Timeline of the Eighteenth Century: 1750-1774 2

1769 Apr 20, Ottawa Chief Pontiac (bc1720) was murdered by an Indian in Cahokia.
(WUD, 1994, p.1117)(HN, 4/20/98)

1769 Apr 22, Madame du Barry became King Louis XV’s “official” mistress.
(MC, 4/22/02)

1769 Apr 24, Arthur Wellesley, general, Duke of Wellington, was born. [see May 1]
(HN, 4/24/98)

1769 May 1, Arthur Wellsley, Duke of Wellington “Iron Duke,” was born. He defeated Napoleon at Waterloo and later became the British prime minister (1828-30). [see Apr 24]
(HN, 5/1/99)(MC, 5/1/02)

1769 May 7, Giuseppe Farinelli, composer, singer, was born.
(MC, 5/7/02)

1769 Jun 3, British navigator, Captain James Cook, British astronomer Charles Green and Swedish naturalist Daniel Solander observed and recorded a transit of Venus across the sun on the island of Tahiti during Cook’s first voyage around the world.

1769 Jun 7, Daniel Boone first began to explore the present-day Bluegrass State as recognized by Kentucky’s Historical Society. [see June 7, 1767]
(AP, 6/7/97)

1769 Jun 11, Anne Newport Royall, American newspaper reporter, was born.
(HN, 6/11/01)

1769 Jul 14, Don Gaspar de Portola led 63 men north from San Diego in search of Monterey and arrived there in late September.
(SFC, 11/7/15, p.C2)

1769 Jul 16, Father Junipero Serra founded Mission San Diego de Alcala, the 1st mission in Calif. The Franciscan friars soon planted cuttings of olive trees. California’s first olive press was established in Ventura County in 1871. Serra went on to build nine missions along the coast and to take over tribal lands.
(http://missions.bgmm.com/sdiego.htm)(SSFC, 8/27/06, p.F2)(SFC, 1/23/15, p.A12)

1769 Aug 15, Napoleon Bonaparte (d.1821), Emperor of France (1804-1813, 1814-1815) and continental Europe, was born on the island of Corsica.
(WUD, 1994, p.950)(AP, 8/15/97)(HN, 8/15/02)(MC, 8/15/02)

1769 Aug 18, Gunpowder in Brescia, Italy, church exploded and some 3,000 were killed.
(MC, 8/18/02)

1769 Aug 29, Edmond Hoyle (b.1672), English games expert, died.
(MC, 8/29/01)

1769 Sep 14, Baron Freidrich von Humboldt (d.1859), German naturalist and explorer who made the first isothermic and isobaric maps, was born.
(HN, 9/14/98)

1769 Sep 18, John Harris built the 1st spinet piano in the US.
(MC, 9/18/01)

1769 Oct 30, Captain Portola and his party camped at what is now Linda Mar Beach, Pacifica. They climbed the ridge above Linda Mar and saw the Farallon Islands as well as the cliffs of Point Reyes. Portola camped in San Pedro Valley and sent Sergeant Jose Ortega out to survey what was ahead.
(SFC, 5/19/96, City Guide, p.16)(Ind, 6/13/00,16A)(SFC, 11/7/15, p.C2)

1769 Nov 1-1769 Nov 3, Sgt. Jose Francisco Ortega with his scouting party first looked upon SF Bay from the vicinity of Point Lobos.
(SFEC, 2/9/97, p.W4)

1769 Nov 4, Portola received reports of a large bay ahead and went to see for himself. He crossed Sweeney Ridge in San Mateo County and saw the SF bay. Francisco de Ulloa was a navigator and member of the party.
(SFC, 5/19/96,City Guide, p.16)(SFEC, 9/21/97, p.C7)

1769 Dec 13, Dartmouth College, in New Hampshire, received its charter.
(AP, 12/13/97)

1769 Los Angeles was born as El Pueblo de Nuestra de Los Angeles.
(SFEC,12/797, p.T3)

1769 Gluck completed his opera “Paride ed Elena.” It was the last of 3 collaborations with librettist Raniero de’ Calzabigi. It deals with the seduction of Helen by Paris.
(WSJ, 7/14/04, p.D14)

1769 Construction of Britain’s Kew Observatory, built within the Old Deer Park of the former Richmond Palace in Richmond, Surrey, was completed. It was an astronomical and terrestrial magnetic observatory founded by King George III.
(ON, 4/12, p.6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kew_Observatory)
1769 The Swinford toll bridge in Oxfordshire was built across the River Thames. In 2009 it was up for auction offering buyers a tax-free investment with a bit of historic charm. It has been free of income tax since the 18th century, when Parliament granted ownership of the bridge and its tolls to the Earl of Abingdon and “to his heirs and assignees for ever.”
(AP, 11/18/09)

1769 Wolfgang von Kempelen of Hungary invented the Automoton Chess Player. It was 1st demonstrated to the Austrian court in 1770. In 2001 the deception was analyzed by James W. Cook in his book “The Arts of Deception.” In 2002 Tom Standage authored “The Turk,” an examination of the 18th century fascination with automatons.
(WSJ, 7/12/01, p.A14)(WSJ, 4/12/02, p.W12)

1769 The Writer, built by Geneva watchmakers, was a crafted mechanical puppet that sits at a mahogany desk and is able to write a 40-word sentence with a quill pen.
(Hem., 2/96, p.112)

1769 Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot, a French military engineer, invented an ungainly, steam-powered tricycle and practical steam locomotives and steamboats appeared early in the next century, eventually superceded by the internal combustion engine.
(HNQ, 1/18/01)

1769 In Morocco the Sea Gate (Porte de la Marine) was built in Mogador, later renamed Essaouira, to link the harbor to the medina. About this time Sultan Sidi Mohammad Ibn Abdelah transformed Mogador into an open city and encouraged its growth as a commercial port.
(SFEC, 1/2/00, p.T4)

1769 Bhaktapur, Nepal, fell and the triumphant Gurkhas took Kathmandu as their capital.
(SSFC, 9/21/03, p.C8)

1769-1772 Samuel Hearne, explorer for the Hudson Bay Company, maintained an journal and his notes of the land are still a standard reference.
(NH, 5/96, p.30)
1769-1772 A handful of Russian troops of General Totleben battled against Turkish invaders in Imereti and Kartl-Kakheti.

1769-1775 Prithvi Narayan Shah, with whom we move into the modern period of Nepal’s history, was the ninth generation descendant of Dravya Shah (1559-1570), the founder of the ruling house of Gorkha.

1769-1821 Napoleon Bonaparte, self-crowned emperor of France.
(V.D.-H.K.p.232)(WSJ, 11/18/96, p.A10)

1769-1830 Sir Thomas Lawrence, English painter. He painted “Pinkie.”
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.812)

1769-1843 Howqua, aka Wu Bingjian, Chinese merchant. His father was permitted to trade silk and porcelain with foreigners. He lent large sums in silver dollars to foreign traders in exchange for a share of their shipments. He donated 1.1 million silver dollars toward reparations after the First Opium War.
(WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R18)

1769-1849 Mehemet Ali, viceroy of Egypt from 1805-1848.
(WUD, 1994, p.892)

1769-1852 Apr 29, The First Duke of Wellington was born. This was the title of Arthur Wellesley, also known as the Iron Duke. He was a British soldier and statesman and defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. He became Prime Minister and served from 1828-1830. [see 1815, Napoleon & 1828-1830, Wellington]
(CFA, ’96, p.44)(AHD, p.1454)

1770 Feb 22, Jan Matyas Nepomuk August Vitasek, composer, was born.
(MC, 2/22/02)

1770 March 5, British troops taunted by a crowd of colonists fired on an unruly mob in Boston and killed five citizens in what came to be known as the Boston Massacre. The fracas between a few angry Boston men and one British sentry ended with five men dead or dying in the icy street corner of King Street and Shrimton’s Lane. Captain Thomas Preston did not order the eight British soldiers under his command to fire into the hostile crowd. The nervous soldiers claimed to be confused by shouts of “Why do you not fire?” coming from all sides. Versions of the event rapidly circulated through the colonies, bolstering public support for the Patriot cause. The British Captain Preston and seven soldiers were defended by John Adams. The captain and five of the soldiers were acquitted, the other two soldiers were found guilty of manslaughter and were branded on the hand with a hot iron. The first colonist killed in the American Revolution was the former slave, Crispus Attucks, shot by the British at the Boston Massacre. The event was later illustrated by Boston engraver Paul Revere.
(HFA, ’96, p.26)(A&IP, Miers, p.18)(SFC, 12/18/96, p.A25)(AP, 3/5/98)(HN, 3/5/98)(HNPD, 3/5/99)(WSJ, 4/12/08, p.W14)

1770 Mar 27, Giovanni B. Tiepolo (73), Italian painter (Banquet of Cleopatra), died.
(MC, 3/27/02)

1770 Apr 7, William Wordsworth, English poet laureate, was born. He wrote “The Prelude” and “Lyrical Ballads.” In 1998 Kenneth R. Johnston published “The Hidden Wordsworth: Poet, Lover, Rebel, Spy.” The biography covered the first 30 years of the poet’s life. In 1896 Emile Legouis also published a biography of the poet’s youth. The poet was responsible for such phrases as: “love of nature,” “love of man,” and “emotion recollected in tranquility.”
(V.D.-H.K.p.230)(WSJ, 6/23/98, p.A18)(SFEC, 8/23/98, BR p.5)(HN, 4/7/99)

1770 Apr 9, Captain James Cook discovered Botany Bay on the Australian continent.
(HN, 4/9/98)

1770 Apr 11, George Canning, British prime minister (1827) , was born.
(HN, 4/11/98)

1770 Apr 12, British Parliament repealed the 1967 [Townshend] Townsend Acts that put duties on certain products imported to the US.
(WUD, 1994, p.1499)(HN, 4/12/98)

1770 Apr 19, Capt. James Cook first saw Australia. [see Apr 9]
(MC, 4/19/02)

1770 Apr 20, Captain Cook arrived in New South Wales, Australia.
(HN, 4/20/98)

1770 Apr 28, Marie AC de Camargo (60), Spanish-Italian-Belgian dancer, died.
(MC, 4/28/02)

1770 Apr, Cockfighting in Puerto Rico, introduced by Spain in the 16th century, was officially recognized for the first time.
(AP, 7/23/12)

1770 May 10, Charles Avison (61), composer, died.
(MC, 5/10/02)

1770 May 16, Marie Antoinette (14), married the future King Louis XVI of France (15).
(AP, 5/16/97)(HN, 5/16/98)

1770 Jun 3, Father Junipero Serra founded Mission San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo on the shores of Monterey Bay as a chapel for the new Spanish Presidio of Monterey. A year later he moved the mission to Carmel.
(SSFC, 11/25/01, p.C5)(www.sancarloscathedral.net/)

1770 Jun 7, Earl of Liverpool, (C) British PM (1812-27), was born.
(SC, 6/7/02)

1770 Jul 7, The entire Ottoman fleet was defeated and destroyed by the Russians at the 3-day battle of Chesme [Cesme] on the Aegean Sea. The Ottoman fleet was commanded by Kapudan Pasha Mandalzade Hüsameddin, in the fourth ship from the front (north end) of the line, with Hasan Pasha (1713-1790) in the first ship, Real Mustafa, and Cafer Bey in the seventh.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Chesma)(WSJ, 4/29/99, p.A24)

1770 Jun 11, Capt. James Cook, commander of the British ship Endeavour, discovered the Great Barrier Reef off Australia by running onto it.
(AP, 6/11/97)(HN, 6/11/98)

1770 Jul 18, Isabel Godin, having traveled from Ecuador the length of the Amazon, reunited with her husband Jean Godin in French Guiana.
(ON, 5/05, p.4)

1770 Aug 1, William Clark, American explorer, was born in Charlottsville, VA. He led the Corps of Discovery with Meriwether Lewis.
(HN, 8/1/00)(MC, 8/1/02)

1770 Aug 24, Thomas Chatterton (b.1752), English poet (Revenge), committed suicide.
(MC, 8/24/02)

1770 Aug 27, The German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831) was born in Stuttgart. He wrote “The Science of Logic.” Hegel greatly influenced Karl Marx. His method was to metaphysicize everything, that is, to discern in concrete reality the working of some Idea or Universal Mind. Hegel proposed that all change, all progress, is brought about by the conflict of vast forces. A world-historical figure or nation or event lays down a challenge. This thesis, as he called it, is opposed by an antithesis. The conflict between them is resolved, inevitably, by a synthesis of the two forces on a higher plane of being.
(V.D.-H.K.p.258)(AP, 8/27/97)(HN, 8/27/98)

1770 Nov 13, George Grenville (58), British premier (1763-65), Stamp Act, died.
(MC, 11/13/01)

1770 Nov 19, Albert Bertel Thorvaldsen, sculptor (Dying Lion), was born in Copenhagen, Denmark.
(MC, 11/19/01)

1770 Dec 9, Gottlieb Theophil Muffat (80), composer, died.
(MC, 12/9/01)

1770 Dec 12, The British soldiers responsible for the “Boston Massacre” were acquitted on murder charges.
(HN, 12/12/98)

1770 Dec 16, Ludwig Von Beethoven (d.1827), German composer best known for his 9th Symphony, was born in Bonn. His Sixth Symphony “Pastorale” was in F-Major. Locks of his hair were cut off after his death and preserved by a number of collectors.
(CFA, ’96, p.60)(WUD, 1994, p.134)(WSJ, 5/29/96, p.A1,5)(AP, 12/16/97)(SFC, 7/7/98, p.B3)(HN, 12/16/98)

1770 Dec 17, Johann Friedrich Schubert, composer, was born.
(MC, 12/17/01)

1770 Dec 26, Pierre earl de Cambronne, French general (Waterloo, Elba), was born.
(MC, 12/26/01)

1770 Thomas Gainsborough (1727-1788), English painter, exhibited his “Portrait of a Young Gentleman”, soon dubbed “Blue Boy,” at the Royal Academy Exhibition.
(SSFC, 9/23/18, p.A11)
1770 George Stubbs, Britain’s finest painter of animals, did a portrait of the Duke of Richmond’s imported yearling bull moose. It was commissioned by anatomist William Hunter (1718-1783) to see if the moose was related to the fossil Irish giant deer.
(NH, 8/96, p.17)

1770 The “New England Psalm-Singer” by William Billings was released.
(WSJ, 10/17/96, p.A20)

1770 Capt. George Cartwright, a British adventurer and entrepreneur, established the fishing village of Cartwright on the east coast of Labrador, Canada.
(NH, 6/96, p.56)

1770 In India a famine wiped out a third of the population of Bengal. This hardened opinion against the British East India Company.
(Econ, 12/17/11, p.111)

c1770 A monastery was built in Cartagena, Colombia, that served as the seat of the Inquisition Tribunal for Spain. It later became the Hotel Santa Clara.
(SSFC, 5/18/03, p.C12)

1770 Francois Boucher (b.1703), French painter, died. He painted “Diana.”
(Econ, 10/9/04, p.79)

1770-1772 John Copley painted the portrait of Samuel Adams in Boston.
(WSJ, 6/14/95, p.A-14)

1770-1779 William Addis invented the toothbrush in the 1770s while a prisoner in Newgate Prison.
(SFC, 7/14/99, Z1 p.3)
1770-1779 Blacks were 1st brought to Argentina in the 1770s to toil on large haciendas and work as domestic servants.
(SSFC, 11/27/05, p.A24)

1771 Apr 13, Richard Trevithick, inventor of the steam locomotive, was born in Cornwall, England.
(ON, 4/04, p.4)

1771 Apr 29, Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli (b.1700), Italian architect, died in St. Petersburg. He was born in Paris and spent his entire career in Russia. His work included the Winter Palace (1754-1762) in St. Petersburg, which later became the Hermitage Museum.

1771 May 14, Robert Owen (d.1858), English factory owner, socialist, was born in Newtown, Wales.
1771 May 14, Thomas Wedgwood, English physicist, was born. He is acknowledged as the first photographer.
(HN, 5/14/99)

1771 Jun 3, Sydney Smith, preacher, reformer, author, was born in Woodford, Essex.
(MC, 6/3/02)

1771 Jun 12, Patrick Gass, Sgt. of Lewis & Clark Expedition, was born in Falling Springs, PA.
(MC, 6/12/02)

1771 Jun 24, E.I. Du Pont, chemist, was born.
(HN, 6/24/98)

1771 Jul 12, James Cook sailed Endeavour back to Downs, England.
(MC, 7/12/02)

1771 Jul 14, Father Junipero Serra founded the Mission San Antonio de Padua in California.
(SFEC, 3/12/00, p.T4)(MC, 7/14/02)

1771 Jul 30, Thomas Gray (54), English poet, died. His work included “Elegy Written in a Country Church Yard” (1751).
(MC, 7/30/02)

1771 Aug 15, Sir Walter Scott (d.1832), Scottish novelist who wrote “Ivanhoe” and “Rob Roy,” was born.
(WUD, 1994, p.1281)(HN, 8/15/98)

1771 Sep 8, Mission San Gabriel Archangel was formed in California.
(MC, 9/8/01)

1771 Sep 10, The Scottish explorer Mungo Park (d.1806) was born. He settled the question as to the direction of flow of the Niger River as he traced the northern reaches of the African river in the 1790s. Park was one of the first explorers sponsored by England’s African Association. He died in 1806 on another expedition to determine if the Niger linked with the Congo River. He reportedly drowned while fleeing attackers near Bussa, which is in present-day Nigeria.
(HNQ, 6/6/98)

1771 Sep 17, Tobias George Smollett, novelist (Adventures of Roderick Random), died at 50.
(MC, 9/17/01)

1771 Nov 4, Carlo Goldoni’s “Le Bourru Bienfaisant,” premiered in Paris.
(MC, 11/4/01)

1771 Nov 6, Alois Senefelder, inventor (lithography), was born.
(MC, 11/6/01)

1771 Nov 11, Ephraim McDowell, surgeon (pioneered abdominal surgery), was born.
(MC, 11/11/01)

1771 Dec 26, Claude A. Helvétius (56), French encyclopedist (L’esprit), died.
(MC, 12/26/01)

1771 Fedot Ivanovich Choubine, Russian sculptor and painter, carved a bust of Catherine the Great.
(Econ, 12/23/06, p.126)(http://tinyurl.com/y4ydna)

1771 A color engraving from this year of the fish Acarauna is on display at the Mariner’s Museum Library in Newport News, Va., USA.
(Civil., Jul-Aug., ’95, p.97)
1771 Mark Catesby had his work: “The Natural History of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands” printed in London.
(WSJ, 7/7/98, p.A14)
1771 In California Father Junipero Serra moved the Mission San Carlos Borromeo de Rio Carmelo over from Monterey. The Carmel mission was his 7th.
(SFEC, 3/12/00, p.T5)
1771 Benjamin Banneker, black mathematician and surveyor, helped create the initial boundaries of Washington D.C.
(SFC, 5/26/96, T-7)

1771 By this time some 50,000 British convicts were dumped on American shores. Most of them came from Middlesex, the county that includes London.
(SFEC, 10/27/96, p.T9)
1771 A group of 79 underwriters established their Society of Lloyd’s, Lloyd’s of London, at the Lloyd’s coffee shop.
(Econ, 12/20/03, p.89)
1771 Britain’s Parliament named Benjamin Franklin to a committee to investigate how lightning rods might help protect gunpowder.
(WSJ, 8/15/05, p.D8)
1771 Joseph Priestley, English minister, grasped the rudiments of the carbon cycle after his experiments showed that mint in a sealed jar refreshed the air.
(NG, Feb, 04, p.28)

1771 Luigi Galvani (1737-1798), Italian physician and physicist, discovered that the muscles of dead frogs legs twitched when struck by a spark.
(Econ, 6/16/12, p.102)

1771 In Mexico Father Toribio Basterrechea, vicar of Huachinango, was convicted by the Inquisition of officiating at the marriage of two dogs. He was sentenced to 4 months of fasting and penance.
(SFC, 9/18/96, p.A11)

1771-1858 Johann Baptist Cramer, composer and pianist, played Bach in public before 1800.
(LGC-HCS, p.32)

1772 Feb 10, Louis Tocque (75), French painter, died.
(MC, 2/10/02)

1772 Apr 2, Father Juan Crespi looked out over a bay, later called Suisun Bay, and believed he had found the fabled Northwest Passage, a shortcut to the Colorado River. After Father Serra established a mission in Monterey, Ca, Pedro Fages and Father Juan Crespi had set out to explore the SF Bay by land.
(SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W34)(SFC, 5/3/13, p.D1)

1772 Mar 10, Friedrich Von Schlegel (d.1829) was born. He was a German romantic poet and critic whose books included “Philosophy of History” and “History of Literature.” “A historian is a prophet in reverse.”
(AP, 5/25/97)(HN, 3/10/99)

1772 Apr 11, Manuel Jose Quintana, Spanish author, poet (El Duque de Viseo), was born.
(MC, 4/11/02)

1772 May 10, British Parliament passed the Tea Act, taxing all tea in the colonies. [see Apr 27, 1973]
(HN, 5/10/98)

1772 May 11, Joseph Kerckhoff, Limburg surgeon, robber captain, was hanged.
(MC, 5/11/02)

1772 May 20, William Congreve, English officer (design fire rocket), was born.
(MC, 5/20/02)

1772 Jun 6, Haitian explorer Jean Baptiste-Pointe DuSable settled Chicago. [see Mar 12, 1773]
(MC, 6/6/02)

1772 Jun 9, The 1st naval attack of Revolutionary War took place when residents of Providence, RI., stormed the HMS Gaspee, burned it to the waterline and shot the captain. A Rhode Island ship captain lured the British schooner HMS Gaspee, sent to Narragansett Bay to enforce trade laws, into shallow waters a few miles south of Providence, where it ran aground. Colonists in Providence heard the news and rowed out to it. Later, no one would tell King George III who set fire to the ship.
(WSJ, 6/24/03, p.A1)(AP, 6/7/18)

1772 Jun 22, Slavery was in effect outlawed in England by Chief Justice William Murray, First Earl of Mansfield, following the trial of James Somersett. In 2005 Steven Wise authored “Though the Heavens May Fall: The Landmark Trial that Led to the End of Human Slavery.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Somersett%27s_Case)(Econ, 2/5/05, p.76)(ON, 12/08, p.9)

1772 Jul 13, Capt James Cook began a 2nd trip on the ship Resolution to South Seas.
(MC, 7/13/02)

1772 Aug 11, An explosive eruption blew 4,000 feet off Papandayan, Java, and 3,000 people were killed.
(MC, 8/11/02)

1772 Aug 19, Gustavus III of Sweden eliminated the rule of parties and establishes an absolute monarchy. It had been subordinate to parliament since 1720.
(HN, 8/19/98)(MC, 8/19/02)

1772 Sep 1, Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa formed in California. Father Junipero Serra held the 1st Mass at San Luis Obispo. He left Father Jose Cavalier the task of building the state’s 5th mission.
(SFEC, 10/11/98, p.T6)(MC, 9/1/02)(SSFC, 10/20/02, p.C1)

1772 Sep 26, New Jersey passed a bill requiring a license to practice medicine.
(MC, 9/26/01)

1772 Oct 4, Francois-Louis Pierne, composer, was born.
(MC, 10/4/01)

1772 Oct 21, Samuel Taylor Coleridge (d.1834), English poet and author, was born. His work included “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner” and “Kubla Khan”.
(AP, 9/12/97)(HN, 10/21/00)

1772 Oct 30, Capt. Cook arrived with ship Resolution in Capetown.
(MC, 10/30/01)

1772 Nov 2, The first Committees of Correspondence were formed in Massachusetts under Samuel Adams.
(HN, 11/2/98)

1772 Dec 22, A Moravian missionary constructed the 1st schoolhouse west of Allegheny.
(MC, 12/22/01)

1772 Beaumarchais wrote his “Barber” as an opera. Rossini later adopted it for his opera “Barber of Seville.”
(SFC, 8/13/96, p.B2)

1772 In Maryland Ellicott City was founded as a mill town.
(SFC, 8/1/16, p.A5)

1772 Sep 1, Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa formed in California. Father Junipero Serra held the 1st Mass at San Luis Obispo. He left Father Jose Cavalier the task of building the state’s 5th mission.
(SFEC, 10/11/98, p.T6)(MC, 9/1/02)(SSFC, 10/20/02, p.C1)

1772 Sep 26, New Jersey passed a bill requiring a license to practice medicine.
(MC, 9/26/01)

1772 Oct 4, Francois-Louis Pierne, composer, was born.
(MC, 10/4/01)

1772 Oct 21, Samuel Taylor Coleridge (d.1834), English poet and author, was born. His work included “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner” and “Kubla Khan”.
(AP, 9/12/97)(HN, 10/21/00)

1772 Oct 30, Capt. Cook arrived with ship Resolution in Capetown.
(MC, 10/30/01)

1772 Nov 2, The first Committees of Correspondence were formed in Massachusetts under Samuel Adams.
(HN, 11/2/98)

1772 Dec 22, A Moravian missionary constructed the 1st schoolhouse west of Allegheny.
(MC, 12/22/01)

1772 Beaumarchais wrote his “Barber” as an opera. Rossini later adopted it for his opera “Barber of Seville.”
(SFC, 8/13/96, p.B2)

1772 In Maryland Ellicott City was founded as a mill town.
(SFC, 8/1/16, p.A5)

1772 A group of merchants raised money for the Boston Pier. They owned the land together and shared the rent making this an early example of what later came to be know as a Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT)
(Econ, 9/17/16, p.69)

1772 Daniel Rutherford discovered nitrogen.
(Dr, 7/17/01, p.2)

1772 Shoelaces were invented in England.
(SFC, 8/28/98, p.B4)

1772 The Paris Faculty of Medicine declared potatoes to be an edible food.
(SSFC, 10/5/08, p.A15)
1772 The French Veuve Clicquot champagne was first produced, but the first bottles were laid down for ten years.
(AFP, 7/17/10)

1772 In Germany the silver and most of the silver-gilt in the Green Vault of Dresden was melted down and made into coin.
(Econ, 9/16/06, p.95)

1772 Calcutta became the capital of British India and continued until 1912 when the colonial rulers shifted their base to New Delhi in northern India.
(AFP, 2/18/12)

1772 Upon the partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, or simply Galicia, became the largest, most populous, and northernmost province of Austria where it remained until the dissolution of Austria-Hungary at the end of World War I. Jews accounted for 10% of the 2.6 million population of Galicia.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galicia_(Central_Europe))(Econ, 11/15/14, p.87)

1772-1801 Friedrich von Hardenberg, aka Novalis, visionary Romantic poet, novelist and political theorist. In 1997 a novel by English author Penelope Fitzgerald, “The Blue Flower,” gave an account of his life.
(WSJ, 4/8/97, p.A20)

1772-1811 Rabbi Nachman of Bratslav, the grandson of the founder of Hasidism, used storytelling to teach his followers.
(WSJ, 6/28/99, p.A24)

1772-1823 David Ricardo, English Economist and stockbroker. He postulated that landlords become rich at the expense of society.
(V.D.-H.K.p.253)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R20)

1773 Jan 12, The first public museum in America was established, in Charleston, S.C.
(AP, 1/12/98)

1773 Jan 17, Captain James Cook became the first person to cross the Antarctic Circle (66d 33′ S).
(HN, 1/17/99)(MC, 1/17/02)

1773 Feb 9, William Henry Harrison, the 9th president of the United States (March 4- April 4, 1841), was born in Charles City County, Va.
(HN, 2/9/97)(AP, 2/9/99)(MC, 2/9/02)

1773 Feb 26, Construction was authorized for Walnut St. jail in Philadelphia, (1st solitary).
(SC, 2/26/02)

1773 Mar 12, Jeanne Baptiste Pointe de Sable settled what is now known as Chicago. [see Jun 6, 1772]
(MC, 3/12/02)

1773 Mar 26, Nathaniel Bowditch (d.1838), mathematician, astronomer, polyglot, author (Marine Sextant), was born in Salem, Mass. In 1802 he published “The New American Practical Navigator.”
(SS, 3/26/02)(AH, 12/02, p.22)

1773 Apr 6, James Mill (d.1836), English philosopher, historian (Hist of British India) and economist, was born in Scotland.
(V.D.-H.K.p.253)(WUD, 1994 p.909)(MC, 4/6/02)

1773 Apr 27, British Parliament passed the Tea Act. [see May 10, 1772]
(HN, 4/27/98)

1773 May 10, To keep the troubled East India Company afloat, Parliament passed the Tea Act, taxing all tea in the American colonies.
(HN, 5/10/99)

1773 May 15, Prince Clemens Von Metternich (d.1859), Chancellor of Austria, was born in Coblenz. His policies dominated Europe after the Congress of Vienna.
(HN, 5/15/99)(WUD, 1994 ed., p.903)

1773 Jul 20, Scottish settlers arrived at Pictou, Nova Scotia (Canada).
(MC, 7/20/02)

1773 Jul 21, Pope Clement XIV abolished the Jesuit order. He disbanded, defrocked, and stripped them of their sustenance. They were ignored by other orders and denounced as schemers and plotters. The Jesuits finally regained respectability in 1814after flourishing underground.
(HN, 7/21/98)(MC, 7/21/02)

1773 Sep 1, Phillis Wheatley (d.1834), a slave from Boston, published a collection of poetry, “Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral,” in London. Although she received her freedom soon after, Wheatley’s last years saw only misery.
(HN, 9/1/99)(HNPD, 2/21/00)

1773 Sep 11, Benjamin Franklin wrote “There never was a good war or bad peace.”
(MC, 9/11/01)

1773 Sep 14, Russian forces under Aleksandr Suvorov successfully stormed a Turkish fort at Hirsov, Turkey.
(HN, 9/14/99)

1773 Oct 14, Britain’s East India Company tea ships’ cargo was burned at Annapolis, Md.
(HN, 10/14/98)

1773 Dec 16, Some 50-60 “Sons of Liberty” of revolutionary Samuel Adams disguised as Mohawks defied the 3 cents per pound tax on tea boarded a British East India Tea Company ship and dumped 342 chests of British tea into the Boston Harbor in what became known as the Boston Tea Party. Parliament had passed the 1773 Tea Act not to regulate trade or make the colonies pay their own administrative costs, but to save the nearly bankrupt British East India Tea Company. The Tea Act gave the company a monopoly over the American tea trade and authorized the sale of 17 million pounds of tea in America at prices cheaper than smuggled Dutch tea. In spite of the savings, Americans would not accept what they considered to be taxation without representation. Overreacting to the Boston Tea Party, the British attempted to punish Boston and the whole colony of Massachusetts with the Intolerable Acts of 1774–another in the series of events that ultimately led to American independence. A bill for the tea ($196) was paid Sep 30, 1961.
(HFA, ’96, p.44)(A&IP, Miers, p.18)(SFEC,11/23/97, Par p.14)(AP, 12/16/97)(HNPD, 12/16/98)(MC, 9/30/01)

1773 Dec 26, Expulsion of tea ships from Philadelphia.
(MC, 12/26/01)

1773 Dec 27, George Cayley, founder of the science of aerodynamics, was born in England.
(MC, 12/27/01)

1773 Dmitri Levitsky (1735-1822), Kiev born Russian-Ukrainian artist, painted a portrait of Katerina Khrouchtchova and princess Katerina Khonanskaia.
(Econ, 12/23/06, p.126)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dmitry_Levitsky)

1773 Augustin Pajou, French sculptor, completed his bust of Madame du Barry.
(WSJ, 3/18/98, p.A20)

1773 Thomas Day, English abolitionist, wrote a poem with his friend John Bicknell called “The Dying Negro.”
(Econ, 2/16/13, p.83)

1773 Phillis Wheatley, black poet, published “Poems on Various Subjects.”
(SFEC, 4/30/00, p.C12)

1773 America’s first chamber of commerce was founded in Charleston, South Carolina. In 1912 the Chamber of Commerce of the USA was established.
(Econ, 4/21/12, p.77)

1773 Thomas Jefferson planted Yellow Newtown Pippin apples at his home in Monticello.
(T&L, 10/1980, p.42)

1773 John Harrison (1693-1776) received a monetary award in the amount of £8,750 from the British Parliament for his achievements regarding the invention of the marine chronometer solving the problem of establishing the East-West position or longitude of a ship at sea. He never received the official award, proclaimed in 1714, which was never awarded to anyone.
(Econ, 5/1/10, p.80)(www.surveyhistory.org/john_harrison%27s_timepiece1.htm)
1773 In England Sir Robert Clive was acquitted of embezzlement.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)
1773 A group of English traders broke away from Jonathan’s coffee house and moved to a new building. This became the forerunner of the London Stock Exchange (f.1801).
(Econ, 12/20/03, p.89)
1773 The Samuel Deacon & Co. ad agency opened in London.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1773 A large earthquake destroyed so much of Antigua that the Spanish moved away and built a new capital on a plateau 30 miles away that became Guatemala City.
(NG, 6/1988, p.798) (SFEM, 6/13/99, p.33)

1773 The Royal Captain, a merchant ship of the British East India Co., was lost off a coral reef in the Philippines.
(WSJ, 7/21/00, p.W2)

1773 Iceland held its first census.
(Economist, 8/25/12, p.64)

1773 Captain James Cook found a group of islands 1800 miles northeast of New Zealand. They became known as the Cook Islands. “A couple of years ago, the Cook Islands hired a lawyer from the United States to draft an asset protection statute that instantly made the islands one of the best places in the world to protect assets from creditors.
(Hem, 8/95, p.38)

1773 In Russia the Cossack Yemelyan Pugachev, pretending to be the dead emperor Peter III, incited a widespread rebellion.
(SFC,10/28/97, p.A8)

1773 Samuel Johnson and James Boswell toured the countryside of Scotland.
(SFC, 6/25/95, p.T-1)

1773-1776 In Mexico a mid-sixteenth century church was abandoned in the Quechula locality of southern Chiapas state due to big plagues in the region.
(SSFC, 10/18/15, p.A5)

1773-1777 William Bartram, American Quaker naturalist, was commissioned by Dr. John Fothergill to travel through the American South to hunt plants. Bartram’s travels led to the publication in 1791 of his “Travels Through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and West Florida.”
(Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.10-12)

1773-1785 Warren Hastings served as the British governor-general of India. [see 1787]
(WSJ, 5/1/00, p.A24)(WSJ, 2/22/00, p.A20)

1773-1793 Rule of Timur Shah. The capital of Afghanistan was transferred from Kandahar to Kabul because of tribal opposition. Constant internal revolts occurred.

1773-1827 Elizabeth de Meulan Guizot, French author: “Much misconstruction and bitterness are spared to him who thinks naturally upon what he owes to others, rather than on what he ought to expect from them.”
(AP, 7/18/99)

1773-1833 John Randolph, state representative from Virginia. He said of Edward Livingston, a mayor of NY and later a senator from Louisiana and US Sec. Of State, that he “shines and stinks like rotten mackerel by moonlight.”
(WSJ, 11/4/98, p.A20)

1774 Feb 10, Andrew Becker demonstrated a diving suit.
(MC, 2/10/02)

1774 Feb 17, Raphaelle Peale, U.S. painter, was born.
(HN, 2/17/98)

1774 Feb 22, English House of Lords ruled that authors do not have perpetual copyright.
(MC, 2/22/02)

1774 Mar 4, The 1st sighting of the Orion nebula was made by William Herschel.
(SC, 3/4/02)

1774 Mar 7, A 2nd Boston tea party was held.
(SFEC,11/23/97, Par p.14)
1774 Mar 7, The British closed the port of Boston to all commerce.
(HN, 3/7/98)

1774 Mar 25, English Parliament passed the Boston Port Bill.
(MC, 3/25/02)

1774 Mar 28, Britain passed the Coercive Act against Massachusetts. [see May 20]
(HN, 3/28/98)

1774 Apr 4, Oliver Goldsmith, Irish poet (She Stoops to Conquer), died.
(MC, 4/4/02)

1774 Apr 19, Gluck’s opera “Iphigenia in Aulis,” premiered in Paris.
(MC, 4/19/02)

1774 Apr, NYC patriots dumped 18 chests of tea off Murray’s Wharf.
(WSJ, 10/16/02, p.D8)

1774 May 10, Louis XV (64), King of France (1715-74), died of smallpox and was succeeded by his grandson Louis XVI (19). Louis XVI soon appointed Charles Gravier, comte de Vergennes, as his new foreign minister.
(AP, 5/10/97)(HN, 5/10/99)(PCh, 1992, p.318)(AH, 2/06, p.55)

1774 May 19, Ann Lee and eight Shakers sailed from Liverpool to New York. The religious group originated in Quakerism and fled England due to religious persecution. They become the first conscientious objectors on religious grounds and were jailed during the American Revolution in 1776. In 1998 Suzanne Skees published “god Among the Shakers.” The United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Appearing is the full, proper name for the 19th-century religious group better known as the Shakers. Although they were the largest and best-known communal society a century ago, the Shakers were rarely referred to by their proper name. Outsiders dubbed them “Shakers” for the movements in their ritualistic dance.
(DTnet 5/19/97)(WSJ, 3/27/98, p.W10)(HNQ, 7/2/98)

1774 May 20, The British Parliament passed the Coercive Acts to punish the colonists for their increasingly anti-British behavior. The acts closed the port of Boston. [see Mar 28]
(HN, 5/20/99)

1774 May, The conjunction of the Moon, Mercury, Venus and Jupiter in the same constellation spread panic among the unenlightened in Europe.
(NH, 6/00, p.10)

1774 Jun 1, The Boston Port Bill, the first bill of the Intolerable Acts (called by the Colonists) became effective. It closed Boston harbor until restitution for the destroyed tea was made (passed Mar. 25, 1774).
(DTnet 6/1/97)(HN, 6/1/98)

1774 Jun 2, The Quartering Act, requiring American colonists to allow British soldiers into their houses, was reenacted.
(HN, 6/2/98)

1774 Jun 13, Rhode Island became the 1st colony to prohibit importation of slaves.
(MC, 6/13/02)

1774 Jul 11, Jews of Algiers escaped an attack of the Spanish Army. Jun 11 was also cited for this event.
(MC, 7/11/02)

1774 Jul 12, Citizens of Carlisle, Penn., passed a declaration of independence.
(MC, 7/12/02)

1774 Jul 16, Russia and the Ottoman Empire signed the treaty of Kuchuk-Kainardji, ending their six-year war. This brought Russia for the first time to the Mediterranean as the acknowledged protector of Orthodox Christians.
(HN, 7/16/98)(WSJ, 4/29/99, p.A24)

1774 Jul 17, Capt Cook arrived at New Hebrides (Vanuatu).
(MC, 7/17/02)

1774 Aug 1, British scientist Joseph Priestley succeeded in isolating oxygen from air in Calne, England. He called his new gas “dephlogisticated air.”
(ON, 10/05, p.2)(AP, 8/1/07)

1774 Aug 6, Mother Ann Lee, founder of the Shaker Movement, arrived in NY.
(MC, 8/6/02)

1774 Aug 12, Robert Southey, English poet laureate (1813-1843) and biographer of Nelson, was born.
(HN, 8/12/98)(SC, 8/12/02)

1774 Aug 18, Meriwether Lewis, American explorer, was born in Charlottsville, VA. He led the Corps of Discovery with William Clark.
(HN, 8/18/00)(MC, 8/18/02)

1774 Aug 28, Mother Elizabeth Ann Seton, the first American-born saint and the founder of the Sisters of St. Joseph, was born in New York City. She was canonized in 1975..
(AP, 8/28/97)(HN, 8/28/98)(RTH, 8/28/99)

1774 Sep 5, The first Continental Congress assembled in Philadelphia in a secret session in Carpenter’s Hall with representatives from every colony except Georgia. Tensions had been tearing at relations between the colonists and the government of King George III. The British taking singular exception to the 1773 shipboard tea party held in Boston harbor. The dispute convinced Britain to pass the “Intolerable Acts”- 4 of which were to punish Mass. for the Boston Tea Party. Peyton Randolph of Williamsburg, Va., chaired the 1st Continental Congress. Its first official act was a call to prayer.
(AP, 9/5/97)(HNQ, 6/25/00)(AH, 10/04, p.14)(AH, 4/07, p.31)

1774 Sep 13, Tugot, the new controller of finances, urged the king of France to restore the free circulation of grain in the kingdom.
(HN, 9/13/98)

1774 Sep 26, John Chapman (d.1845), later known as Johnny Appleseed, was born in Massachusetts. A pioneer agriculturalist of early America, Chapman began his trek in 1797, collecting apple seedlings from western Pennsylvania and establishing apple nurseries around the early American frontier. Chapman was a Swedenborgian missionary, a land speculator and an eccentric dresser (he hated shoes and seldom wore them. He planted orchards across western Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Indiana from seed.
(www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=94)(T&L, 10/1980, p.42)(ON, 4/09, p.10)

1774 Oct 14, Patrick Henry, in declaring his love of country in a speech during the First Continental Congress on October 14, 1774, proclaimed, “I am not a Virginian, but an American.”
(HN, 8/2/98)

1774 Oct 20, The Continental Congress ordered the discouragement of entertainment.
(MC, 10/20/01)

1774 Oct 26, The first Continental Congress, which protested British measures and called for civil disobedience, concluded in Philadelphia.
(AP, 10/26/97)(HN, 10/26/98)
1774 Oct 26, Minute Men were organized in the American colonies.
(MC, 10/26/01)

1774 Nov 14, Gaspare Luigi Pacifico Spontini, composer, was born.
(MC, 11/14/01)

1774 Nov 22, British officer and privateer Sir Robert Clive (b.1725), considered by some as the richest man ever, committed suicide.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Clive)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1774 Nov 26, A congress of colonial leaders criticized British influence in the colonies and affirmed their right to “Life, liberty and property.”
(HN, 11/26/98)

1774 Nov, Thomas Paine, English pamphleteer, arrived in Philadelphia. He had been urged to come to America by Ben Franklin.
(ON, 6/2011, p.1)

1774 Dec 2, Johann Friedrich Agricola (54), German court composer and organist, died.
(MC, 12/2/01)

1774 Dec 13, Some 400 colonists attacked Ft. William & Mary, NH.
(MC, 12/13/01)

1774 Dec 16, Francois Quesnay (b.1694), French economist, died. He was the first to think of the economy as a system of interacting parts to be judged by the necessities and conveniences it produces. Quesnay wrote his Tableau Économique (1758), renowned for its famous “zig-zag” depiction of income flows between economic sectors.
(Econ, 8/7/10, p.84)(www.economyprofessor.com/theorists/francoisquesnay.php)

1774 Dec 18, Empress Maria Theresa expelled Jews from Prague, Bohemia and Moravia.
(MC, 12/18/01)

1774 Dec, Capt. Fernando Rivera y Moncada and 4 soldiers climbed Mount Davidson and proceeded north to Lands End.
(GTP, 1973, p.126)(SFC, 12/6/14, p.C1)
1774 Dec, In Paris nearly 100 feet of the Rue d’Enfer (“street of Hell”) collapsed to a depth of 100 feet.
(Hem., 3/97, p.129)

1774 Sir Francis Beaufort (d.1857) hydrogapher, was born near Navan in Co. Meath, Ireland.
(NH, 11/1/04, p.51)

1774 Kaspar David Friedrich (d.1840), German painter and master of numinous landscapes, was born. He painted “Wreck of the Hope.”
(AAP, 1964)(WSJ, 7/16/98, p.A16)

1774 John Singleton Copley, painter, left for England. This allowed his student, Charles Willson Peale, to step in as the most fashionable colonial portraitist.
(SFC, 1/25/97, p.E3)

1774 Thomas Jefferson (31), US President (1801-1809), wrote the widely circulated “Summary View of the Rights of British America ” and retired from his law practice.

1774 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832) published his novel “The Sorrows of Young Werther.” In 1887 French composer Jules Massenet (1842-1912) turned into an opera. The opera premiered at the Imperial Theatre Hofoper in Vienna on February 16, 1892.
(SFC, 9/17/10, p.F1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Werther)

1774 Ann Lee, leader of the United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Appearing, arrived in the New World. She was a young Englishwoman and led the Shakers in their faith which is based on celibacy, confession of sin, and belief in human perfectibility. She never learned to read or write. They withdrew from the world into their own agricultural communities which spread to Ohio & Kentucky and produced a wealth of songs, as many as 10,000. One of the best known is Simple Gifts made famous by Aaron Copland in Appalachian Spring.
(WSJ, 10/16/95, p. A-12)(SFC, 9/21/96, p.E4)

1774 Nicholas Cresswell, Englishman, arrived in the US and spent 3 years traveling and meeting prominent Americans of the time including George Washington, Thomas Jefferson and British Gen. William Howe. Cresswell kept a journal and in 2009 it was published as “A Man Apart: The Journal of Nicholas Cresswell 1774-1781.”
(WSJ, 4/11/09, p.W9)
1774 Tadeusz Kosciusko came to America from Poland after an unsuccessful love affair. He became a hero fighting the British in the American war for Independence.
(SFEC, 11/24/96, T7)

1774 Captain Cook dropped anchor at the Marquesas Islands.
(SFEC, 8/25/96, p.T6)
1774 Capt. Cook discovered the 13-square-mile Norfolk Island 1,000 miles east of Sidney. It was later turned into a penal settlement from which the last prisoner left in 1855.
(AP, 8/12/02)
1774 Captain Cook discovered Norfolk Island, between new Caledonia and new Zealand, and dubbed it “paradise” in his log. The British later turned it into a penal colony and resettled the inhabitants of Pitcairn island there in 1856.
(SFEM, 3/12/00, p.66)

1774 English journalist John Wilkes (1725-1797 was elected Lord Mayor of London.
(ON, 12/11, p.9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Wilkes)
1774 In England Georgiana Spencer (1757-1806) married William Cavendish, the 5th Duke of Devonshire. Spencer was the great-great-great-great-aunt of Princess Diana. In 1999 Amanda Foreman authored “Georgiana,” a biography of Georgiana Spencer.
(WSJ, 1/7/00, p.W4)
1774 Ann Lee, a Manchester Quaker, left for the New World and founded the Shaker movement. The Shakers had originated in England as the United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Appearance.
(SFC, 6/21/01, p.C2)(Econ, 2/20/15, p.74)
1774 Britain banned tontines, a form of life insurance , under the Life Assurance Act 1774, also known as the Gambling Act 1774.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life_Assurance_Act_1774)(Econ 6/17/17, p.69)

1774 Mexico exported 600 tons of the cochineal shell, known as carmine, to Spain. The acid color was extracted from the shell of the tiny red beetle that grew on cactus leaves. It was used to manufacture a red dye that was used in British “redcoats” and by Betsy Ross to color the first US flag.
(WSJ, 10/7/98, p.B1)

1774 A Dutch merchant cobbled together the earliest mutual-style fund, Eendragt Maakt Magt (Unity creates Strength). The first modern mutual fund was launched in Boston in 1924.
(Econ, 4/21/07, p.83)

1774 In northwestern Russia the Dormition church was built on the shores of Lake Onega in the Kondopoga region of Karelia. It was broadly admired as one of the most remarkable examples of Northern Russia’s wooden architecture. On August 10, 2018 it was destroyed by fire.
(AP, 8/10/18)

1774 A Scottish printer finally overturned a copyright monopoly that had allowed English booksellers to lock up the works of Shakespeare and other authors for nearly 2 centuries.
(WSJ, 3/26/04, p.W6)

1774 Spain established a small settlement on the Falkland Islands, which lasted to 1811. An Argentine outpost was established in the 1820s.
(Econ, 4/7/07, p.36)

1774-1781 The British army occupied Manhattan, Staten Island and western Long Island for 7 years. In 2002 Richard M. Ketchum authored “Divided Loyalties,” an account of the Revolutionary spirit in NY; Barnet Schecter authored “The Battle for New York,” and Judith L. Van Buskirk authored “Generous Enemies,” an account of interactions between loyalists and rebels during the war.
(WSJ, 10/16/02, p.D8)

1774-1784 The 1997 film “Beaumarchais” by French director Edouard Molinaro focused on these years.
(SFEC,11/23/97, DB p.14)(SFC,11/28/97, p.C15)

1774-1789 Abdul Hamid I succeeded Mustafa III in the Ottoman House of Osman.
(Ot, 1993, xvii)

1774-1792 In France King Louis XIV ruled.
(WUD, 1994, p.848)

1774-1852 George Chinnery, English watercolorist. He lived and worked in Hong Kong, Macao and Canton.
(Hem., 3/97, p.92)



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