New London, Connecticut.
(LSA., Fall 1995, p.20)

1786 Mission Santa Barbara in California was founded as a place for the Franciscan friars to assemble and convert the native Chumash Indians.
(SFEC, 5/4/97, p.T6)

1786 Encke, the most frequent visiting comet was first observed. Its period is only 3.3 years. NASA planned a rendezvous for 1984.
(NG, Aug., 1974, p.223)

1786 Meg Nicholson (d.1828) attempted to stab King George III. She was sent to Bedlam and died there at age 77.
(WSJ, 1/29/03, p.D10)
1786 William Playfair, Scottish draughtsman for James Watt, produced an “atlas” of Britain using 44 charts and no maps. It was titled “The Commercial and Political Atlas: Representing, by Means of Stained Copper-Plate Charts, the Progress of the Commerce, Revenues, Expenditure and Debts of England during the Whole of the Eighteenth Century.”
(Econ, 1/8/05, p.75)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Playfair)

1786 French explorer Jean-Francois de Galaup de la Perouse set foot near Makena Beach on the Hawaiian island of Maui.
(SFEC, 9/7/97, p.T5)

1786 Capt. Francis Light landed in Penang (Malaysia) and built Fort Cornwallis. Light, acting on behalf of the East India Company, swindled the island from the ruling sultan with a promise of protection. The British usurped the land to break the Dutch monopoly on the spice trade.
(SFEC, 8/3/97, p.T8)(SFEM, 12/19/99, p.8)(SFC, 12/8/05, p.E7)

1786 Muscat became the capital of Oman with the ascendance of the Al Busaid dynasty.
(www.marktoursoman.com/tours/showDestination.php)(SSFC, 6/9/13, Par p.16)

1786 Graaff-Reinet, the major town of the Easter Karoo in South Africa, was founded.
(Nat. Hist., 3/96, p.60)

1786 The secretive Swedish Academy was established by King Gustav III. It is not a government agency and its statutes say once a member is elected he or she cannot step down. The academy was set up to safeguard the Swedish language. It was later assigned to pick the winner of the Nobel Prize only in the field of literature.
(Reuters, 4/18/18)(Reuters, 3/5/19)

1786-1859 Marceline Desbordes-Valmore, French actress and poet: “Who will give me back those days when life had wings and flew just like a skylark in the sky.”
(AP, 2/28/99)

1787 Jan 11, Titania and Oberon, moons of Uranus, were discovered by William Herschel.
(www.skyhound.com/george.html)

1787 Jan 25, Shays’ Rebellion suffered a setback when debt-ridden farmers led by Capt. Daniel Shays failed to capture an arsenal at Springfield, Mass. Small farmers in Springfield, Massachusetts led by Daniel Shays continued their revolt against tax laws. Federal troops broke up the protesters of what later became known as Shays’ Rebellion. [see Aug 29, 1786]
(AP, 1/25/98)(HN, 1/25/99)(www.sjchs-history.org/Shays.html)

1787 Feb 4, Shays’ Rebellion, an uprising of debt-ridden Massachusetts farmers, failed.
(HN, 2/4/99)

1787 Feb 18, Austrian emperor Josef II banned children under 8 from labor.
(MC, 2/18/02)

1787 Feb 23, Emma Hart Willard, pioneer in higher education for women, was born.
(HN, 2/23/98)

1787 Mar 8, Karl Ferdinand von Grafe was born. He helped create modern plastic surgery.
(MC, 3/8/02)

1787 Mar 16, George S. Ohm, German scientist, was born. He gave his name to the ohm unit of electrical resistance. [HN later said Mar 16, 1789]
(HN, 3/16/99)(WUD, 1994 p.1001)

1787 Apr 12, Philadelphia’s Free African Society formed.
(MC, 4/12/02)

1787 May 10, The British Parliament impeached Warren Hastings. There was an effort to impeach the governor-general of India. Edmund Burke indicted Warren Hastings, governor-general of India (1773-1785), on 21 charges for high crimes and misdemeanors. The trial lasted 7 years and Hastings was acquitted on all charges.
(SFEC, 11/1/98, BR p.11)(WSJ, 5/1/00, p.A24)(MC, 5/10/02)

1787 May 13, Arthur Phillip set sail from Portsmouth, Great Britain, with 11 ships of criminals to Australia. By year’s end some 50,000 British convict servants were transported to the American colonies in commutation of death sentences. After the American Revolution, Britain continued dumping convicts in the US illegally into 1787. Australia eventually replaced America for this purpose. Penal transports continued until 1853, which left a remarkable legacy: an almost totally unexplored continent settled largely by convicted felons.
(HNQ, 1/24/99)(www.foundingdocs.gov.au/item.asp?dID=35)

1787 May 14, Delegates began gathering in Philadelphia for a convention to draw up the U.S. Constitution.
(AP, 5/14/97)

1787 May 25, The Constitutional Convention convened in Philadelphia after enough delegates showed up for a quorum. The Founding Fathers turned to the Rushworth’s Collections of England for revolutionary precedents. George Washington presided. [see May 25, 1777] Rhode Island refused to send delegates.
(AP, 5/25/97)(WSJ, 3/10/99, p.A22)(HN, 5/25/99)(Econ, 9/16/06, p.44)

1787 May 28, Johann Georg Leopold Mozart (67), Austrian composer, died.
(MC, 5/28/02)

1787 May 29, The “Virginia Plan” was proposed.
(SC, 5/29/02)

1787 May, Eight ships left Great Britain carrying the first of what would be the largest transportation of convicts in history to Botany Bay in New South Wales, Australia. Penal transports continued until 1853, which left a remarkable legacy: an almost totally unexplored continent settled largely by convicted felons.
(http://www.csmi.med.ed.ac.uk/session1/group65/index.htm)

1787 Jun 28, Sir Henry G. W. Smith, leader of British-Indian forces, was born.
(HN, 6/28/98)

1787 Jul 2, The Marquis de Sade shouted from Bastille that prisoners were being slaughtered.
(SC, 7/2/02)

1787 Jul 13, Congress, under the Articles of Confederation, enacted the Northwest Ordinance, establishing rules for governing the Northwest Territory, for admitting new states to the Union and limiting the expansion of slavery.
(AP, 7/13/97)(HN, 7/13/98)

1787 Jul 30, The French parliament refused to approve a more equitable land tax.
(HN, 7/30/98)

1787 Jul, The US Congress ratified the 1786 American-Moroccan Treaty of Peace and Friendship.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moroccan%E2%80%93American_Treaty_of_Friendship)

1787 Aug 2, Horace de Saussure, Swiss scientist, reached the top of Mont Blanc.
(MC, 8/2/02)

1787 Aug 6, The Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia began to debate the articles contained in a draft of the United States Constitution.
(AP, 8/6/97)

1787 Aug 10, Mozart completed his “Eine Kleine Nachtmusik.”
(MC, 8/10/02)

1787 Aug 13, The Ottoman Empire declared war on Russia.
(HN, 8/13/98)

1787 Aug 17, Jews were granted permission in Budapest, Hungary, to pray in groups.
(SC, 8/17/02)

1787 Aug 22, Inventor John Fitch demonstrated his steamboat, the Perseverance, on the Delaware River to delegates of the Continental Congress. In 2004 Andrea Sutcliffe authored “Steam: The Untold Story of America’s First Great Invention.”
(AP, 8/22/99)(WSJ, 7/27/04, p.D10)

1787 Aug 24, Wolfgang A. Mozart completed his viola sonata in A, K526.
(MC, 8/24/02)

1787 Sep 4, Louis XVI of France recalled parliament.
(HN, 9/4/98)

1787 Sep 17, The Constitution of the United States was completed and signed by a majority of delegates (12) attending the constitutional convention in Philadelphia. The US Constitution went into effect on Mar 4, 1789. Clause 3 of Article I, Section 8 empowered Congress to “regulate Commerce with foreign nations, among the several states, and with the Indian Tribes.” Two of the signers went on to become presidents of the United States. George Washington, the president of the Constitutional Convention, and James Madison both signed the Constitution. The US Constitution is the world’s oldest working Constitution. George Mason of Virginia refused to sign the document because he thought it made the federal government too powerful believed that it should contain a Bill of Rights.
(AP, 9/17/97)(WUD, 1994, p.314)(WSJ, 4/9/99, p.W17)(HNQ, 5/19/99)(WSJ, 3/31/06, p.A1)
1787 Sep 17, The US Constitution included the Connecticut, or “Great,” Compromise in which every state was conceded an equal vote in the Senate irrespective of its size, but representation in the House was to be on the basis of the “federal ratio,” an enumeration of the free population plus three fifths of the slaves.
(SSFC, 11/2/03, p.M6)
1787 Sep 17, The “College of Electors” (electoral college) was established at the Constitutional Convention with representatives to be chosen by the states. Pierce Butler of South Carolina first proposed the electoral college system. [see Sep 13, 1788]
(SFC, 11/9/00, p.A14)(WSJ, 11/9/00, p.A26)
1787 Sep 17, The Electoral College, proposed by James Wilson, was the compromise that the Constitutional Convention reached. In 2004 George C. Edwards III authored “Why the Electoral College Is Bad for America.”
(www.usconstitution.net/consttop_elec.html)(SSFC, 10/17/04, p.M3)

1787 Sep 27, The US Constitution was submitted to states for ratification. [see Sep 28]
(MC, 9/27/01)

1787 Sep 28, Congress voted to send the just-completed Constitution of the United States to state legislatures for their approval. [see Sep 27]
(AP, 9/28/97)

1787 Oct 27, The first of the Federalist Papers, a series of 77 essays calling for ratification of the U.S. Constitution, was published in a New York newspaper. The essays by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and John Jay were written under the pseudonym “Publius” and later published as “The Federalist Papers.”
(AP, 10/27/97)(WSJ, 11/19/98, p.A1)(WSJ, 12/29/07, p.A8)

1787 Oct 29, Mozart’s opera Don Giovanni opened in Prague. Don Giovanni was first performed at the Prague’s Estates Theater with Mozart at the piano and conducting the orchestra. It was a sensational success.
(V.D.-H.K.p.236)(SFC, 4/14/96, T-12)(HN, 10/29/00)

1787 Nov 15, Christoph W. Ritter von Gluck (73), composer (Iphigenie Tauride), died.
(MC, 11/15/01)

1787 Nov 18, Louis-Jacques Daguerre, French painter (daguerreotype), was born.
(MC, 11/18/01)
1787 Nov 18, Sojourner Truth, abolitionist and feminist, was born. [see Nov 19]
(MC, 11/18/01)
1787 Nov 18, The 1st Unitarian minister in US was ordained in Boston.
(MC, 11/18/01)

1797 Nov 19, Sojourner Truth (d.1883), abolitionist and women’s rights advocate, was born. “Religion without humanity is a poor human stuff.” [see Nov 18]
(HN, 11/19/98)(AP, 10/29/00)

1787 Nov 21, Samuel Cunard (d.1865), founder of the 1st regular Atlantic steamship line, was born in Canada.
(MC, 11/21/01)(WSJ, 7/1/03, p.D8)

1787 Nov 23, Anton Schweitzer (52), composer, died.
(MC, 11/23/01)

1787 Nov 25, Franz Xavier Gruber, Austria, organist and composer (Silent Night), was born.
(MC, 11/25/01)

1787 Nov 29, In France Louis XVI promulgated an edict of tolerance, granting civil status to Protestants.
(HN, 11/29/98)(WSJ, 11/1/01, p.A19)

1787 Dec 7, Delaware became the first state to ratify the U.S. Constitution.
(AP, 12/7/97)

1787 Dec 10, Thomas H. Gallaudet, a pioneer of educating the deaf, was born in Philadelphia.
(AP, 12/10/07)

1787 Dec 12, Pennsylvania became the second state to ratify the U.S. Constitution.
(AP, 12/12/97)

1787 Dec 18, New Jersey became the third state to ratify the U.S. Constitution.
(AP, 12/18/97)

1787 Dec, William Wilberforce, on the suggestion of PM William Pitt, introduced a motion in British Parliament for the abolition of the slave trade.
(ON, 4/05, p.2)

1787 Robert Barker, an Irish painter, is credited with inventing the panorama and patented the idea in this year.
(WSJ, 9/3/98, p.A20)
1787 Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) authored “Panopticon,” a plan for prison construction and management.
(SSFC, 9/12/04, p.M1)(http://cartome.org/panopticon2.htm)
1787 Peter Markoe (1752?-1792) authored “An Algerine Spy in Pennsylvania.” His satirical provocation helped to push the US Congress authorized a Navy and to dispatch Marines to subdue the pirates of Tripoli.
(WSJ, 6/2/07, p.P8)
1787 The Mission La Purisima Concepcion in Lompoc, Ca., was founded. It is now a 900 acre state park. (AWAM, Dec. 94, p.67)
1787 Rev. Richard Allen and Absalom Jones decided to form the Free African Society, a non-denominational religious mutual aid society for the black community. Eventually this society grew into the African Church of Philadelphia.
(www.pbs.org)
1787 Quatremiere de Quincy coined the term “Baroque” and defined it as absurdity carried to excess.
(WSJ, 8/18/99, p.A17)

1787 George Washington at this time owned some 30,000 acres in the West.
(Econ, 5/9/15, p.79)

1787 Alexander Hamilton sponsored a New York law that recognized adultery as the only ground for divorce. It remained in force until 1967.
(WSJ, 8/6/07, p.B1)

1787 Thomas Jefferson toured Bordeaux while serving as US ambassador to France. He purchased cases Haut-Brion, d’Yquiem, and Margaux for himself and George Washington.
(WSJ, 9/1/06, p.A9)

1787 In the US the Northwest Ordinance abolished slavery and marked the establishment of segregation and separate churches for blacks. It included the sentence: “Religion, morality and knowledge are necessary to good government…”
(SFC, 6/24/96, p.A19)

1787 A private mint struck the first penny. It was 100% copper and known as the Fugio cent.
(USAT, 7/19/01, p.3A)
1787 Ephraim Brasher, a goldsmith living in the Cherry Hill district of NYC, began minting gold doubloons, valued at $15, as currency for the new United States. In 1947 the film The Brasher Doubloon” was made based on a detective by novel Raymond Chandler. In 2011 a Brasher doubloon was sold for $7.4 million.
(SFC, 12/15/11, p.A1)

1787 The first left and right shoes were made.
(SFEC, 1/30/00, Z1 p.2)

1787 The younger brother of William Blake, Robert, died. His death deeply affected William and marked the genesis of Blake’s Illuminated Works.
(LSA, Spring 1995, p.17)

1887 In Argentina the last census to include blacks as a separate category indicated that about 2% of the population in Buenos Aires was African.
(SSFC, 11/27/05, p.A24)

1787 Granville Sharp, English abolitionist, formed the Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade.
(ON, 12/08, p.9)
1787 Thomas Clarkson, deacon in the Church of England, led the formation of the original abolitionist committee, the interdenominational “Committee to Effect the Abolition of the Slave Trade.” His anti-slavery committee distributed 1,000 copies of “A Letter to our Friends in the Country, to inform them of the state of the Business.” This was later considered as possibly the 1st direct-mail fund-raising letter. In 2004 Adam Hochschild authored “Bury the Chains: Prophets and Rebels in the Fight to Free an Empire’s Slaves.”
(SSFC, 1/23/05, p.F1)(ON, 4/05, p.1)
1787 Henry Hobhouse, a Bristol slave trader, bought the Hadspen country house in Somerset, England, and rebuilt it.
(Econ, 5/3/08, p.23)
1787 English ships transported some 38,000 slaves this year.
(Econ, 12/23/06, p.93)
1787 British settlers bought land from African tribal leaders in Sierra Leone and used it as a haven for freed African slaves. The indigenous community, dominated by the Mende, wiped out the first settlers. A 2nd group followed in 1792. The settlers intermarried but held themselves aloof, monopolized power and discriminated against the original population. In 2005 Simon Schama authored “Rough Crossings: Britain, the Slaves and the American Revolution.”
(SFC, 3/11/98, p.A10)(SFC, 2/14/98, p.A8)(WSJ, 5/31/00, p.A26)(Econ, 8/27/05, p.66)(MT, summer 2003, p.8)
1787 Gen. Thomas Gage, former commander of British forces in North America, died at age 66. In 1948 John Richard Alden authored “General Gage in America.”
(ON, 3/01, p.4)

1787 Carl Axel Arrhenius discovered the mineral ytterbite in Ytterby, Sweden. Two years later yttrium oxide was found in the sample and named. It took another 329 years for yttrium, a rare earth element, to be isolated from its oxide.
(SSFC, 11/25/12, p.E7)

1787 Nguyen Khan (b.1734), Annamese official and poet, died in Vietnam.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nguy%E1%BB%85n_Kh%E1%BA%A3n)

1787-1826 Joseph von Fraunhofer, German physicist, using advanced optical techniques, found that the spectrum of Newton’s rainbow ribbon is marred by a large number of thin dark crosslines. The lines are called Fraunhofer lines but were not explained until the work of Kirchoff 50 years later.
(SCTS, p.6)

1787-1863 Richard Whately, British theologian: “Honesty is the best policy, but he who acts on that principle is not an honest man.”
(AP, 1/24/01)

1787-1948 William Herschel and other astronomers spotted 5 moons circling Uranus during this period.
(SFC, 12/23/05, p.A4)

1788 Jan 1, London’s Daily Universal Register began publishing as The Times.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Times)
1788 Jan 1, Quakers in Pennsylvania emancipated their slaves.
(MC, 1/1/02)

1788 Jan 2, Georgia became the fourth state to ratify the U.S. Constitution.
(HFA, ’96, p.22)(AP, 1/2/98)

1788 Jan 9, Connecticut became the fifth state to ratify the U.S. Constitution.
(AP, 1/9/99)

1788 Jan 18, The first English settlers arrived in Australia’s Botany Bay to establish a penal colony. They found the location unsuitable and Capt. Arthur Philip moved on to Sydney Cove. England sent the first sheep along with convicts to Australia.
(NG, 5.1988, pp. 575)(SFEC, 1/4/98, p.T4)(AP, 1/18/98)(Econ, 5/7/05, Survey p.14)

1788 Jan 20, The pioneer African Baptist church was organized in Savannah, Ga.
(MC, 1/20/02)

1788 Jan 22, George Gordon (d.1824), (6th Baron Byron) aka Lord Byron, English poet, was born with a deformed foot. His work included “Lara,” “Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage” and “Don Juan.” He died in Greece at Missolonghi on the gulf of Patras preparing to fight for Greek independence. In 1997 the biography: “Byron: The flawed Angel” by Phyllis Grosskurth was published.
(WUD, 1994, p.204,917)(SFC, 6/9/97, p.D3)(SFEC, 11/15/98, Z1 p.10)(HN, 1/22/99)

1788 Jan 26, The 1st fleet of ships carrying 736 convicts from England landed at Sydney Cove, New South Wales, Australia. The first European settlers in Australia, led by Capt. Arthur Phillip, landed in present-day Sydney. The day is since known as Australia’s national day. In 2006 Thomas Keneally authored “The Commonwealth of Thieves: The Story of the Founding of Australia.”
(AP, 1/26/98)(HN, 1/26/99)(WSJ, 9/19/00, p.A1)(Econ, 7/15/06, p.83)

1788 Jan 31, Charles Edward Stuart (67), The Young Pretender, died.
(HN, 1/31/99)(MC, 1/31/02)

1788 Feb 1, Isaac Briggs and William Longstreet patented the steamboat on this day.
(440 Int’l, 2/1/1999)

1788 Feb 5, Sir Robert Peel (d.1850), British prime minister through the early 1800s, was born. He founded the Conservative Party and the London Police Force whose officers were called “bobbies.”
(HN, 2/5/99)(Econ, 6/30/07, p.93)

1788 Feb 6, Massachusetts became the sixth state to ratify the U.S. Constitution.
(AP, 2/6/97)(HN, 2/6/99)

1788 Feb 22, Arthur Schopenhauer (d.1860), German philosopher (Great Pessimist), was born: “Hatred comes from the heart; contempt from the head; and neither feeling is quite within our control.”
(AP, 12/9/99)(MC, 2/22/02)

1788 Mar 7, Alexander Hamilton published his Federalist Paper 65 in the New York Packet. It discussed the subject of impeachment.
(USAT, 9/14/98, p.4A)

1788 Mar 21, Almost the entire city of New Orleans, Louisiana, was destroyed by fire. 856 buildings were burned.
(HN, 3/21/99)(MC, 3/21/02)

1788 Mar 29, Charles Wesley, hymn writer and brother of John Wesley, died.
(MC, 3/29/02)(WSJ, 6/13/03, p.W19)

1788 Apr 4, Last of the Federalist essays was published. The series of 85 letters were written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay urging ratification of the US Constitution. Defects in the Articles of Confederation became apparent, such as the lack of central authority over foreign and domestic commerce and the inability of Congress to levy taxes, leading Congress to endorse a plan to draft a new constitution.
(MC, 4/4/02)

1788 Apr 5, Franz Pforr, German painter, cartoonist (Lukasbund), was born.
(MC, 4/5/02)

1788 Apr 12, Carlo Antonio Campioni (67), composer, died.
(MC, 4/12/02)

1788 Apr 15, Mary Delany (b.1700), English artist and writer, died. She became known for her “Flora Delanica,” a collection of 985 botanically accurate portraits of flowers in bloom. In 2011 Molly Peacock authored “”The Paper Garden: An Artist Begins Her Life’s work at 72.”
(Econ, 6/11/11, p.86)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_Delany)

1788 Apr 28, Maryland became the seventh state to ratify the US constitution, but on condition that a Bill of Rights be added.
(AP, 4/28/07)(WSJ, 9/20/08, p.A21)

1788 May 10, Augustin-Jean Fresnel, optics pioneer, physicist, was born.
(MC, 5/10/02)

1788 May 18, Hugh Clapperton, African explorer, was born in Annan, Scotland.
(SC, 5/18/02)

1788 May 23, South Carolina became the eighth state to ratify the U. S. Constitution.
(AP, 5/23/97)(HN, 5/23/98)

1788 May 29, Jacques Aliamet (61), French etcher, engraver, died.
(SC, 5/29/02)

1788 Jun 11, The 1st British ship to be built on Pacific coast was begun at Nootka Sound, BC.
(SC, 6/11/02)

1788 Jun 21, The U.S. Constitution went into effect as New Hampshire became the ninth state to ratify it.
(AP, 6/21/97)

1788 Jun 25, Virginia ratified the U.S. Constitution.
(AP, 6/25/97)

1788 Jul 6, Ten thousand troops were called out in Paris as unrest mounted in the poorer districts over poverty and lack of food.
(HN, 7/6/98)

1788 Jul 15, Louis XVI jailed 12 deputies who protest new judicial reforms.
(HN, 7/15/98)

1788 Jul 19, Prices plunged on the Paris stock market.
(HN, 7/19/98)

1788 Jul 20, The governor of the French colony of Pondicherry, Vietnam, abandoned plans to place King Nhuyen Anh back on the throne.
(HN, 7/20/98)

1788 Jul 26, New York became the 11th state to ratify the Constitution.
(AP, 7/26/97)

1788 Aug 2, Thomas Gainsborough (61), English painter, died. His work included the 1771 portraits of the Viscount and Viscountess Ligonier and “Blue Boy.”
(HN, 5/14/01)(AAP, 1964)(MC, 5/14/02)(WSJ, 12/19/02, p.D10)(MC, 8/2/02)

1788 Aug 8, King Louis XVI called the French States and Generals together.
(MC, 8/8/02)
1788 Aug 8, Louis FAD Duke de Richelieu (92), French marshal, died.
(MC, 8/8/02)

1788 Aug 27, Jacques Neeker was named French minister of Finance.
(MC, 8/27/01)

1788 Sep 13, The Congress of the Confederation authorized the first national election, and declared New York City the temporary national capital. The Constitutional Convention authorized the first federal election resolving that electors (electoral college) in all the states will be appointed on January 7, 1789. The Convention decreed that the first federal election would be held on the first Wednesday in February of the following year.
(AP, 9/13/97)(HN, 9/13/00)

1788 Sep 15, An alliance between Britain, Prussia and the Netherlands was ratified at the Hague.
(HN, 9/15/99)

1788 Sep 19, Charles de Barentin became lord chancellor of France.
(HN, 9/19/98)

1788 Sep 22, Theodore Hook, English novelist best known for “Impromptu at Fulham,” was born.
(HN, 9/22/98)

1788 Sep 23, Louis XVI of France declared the Parliament restored.
(HN, 9/23/98)

1788 Sep 24, After having been dissolved, the French Parliament of Paris reassembled in triumph.
(HN, 9/24/98)

1788 Oct 6, The Polish Diet decided to hold a four year session.
(HN, 10/6/98)

1788 Oct 24, Sarah Josepha Hale, magazine editor and poet whose book Poems for Our Children included “Mary Had a Little Lamb” (the first words to be recorded in sound), was born.
(HN, 10/24/98)

1788 Dec 18, Camille Pleyel, Austrian piano builder and composer, was born.
(MC, 12/18/01)

1788 Dec 23, Maryland voted to cede a 100-square-mile area for the seat of the national government; about two-thirds of the area became the District of Columbia.
(AP, 12/23/97)

1788 Dec 30, Francesco Zuccarelli (86), Italian rococo painter and etcher, died.
(MC, 12/30/01)

1788 Pierre-Paul Prud’hon (1758-1823), French artist, painted “Love Seduces Innocence, Pleasure Entraps, and Remorse Follows.”
(WSJ, 4/8/98, p.A20)

1788 Virginia’s state Capitol was completed.
(SFC, 5/10/13, p.E3)

1788 John Adams published “A Defense of the Constitutions.”
(WSJ, 12/22/98, p.A16)

1788 “The Narrative of John Blanchford” was published. Blanchford (15), a Massachusetts cabin-boy, had been captured by the British and sent to prison in Halifax and later to Sumatra from where he escaped after a 6 year ordeal.
(ON, 1/00, p.5)

1788 “The Art of Cookery, Made Plain and Easy” by Hannah Glasse was published in London.
(SFC, 5/4/05, p.G10)

1788 Mozart’s Don Giovanni was performed in conservative Vienna but was not a success.
(V.D.-H.K.p.236)

1788 Mozart composed his 41st symphony titled by his publisher as the Jupiter.
(T&L, 10/80, p. 103)

1788 Rules were set for the game of cricket.
(Econ, 4/24/04, p.81)

1788 “Buffalo clover… nearly knee-high… afforded a rich pasture.” An image of the fertile frontier penned by historian S.P. Hildreth. After 1907 the clover was unseen until 1989 when it emerged in some topsoil delivered to a botanist’s backyard.
(NG, Jan. 94, p.144)

1788 As British settlers arrived in Australia the native Aborigines are believed to have numbered about 750,000, and to have inhabited Australia for up to 70,000 years.
(AP, 1/30/08)

1788 A botanical garden opened in Puerto de la Cruz on Tenerife Island (Canary Islands).
(SSFC, 4/16/06, p.F7)

1788 A great fire destroyed much of the wooden city of Kyoto, Japan.
(WSJ, 1/25/06, p.D10)(www.city.kyoto.jp/koho/eng/historical/chronology.html)

1788 A salon from Paris of this time was later transferred [c1993] to the Legion of Honor Museum in San Francisco, Ca.
(WSJ, 11/16/95, p.A-18)

1788-1789 King George III suffered a mental breakdown.
(WSJ, 1/29/03, p.A1)

1780-1800 In 2007 Jay Winik authored “The Great Upheaval: America and the Birth of the Modern World, 1788-1800.”
(WSJ, 9/14/07, p.W5)

1788-1865 C.J. Thomson, Danish museum curator, contributed to the Three Age System classification of early man from stone to bronze to iron.
(RFH-MDHP, 1969, p.25)

1789 Jan 7, The first U.S. presidential election was held. Americans voted for electors who, a month later, chose George Washington to be the nation’s first president.
(AP, 1/7/98)

1789 Jan 21, Baron Paul Thierry d’Holbach (b.1723), a French-German author, philosopher, encyclopedist and a prominent figure in the French Enlightenment, died. In 2010 Philipp Blom authored “A Wicked Company: The Forgotten Radicalism of the European Enlightenment,” the story of the Paris salon run by Baron Paul Thierry d’Holbach.
(Econ, 10/30/10, p.90)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baron_d%27Holbach)

1789 Jan 23, Georgetown University was established by Jesuits in present-day Washington, D.C., as the 1st US Catholic college.
(AP, 1/23/98)(MC, 1/23/02)

1789 Feb 2, Armand-Louis Couperin (63), French composer, organist at Notre Dame, died.
(MC, 2/2/02)

1789 Feb 4, Electors unanimously chose George Washington to be the first president of the United States and John Adams as vice-president. The results of the balloting were not counted in the US Senate until two months later. Washington accepted office at the Federal Building of New York. His first cabinet included Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton as first secretary of the Treasury, Henry Knox, and Edmund Randolph.
(A & IP, ESM, p.10)(WSJ, 3/12/97, p.A18)(AP, 2/4/07)

1789 Feb 8, Ludwig Wilhelm Maurer, composer, was born.
(MC, 2/8/02)

1789 Mar 2, Pennsylvania ended the prohibition of theatrical performances.
(SC, 3/2/02)

1789 Mar 4, The Constitution of the United States, framed in 1787, went into effect as the first Federal Congress met in New York City. Lawmakers then adjourned for the lack of a quorum (9 senators, 13 representatives). In 2006 Robert V. Remini, historian of the US House of Representatives, authored “The House.”
(WUD, 1994, p.314)(AP, 3/4/98)(HN, 3/4/98)(SC, 3/4/02)
1789 Mar 4, Pavel P. Gagarin, Russian monarch, was born.
(SC, 3/4/02)

1789 Mar 16, George S. Ohm (d.1854), German scientist, was born. He gave his name to the ohm unit of electrical resistance. [WUD says Mar 16, 1787]
(HN, 3/16/02)(WUD, 1994 p.1001)

1789 Apr 1, The U.S. House of Representatives held its first full meeting, in New York City. Frederick Muhlenberg of Pennsylvania was elected the first House Speaker.
(AP, 4/1/98)

1789 Apr 6, The first US Congress began regular sessions at Federal Hall on Wall Street, NYC.
(HN, 4/6/98)(MC, 4/6/02)

1789 Apr 8, The U.S. House of Representatives held its first meeting.
(HN, 4/8/98)

1789 Apr 16, George Washington left Mount Vernon, Va., for the first presidential inauguration in New York.
(AP, 4/16/97)(HN, 4/16/98)

1789 Apr 21, John Adams was sworn in as the first vice president of the United States.
(AP, 4/21/97)(HN, 4/21/98)

1789 Apr 23, President-elect Washington and his wife moved into the first executive mansion, the Franklin House, in New York. George Washington was inaugurated at Federal Hall and lived at 3 Cherry Street in New York City. In 1790, with construction on the new federal capital underway, the government was moved temporarily to Philadelphia, where Washington served out his two terms. He is the only president who never resided in the White House.
(AP, 4/23/97)(HNPD, 12/22/98)

1789 Apr 28, Fletcher Christian lead a mutiny on the Bounty as the crew of the British ship set Captain William Bligh and 18 sailors adrift in a launch in the South Pacific. Richard Hough later authored: “Captain Bligh and Mr. Christian.”
http://www.visi.com/~pjlareau//bounty1.html
(AP, 4/28/97)(HN, 4/28/98)(SFC, 10/9/99, p.A20)(MC, 4/28/02)

1789 Apr 30, George Washington was inaugurated and took office in New York as the first president of the United States. He took his oath of office on the balcony of Federal Hall on Wall Street and spoke the words “So help me God,” which all future US presidents have repeated. The oath as prescribed by the Constitution makes no mention of God of the Bible.
(AP, 4/30/97)(HN, 4/30/98)(SSFC, 1/18/09, p.W4)(AH, 4/07, p.31)

1789 May 5, In France the Estates General, summoned by King Louis XVI, convened to repair the national finances. It sat for several weeks in May and June, but came to an impasse as the three Estates clashed over their respective powers. It was brought to an end when many members of the Third Estate formed themselves into a National Assembly, signaling the outbreak of the French Revolution.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Estates-General_of_1789)

1789 May 7, The first inaugural ball was held in New York in honor of President and Mrs. George Washington.
(AP, 5/7/97)

1789 May 10, Joaquim Jose da Silva Xavier, Tiradentes, rebel for Independence, was arrested. He was betrayed by Joaquim Silverio dos Reis, a participant of the movement, in exchange of waiving of his due taxes; Silverio’s name is carved in Brazilian History as The Betrayer.
(SFC, 2/26/99, p.E2)(www.v-brazil.com/culture/historic-characters/tiradentes.html)

1789 May 12, The Society of St. Tammany was formed by Revolutionary War soldiers. It later became an infamous group of NYC political bosses.
(SC, internet, 5/12/97)
1789 May 12, In England William Wilberforce laid out his case for the abolition of slavery to the House of Commons. This speech directly led to Britain’s abolition of slavery in 1807.
(WSJ, 5/12/07, p.P14)

1789 Jun 1, Congress passed its first act which mandated the procedure for administering oaths of public office.
(DTnet 6/1/97)(HN, 6/1/98)

1789 Jun 4, The US constitution, enacted as sovereign law, went into effect.
(V.D.-H.K.p.300)(MC, 6/4/02)

1789 Jun 10, Bernard-Jordan de Launay, military governor of the Bastille, suspended the prisoners’ daily supervised walks outside the Bastille walls.
(ON, 4/01, p.1)

1789 Jun 14, Captain William Bligh of the HMS Bounty arrived in Timor in a small boat.
(HN, 6/14/98)

1789 Jun 17, The Third Estate in France declared itself a national assembly, and undertook to frame a constitution.
(AP, 6/17/97)

1789 Jun 20, Oath on the Tennis Court in Versailles, France, bonded members of the Third Estate to resist eviction until they have a new constitution.
(MC, 6/20/02)

1789 Jul 4, The US passed its first tariff which included a 15% duty on imported nails among other things.
(Maggio)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)

1789 Jul 9, In Versailles, the French National Assembly declared itself the Constituent Assembly and began to prepare a French constitution.
(HN, 7/9/98)

1789 cJul 11, In France just days before the Bastille was taken the tavern keepers and wine merchants of Belleville, angered by levies on food and drink, sacked the local tax collector’s office.
(SFEC, 6/28/98, p.T8)

1789 Jul 13, Parisians rioted over an increase in price of grain. The mob plundered the armories and opened the prison gates of St. Lazare. The King at Versailles refused to withdraw his troops from Paris.
(MC, 7/13/02)

1789 July 14, Bastille Day. Tens of thousands of the citizens of Paris stormed the Bastille, the Paris fortress used as a prison to hold political prisoners, and released the seven prisoners inside at the onset of the French Revolution. Over 100 rioters were killed or wounded. The average Frenchman was 5 foot 2 and weighed 105 pounds. France’s Louis XIV made a diary entry that read “Rien” (nothing). Historian Francois Furet (1927-1997), a leading writer on the French Revolution, was best known for his work: “Critical Dictionary of the French Revolution.” He refuted Marxist interpretations of the events that preceded and followed the fall of the monarchy. In 1939 W. Higgins edited “The French Revolution Told by Contemporaries.”
(AP, 7/14/97)(HN, 7/14/98)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R12)(ON, 4/01, p.1)(Econ, 6/25/05, p.52)(SFC, 7/15/97, p.A18)
1789 Jul 14, The French Revolution. “It was not the literate and cultured minority of Frenchmen who brought down the government, as had been the case in England and America. Instead it was the common people, who marched upon the king and queen in their palace at Versailles. The Jacobins promulgated a Declaration of Rights of Man and of the Citizen that went beyond the American Bill of Rights in affirming, “Nothing that is not forbidden by Law may be hindered, and no one may be compelled to do what the Law does not ordain,” for “Liberty consists in being able to do anything that does not harm others.”
(V.D.-H.K.p.230-231)(SFC, 6/23/96, Z1 p.2)

1789 Jul 15, The electors of Paris set up a “Commune” to live without the authority of the government.
(HN, 7/15/98)

1789 Jul 18, Robespierre, a deputy from Arras, France, decided to back the French Revolution.
(HN, 7/18/98)

1789 Jul 22, Thomas Jefferson became the first head of the U.S. Department of Foreign Affairs.
(HN, 7/22/98)

1789 Jul 23, The Great Fear swept through France as the Revolution continued.
(MC, 7/23/02)

1789 Jul 27, President Washington signed a measure establishing the Department of Foreign Affairs, forerunner of the Department of State.
(AP, 7/27/08)

1789 Aug 4, The Constituent Assembly in France dissolved feudal system by abolishing the privileges of nobility.
(HN, 8/4/98)(MC, 8/4/02)

1789 Aug 7, The U.S. War Department was established by Congress.
(AP, 8/7/97)

1789 Aug 21, Augustin-Louis Baron Cauchy, French mathematician, was born.
(SC, 8/21/02)

1789 Aug 25, Mary Ball Washington, mother of George, died.
(MC, 8/25/02)

1789 Aug 26, The Constituent Assembly in Versailles, France, approved the final version of the Declaration of Human Rights.
(HN, 8/26/99)

1789 Aug 27, French National Assembly issued “Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen.”
(MC, 8/27/01)

1789 Sep 1, Lady Marguerite Blessington, beautiful English socialite and author, was born. She wrote a biography of Lord Byron.
(HN, 9/1/99)

1789 Sep 2, The US Congress created a permanent institution for the management of government finances. The Treasury Department, headed by Alexander Hamilton, was created in New York City and housed in Fraunces Tavern at 54 Pearl St.
(http://tinyurl.com/yd4v7gtb)(AP, 9/2/97)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R43)

1789 Sep 11, Alexander Hamilton was appointed the first U.S. secretary of the treasury. During his tenure, Hamilton established the National Bank, introduced an excise tax, suppressed the Whiskey Rebellion and spearheaded the effort for the federal government to assume the debts of the states. In the presidential election of 1800, Hamilton broke the deadlock between Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr by supporting Jefferson. The enmity between Hamilton and his longtime political enemy Burr grew worse during the 1804 campaign for governor of New York.
(AP, 9/11/97)(HNPD, 1/11/99)

1789 Sep 12, Franz Xaver Richter, composer, died at 79.
(MC, 9/12/01)

1789 Sep 13, Start of the US National Debt as the government took out its first loan, borrowed from the Bank of North America (NYC) at 6 percent interest. The US debt had reached $77 million when Washington became president.
(MC, 9/13/01)(WSJ, 10/1/03, p.B1)
1789 Sep 13, Guardsmen in Orleans, France, opened fire on rioters trying to loot bakeries, killing 90.
(HN, 9/13/98)

1789 Sep 15, James Fenimore Cooper (d.1851), American novelist, was born in Burlington, NJ. He is best known for “The Pioneers” and “Last of the Mohicans.” “The press, like fire, is an excellent servant, but a terrible master.”
(AP, 6/25/97)(HN, 9/15/99)
1789 Sep 15, The U.S. Department of Foreign Affairs was renamed the Department of State.
(AP, 9/15/97)

1789 Sep 16, Jean-Paul Marat set up a new newspaper in France, L’Ami du Peuple (The Friend of the People).
(HN, 9/16/98)(ON, SC, p.7)

1789 Sep 18, The 1st loan was made to pay salaries of the US president & Congress. [see Sep 13]
(MC, 9/18/01)

1789 Sep 22, The US Act 1 Stat. 70 temporarily established a post office and created the Office of the Postmaster General.
(AP, 9/22/97)(www.usps.com/history/his1_5.htm)
1789 Sep 22, Russian forces under Aleksandr Suvorov drove the Turkish army under Yusuf Pasha from the Rymnik River, upsetting the Turkish invasion of Russia.
(HN, 9/22/99)

1789 Sep 24, President George Washington appointed John Jay as the 1st Chief Justice.
(MC, 9/24/01)
1789 Sep 24, The US Federal Judiciary Act was passed. It created a six-person Supreme Court and provided for an Attorney General.
(AP, 9/24/97)(AH, 10/04, p.14)

1789 Sep 25, The First Federal Congress of the United States, meeting in NYC, proposed to the state legislatures twelve amendments to the Constitution. The first two, concerning the number of constituents for each Representative and the compensation of Congressmen, were not ratified.* Articles three through twelve, known as the Bill of Rights, became the first ten amendments to the US Constitution and contained guarantees of essential rights and liberties omitted in the crafting of the original document. 14 copies were hand written and 13 were sent to the individual states.
(http://www.loc.gov/rr//program/bib/ourdocs/billofrights.html)(SFC, 1/20/02, p.A11)

1789 Sep 26, Thomas Jefferson was appointed America’s first Secretary of State; John Jay the first chief justice of the United States; Samuel Osgood the first Postmaster-General; and Edmund Jennings Randolph the first Attorney General. The US Congress had created the position of attorney general as a part-time gig. The salary lagged well behind other executive positions, and lacked congressional appropriations for office space and supplies.
(AP, 9/26/97)(SFC, 8/16/99, p.A21)(Bloomberg, 9/29/19)

1789 Sep 28, Richard Bright, physician (Bright’s Disease, nephritis), was born in England.
(MC, 9/28/01)

1789 Sep 29, The U.S. War Department established a regular U.S. army with a strength of several hundred men.
(AP, 9/29/97)(HN, 9/29/98)

1789 Sep, Fletcher Henderson left Tahiti with the Bounty with a light crew. 16 men were left abandoned.
(ON, 3/04, p.9)

1789 Oct 3, George Washington proclaimed the 1st national Thanksgiving Day to be Nov 26.
(MC, 10/3/01)
Whereas it is the duty of all nations to acknowledge the providence of Almighty God, to obey His will, to be grateful for His benefits, and humbly to implore His protection and favor; and Whereas both Houses of Congress have, by their joint committee, requested me to “recommend to the people of the United States a day of public thanksgiving and prayer, to be observed by acknowledging with grateful hearts the many and signal favors of Almighty God, especially by affording them an opportunity peaceably to establish a form of government for their safety and happiness:”
Now, therefore, I do recommend and assign Thursday, the 26th day of November next, to be devoted by the people of these States to the service of that great and glorious Being who is the beneficent author of all the good that was, that is, or that will be; that we may then all unite in rendering unto Him our sincere and humble thanks for His kind care and protection of the people of this country previous to their becoming a nation; for the signal and manifold mercies and the favorable interpositions of His providence in the course and conclusion of the late war; for the great degree of tranquility, union, and plenty which we have since enjoyed; for the peaceable and rational manner in which we have been enable to establish constitutions of government for our safety and happiness, and particularly the national one now lately instituted for the civil and religious liberty with which we are blessed, and the means we have of acquiring and diffusing useful knowledge; and, in general, for all the great and various favors which He has been pleased to confer upon us. And also that we may then unite in most humbly offering our prayers and supplications to the great Lord and Ruler of Nations and beseech Him to pardon our national and other transgressions; to enable us all, whether in public or private stations, to perform our several and relative duties properly and punctually; to render our National Government a blessing to all the people by constantly being a Government of wise, just, and constitutional laws, discreetly and faithfully executed and obeyed; to protect and guide all sovereigns and nations (especially such as have shown kindness to us), and to bless them with good governments, peace, and concord; to promote the knowledge and practice of true religion and virtue, and the increase of science among them and us; and, generally to grant unto all mankind such a degree of temporal prosperity as He alone knows to be best.
(Ihub, 11/27/03)

1789 Oct 10, In Versailles France, Joseph Guillotin said the most humane way of carrying out a death sentence is decapitation by a single blow of a blade.
(HN, 10/10/98)
1789 Oct 10, Pierre-Louis Couperin, composer, died at 34.
(MC, 10/10/01)

1789 Oct 15, George Washington went to New England on the 1st presidential tour.
(MC, 10/15/01)

1789 Nov 2, The property of the Church in France was taken away by the state.
(HN, 11/2/98)

1789 Nov 5, French National Assembly declared all citizens equal under law.
(MC, 11/5/01)

1789 Nov 8, Bourbon Whiskey, 1st distilled from corn, was made by Elijah Craig in Bourbon, Ky.
(MC, 11/8/01)

1789 Nov 13, Benjamin Franklin wrote a letter to a friend in which he said, “In this world nothing can be said to be certain, except death and taxes.”
(AP, 11/13/97)

1789 Nov 18, Louis Jacques Daguerre (d.1851), French painter, physicist and photography pioneer, was born. He invented the process of setting the impression on a light-sensitive, silver-coated metallic plate and developed by mercury vapor. See contrasting info 1765-1833, Nicephore Niepce, French lithographer.
(AHD, 1971, p.332)(HN, 11/18/00)

1789 Nov 20, New Jersey became the first state to ratify the Bill of Rights.
(HFA, ’96, p.18)(AP, 11/20/97)

1789 Nov 21, North Carolina became the 12th state to ratify the U.S. Constitution.
(AP, 11/21/97)

1789 Nov 26, George Washington proclaimed on Oct 3 that Nov 26 be a National Thanksgiving Day in honor of the new Constitution. He made it clear that the day should be one of prayer and giving thanks to God, to be celebrated by all the religious denominations. In 1863 Pres. Lincoln designated the last Thursday of November as Thanksgiving Day.
(HFA, ’96, p.42)(AP, 11/26/97)(HN, 11/26/98)

1789 Nov, The U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York, the oldest federal court in the United States, convened in New York, a few weeks ahead of the Supreme Court.
(http://jimzirin.com/book-the-mother-court/foreword/)(Econ, 6/28/14, p.75)

1789 Dec 3, Claude-Joseph Vernet, French seascape painter, died.
(MC, 12/3/01)

1789 Dec 13, The National Guard was created in France.
(HN, 12/13/98)

1789 Dec 28, Lydia Darrragh (b.1729), American spy, died in Philadelphia. Her exploits in 1777 did not become public until the publication of an anonymous article in 1827.
(ON, 8/07, p.8)(www.lexidigital.com/bcdarwomen4.htm)

1789 Dec, In India’s city of Coringa 3 tidal waves caused by a cyclone destroyed the harbor city at the mouth of the Ganges river. Most ships were sunk and some 20,000 people drowned.
(www.emergency-management.net/cyclone.htm)

1789 Johann Friedrich Overbeck (d.1869), German Nazarene artist, was born.
(SSFC, 1/27/02, p.C7)

1789 The ballet “La fille mal gardee” had its premiere. It included dialogue and singing as well as dancing.
(SFEC, 8/25/96, DB p.37)

1789 William Blake published his “Songs of Innocence.”
(WSJ, 4/23/97, p.A16)

1789 Rev. Gilbert White (1720-1793) authored “The Natural History and Antiquities of Selborne, in the County of Southampton.” One chapter was about a local tortoise named Timothy. In 2006 Verlyn Klinkenborg authored “Timothy; Or, Notes Of an Abject Reptile,” a look at the parson from the point of view of the tortoise.
(WSJ, 2/11/06, p.P11)

1789 In 1999 Rachel Wright authored “Paris: 1789,” an informative children’s book of Parisian life on the eve of the Revolution.
(SFEC, 5/9/99, Par p.8)

1789 Tammany Hall was a powerful Democratic political organization in NYC, founded as a fraternal benevolent society. The name was based after a Delaware Indian Chief, Tamanen or Temmenund, later facetiously canonized as patron saint of the US. The Tammany Hall officials lost on Nov. 6, 1894.
(HFA, ’96, p.42)

1789 In the US the Church of England Episcopal Church fomally separated from the Church of England became the Protestant Episcopal Church of the USA.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Episcopal_Church_%28United_States%29))

1789 Congress introduced paid chaplains. In 1983 the Supreme Court ruled in Marsh vs. Chambers that it is not a violation of the Establishment Clause to have paid legislative chaplains. In 2002 Michael Newdow filed suit contending that taxpayer-funded chaplains was unconstitutional.
(SFC, 8/31/02, p.A2)

1789 The US Alien Tort Claims Act (ATCA) was meant to combat piracy. The Alien Tort Statute (ATS) was intended to be used to prosecute pirates for crimes committed outside the US. It went unused for a long time until rights lawyers dusted it off in the late 1970s.
(SFC, 8/11/00, p.A13)(SFC, 3/13/02, p.A8)(WSJ, 10/6/03, p.A1)(WSJ, 7/12/04, p.A16)(SFC, 10/12/17, p.A6)

1789 The first tobacco advertisement came out in the US. It depicted an Indian smoking a long clay pipe.
(SFEC, 5/24/98, Z1 p.10)

1789 Dentist John Greenwood (1760-1819) carved his first dentures for George Washington out of hippopotamus ivory.
(ON, 4/12, p.8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Greenwood_%28dentist%29)

1789 Georgetown College was founded in Washington DC.
(WSJ, 3/28/96,p.A-15)

1789 Massachusetts commenced work on the Middlesex Canal. It was completed in 1808.
(Panic, p.12)

1789 The University of North Carolina was chartered. It was the first state university in the U.S. to begin instruction, in 1795. The University of Georgia was the first state university chartered, in 1785, but was not established until 1801.
(HNQ, 12/3/01)

1789 Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier (1743-1794), French nobleman and chemist, presented a paper on the geology of the Earth that proposed that sea level had oscillated over time, as opposed to a stationary sea with linear sedimentation.
(NH, 12/98, p.14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antoine_Lavoisier)

1789 Martin Klaproth, German chemist, discovered Uranium. It named after the planet Uranus discovered 8 years earlier.
(NH, 7/02, p.36)(WSJ, 3/18/05, p.C1)

1789 The HMS Bounty made a brief stop at the Cook Island of Rarotonga before moving on to Pitcairn Island.
(SFEC, 1/5/97, p.T6)

1789 The flower China Rose was introduced to Europe.
(TGR, 1995, p.4)

1789 Ethan Allen (b.1738), leader of Vermont’s Green Mountain Boys, died. In 1949 Stewart H. Holbrook authored “Ethan Allen.” In 1969 Charles A. Jellison authored “Ethan Allen: Frontier Rebel.”
(WUD, 1994 p.39)(ON, 3/00, p.6)

1789 The prison ship Lady Julian delivered over 200 women to the penal colony at Sydney harbor. In 2002 Sian Rees authored “The Floating Brothel: The Extraordinary True Story of an Eighteenth-Century Ship and Its Cargo of Female Convicts.”
(SSFC, 3/3/02, p.M3)

1789 Smallpox was introduced to Australia and caused devastation among the aborigines.
(SFC, 10/19/01, p.A17)

1789 In Brazil poet and dentist Joaquim Jose da Silva Xavier helped launch the first Brazilian rebellion against the country’s Portuguese rulers.
(AP, 4/19/03)

1789 English Thomas Clarkson and his fellow abolitionists published 700 posters with the image of the slave ship Brookes loaded with 482 slaves. The ship, owned by the Brookes family of Liverpool, operated between the Gold Coast of Africa and Jamaica.
(Econ, 2/24/07, p.72)
1789 Thomas Stokes built clocks in London.
(SFC, 11/13/96, z-1 p.6)

c1789 The Marquis de Lafayette wrote the original version of the Declaration of the Rights of Man. He was appalled by the excesses of the revolution and fled to Austria where he was imprisoned for 5 years.
(WSJ, 1/15/97, p.A12)
1789 A French decree allowed wine and coffee to be served on the same premises.
(Econ, 10/22/11, p.105)
1789 Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyes, a delegate to the Estates General, said the third estate is everything, has nothing but wants to be something.
(Econ, 6/12/10, p.65)
1789 The French dwarf Richeborg stood 23 inches and was costumed as a baby in diapers during the French Revolution. In the arms of innocent girls he could eavesdrop on sensitive conversations and carried secret dispatches in and out of Paris.
(SFC, 6/23/96, Z1 p.2)
1789 The bankruptcy of the French government brought banks across Europe to their knees.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R48)
1789 Pierre Ordinaire, French chemist, invented absinthe as a digestive or all-purpose tonic. It quickly caught on as an apéritif. It was popularized by Henri-Louis Pernod, who opened his first distillery in Switzerland before moving to Pontarlier, France, in 1805.
(http://chemistry.about.com/od/chemistryhowtoguide/a/absinthe.htm)(WSJ, 1/22/99, p.W8)(SFC, 3/24/00, p.A3)

1789 Tobias Schmidt, a German piano maker, built the first guillotine.
(SFC, 5/2/98, p.E4)
1789 In Germany the Brandenburg Gate of Berlin was built.
(SFEC, 7/27/97, p.T5)

1789 Russian soldiers under the leadership of Jose Pascual Domingo de Ribas y Boyons (aka Osip Deribas) chased Ottoman forces from the barracks hamlet of Khadjibey. He recognized the site’s potential for a military base to control the mouths of the Danube, Dniester, Dnieper and Bug rivers. Odessa became the name of the city built there.
(Econ, 2/26/11, p.91)

1789-1793 Alexander Mackenzie, Scottish-born fur trader, became the 1st European to cross the North American continent.
(SFC, 1/31/04, p.D12)

1789-1795 John Jay served as the first chief justice of the US Supreme Court.
(WUD, 1994, p.764)(WSJ, 8/7/98, p.W13)

1789-1807 Selim III succeeded Abdul Hamid I in the Ottoman House of Osman.
(Ot, 1993, xvii)

1789-1837 Ben Wilson covered this period in his 2007 book “The Making of Victorian Values: Decency and Dissent in Britain, 1789-1837.”
(WSJ, 3/24/07, p.P12)(Econ, 4/7/07, p.81)

1789-1848 In 2015 Adam Zamoyski covered this period in Europe in “Phantom Terror: The Threat of Revolution and the Repression of Liberty 1789-1848.”
(Econ, 11/15/14, p.84)

1789-1854 John Martin, British artist. He was known as “Mad Martin” for his paintings of monumental disasters. His work included “Assuaging of the Waters” (1840), “The Eve of the Deluge,” and “The Deluge.”
(SFEC, 5/4/97, DB p.9)(SFEM, 5/11/97, p.6)

1789-1914 In 2006 Michael Burleigh authored “Earthly Powers: The Clash of Religion and Politics in Europe from the French Revolution to the Great War.”
(Econ, 2/25/06, p.87)

1790 Jan 6, Johann Trier (73), composer, died.
(MC, 1/6/02)

1790 Jan 8, President Washington delivered the 1st “State of the Union” address in NYC.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1790_State_of_the_Union_Address)

1790 Jan 21, Joseph Guillotine proposed a new, more humane method of execution: a machine designed to cut off the condemned person’s head as painlessly as possible.
(HN, 1/21/99)

1790 Jan 26, Mozart’s opera “Cosi Fan Tutte” premiered in Vienna.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cos%C3%AC_fan_tutte)

1790 Feb 1, The US Supreme Court convened for 1st time in Royal Exchange Building, New York City, the nations temporary capital.
(www.supremecourthistory.org)

1790 Feb 6, The last stone of the Bastille, torn down by order of the French revolutionary leaders, was presented to the National Assembly.
(ON, 4/01, p.3)

1790 Feb 11, The first petition to Congress for emancipation of the slaves was made by the Society of Friends.
(HNQ, 1/11/99)

1790 Feb 20, Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II (48) died.
(AP, 2/20/98)(MC, 2/20/02)

1790 Feb 26, As a result of the Revolution, France was divided into 83 departments.
(HN, 2/26/99)

1790 Mar 1, President Washington signed a measure authorizing the first US Census. The Connecticut Compromise was a proposal for two houses in the legislature-one based on equal representation for each state, the other for population-based representation-that resolved the dispute between large and small states at the Constitutional Convention. Connecticut delegate Roger Sherman’s proposal led to the first nationwide census in 1790. The population was determined to be 3,929,625, which included 697,624 slaves and 59,557 free blacks. The most populous state was Virginia, with 747,610 people and the most populous city was Philadelphia with 42,444 inhabitants. The average cost of this year’s census was 1.13 cents per person.
(HNQ, 7/13/01)(AP, 3/1/08)(http://www.genealogybranches.com/censuscosts.html)

1790 Mar 14, Captain Bligh returned to England with news of the mutiny on the Bounty.
(ON, 3/04, p.9)

1790 Mar 21, Thomas Jefferson (46) reported to President Washington in New York as the new US Secretary of state.
(AP, 3/21/97)(www.monticello.org/site/jefferson/private-banks-quotation)

1790 Mar 22, Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) became the first US Secretary of State. As Secretary of State, he served on the first Board of Arts, the body that reviewed patent applications and granted patents. Jefferson was one of a triumvirate that served as both America’s first patent commissioner and first patent examiner.
(HN, 3/22/97)(www.archipelago.org/vol10-34/matsuura.htm)

1790 Mar 24, King George ordered the Admiralty to capture Fletcher Henderson for the mutiny on the Bounty.
(ON, 3/04, p.9)

1790 Mar 26, US Congress passed a Naturalization Act. It required a 2-year residency.
(SS, 3/26/02)

1790 Mar 27, The shoelace was invented.
(MC, 3/27/02)

1790 Mar 29, John Tyler, the 10th president of the United States (1841-1845), was born in Charles City County, Va. He was also the first vice-president to succeed to office on the death of a president.
(AP, 3/29/97)(HN, 3/29/99)(MC, 3/29/02)

1790 Mar 31, In Paris, France, Maximilien Robespierre was elected president of the Jacobin Club.
(HN, 3/31/99)

1790 Apr 3, Revenue Marine Service (US Coast Guard) was created.
(MC, 4/3/02)

1790 Apr 10, President George Washington signed into law the first United States Patent Act. The Patent Board was made up of the Secretary of State, Secretary of War and the Attorney General and was responsible for granting patents on “useful and important” inventions. In the first three years, 47 patents were granted. Until 1888 miniature models of the device to be patented were required. [see July 31] The US Patent and Trademark Office’s subject grouping scheme includes a major component called a class and a minor one called a subclass. A class distinguishes one technology from another. Subclasses of the USPTO delineate processes, structural features and functional features of the technology in that particular class. By 2015 there were 474 classes and over 160,000 codes.
(HN, 4/10/98)(HNQ, 8/6/99)(AP, 4/10/07)(Econ., 4/25/15, p.73)

1790 Apr 17, Benjamin Franklin (born 1706), American statesman, died in Philadelphia at age 84. He mechanized the process of making sounds from tuned glass with his glass armonica. In 2000 H.W. Brands authored his Franklin biography: “The First American.” In 2003 Walter Isaacson authored “Benjamin Franklin: An American Life.” In 2005 Philip Dray authored “Stealing God’s Thunder,” an account of Franklin’s work with lightning rods.
(AP, 4/17/97)(WSJ, 9/20/00, p.A24)(WSJ, 7/3/03, p.D8)(WSJ, 8/15/05, p.D8)

1790 May 21, Paris was divided into 48 zones.
(HN, 5/21/98)

1790 May 26, Territory South of River Ohio was created by Congress.
(HN, 5/26/98)

1790 May 29, Rhode Island became the last of the 13 original colonies to ratify the United States Constitution. They held out for an amendment securing religious freedom. The state was largely founded by Baptists fleeing persecution in Massachusetts.
(SFC, 6/24/96, p.A19)(AP, 5/29/97)(HN, 5/29/98)

1790 May 31, The US copyright law was enacted.
(MC, 5/31/02)

1790 May, John Tanner (9) was kidnapped from his home in northern Kentucky by Saginaw Indians. He was taken to an area near what later became Saginaw, Michigan, where he learned the Ojibway language. After about 2 years he was sold to a woman named Net-no-kwa, who took him up to northern Michigan and later to Manitoba, Canada.
(ON, 4/10, p.4)(http://baptisthistoryhomepage.com/ky.boone.tanner.j.kidnapd.html)

1790 Jun 9, The “Philadelphia Spelling Book” was the first US work to be copyrighted.
(WSJ, 6/14/00, p.A1)(MC, 6/9/02)
1790 Jun 9, Civil war broke out in Martinique.
(HN 6/9/98)

1790 Jul 3, In Paris, the Marquis of Condorcet proposed granting civil rights to women.
(HN, 7/3/98)

1790 Jul 9, The Swedish navy captured one third of the Russian fleet at the naval battle of Svensksund in the Baltic Sea.
(HN, 7/9/98)

1790 Jul 12, The French Assembly approved a Civil Constitution providing for the election of priests and bishops.
(HN, 7/12/98)

1790 Jul 16, The District of Columbia was established as the seat of the United States government.
(AP, 7/16/97)

1790 Jul 17, Economist Adam Smith (b.1723), Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneer of political economy, died. In 2001 Emma Rothschild authored “Economic Sentiments: Adam Smith, Condorcet, and the Enlightenment.” In 2002 Peter J. Dougherty authored “Who’s Afraid of Adam Smith.” In 2010 Nicholas Phillipson authored “Adam Smith: An Enlightened Life.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adam_Smith)(WSJ, 6/21/01, p.A16)(WSJ, 11/13/02, p.D10) (Econ, 8/7/10, p.84)

1790 Jul 26, US Congress passed Alexander Hamilton’s Assumption plan making it responsible for state debts. Virginia eventually withdrew its opposition in return for having the nation’s new capital located on its borders.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Report_on_the_Public_Credit)(Econ, 12/17/11, p.132)
1790 Jul 26, An attempt at a counter-revolution in France was put down by the National Guard at Lyons.
(HN, 7/26/98)

1790 Jul 31, The first US patent was issued to Samuel Hopkins of Vermont for an improvement “in the making of Pot ash and Pearl ash by a new Apparatus and Process”. This patent was signed by then President George Washington. The first 10,280 patents, issued between 1790 and 1836, were destroyed by a fire. The legal basis for the United States patent system (USPTO) is Article 1, Section 8 of the US Constitution wherein the powers of Congress are defined.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Patent_and_Trademark_Office)

1790 Aug 2, The enumeration for the first US census began. It showed that 3,929,326 people were living in the US of which 697,681 were slaves, and that the largest cities were New York City with 33,000 inhabitants; Philadelphia, with 28,000; Boston, with 18,000; Charleston, South Carolina, with 16,000; and Baltimore, with 13,000. Census records for Delaware, Georgia, New Jersey, and Virginia were lost sometime between 1790 and 1830.
(AP, 8/2/06)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1790_United_States_Census)

1790 Aug 4, US Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton urged that ten boats for the collection of revenue be built. This was to stop smuggling, especially of coffee, which was hampering trade. The Coast Guard was born as the Revenue Cutter Service. The Coast Guard was empowered to board and inspect any vessel in US waters and any US boat anywhere in the world.
(Smith., 8/95, p.25)(HFA, ’96, p.36)(SFC, 5/20/96, p.A-16)(AP, 8/4/00)

1790 Aug 9, The Columbia returned to Boston Harbor after a three-year voyage, becoming the first ship to carry the American flag around the world.
(AP, 8/9/97)

1790 Sep 4, Jacques Necker was forced to resign as finance minister in France.
(HN, 9/4/98)

1790 Oct 3, John Ross, Chief of the United Cherokee Nation from 1839 to 1866, was born near Lookout Mountain, Tennessee. Although his father was Scottish and his mother only part Cherokee, Ross was named Tsan-Usdi (Little John) and raised in the Cherokee tradition. A settled people with successful farms, strong schools, and a representative government, the Cherokee resided on 43,000 square miles of land they had held for centuries.
(LCTH, 10/3/99)

1790 Oct 21, Alphonse-Marie Louis de Lamartine, writer (Rene), was born in Macon, France.
(MC, 10/21/01)
1790 Oct 21, The Tricolor was chosen as the official flag of France.
(HN, 10/21/98)

1790 Oct 23, Slaves revolted in Haiti.
(MC, 10/23/01)

1790 Oct 28, NY gave up claims to Vermont for $30,000.
(MC, 10/28/01)

1790 Nov 11, Chrysanthemums were introduced into England from China.
(MC, 11/11/01)

1790 Nov 17, August Ferdinand Mobius, mathematician, inventor (Mobius strip), was born.
(MC, 11/17/01)

1790 Dec 6, Congress moved from New York City to Philadelphia, where Washington served out his two terms. He is the only president who never resided in the White House.
(AP, 12/6/97)(HNPD, 12/22/98)

1790 Dec 17, An Aztec calendar stone was discovered in Mexico City.
(HFA, ’96, p.44)(MC, 12/17/01)

1790 Dec 19, Sir William Parry, England, Arctic explorer, was born.
(HN, 12/19/98)

1790 Dec 20, In Pawtucket, Rhode Island, 23-year-old British subject Samuel Slater began production of the first American spinning mill. The British jealously guarded their technological superiority in the early stages of the Industrial Revolution, making it illegal for machinery, plans and even the men who built and repaired them to leave the country. After serving a 7-year mill apprenticeship in England, Slater recognized the potential offered in America. He memorized the plans for intricate machine specifications, disguised himself as a farm worker and in 1789 sailed to a new life across the Atlantic. Slater entered into a partnership with Rhode Island merchant Moses Brown and built a small spinning mill–the equivalent of 72 spinning wheels. At first, Slater’s Mill employed only a handful of children between the ages of 7 and 12, but by 1800, he had more than 100 employees. By the time of Slater’s death in 1835, he owned or had an interest in 13 textile mills and left an estate of almost $700,000. From this small beginning, America’s own Industrial Revolution grew. [see Dec 21]
(AP, 12/20/97)(HNPD, 12/20/98)(WSJ, 9/23/04, p.D10)

1790 Dec 21, Samuel Slater opened the first cotton mill in the United States in Rhode Island. [see Dec 20]
(HN, 12/21/98)

1790 Dec 23, Jean François Champollion, French founder of Egyptology, was born. He deciphered the Rosetta Stone.
(HN, 12/23/99)

c1790 Henry Fuseli painted his famous work “The Nightmare” wherein a sleeping woman has a glowing demon on her chest and a lantern-eyed stallion parting the curtains behind. He also painted “Woman Standing at a Dressing Table or Spinet” about this time.
(SFC, 10/31/96, p.E1)(WSJ, 4/1/99, p.A20)

1790 Ito Jakuchu (1716-1800), Japanese painter, created his “Compendium of Vegetable and Insects.”
(WSJ, 12/1/98, p.A20)(SFC, 1/14/06, p.E1)

1790 Thomas Rowlandson, English artist, painted “The Lock-Up.”
(WSJ, 4/1/99, p.A20)

1790 Goethe’s “Faust: Ein Fragment,” first appeared.
(V.D.-H.K.p.239)

1790 Alexander Hamilton published his “Report on the Public Credit.”
(WSJ, 12/3/01, p.A17)

1790 Emmanuel Kant published his “Critique of Judgement.” His analysis of the nature of art and aesthetic experience proved to be a major influence on modern ideas. These ideas were later revisited by Murdoch in her 1998 work “Existentialists and Mystics.” [see 1781]
(WSJ, 2/17/98, p.A20)

1790 Beethoven composed his “Cantata on the Death of Emperor Joseph II.”
(WSJ, 8/17/00, p.A20)

1790 The opera “The Philosopher’s Stone” was composed and first performed. A 1997 score showed that a number of composers wrote various sections. Mozart’s name was associated with the 2nd act finale and a duet. It was a singspiel based on fairytales with a libretto by Emanuel Schikaneder. Other composers included Johann Baptist Henneberg, Benedikt Schack, Franz Haver Gerl and Emanuel Schikaneder.
(SFC, 6/13/97, p.C11)(WSJ, 11/4/98, p.A20)

1790 In South Carolina a 900-square-foot octagonal house was built about this time by Scottish immigrant William McKimmy. Ruins of the structure were found in 2009 on the banks of the May River in Blufton. The design took off in 1848 following the publication of “A Home for All” by Orson Fowler, a self-taught architect and phrenologist.
(SFC, 2/22/10, p.A6)(SSFC, 7/24/11, p.A2)

1790 The Episcopal Church was founded.
(SFC, 5/16/96, p.A-11)

1790 The US government issued $80 million in bonds to cover Revolutionary War debts and their trade established the financial activity on Wall Street.
(WSJ, 10/9/97, p.A16)

1790 The US Trade and Intercourse Act prohibited states from acquiring land from Indians without federal approval.
(SFC, 1/13/99, p.A9)(SSFC, 8/29/04, p.M5)

1790 US Minister to France, Gouverneur Morris, said that the French “have taken Genius instead of Reason for their Guide, adopted Experiment instead of Experience, and wander in the Dark because they prefer Lightning to Light.” In 2000 Susan Dunn published “Sister Revolutions: French Lightning, American Light.”
(SFEC, 5/7/00, Par p.28)

1790 The celerifere bicycle appeared in Paris about this time and was a two-wheeled, un-steerable vehicle that the rider propelled by striking his feet on the ground. This was improved upon with a bar to steer the front wheel in 1816 by Baron von Drais of Germany, and was called a draisine. The ordinary, which had a high front wheel, wire-spoked wheels and solid rubber tires, was developed in the 1870s.
(HNQ, 10/29/99)

1790 The US census categorized the population as “free white person, all other free persons except Indians, and slaves.”
(SFC,12/26/97, p.A21)
1790 The US population was 20% African and numbered about 760,000.
(SFC, 12/18/96, p.A25)

1790 Fletcher Christian landed at Pitcairn Island.
(SFC, 6/13/97, p.A14)

1790 In Australia Pemulway, an Aboriginal warrior, speared and killed the governor’s gamekeeper at Botany Bay and waged war against the British for 12 years. His head was later sent to England. Eric Willmot later authored “Pemulway, the Rainbow Warrior.”
(SFEC, 9/10/00, p.T4)

1790 In the Sandwich Islands [Hawaii] King Kamehameha built the Puukohola Heiau temple on the Big Island near the village of Kawaihau. It was built to the war god Ku-Ka’ili-moku. The king’s armies soon swept over all the Hawaiian islands and united the people for the first time.
(SFEC, 9/7/97, p.T8)

1790 Pineapples were introduced to the Sandwich Islands later called Hawaii.
(SFEC,11/9/97, Z1 p.2)

1790 The Haleakala Volcano on Maui erupted.
(SFEC, 8/27/00, p.T8)

1790 La Fenice opera house in Venice was designed. It burned down for the 1st time in 1836.
(WSJ, 9/24/05, p.P12)

1790 A bronze Buddha was cast in Japan. In 1945 it was donated by the Gump family to the city of San Francisco. It resides in the Japanese Tea Garden and was in need of $81,000 worth of repairs.
(SFC, 12/30/96, p.A11)

1790 In Porto, Portugal, the House of Sandeman winery was found by the Scot, George Sandeman.
(SFEC, 7/12/98, p.T8)

1790s Denmark became the 1st country to abolish slavery.
(WSJ, 2/26/02, p.A22)

1790s Floreana Island in the Galapagos began serving as a mail drop for whalers and seal hunters.
(SFEC, 11/19/00, p.T8)

c1790s King Kamehameha slaughtered virtually everyone on the island of Lanai (which means day of conquest) after being thwarted in his bid to conquer Maui.
(SSFC, 8/26/01, p.T10)

1790-1792 Sans-culottes (French for without knee-breeches) was a term created during this period by the French to describe the poorer members of the Third Estate, according to the dominant theory because they usually wore pantaloons (full-length trousers) instead of the chic knee-length culotte. The term came to refer to the ill-clad and ill-equipped volunteers of the Revolutionary army during the early years of the French Revolutionary Wars, but, above all, to the working class radicals of the Revolution.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sans-culottes)

1790-1799 In 2009 Marcus Daniel authored “Scandal & Civility: Journalism and the Birth of American Democracy,” a study of the American press during this period.
(WSJ, 3/3/09, p.A11)
1790-1799 The revolutionary tide that swept Europe during this period was later covered by R.R. Palmer in his book “The Age of the Democratic Revolution.”
(WSJ, 8/25/07, p.P9)

1790-1830 The “Dalton Minimum,” a period of low solar activity and especially cold climate, began this year and lasted to 1830.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dalton_Minimum)

1790-1848 Nicola Vaccai, Italian composer. He composed a version of “I Capuletti ed I Montecchi,” that was also done by Bellini.
(WSJ, 11/10/98, p.A20)

1790-1869 Alphonse Marie Louis de Prat de Lamartine, French poet, historian and statesman.
(WUD, 1994, p.803)

1790s Tadeusz Kosciusko returned to Poland and united the country in the battle against Prussian and Russian domination.
(SFEC, 11/24/96, T7)

1790s The solitaire of Rodrigues, a flightless pigeon, was last seen.
(NH, 11/96, p.24)

1791 Jan 14, Calvin Phillips, shortest known adult male (67 cm; 2′ 2″), was born.
(MC, 1/14/02)

1791 Feb 12, Peter Cooper, industrialist, philanthropist (Cooper Union), was born.
(MC, 2/12/02)

1791 Feb 20, Carl Czerny, pianist, composer (Schule der Virtuosen), was born in Vienna, Austria.
(MC, 2/20/02)

1791 Feb 25, President George Washington signed a bill creating the Bank of the United States.
(HN, 2/25/99)

1791 Mar 3, Congress established the U.S. Mint.
(HN, 3/3/99)
1791 Mar 3, The 1st Internal Revenue Act taxed distilled spirits and carriages.
(SC, 3/3/02)

1791 Mar 4, President Washington called the US Senate into its 1st special session.
(SC, 3/4/02)
1791 Mar 4, Vermont was admitted as the 14th state. It was the first addition to the original 13 colonies.
(HN, 3/4/98)(AP, 3/4/98)
1791 Mar 4, 1st Jewish member of US Congress, Israel Jacobs (Pennsylvania), took office.
(SC, 3/4/02)

1791 Mar 6, Anna Claypoole Peale, painted miniatures, was born.
(MC, 3/6/02)

1791 Mar 10, John Stone of Concord, Mass, patented a pile driver.
(MC, 3/10/02)
1791 Mar 10, Pope condemned France’s Civil Constitution of the clergy.
(MC, 3/10/02)

1791 Mar 11, Samuel Mulliken of Philadelphia was the 1st to obtain more than 1 US patent.
(MC, 3/12/02)

1791 Mar 21, Captain Hopley Yeaton (1740-1812) of New Hampshire became the first commissioned officer of the US Revenue Cutter Service.
(www.uscg.mil/history/WEBCUTTERS/Scammel_1791.html)(http://tinyurl.com/goke5)

1791 Mar 23, Etta Palm, a Dutch champion of woman’s rights, set up a group of women’s clubs called the Confederation of the Friends of Truth.
(HN, 3/23/99)

1791 Mar 4, Vermont was admitted as the 14th state. It was the first addition to the original 13 colonies.
(HN, 3/4/98)(AP, 3/4/98)

1791 Mar 29, Pres. George Washington and French architect Pierre Charles L’Enfant examined the site along the Potomac River that would become the US capital. Maryland and Virginia had ceded land to the federal government to form the District of Columbia. Chosen as the permanent site for the capital of the United States by Congress in 1790, President Washington was given the power by Congress to select the exact site—an area ten-miles square, made up of land given by Virginia and Maryland. Washington became the official federal capital in 1800. In 2008 Fergus Bordewich authored “Washington: The Making of the American Capital.”
(HNQ, 8/13/00)(HN, 8/2/98)(WSJ, 8/8/08, p.A13)

1791 Apr 23, The 15th president of the United States, James Buchanan, was born in Franklin County, Pa.
(AP, 4/23/97)

1791 Apr 12, Francis Preston Blair, Washington Globe newspaper editor, was born.
(HN, 4/12/98)

1791 Apr 15, Surveyor General Andrew Ellicott consecrated the southern tip of the triangular District of Columbia at Jones Point.
(WSJ, 7/25/00, p.A20)

1791 Apr 18, National Guardsmen prevented Louis XVI and his family from leaving Paris.
(HN, 4/18/98)

1791 Apr 23, James Buchanan, was born in Franklin County, Pa. He was the fifteenth U.S. president (1857-1861) and the only president not to marry.
(AP, 4/23/97)(HN, 4/23/99)

1791 Apr 27, Samuel F.B. Morse, inventor, was born in Boston. He created the telegraph and the code which bears his name. Morse was a well-known painter who gained a wide reputation as a portrait artist. He graduated from Yale in 1810 and then studied painting in England for several years. Morse painted two notable portraits of Lafayette, was a founder of the National Academy of Design in 1826 and became professor of painting and sculpture at New York University in 1832-a position he held until his death in 1872. Morse invented the first practical recording telegraph in America and developed the Morse code, revolutionizing communication.
(HN, 4/27/99)(HNQ, 2/26/00)

1791 Apr, William Wilberforce again introduced a motion in British Parliament for the abolition of the slave trade, but lost by a vote of 163 to 88.
(ON, 4/05, p.2)

1791 May 3, Poland adopted a new Constitution. It was designed to redress long-standing political defects of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and its traditional system of “Golden Liberty.” The constitution put Lithuania under Polish domination. It is generally regarded as Europe’s first and the world’s second modern codified national constitution, following the 1788 ratification of the US Constitution.
(SFC, 4/25/09, p.B1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitution_of_May_3,_1791)(Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.13)

1791 May 8, Capt. Edward Edwards set sail from Tahiti in the Pandora with the Bounty mutineers abandoned by Fletcher Henderson.
(ON, 3/04, p.9)

1791 May 9, Francis Hopkinson (53), US writer, music, lawyer, died.
(MC, 5/9/02)

1791 May 14, In Mexico a time capsule was placed atop a bell tower at Mexico City’s Metropolitan Cathedral when the building’s topmost stone was laid, 218 years after construction had begun. Workers restoring the church found it in October, 2007.
(AP, 1/15/08)

1791 May 16, James Boswell’s celebrated 2-volume work, “The Life of Samuel Johnson,” was published. In 2001 Adam Sisman authored “Boswell’s Presumptuous Task,” an account of how Boswell came to write the Johnson biography.
(WSJ, 8/24/01, p.W8)(ON, 11/06, p.10)

1791 May 28, Joseph Schmitt (57), composer, died.
(MC, 5/28/02)

1791 May 29, Pietro Romani, composer, was born.
(SC, 5/29/02)

1791 Jun 9, John Howard Payne, American playwright and actor, was born.
(HN, 6/9/01)

1791 Jun 20, King Louis XVI of France attempted to flee the country in the so-called Flight to Varennes, but was caught.
(AP, 6/20/97)

1791 Jun 21, King Louis XVI and the French royal family were arrested in Varennes. In 2003 Timothy Tackett authored “When the King Took Flight,” an examination of the political culture during this period of transformation.
(HN, 6/21/98)(SSFC, 5/18/03, p.M6)

1791 Jul 7, Benjamin Rush, Richard Allen and Absalom Jones founded the Non-denominational African Church.
(HN, 7/7/98)

1791 Jul 13, The bones of the greatest French satirist, philosopher, and writer, Voltaire (Jean-Marie Arouet) were enshrined in the Pantheon in Paris.
(MC, 7/13/02)

1791 Jul 14-1791 Jul 17, Riots took place in Birmingham, England. The houses of Joseph Priestley and other political dissenters were burned to the ground. Priestley had rejected various supernatural elements of Christianity, criticized the Church of England, and supported the French Revolution.
(SFC, 1/9/09, p.E3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Priestley_Riots)

1791 Jul 16, Louis XVI was suspended from office until he agreed to ratify the constitution.
(HN, 7/16/98)

1791 Jul 17, National Guard troops opened fire in Paris on a crowd of demonstrators calling for the deposition of the king.
(HN, 7/17/99)

1791 Jul 24, Robespierre expelled all Jacobins opposed to the principles of the French Revolution.
(HN, 7/24/98)

1791 Jul 25, Free African Society (FAS) leaders drew up a plan to organize the African Church. Richard Allen purchased a site for a church for the African-American community in Philadelphia. It later stood as the oldest parcel of land continuously owned by African Americans. The Richard Allen Museum contains 19th century artifacts from the church.
(www.pbs.org)

1791 Jul 26, Franz Xavier Wolfgang Mozart, 6th child of Austrian composer WAM, was born.
(MC, 7/26/02)

1791 Aug 1, Robert Carter III, a Virginia plantation owner, freed all 500 of his slaves in the largest private emancipation in U.S. history.
(HN, 8/1/98)

1791 Aug 2, Samuel Briggs and his son patented a nail-making machine.
(MC, 8/2/02)

1791 Aug 4, The chief item in the Peace of Sistova agreement between the Austrian Empire and Turkey was the return of Belgrade to Turkey. The peace initiative resulted from the terms of the Convention of Reichenbach between Prussia and Austria. Belgrade had been taken in 1789 by the Holy Roman emperor Joseph II.
(HNQ, 6/25/99)

1791 Aug 14, Haitian slaves, led by voodoo priest Boukman Dutty, gathered to plan a revolution.
(SFCM, 5/30/04, p.9)( http://tinyurl.com/yun3k3)

1791 Aug 26, John Fitch and James Rumsey, rival inventors, were both granted a US patent for a working steamboat.
(MC, 8/26/02)(WSJ, 7/27/04, p.D10)

1791 Aug 29, The Pandora under Capt. Edward Edwards sank in Endeavour Strait (later Torres Strait) between Australia and New Guinea. 33 crewmen and 4 prisoners died. They managed to use small boats and arrived in Timor on Sep 16.
(ON, 3/04, p.9)

1791 Sep 1, Lydia Sigourney, US religious author (How to Be Happy), was born.
(SC, 9/1/02)

1791 Sep 3, The French National Assembly passed a French Constitution passed.
(MC, 9/3/01)

1791 Sep 5, Giacomo Meyerbeer, Vogelsdorf Germany, opera composer (Les Huguenots, Le Prophete), was born.
(MC, 9/5/01)

1791 Sep 6, Mozart’s last opera “La Clemenza di Tito,” premiered in Prague. It was composed for the coronation festivities of the King of Bohemia.
(WSJ, 4/10/00, p.A44)(MC, 9/6/01)

1791 Sep 9, French Royalists took control of Arles and barricaded themselves inside the town.
(HN, 9/9/98)

1791 Sep 13, France’s King Louis XVI accepted a constitution.
(MC, 9/13/01)

1791 Sep 14, Louis XVI solemnly swore his allegiance to the French constitution.
(HN, 9/14/98)

1791 Sep 22, Michael Faraday (d.1867), English physicist, was born in London. He demonstrated that a magnetic field induces a current in a moving conductor. He invented the dynamo, the transformer and the electric motor.
(V.D.-H.K.p.269)(HN, 9/22/00)

1791 Sep 26, J.L.A. Theodore Gericault, French painter, was born.
(MC, 9/26/01)

1791 Sep 27, Jews in France were granted French citizenship. Jews were granted religious and civic rights in 1791.
(HN, 9/27/98)(WSJ, 8/7/00, p.A13)

1791 Sep 30, Mozart’s opera “The Magic Flute” premiered in Vienna, Austria.
(AP, 9/30/97)

1791 Oct 1, In Paris, the National Legislative Assembly held its first meeting.
(HN, 10/1/98)

1791 Nov 3, Gen. St. Clair moved his force of approximately 1,400 men to some high ground on the upper Wabash River. St. Clair was looking for the forces of Michikinikwa (Chief Little Turtle 1752-1812), who had recently defeated Gen. Josiah Harmar’s (1753-1813) army. St. Clair deployed only minimal sentry positions. [see Nov 4]
(DoW, 1999, p.168)

1791 Nov 4, General Arthur St. Clair, governor of Northwest Territory, was badly defeated by a large Indian army near Fort Wayne. Miami Indian Chief Little Turtle (1752-1812) led the powerful force of Miami, Wyandot, Iroquois, Shawnee, Delaware, Ojibwa and Potawatomi that inflicted the greatest defeat ever suffered by the U.S. Army at the hands of North American Indians. Some 623 regulars led by General Arthur St. Clair were killed and 258 wounded on the banks of the Wabash River near present day Fort Wayne, Indiana. The staggering defeat moved Congress to authorize a larger army in 1792.
(HNQ, 8/10/98)(HN, 11/4/98)

1791 Dec 4, Britain’s Observer, oldest Sunday newspaper in world, was 1st published.
(MC, 12/4/01)

1791 Dec 5, Austrian composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart died in Vienna, Austria, at age 35. His first opera was “Idomeneo.” In 1920 Hermann Abert authored “W.A. Mozart.” In 1991 Georg Knepler authored “Wolfang Amade Mozart,” a Marxist view of Mozart in his times. In 1995 Maynard Solomon published a psychoanalytic biography of Mozart. In 1999 Peter Gay authored a Penguin short life of Mozart and Robert W. Gutman authored the comprehensive biography “Mozart.”
(SFEC, 2/2/97, DB. p.54)(AP, 12/5/97)(WSJ, 12/2/99, p.A20)(WSJ, 3/1/08, p.W8)

1791 Dec 15, The US Bill of Rights, the first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution, took effect following ratification by Virginia. The First Amendment declared the separation of church and state and guaranteed freedom of religion, speech, the press and assembly. In 2007 Anthony Lewis authored “Freedom for the Thought That We Hate: A biography of the Frist Amendment.”
(SFC, 6/24/96, p.A19)(AP, 12/15/97)(SFC, 1/21/04, p.D2)(Econ, 1/12/08, p.75)

1791 Dec 17, NYC traffic regulation created the 1st 1-way street.
(MC, 12/17/01)

1791 Dec 22, Alexander Hamilton paid a $600 installment of $1,000 in blackmail to James Reynolds, who threatened to expose Hamilton’s relationship with Reynolds’ wife. Hamilton had begun a relationship with Maria Reynolds during the summer. A 2nd payment was made Jan 3.
(WSJ, 11/19/98, p.1,12)(ON, 10/05, p.5)

1791 Dec, The 1st Bank of the US opened under Alexander Hamilton. It did the work of a central bank even though private investors held most of its shares. James Madison opposed the plans of Alexander Hamilton for a National Bank. [see 1780-1792, Banning book on Madison] It was dissolved in 1811.
(WSJ, 12/20/95, p.A-12)(WSJ, 11/19/04, p.A8)(Econ, 12/24/05, p.91)(Econ, 4/12/14, p.50)

1791 Jose Cardero, a Spanish artist in California, painted “Vista del Presidio de Monterey.”
(SFC, 4/21/99, p.E6)

1791 Alexander Hamilton authored his “Report on the Subject of Manufactures.” His plan to get the country’s economy going included tariffs to protect the young industries.
(Econ, 9/1/07, p.74)(Econ, 1/21/12, SR p.5)

1791 Englishman Thomas Paine wrote the “Rights of Man” in Paris, promoting the French Revolution. It defended the French Revolution against Edmund Burke’s attack in “Reflections on the Revolution in France” (1790).
(ON, 6/2011, p.4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rights_of_Man)

1791 French Comte de Volney (1757-1820) authored “The Ruins, or a Survey of the Revolutions of Empires,” a treatise on why civilizations fell and what men should do to find happiness.
(Econ, 12/21/13, p.128)

1791 The opera “The Beneficent Dervish” was initially attributed to Emanuel Schikaneder but a 1997 find indicated that Mozart wrote the work. Schikaneder was a Vienna theater impresario who had commissioned “The Magic Flute.”
(SFC, 6/13/97, p.C11)

1791 Aaron Burr (1756-1836), later US vice president (1801-1805), was elected as US Senator from New York (1791-1797).
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aaron_Burr)

1791 The US Providence Bank was later reported to have profited from traffic in slaves to the New World. The bank eventually became part of FleetBoston Financial Corp.
(SFC, 3/10/00, p.D3)

1791 A document was released in 2004 from Pittsfield, Mass., that contained a 1791 bylaw to protect the windows of a new meeting house from baseball players.
(SFC, 5/12/04, p.A2)

1791 A New Hampshire law called for convicted adulterers to be paraded on the gallows for an hour and then be publicly whipped no exceeding 39 stripes before being sent to prison and fined £100. By 2014 the penalty had been reduced to a fine of $1,200 as legislators proposed a repeal of the law.
(Econ, 4/19/14, p.24)

1791 William Sprague opened the 1st US carpet mill in Philadelphia.
(SFCM, 10/10/04, p.8)

1791 Legend says the Harel family began making Camembert cheese before this time. The family had given a priest refuge, who in gratitude gave them the recipe. In 2003 Pierre Boisard authored “Camembert: A National Myth.”
(SSFC, 7/27/03, p.M3)

1791 Frantisek Koczwara, a Bohemian musician, died in a London brothel from auto-asphyxiation.
(SSFC, 3/18/01, DB p.49)
1791 Grigory A. Potemkin (b.1739), Russian army officer, statesman, Catherine II’s lover, died. In 2002 Simon Sebag Montefiore authored “Prince of Princes: The Life of Potemkin.”
(MC, 9/13/01)(WSJ, 2/14/02, p.A18)
1791 John Wesley (b.1703), English evangelist and theologian, died. He founded the Methodist movement.
(WUD, 1994, p.1622)(WSJ, 6/13/03, p.W19)

1791 In Australia officials granted parcels of land around Sydney to convicts who have served their time, beginning years of dispossession of Aborigines that continued as white settlers dispersed throughout Australia. Clashes between Aborigines and settlers led to tens of thousands of deaths among Aborigines and hundreds of settler deaths.
(AP, 1/30/08)

1791 Sheikh Mansur, Chechen leader, was captured and died in the Schlusselburg Fortress.
(www.chechnyafree.ru)

1791 The United Irishmen Society was formed. Inspired by the French Revolution many Catholics and Protestants took up the cause of Irish nationalism during the next decade.
(SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1 p.6)

1791 The Berlin Sing-Academie was established.
(SFC, 8/6/99, p.C13)
1791 In Berlin, Germany, the Brandenburg Gate was completed. It stood 66 feet tall and 213 feet wide, and was topped by the copper Quadriga, a sculpture of a goddess riding into the city aboard a chariot. It was restored in 2002.
(AP, 10/2/02)

1791 Wahid Bihbihani (b.~1704), Shiite scholar and founder of the most dominant form of Shiism, died about this time in Karbala (Iraq). He revived and refashioned the waning Usuli school of Shiism.
(Econ, 7/25/15, p.69)(http://tinyurl.com/pyavpz3)

1791 The Marquesas Islands were officially discovered. Over a 30 year period western diseases ravaged the populace and only about 2,000 of 100,000 people survived.
(SFEC, 8/25/96, p.T6)

1791 In St. Domingue Toussaint L’Ouverture joined the slave rebellion against plantation owners and later led a colonial revolt against France. In 1995 Madison Smart Bell authored “All Souls Rising,” a novel set in this period.
(SFEC, 1/26/97 BR, p.10)(SSFC, 4/8/01, BR p.4)(SFCM, 5/30/04, p.10)

1791-1824 Theodore Gericault, French painter. He painted “Mounted Officer of the Imperial Guard.”
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.593)

1791-1888 In Korea 124 Catholics were executed during this period under the Joseon Dynasty, which tried to shut off the Korean Peninsula off from Western influence. They were canonized as saints in 1984 during a visit by Pope John Paul II.
(Econ, 7/26/14, p.A7)

1792 Jan 17, One of the first US Treasury bonds was issued to Pres. George Washington and bears the earliest use of the dollar sign.
(WSJ, 5/29/98, p.W9)

1792 Jan 28, Rebellious slaves in Santo Domingo launched an attack on the city of Cap.
(HN, 1/28/99)

1792 Feb 7, Cimarosa’s opera “Il Matrimonio Segreto,” premiered in Vienna.
(MC, 2/7/02)

1792 Feb 15, Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Delambre (42), astronomer and surveyor, was elected to the French Academy of Sciences to help establish the length of a proposed new unit of measurement, the meter.
(ON, 2/09, p.8)

1792 Feb 20, President Washington signed an act creating the U.S. Post Office. [see Feb 20, 1789, May 8, 1794]
(HN, 2/20/98)(AP, 2/20/98)

1792 Feb 21, US Congress passed the Presidential Succession Act. [see Mar 1]
(MC, 2/21/02)

1792 Feb 23, Joseph Haydn’s 94th Symphony in G premiered.
(MC, 2/23/02)
1792 Feb 23, Humane Society of Massachusetts was incorporated. It erected life-saving stations for distressed mariners.
(MC, 2/23/02)
1792 Feb 23, Joshua Reynolds (68), English portrait painter (Simplicity), died.
(MC, 2/23/02)

1792 Feb 29, The composer Gioacchino Antonio Rossini (d.1868) was born in Pesaro, Italy. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gioachino_Rossini)

1792 Mar 1, US Presidential Succession Act was passed. [see Feb 21]
(SC, 3/1/02)

1792 Mar 4, Oranges were introduced to Hawaii.
(SC, 3/4/02)

1792 Mar 10, John Stuart (78), 3rd earl of Bute, English premier (1760-63), died.
(MC, 3/10/02)

1792 Mar 16, Sweden’s King Gustav III was shot and mortally wounded during a masquerade party by a former member of his regiment. He was murdered by Count Ankarstrom at an opera. It became the inspiration for Giuseppe Verdi’s Un Ballo in Maschera. Gustav died 13 days later.
(AP, 3/16/06)(WSJ, 1/28/07, p.P10)

1792 Mar 20, In Paris, the Legislative Assembly approved the use of the guillotine.
(HN, 3/20/99)

1792 Mar 23, Franz Joseph Haydn’s “Symphony No. 94 in G Major,” also known as the “Surprise Symphony,” was performed publicly for the first time, in London.
(AP, 3/23/97)

1792 Mar 29, Gustav III, King of Sweden (1771-92), died of wounds inflicted by an assassin on March 16.
(AP, 3/16/06)

1792 Mar/Apr, Speculator William Duer defaulted on Hamilton’s freshly exchanged “Stock in the Public Funds,” and caused the first American stock market crash. Hamilton injected liquidity, asked the banks not to call in loans and allowed merchants to pay customs duties with short-term notes.
(WSJ, 3/24/97, p.A16)(WSJ, 8/14/01, p.A12)

1792 Apr 1, Gronings feminist Etta Palm demanded women’s right to divorce.
(MC, 4/1/02)

1792 Apr 2, Congress passed the Coinage Act, which authorized establishment of the U.S. Mint. It established the US dollar defined in fixed weights of gold and silver. State chartered banks issued paper money convertible to gold or silver coins to ease business transactions. U.S. authorized $10 Eagle, $5 half-Eagle & 2.50 quarter-Eagle gold coins & silver dollar, dollar, quarter, dime & half-dime.
(HFA, ’96, p.28)(AP, 4/2/97)(WSJ, 1/13/98, p.A1)(HN, 4/2/98)

1792 Apr 4, American abolitionist Thaddeus Stevens, U.S. Radical Republican congressional leader, was born in Danville, Vt..
(AP, 4/4/98)(HN, 4/4/98)

1792 Apr 5, George Washington cast the first presidential veto, rejecting a congressional measure for apportioning representatives among the states.
(AP, 5/5/97)(HN, 5/5/97)

1792 Apr 14, Pres. George Washington appointed David Rittenhouse, the foremost scientist of America, the first director of the US Mint at a salary of $2000 per annum. Rittenhouse was then in feeble health and lived at the northwest corner of Seventh and Arch Streets, then one of the high places of Old Philadelphia, where he had an observatory and where he later died and was first buried.
(http://tinyurl.com/per3q6f)

1792 Apr 20, France declared war on Austria, Prussia, and Sardinia, marking the start of the French Revolutionary wars.
(AP, 4/20/97)(HN, 4/20/98)

1792 Apr 21, Jose da Silva Xavier, aka Tiradentes (teeth puller), considered by many to be Brazil’s George Washington, was drawn and quartered by the Portuguese. He was hung in Rio de Janeiro. His body was broken to pieces. A document was written With his blood declaring his memory infamous. His head was exposed in Vila Rica. Pieces of his body were exposed in the cities between Vila Rica and Rio, in an attempt to scare the people who had listened to his independence ideas.
(AP, 4/19/03)(www.v-brazil.com/culture/historic-characters/tiradentes.html)

1792 Apr 22, President Washington proclaimed American neutrality in the war in Europe.
(HN, 4/22/98)

1792 Apr 24, Capt. Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle, an officer stationed in Strasbourg, composed “La Marseillaise,” which later became the national anthem of France.
(AP, 4/24/97)(HN, 4/24/98)

1792 Apr 25, Highwayman Nicolas Jacques Pelletier became the first person under French law to be executed by guillotine.
(AP, 4/25/97)(HN, 4/25/98)

1792 Apr 30, John Montague (73), 4th Earl of Sandwich, English Naval minister, died.
(MC, 4/30/02)

1792 May 7, Capt. Robert Gray discovered Gray’s Harbor in Washington state.
(MC, 5/7/02)

1792 May 8, US established a military draft.
(MC, 5/8/02)
1792 May 8, British Capt. George Vancouver sighted and named Mt. Rainier, Wash.
(MC, 5/8/02)

1792 May 11, The Columbia River was discovered and named by Captain Robert Gray.
(HN, 5/11/98)(MC, 5/11/02)

1792 May 12, A toilet that flushed itself at regular intervals was patented.
(MC, 5/12/02)

1792 May 13, Giovanni-Maria Mastaia-Ferretti, later Pope Pius IX, “Pio Nono” (1846-78), was born at Sinigaglia.
(PTA, 1980, p.510)(MC, 5/13/02)

1792 May 16, Denmark abolished slave trade.
(MC, 5/16/02)

1792 May 17, Stock traders signed the Buttonwood Agreement in New York City at the Tontine Coffee House Company near a Buttonwood tree, where business had been transacted in the past. 24 merchants formed their exchange at Wall and Water Streets where they fixed rates on commissions on stocks and bonds. This later developed into the New York Stock Exchange. A market crash and almost total halt in credit, trading and liquidity prompted the Buttonwood Agreement under the influence of Alexander Hamilton. The organization drafted its constitution on March 8th, 1817, and named itself the “New York Stock & Exchange Board.”
(www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/crash/timeline/)(WSJ, 3/24/97, p.A19)(HN, 5/17/98)

1792 May 18, Russian troops invaded Poland.
(HN, 5/18/98)

1792 May 19, The Russian army entered Poland.
(DTnet 5/19/97)

1792 May 21, Gustave-Gaspard Coriolis (d.1843), French engineer and mathematician, was born. He became first person to describe the Coriolis force.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaspard-Gustave_Coriolis)(SFC, 5/21/09, p.D10)

1792 Jun 1, Kentucky became the 15th state of the Union.
(AP, 6/1/97)

1792 Jun 4, Captain George Vancouver claimed Puget Sound for Britain. Englishman George Vancouver sailed into the SF Bay on his ship Discovery in this year and explored the Santa Clara Valley. Vancouver sailed the Inside Passage, the 1000-mile waterway between Puget Sound and Alaska.
(SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W34)(HN, 6/4/98)(WSJ, 11/5/99, p.W12)
1792 Jun 4, John Burgoyne, soldier, playwright, died.
(MC, 6/4/02)

1792 Jul 18, American naval hero John Paul Jones died in Paris at age 45. His body was preserved in rum in case the American government wished him back. In 1905 his body was transported to the US and placed in a crypt in Annapolis. In 2003 Evan Thomas authored “John Paul Jones: Sailor, Hero, Father of the American Navy.”
(AP, 7/18/97)(SSFC, 6/22/03, p.M3)

1792 Jul 30, The French national anthem “La Marseillaise” by Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle, was first sung in Paris.
(AP, 7/30/99)

1792 Jul 31, The foundation-stone was laid for the US Mint by David Rittenhouse, Esq. The property was paid for and deeded to the United States of America for a consideration of $4266.67 on July 18, 1792. The money for the Mint was the first money appropriated by Congress for a building to be used for a public purpose.
(http://tinyurl.com/per3q6f)

1792 Aug 4, Percy Bysshe Shelley (d.1822), English poet and author who wrote “Prometheus Unbound,” was born in Field Place, England. He married Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin, author of “Frankenstein.” He wrote the poem “Adonais.”
(WUD, 1994, p.1314)(HN, 8/4/98)

1792 Aug 5, Frederick 7th baron Lord North (60), English premier, died. He presided over Britain’s loss of its American colonies (1770-82).
(MC, 8/5/02)

1792 Aug 10, Some 10,000 Parisians attacked the Tuileries Palace of Louis XVI at the instigation of Georges Jacques Danton (33), after Louis ordered his Swiss guard to stop firing on the people. The mob massacred some 600 guardsmen. The king was later arrested, put on trial for treason, and executed the following January.
(PC, 1992, p.345)(AP, 8/10/07)(ON, 2/09, p.8)

1792 Aug 11, A revolutionary commune was formed in Paris, France.
(HN, 8/10/98)

1792 Aug 13, Revolutionaries imprisoned the French royal family, including King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. [see Aug 10]
(MC, 8/13/02)

1792 Aug 18, Lord John Russel, Prime Minister of England from 1846 to 1852 and 1865 to 1866, was born.
(HN, 8/18/98)

1792 Aug 29, The English warship Royal George capsized in Spithead and 900 people were killed.
(MC, 8/29/01)

1792 Sep 2, Verdun, France, surrendered to the Prussian Army.
(HN, 9/2/98)
1792 Sep 2, In the “September Massacres”- French mobs removed nobles and clergymen from jails, and some 1,600.
(Econ, 7/18/09, p.80)

1792 Sep 3, In France Princess de Lamballe (b.1749), the best friend of Marie Antoinette, was killed and her body mutilated by an angry mob. Her head was displayed under the window of Marie Antoinette, interned in Temple Prison.
(SSFC, 4/23/06, p.G5)(www.batguano.com/vigeeart100.html)

1792 Sep 5, Maximilien Robespierre was elected to the National Convention in France.
(HN, 9/5/98)

1892 Sep 18, At Spithaead, England, verdicts and sentences were announced for the 10 prisoners from the mutiny on the Bounty. 4 men were acquitted, and 6 were found guilty and condemned to death. 2 of the condemned were pardoned and another was freed on a technicality. 3 were later hanged.
(ON, 3/04, p.9)

1792 Sep 21, Collot D’Herbois proposed to abolish the monarchy in France. The French National Convention voted to abolish the monarchy. 1st French Republic formed
(AP, 9/21/97)(MC, 9/21/01)

1792 Sep 22, The first French Republic was proclaimed.
(AP, 9/22/06)

1792 Sep 27, George Cruikshank, London, caricaturist (Oliver Twist), was born.
(MC, 9/27/01)

1792 Oct 7, James Mason (b.1725), American Revolutionary statesman, died at Gunston Hall Plantation, situated on the Potomac River some 20 miles south of Washington D.C. Mason framed the Bill of Rights for the Virginia Convention in June 1776. This was the model for the first part of fellow Virginian Thomas Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence and the basis of the first 10 Amendments to the federal Constitution. In 2006 Jeff Broadwater authored “George Mason.”
(HNQ, 2/18/99)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Mason)(WSJ, 9/13/06, p.D10)

1792 Oct 12, Columbus Day was 1st celebrated in the US.
(MC, 10/12/01)

1792 Oct 13, The “Old Farmer’s Almanac” was 1st published. [see Nov 25]
(MC, 10/13/01)
1792 Oct 13, The cornerstone of the executive mansion, later known as the White House, was laid during a ceremony in the District of Columbia.
(AP, 10/13/97)(HN, 10/13/98)

1792 Nov 6, Battle at Jemappes: French army beat the Austrians.
(MC, 11/6/01)

1792 Nov 13, Edward John Trelawney, traveler and author (Adventure of a Younger Son), friend of Byron and Shelley, was born in England.
(MC, 11/13/01)

1792 Nov 25, The Farmer’s Almanac was 1st published. [see Oct 13]
(MC, 11/25/01)

1792 Dec 5, George Washington was re-elected president; John Adams was re-elected vice president.
(AP, 12/5/97)

1792 Dec 8, The 1st cremation in US: Henry Laurens.
(MC, 12/8/01)

1792 Dec 11, France’s King Louis XVI went before the Convention to face charges of treason. Louis was convicted and executed the following month.
(AP, 12/11/97)

1792 Dec 12, In Vienna Ludwig Van Beethoven (22) received 1st lesson in music composition from Franz Joseph Haydn.
(MC, 12/12/01)

1792 Dec 15, Alexander Hamilton, US Sec. of the Treasury, was accused of teaming with Mr. James Reynolds to speculate illegally in government securities. Hamilton then acknowledged to three lawmakers, including James Monroe, that he had paid hush money to Mr. Reynolds to cover an affair with Reynolds’ wife.
(WSJ, 11/19/98, p.A12)(ON, 10/05, p.5)

1792 Dec 26, Charles Babbage (d.1871), English inventor of the calculating machine, was born.
(HN, 12/26/98)

1792 John Trumbell painted his portrait of Alexander Hamilton.
(WSJ, 10/20/04, p.D12)

1792 Captain Bligh published “A Voyage to the South Sea” after his return from the Mutiny on the Bounty.
(WSJ, 7/7/98, p.A14)

1792 James Madison published an essay in a newspaper on property and slaves. In this essay Madison extended the idea of property from material possessions to the property in his opinions, especially his religious beliefs.
(V.D.-H.K.p.227)

1792 Mary Wollstonecraft (Godwin) wrote her essay “Vindication of the Rights of Woman.” She married Godwin in 1797 after learning that she was pregnant and died in childbirth.
(SFEM, 6/28/98, p.28)(Econ, 2/26/05, p.84)

1792 Construction began on the Royal Chapel at Carmel, Ca. It was dedicated in 1795.
(SSFC, 1/4/09, p.B3)

1792 An edition of the Bible was first printed in New York.
(WSJ, 8/7/98, p.W13)

1792 George Washington signed a law giving shipowners “allowances” (i.e. subsidies) to offset tariffs they had to pay on their inputs. This was part of an effort to rebuild new England’s cod industry.
(Econ, 11/23/13, p.75)
1792 A US military campaign led by General Arthur St. Clair against Native Americans in Ohio ended in complete disaster. Of the 1,400 US regulars and militia who set out in pursuit of Native Americans, some 650 were killed and 250 wounded when adversaries caught them unprepared for battle. Lawmakers launched the first congressional investigation of US executive branch actions. President George Washington responded with wary cooperation, aware he was setting precedents for presidents to come.
(CSM, 7/26/17)
1792 A US Militia Act was created.
(SFC, 3/2/02, p.A21)
1792 US veterans hired William Hull to petition congress for more compensation.
(Econ, 10/4/08, p.32)
1792 A US penny was struck to test a design. It came to be called the Birch cent after engraver Robert Birch. In 2015 it sold at auction for $2.6 million.
(SFC, 1/13/15, p.A6)
1792 The dime coin “dismes” were first produced. Then came “half-dismes,” or what we call nickels.
(SFEC, 1/12/97, zone 3 p.4)
1792 Explorer Jose Longinos Martinez wrote in his diary about grizzly maulings that killed 2 Indians in California.
(SFC, 8/18/96, p.A6)

1792 Archibald Menzies, Scottish doctor/surgeon, was the naturalist aboard the Discovery under Captain George Vancouver. He collected his first California poppy and classified it incorrectly as Celandine, an old world member of the same family (Papaveracae). [see 1794,1816,1825-1833]
(NBJ, 2/96, p.12)
1792 Three English sailors wandered from Vancouver’s supply ship Daedalus, anchored in Waimea Bay. They were captured and killed by native Hawaiians.
(SFCM, 3/11/01, p.87)

1792 Arthur Phillip, the 1st governor of New South Wales, Australia, returned to England accompanied by Bennelong, an Aboriginal who had earlier attacked and wounded him. Philip later gave Bennelong a house on a point in Sydney Cove. In 1973 it became the site of the Sydney Opera House.
(Econ, 7/15/06, p.83)
1792 In England consumers began an organized boycott against West Indian sugar. The Anti-Saccharine Society displayed a cross-section of a slave ship with men shackled head-to-toe like sardines.
(Econ, 12/23/06, p.94)
1792 William Wilberforce introduced a new motion in British Parliament for the gradual abolition of the slave trade. The “gradual” wording, proposed by home office minister Henry Dundas, led to passage of the bill in the House of Commons 230 to 85.
(ON, 4/05, p.2)
1792 James Penny, Liverpool slave trader, was presented with a magnificent silver epergne for speaking in favor of the slave trade to a parliamentary committee. Liverpool’s Penny Lane was named after him.
(SSFC, 7/9/06, p.A2)(www.liverpoolmuseums.org.uk/maritime/slavery/liverpool.asp)
1792 The British St. George’s Bay Company transported a 2nd group of settlers to Freetown. This included 1,196 Blacks from Nova Scotia, 500 Jamaicans and dozens of rebellious slaves from other colonies.
(MT, summer 2003, p.8)

1792 Niagara-on-the-Lake became the 1st capital of the Upper Canada (later Ontario). The Parliament met for 5 sessions before moving to York (Toronto).
(WSJ, 7/25/02, p.D10)

1792 The Chinese poet Shih Tao-nan, shortly before succumbing to the plague noted: “Few days following the death of the rats, Men pass away like falling walls.”
(NG, 5/88, p.678)

1792 The crown jewels of France were stolen including the 67 carat Blue Diamond.
(THC, 12/3/97)(EB, 1993, V6 p.51)

1792 The La Felecia opera house in Venice opened.
(SFC, 6/27/96, p.D3)

1792 In Mexico Campeche’s northern fort, the Reducto de San Jose, was built. It later housed the Museo de Barcas y Armas.
(SSFC, 1/25/09, p.E5)

1792 In Scotland gas lighting was developed.
(SFC, 7/14/99, p.4)

1792 Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (b.1703), conservative Islamic theologian, died. He founded Wahhabism and set out his ideas in “The Book of Unity” (1736). In 2004 Natana J. Delong-Bas authored “Wahhabi Islam: From Revival and Reform to Global Jihad.”
(www.concise.britannica.com)(WSJ, 7/20/04, p.D8)

1792-1793 Francisco Jose de Goya y Lucientes (1746-1828), Spanish painter, went deaf from an unexplained illness.
(WSJ, 5/10/02, p.W8)(Econ, 10/18/03, p.81)

1792-1796 In St. Petersburg, Russia, Catherine the Great commissioned the building of the neoclassical rococo Alexander Palace for her eldest grandson, the future Alexander I.
(WSJ, 9/9/97, p.A16)

1792-1867 Giovanni Pacing, Italian composer. His work included “Maria, Regina d’Inghilterra,” based on Victor Hugo’s drama “Marie Tudor.”
(WSJ, 11/10/98, p.A20)

1792-1868 Gioacchino Antonio Rossini, Italian composer. His work included the opera “La Donna del Lago,” based on the Walter Scott romance “The Lady of the Lake.”
(WUD, 1994, p.1246)(WSJ, 7/29/97, p.A12)

1793 Jan 1, Francesco Guardi (b.1712), Venetian painter, died.
(Economist, 10/13/12, p.101)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francesco_Guardi)

1793 Jan 3, Lucretia Coffin Mott women’s rights activist, was born. She was a teacher, minister, antislavery leader and founder of the 1st Women’s Rights Convention.
(440 Int’l. 1/3/99)(HN, 1/3/02)

1793 Jan 9, The first US manned balloon flight occurred as Frenchman Jean Pierre Blanchard, using a hot-air balloon, flew between Philadelphia and Woodbury, N.J. He stayed airborne for 46 minutes, traveled close to 15 miles and set down at the “old Clement farm” in Deptford, New Jersey. [see Jun 23, 1784, Mar 9, 1793]
(WSJ, 3/31/98, p.A1)(AP, 1/9/99)(ON, 6/09, p.2)

1793 Jan 19, French King Louis XVI was sentenced to death. [see Jan 21]
(MC, 1/19/02)

1793 Jan 21, Louis XVI (38), last of the French Bourbon dynasty, was executed on the guillotine. The vote in the National Convention for execution for treason won by a margin of one vote. The Great Terror followed his execution.
(WUD, 1994, p.1677)(V.D.-H.K.p.231)(NH, 6/97, p.23)(AP, 1/21/98)

1793 Jan 23, Prussia and Russia signed an accord on the 2nd partition of Lithuania and Poland. The 2nd partition of Poland. Polish patriots had attempted to devise a new constitution which was recognized by Austria and Prussia, but Russia did not recognize it and invaded. Prussia in turn invaded and the two agreed to a partition that left only the central portion of Poland independent.
(WUD, 1994, p.1677)(LHC, 1/23/03)

1793 Feb 1, Ralph Hodgson of Lansingburg, NY, patented one of the world’s greatest inventions this day: Oiled silk.
(440 Int’l, 2/1/1999)
1793 Feb 1, France declared war on Britain and the Netherlands.
(HN, 2/1/99)

1793 Feb 12, The US federal government passed its first fugitive slave law. This gave slave holders the right to reclaim their human property in free states.
(HN, 2/12/97)(WSJ, 1/30/03, p.D8)

1793 Feb 25, The department heads of the U.S. government met with President Washington at his Mt. Vernon home for the first Cabinet meeting on record.
(AP, 2/25/98)(MC, 2/25/02)

1793 Mar 2, Sam Houston, the first president of the Republic of Texas (1836-38, 1841-44), was born near Lexington, Va. He fought for Texas’ independence from Mexico; President of Republic of Texas; U.S. Senator; Texas governor
(AP, 3/2/98)(HC, Internet, 2/3/98)(SC, 3/2/02)

1793 Mar 3, Charles Sealsfield, writer (The Making of America), was born.
(SC, 3/3/02)

1793 Mar 4, George Washington was inaugurated as President for the second time. His 2nd inauguration was the shortest with just 133 words. Since George Washington’s second term, Inauguration Day had been March 4 of the year following the election. That custom meant that defeated presidents and congressmen served four months after the election. In 1933, the so-called Lame Duck Amendment to the U.S. Constitution moved the inauguration of newly elected presidents and congressmen closer to Election Day. The 20th Amendment required the terms of the president and vice-president to begin at noon on January 20, while congressional terms begin on January 3.
(HN, 3/4/98)(HNPD, 3/4/99)(SC, 3/4/02)
1793 Mar 4, French troops conquered Geertruidenberg, Netherlands.
(SC, 3/4/02)

1793 Mar 5, Austrian troops crush the French and recapture Liege.
(HN, 3/5/99)

1793 Mar 10, In France, on a proposal by Georges-Jacques Danton (1759-1794), the National Convention decreed that there should be established in Paris an extraordinary criminal tribunal. The news of the failure of the French arms in Belgium had given rise in Paris to popular movements on March 9 and 10, 1793. On Oct 20 the extraordinary criminal tribunal received by decree the official name of the Revolutionary Tribunal.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Revolutionary_Tribunal)

1793 Mar 18, The 2nd Battle at Neerwinden: Austria army beat France.
(MC, 3/18/02)

1793 Mar 26, Pro-royalist uprising took place in Vendée region of France.
(SS, 3/26/02)

1793 Apr 1, The volcano Unsen on Japan erupted killing about 53,000.
(OTD)

1793 Apr 6, In France all executive power was conferred upon a Committee of Public Safety. Georges-Jacques Danton was one of the nine original members.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georges_Danton)

1793 Apr 14, A royalist rebellion in Santo Domingo was crushed by French republican troops.
(HN, 4/14/99)

1793 Apr 17, The Battle of Warsaw was fought.
(HN, 4/17/98)

1793 Apr 22, Pres. Washington attended the opening of Rickett’s, the 1st circus in US.
(MC, 4/22/02)

1793 Apr 29, John Michell (b.1724) English clergyman and natural philosopher, died in Yorkshire. He provided pioneering insights in a wide range of scientific fields, including astronomy, geology, optics, and gravitation. Michell was the first person to propose that black holes existed.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Michell)

1793 May 7, Pietro Nardini (71), composer, died.
(MC, 5/7/02)

1793 May 20, Charles Bonnet (b.1720) naturalist and philosophical writer, died in Geneva. He is responsible for coining the term phyllotaxis to describe the arrangement of leaves on a plant. Bonnet was from a French family driven into the Geneva region by the religious persecution in the 16th century.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Bonnet)

1793 May 25, Father Stephen Theodore Badin became the 1st US Roman Catholic priest ordained.
(SC, 5/25/02)

1793 Jun 2, Maximillian Robespierre, a member of France’s Committee on Public Safety, initiated the “Reign of Terror,” a purge of those suspected of treason against the French Republic. Months of the Great Terror, followed the Revolution in France as thousands died beneath the guillotine.
(V.D.-H.K.p.231)(HN, 6/2/98)

1793 Jun 20, Eli Whitney petitioned for a cotton gin patent in Philadelphia.
(www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part3/3h1517t.html)

1793 Jun 24, The first republican constitution in France was adopted.
(AP, 6/24/97)

1793 Jul 13, John Clare, English poet, was born.
(HN, 7/13/01)
1793 Jul 13, Pierre Dupont de Nemours was ordered arrested in Paris on charges of plotting with rebels against the French Revolutionary National Assembly.
(MC, 7/13/02)
1793 Jul 13, French revolutionary writer Jean Paul Marat was stabbed to death in his bath by Charlotte Corday, who was executed four days later. In 1970 Marie Cher authored “Charlotte Corday, and Certain Men of the Revolutionary Torment.”
(AP, 7/13/97)(ON, SC, p.8)

1793 Jul 23, Roger Sherman (b.1721) of Connecticut, signer of the Declaration of Independence, died. He was only man to sign the four most important documents that were most significant in the formation of the United States. Sherman signed the Association (the 1774 compact to boycott British goods), the Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation and Constitution. Sherman was among the first to declare that Parliament had no right to legislate for the colonies. He was a delegate to the Continental Congress, served in the first U.S. House of Representatives and was a U.S. senator.
(HN, 4/19/97)(HNQ, 7/10/99)
1793 Jul 23, The French garrison at Mainz, Germany, fell to the Prussians.
(HN, 7/23/98)

1793 Jul 24, France passed the 1st copyright law.
(MC, 7/24/02)

1793 Jul 27, In France, Robespierre became a member of the Committee of Public Safety.
(HN, 7/27/98)

1793 Jul, Napoleon Bonaparte published a pro-republican pamphlet that made a good impression on the Jacobin faction that had seized power in Paris.
(ON, 2/12, p.5)

1793 Aug 14, Republican troops in France laid siege to the city of Lyons.
(HN, 8/14/98)

1793 Aug 22, Louis Duke de Noailles (80), marshal of France, was guillotined.
(MC, 8/22/02)

1793 Aug 27, Maximilien Robespierre was elected to the Committee of Public Safety in Paris, France.
(HN, 8/27/98)

1793 Aug 28, Adam-Philippe Custine, Duke de Lauzun (French duke, general, fought in American Revolution, hero in both countries), was guillotined in Paris.
(MC, 8/28/01)

1793 Aug 29, Slavery was abolished in the French colony of Santo Domingo (Haiti).
(HN, 8/29/98)(MC, 8/29/01)

1793 Sep 5, The Reign of Terror began during the French Revolution as the National Convention instituted harsh measures to repress counter-revolutionary activities. One delegate, claiming that the middle class Girondist (moderates) leaders be sentenced to death cried, “It is time for equality to wield its scythe over all the heads. Very well, Legislator, place Terror on the agenda!” The delegates agreed to arrest all suspects and dissenters, try them swiftly in the kangaroo courts known as the Revolutionary Tribunals, and sentence them uniformly to death.
(MC, 9/5/01)(AP, 9/4/07)

1793 Sep 6, French General Jean Houchard and his 40,000 men began a three-day battle against an Anglo-Hanoverian army at Hondschoote, southwest Belgium, in the wars of the French Revolution.
(HN, 9/6/98)

1793 Sep 17, Captain Napoleon Bonaparte reached Toulon and presented himself to his new commander, General Carteaux, a former house painter and policeman.
(ON, 2/12, p.5)

1793 Sep 18, President George Washington laid the foundation stone for the U.S. Capitol on Jenkins Hill.
(AP, 9/18/97)(SFC, 7/18/98, p.A15)(HN, 9/18/98)

1793 Oct 8, John Hancock, US merchant and signer (Declaration of Independence), died at 56.
(MC, 10/8/01)

1793 Oct 10, The rebellious French city of Lyons surrendered to Revolutionary troops.
(MC, 10/10/01)

1793 Oct 16, During the French Revolution, Marie Antoinette was beheaded. Prosecutors claimed she had sexually abused her son and financially abused the French Monarchy. In mourning for her husband, Louis XVI, who had been guillotined the previous January, clad in rags, her once-dazzling locks shorn by the executioner’s assistant, she even suffered the indignity of a crude sketch by the great French painter, Jacques Louis David. Antoinette bore herself with a regal indifference to her martyrdom. Madame Tussaud used her severed head as a model for her wax bust death mask. In 2001 Antonia Fraser authored “Marie Antoinette: The Journey.”
(SFEC, 11/17/96, p.T5)(AP, 10/16/97)(WSJ, 10/5/01, p.W13)

1793 Oct 19, Captain Napoleon Bonaparte was promoted to chef de bataillon (major) giving him greater voice in the councils of war and the siege of Toulon.
(ON, 2/12, p.5)

1793 Oct 20, In France an extraordinary criminal tribunal received the official name of the Revolutionary Tribunal by a decree. The news of the failure of the French arms in Belgium gave rise in Paris to popular movements on March 9 and 10, 1793, and on March 10, on the proposal of Danton, the Convention decreed that there should be established in Paris an extraordinary criminal tribunal.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Revolutionary_Tribunal)

1793 Oct 28, Eliphalet Remington, US gun maker, was born.
(MC, 10/28/01)
1793 Oct 28, Eli Whitney applied for a patent on the cotton gin, a machine which cleaned the tight-clinging seeds from short-staple cotton easily and effectively–a job which was previously done by hand. The patent was granted the following March. [see Mar 13, Jun 20, 1793, Mar 14, 1794]
(AP, 10/28/97)(HN, 10/28/98)

1793 Oct 31, Execution of 21 Girondins (moderates) in Paris, stepping up the Reign of Terror. Pierre V. Vergniaud (40), French politician and elegant, impassioned orator of Girondins, was guillotined.
(MC, 10/31/01)

1793 Nov 3, Stephen Fuller Austin was born. He colonized Texas.
(MC, 11/3/01)

1793 Nov 8, The Louvre opened in Paris as a museum. It was originally constructed as a fortress in the early thirteenth century.
(HN, 11/6/98)(MC, 11/8/01)

1793 Nov 10, France outlawed the forced worship of God.
(MC, 11/10/01)

1793 Nov 12, Jean-Sylvain Bailley (53), French astronomer and mayor of Paris, was guillotined.
(MC, 11/12/01)

1793 Nov 19, The Jacobin Club was formed in Paris. Robespierre (1758-1794), Jacobin leader: “Terror is nothing but justice, prompt, severe and inflexible.”
(SSFC, 10/28/01, p.C5)(MC, 11/19/01)

1793 Nov 26, Republican calendar replaced the Gregorian calendar in France.
(MC, 11/26/01)

1793 Nov, In France Philippe Aspairt, a hospital porter, ventured alone into the limestones quarries south of Paris, site of the new cemetery, and got lost. Workmen found his bones 11 years later.
(Hem., 3/97, p.119)

1793 Dec 6, Marie Jeanne Becu, Comtesse du Barry, flamboyant mistress of Louis XV, was guillotined in Paris.
(MC, 12/6/01)

1793 Dec 9, Noah Webster established NY’s 1st daily newspaper, American Minerva.
(MC, 12/9/01)

1793 Dec 19, French troops recaptured Toulon from the British. Napoleon Bonaparte led the intense shelling of British positions. This led to his promotion to brigadier general.
(ON, 2/12, p.6)

1793 Dec 20, Joseph Legros (54), composer, died.
(MC, 12/20/01)

1793 Dec 23, Thomas Jefferson warned of slave revolts in West Indies.
(MC, 12/23/01)

1793 Antonio Canova created his clay model for the sculpture “Penitent Magdalen.” The final marble version was completed in 1809.
(WSJ, 1/29/02, p.A18)

1793 Jacques-Louis David painted “Death of Marat.”
(SFEC, 3/21/99, BR p.5)

1793 Pierre-Paul Prud’hon (1758-1823), French artist, painted “Cupid Laughs at the Tears He Causes.”
(WSJ, 4/8/98, p.A20)

1793 William Blake (1757-1827) produced his “Labors of the Artist, the Poet, and the Musician.” He painted “Aged Ignorance.” Blake’s work “The Complaint of Job” was also done about this time.
(LSA, Spring 1995, p.17)(NH, 4/97, p.6)(SFC, 7/16/15, p.C6)

1793 Augustin Ximenez (1726-1817), Marquis of Ximenez, a Frenchman of Spanish origin, wrote a poem with the line “Attaquons dans ses eaux la perfide Albion,” which means “Let us attack perfidious Albion in her waters.” The poet of perfidy later lectured French soldiers that “Il est beau de perir,” which means “it is beautiful to perish.”
(SSFC, 1/14/07, p.M4)(http://tinyurl.com/ye6bd7)

1793 The German Reformed Church was established in the US by Calvinist Puritans.
(SFC, 7/21/97, p.A11)

1793 Capt. George Vancouver introduced cattle to the islands of Hawaii and wrested from King Kamehameha the concession that women as well as men be allowed to eat the meat. The king agreed if separate animals were used.
(SFEM, 2/8/98, p.10)

1793 The 1st US half-cent and one cent coins were minted in Philadelphia. For almost 6 decades the obverse side carried an image of Lady Liberty. The first coins were related to the silver dollar. The half-dollar contained half as much silver, the quarter had one-fourth as much. The dime had a 10th and the half dime has a 20th as much silver as the dollar. Only the penny was made of copper. In 1866 the Mint decided to produce a larger five-cent coin. In 2012 a one-cent copper coin minted this year fetched $1 million at a Florida auction. By 2018 only about 500 pennies were left in existence and one put up for auction was valued at $300,000.
(SFC, 9/11/96, p.A4)(WSJ, 12/12/03, p.W15)(SSFC, 9/27/09, Par p.25)(AP, 1/8/12)(SFC, 1/6/18, p.A6)

1793 Cape Girardeau, Missouri, was first founded where the present day Cape Rock Park sits, when Don Louis Lorimier was given a land grant by the Spanish government. The City of Cape Girardeau celebrated its 200th year in 2006.
(www.cityofcapegirardeau.org/)

1793 In Vermont Captain John Norton founded a stoneware pottery shop in Bennington. The wares were rarely marked until 1823. Various members of the family worked at the pottery until it closed shop in 1894.
(SFC, 2/18/98, Z1 p.3)
1793 Early settlers discovered ore in what became known as Vermont’s copper belt, two years after statehood. In 1809 people began to make copperas, an industrial chemical made from iron sulfide used to make inks and dyes and for other industrial applications, also common in the area.
(AP, 9/7/19)

1793 The Spanish Governor of Alta California made the first official notice of the fire problem in California. He warned military officers, missions and civil authorities of the problem.
(SFC, 10/23/96, p.A8)

1793 There was a yellow fever epidemic in Philadelphia. About 5,000 people were killed. Stephen Girard risked his life and fortune in stopping the epidemic.
(WSJ, 1/2/97, p.6)(Econ, 5/14/16, p.52)

1793 Alexander Mackenzie, Scottish-born fur trader, reached the Pacific coast completing his crossing of North America. He began the trip in 1789. He raised Britain’s claims to the pacific Northwest.
(SFEC, 5/25/97, Z1 p.7)(SFC, 1/31/04, p.D12)

1793 The British took over the island of St. Vincent and a series of wars ensued against the black Caribs.
(SFC, 7/25/07, p.E2)

1793 China’s Emperor Qianlong accepted gifts from Lord George Macartney, but turned away the British fleet under his command with the declaration that China had all things in abundance and had no interest in “foreign manufactures.”
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R51)(Econ, 9/16/06, p.13)(Econ, 8/23/14, p.43)

1793 The courthouse at the St. Maarten Island Dutch capital of Philipsburg was built.
(SFEC,2/16/97, p.T7)

1793 The Minton dishware company was established in Stoke, Staffordshire, England.
(SFC,11/5/97, Z.1 p.3)(SFC, 3/19/08, p.G6)

1793-1795 The British engaged in the ill-fated Flanders Campaign.
(SSFM, 4/1/01, p.42)

1793-1801 In Afghanistan Zaman Shah ruled. Constant internal revolts continued.
(https://www.afghan-web.com/history/chronology/)

1793-1835 Felicia Dorothea Browne Hemans, English poet: “Though the past haunt me as a spirit, I do not ask to forget.”
(AP, 12/31/98)

References

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