1725 Jan 28, Peter I “the Great” Romanov (52), Czar of Russia (1682-1725), died. [see Feb 8]
1725 Feb 8, Peter I (52) “the Great” Romanov, czar of Russia (1682-1725), died. [see Jan 28]
1725 Feb 20, New Hampshire militiamen partook in the first recorded scalping of Indians by whites in North America. 10 sleeping Indians were scalped by whites for scalp bounty.
(HN, 2/20/99)(MC, 2/20/02)
1725 Mar 2, Georg F. Handel’s opera “Giulio Cesare in Egitto” premiered in London.
1725 Apr 2, Giovanni Casanova, Italian adventurer, was born. [see Apr 5]
1725 Apr 5, Giacomo Casanova, Italian writer, philanderer, adventurer, was born. [see Apr 2]
1725 Apr 25, Mir Mahmud was mysteriously killed after going mad. Afghans started to lose control of Persia.
1725 Apr 30, Spain withdrew from the Quadruple Alliance.
1725 May 8, John Lovewell, US Indian fighter, died in battle.
1725 Oct 17, John Wilkes (d.1797), English journalist, was born. He became a MP, Lord Mayor of London and called for independence of Britain’s American colonies.
1725 Oct 22, Alessandro Scarlatti (65), composer, died.
1725 Nov 11, Georg F. Handel’s opera “Tamerlano,” premiered in London.
1725 Nov, William Bradford, an English-born Quaker, established the New York Gazette.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R43)
1725 Dec 11, George Mason (d.1792), American Revolutionary statesman, was born at Gunston Hall Plantation, situated on the Potomac River some 20 miles south of Washington D.C. Mason framed the Bill of Rights for the Virginia Convention in June 1776. This was the model for the first part of fellow Virginian Thomas Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence and the basis of the first 10 Amendments to the federal Constitution. Mason died at Gunston Hall on October 7, 1792.
1725 Jean-Baptiste Greuze (d.1805), French artist, was born.
(WSJ, 1/15/98, p.W11)(WSJ, 5/14/02, p.D7)
1725 Handel composed his opera “Rodelinda.” The libretto by Francesco Haym told a tale of female constancy under great adversity.
(WSJ, 6/12/01, p.A18)
1725 John Law (d.1729) moved to Venice and made a modest living gambling.
(WSJ, 7/19/00, p.B4)
1725 The first fossil salamander was found in Germany. It was at first identified as human but later correctly identified as the extinct cryptobranchid named Andrias scheuchzeri and dated to 15 million years of age.
(PacDis, Winter 97, p.36)
1725 August II, elector of Saxony and King of Poland, gifted a selection of Meissen porcelain from his own collection to the king of Sardinia.
(WSJ, 11/21/07, p.D10)
1725 Czar Peter the Great chose Vitus Bering (44), a Danish seaman in the Russian navy, to lead an expedition to discover whether or not Asia was connected to America.
(ON, 2/06, p.1)
1725-1774 Sir Robert Clive, soldier of fortune. Known as “Clive of India” he wrested Bengal away from the French on behalf of the British East India Co. [see 1757]
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)
1725-1809 Paul Sandby, considered to be the father of English watercolorists.
(Hem., 3/97, p.92)
1726 Jan 25, Guillaume Delisle (50), French geographer (Atlas geographique), died.
1726 Feb 15, Abraham Clark, Declaration of Independence signer, was born.
1726 Feb 20, William Prescott, U.S. Revolutionary War hero, was born.
1726 Feb 26, Maximilian II, M. Emanuel, elector of Bavaria, governor of Netherlands, died.
1726 Apr 8, Lewis Morris, signer of the Declaration of Independence), was born.
1726 Apr 26, Pasquale Paoli, Corsican freedom fighter, was born.
1726 May 14, Moshe Darshan, Rabbi, author (Torat Ahsam), died.
1726 May 25, Giuseppi Paolucci, composer, was born.
1726 Jun 3, James Hutton, Scottish geologist, was born. He founded the science of geology and wrote “A Theory of the Earth.”
1726 Jul, 10 Benjamin Colman preached an execution sermon to pirates in Boston.
(LSA., Fall 1995, p.19)
1726 Jul 23, Benjamin Franklin sailed back to Philadelphia.
1726 Sep 7, Francois-Andre Danican Philidor, French composer and chess champion, was born.
1726 Oct 11, Benjamin Franklin returned to Philadelphia from England.
1726 Nov 20, Oliver Wolcott, later Conn.-Gov. and signer of Declaration of Independence, was born.
1726 Bishop George Berkeley wrote his poem: On the Prospect of Planting Arts and Learning in America, which included the line “Westward the course of empire takes its way.” The poem was written on behalf of a plan to build an English college in Bermuda.
(SFC, 3/28/03, p.A3)
1726 Jonathan Swift (1667-1745), Irish born clergyman and English writer, authored Gulliver’s Travels.
(Econ, 3/2/13, p.14)
1726 Britains Admiralty Building was built on a block of the Middle East section of London.
(Econ, 6/21/14, p.58)
1726 In Paris the puppet show “La Grandmere amoureuse” by Fuzelier and Dorneval was a spoof on French opera based on Lullys tragic 1676 opera “Atys.” It was revived in 1998 by the SF Bay Area team of Magnificat and the Carter Family Marionettes. It made reference to a current dispute between the physicians and surgeons of Paris.
(SFEC, 1/18/98, DB p.33)(PNM, 1/25/98)
1726 Telemann published his collection of 72 sacred cantatas: “Der Harmo-nischer Gottes-Dienst.” In it pietistic poetry or paraphrase of Biblical verse was set in the latest [musical] style. He wrote a sequel in 1731.
(EMN, 1/96, p.4)
1726 Francois Couperin composed his collection “Les Nations” with “La Francoise.”
(SFC, 6/8/96, p.E1)
1726 St. -Louis-en-lIle Church was built on the Ile St. -Louis on the Seine in Paris. It was vandalized during the French Revolution.
(SFEC, 6/22/97, p.T8)
1726 Montevideo, the capital city of Uruguay, was founded.
(Hem., 2/96, p.23)
1726 Michael-Richard de Lalande (b.1657), French composer, died. He served as the court composer for Louis XIV.
(SFC, 3/20/04, p.E1)(Internet)
1727 Jan 2, James Wolfe, commanded British Army (captured Quebec), was born.
1727 Feb 22, Francesco Gasparini (58), composer, died.
1727 Mar 14, Johann Gottlieb Goldberg, composer, was born.
1727 Mar 20, Sir Isaac Newton (b.1642), physicist, mathematician and astronomer, died in London. Michael White wrote the 1998 biography “Isaac Newton” in which he revealed Newtons passion for alchemy. In 2003 James Gleick authored the biography “Isaac Newton.” In 2011 Edward Dolnick authored The Clockwork Universe: Isaac Newton, Royal Society, and the Birth of the Modern World.” In 2014 Sarah Dry authored The Newton Papers: The Strange and True Odyssey of Isaac Newtons Manuscripts.”
(AP, 3/20/97)(WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)(SSFC, 6/1/03, p.M1)(Econ, 3/12/11, p.99)(Econ, 6/21/14, p.81)
1727 Apr 29, Jean-Georges Noverre, French dancer, choreographer (ballet d’action), was born.
1727 May 7, Jews were expelled from Ukraine by Empress Catherine I of Russia.
1727 May 10, Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot, French minister of Finance, was born.
1727 May 14, Thomas Gainsborough (d.1788), English painter, was baptized. His work included “The Blue Boy” (1770).
(HN, 5/14/01)(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.579)(SSFC, 9/23/18, p.A11)
1727 May 17, Catherine I (b.1683), Empress of Russia (1725-27), died.
1727 May 18, Peter II Alekseyevich (1715-1730) was proclaimed autocrat of Russia.
1727 Jun 6, Francesca Cuzzoni and Faustina Bordoni, female vocalists, attacked each other during a performance of Bononcinis Astianatte in London.
1727 Jun 11, George I died on a journey to Hanover. George II became king of England.
1727 Aug 14, William Croft (b.1678), English composer, died.
1727 Aug 30, Giandomenico Tiepolo (d.1804), Venetian painter, was born. His subjects included troupes of traveling players from northern Italy.
(Econ, 4/10/04, p.72)(www.britannica.com)
1727 Oct 11, George II was crowned as king of England.
1727 Nov 15, NY General assembly permitted Jews to omit phrase “upon the faith of a Christian” from abjuration oath.
1727 Dec 22, William Ellery, US attorney and signer of the Declaration of Independence, was born.
1727 Brazil planted its first coffee.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)
1727 The 1st English-language recipe for “English Katchop” was published in “E. Smith’s Compleat Housewife, or Accomplished Gentlewoman’s Companion.”
(SFC, 8/27/03, p.E4)
1727 Georg Friedrich Handel, German-born composer, became by act of Parliament a naturalized British citizen.
(LGC-HCS, p.41)(AP, 4/14/97)(SFC, 9/16/97, p.E1)(Econ, 3/21/09, p.89)
1727 In Munich the Die Andächtige Pilgerfahrt” (The Devout Pilgrimage) by Vincentius Briemle was published. The 2 illustrated volumes consisted of travel writing of journeys to Italy, Austria and the Holy Land.
(Econ, 1/20/07, p.93)(www.dartmouth.edu/~wessweb/nl/Fall05/pinews.html)
1727 An earthquake on Martinique devastated the local cocoa plantations. Landowners replanted fields with coffee from French Captain Gabriel Mathieu de Clieu.
(ON, 10/2010, p.12)
1727 Moulay Ismail the Bloodthirsty (b.~1645), Moroccan ruler, died. The Alaouite sultan is said to have fathered 888 children through a harem of 500 women. He ruled from 1672 to 1727 succeeding his half-brother Moulay Al-Rashid who died after a fall from his horse.
(Econ, 12/20/08, p.128)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moulay_Ismail)
1727 The Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS) was founded.
(Econ, 1/31/09, p.74)
1728 Jan 29, The Beggars Opera by John Gay (d.1732), with music arranged by John Christopher Pepusch, had its premier at the Lincoln’s Inn Fields in London. Gay intended it to be a parody of Italian opera and a satirization of the Walpole administration. He wrote new lyrics to popular tunes and his “ballad opera” was a great success.
(LGC-HCS, p.45)(ON, 2/04, p.11)
1728 Feb 10, Peter III Fyodorovich (d.1762), czar of Russia (1761-62), was born in Germany. He married Catherine, who succeeded him following a coup. [see Feb 21]
(WUD, 1994 p.1077)(WSJ, 2/14/02, p.A18)(MC, 2/10/02)
1728 Feb 21, Peter III, Russian Tsar (1762), husband of Catherine, was born in Kiel Germany. [see Feb 10]
1728 Feb 25, Peter II Alekseyevich (1715-1730) was crowned as czar of Russia.
1728 Feb 28, Georg F. Handel’s opera “Siroe, re di Persia,” premiered in London.
1728 Apr 2, Franz Asplmayr, composer, was born.
1728 Apr 13, Johann Christoph Schmidt (63), composer, died.
1728 Apr 16, Joseph Black, Scottish chemist and physicist, was born.
1728 May 4, Georg F. Handel’s opera “Tolomeo, re di Egitto,” premiered in London.
1728 May 7, Rosa Venerini (b.1656), Italian nun and founder of the Congregation of the Holy Venerini Teachers, died. In 2006 Pope Benedict XVI named her a saint.
(SFC, 10/16/06, p.A2)(www.korazym.org/news1.asp?Id=19552)
1728 Jul 16, Henri Moreau, composer, was born.
1728 Oct 3, Charles G. Chevalier d’Eon de Beaumont, French duelist, spy and transvestite, was born.
1728 Oct 7, Caesar Rodney (d.1784), Delaware, judge and signer (Declaration of Independence), was born in Dover, Delaware. He led opposition to British laws for many years while serving in the provincial assembly. He was elected to the Continental Congresses of 1774 and 1775. In 1777, he commanded the Delaware militia, and the next year he was elected president of the state for a three-year term. Rodney on horseback represents Delaware, the first of the original 13 states to ratify the Constitution, on a new .25-cent piece.
(HNQ, 2/24/99)(MC, 10/7/01)
1728 Oct 27, Captain James Cook (d.1779), explorer, was born in a small village near Middlesbrough, Yorkshire. His discoveries included the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii).
1728 Ephraim Chambers (1680-1740) produced his Cyclopedia, a popular British reference work. An expanded French translation began in 1746.
(WSJ, 6/29/05, p.D8)(www.nndb.com/people/027/000094742/)
1728 The French Count de Boulainvilliers wrote a life of Muhammad that described him as “an enlightened and wise lawgiver.”
(WSJ, 12/12/01, p.A15)
1728 The Muslim Kampung Hulu Mosque was built in Malacca, Malaysia.
(SFEC, 3/19/00, p.T8)
1728 The first diamonds found in Brazil reached Lisbon, Portugal.
(USA Today, OW, 4/22/96, p.13)
1728 Vitus Bering (47), Danish explorer in the Russian navy, discovered the Bering Strait between Asia and North America.
(PCh, 1992, p.286)(ON, 2/06, p.1)
1729 Jan 12, Edmund Burke (d.1797), British politician and author, was born in Dublin. Burke advocated consistent and sympathetic treatment of the American colonies: “A very great part of the mischiefs that vex this world arises from words.”
(V.D.-H.K.p.224)(AP, 7/20/97)(AP, 11/29/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Burke)
1729 Jan 19, William Congreve (58), English dramatist (Love for Love), died.
1729 Mar 21, John Law, Scottish gambler and financier (57 or 58), died in Venice. An inventory of his wealth included 488 paintings with works by Titian, Raphael, Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci. His story was told in 2000 by Cynthia Crossen in “The Rich and How They got That Way.”
(WSJ, 7/19/00, p.B4)(MC, 3/21/02)
1729 Apr 15, Johann S. Bach’s “Matthew Passion” premiered in Leipzig.
1729 Apr 21, Catharina II, the Great, writer, empress of Russia (1762-96), was born. [see May 2]
1729 May 2, Catherine the Great (d.1796), (Catherine II), empress (czarina) of Russia (1762-1796), was born. She succeeded her husband Peter III to the throne in 1762. “I am one of the people who love the why of things.” [see Apr 21]
(AP, 9/4/97)(HN, 5/2/99)(WSJ, 2/14/02, p.A18)
1729 May 13, Henry William Stiegel, early American glassmaker, was born.
1729 May 25, Jean de Neufville, Dutch-US merchant (started 4th English war), was born.
1729 Jul 25, North Carolina became a royal colony.
1729 Jul 30, The city of Baltimore was founded.
1729 Sep 6, Mozes Mendelssohn, German enlightened philosopher (Haksalah), was born. [see Sep 26]
1729 Sep 26, Moses Mendelssohn, German philosopher, critic, Bible translator, was born. [see Sep 6]
1729 Nov 28, Natchez Indians massacred most of the 300 French settlers and soldiers at Fort Rosalie, Louisiana.
1729 Dec 1, Giuseppe Sarti, composer, was born.
1729 Dec 3, Padre Antonio Francisco J. Jose Soler, composer (Fandango), was born in Olot, Spain.
1729 Newtons “Principia Matematika” was published in English.
1729 The first constitution of American Presbyterianism was adopted.
1729 James Bradley discovered the aberration of starlight, an apparent shift in the position of a star caused by the finite speed of light and the motion of the Earth in orbit around the Sun. He uses this to determine the speed of light to be 308,3 00 km/sec, remarkably close to the modern value of 299,792 km/sec.
1729 Seborga was consolidated by sale within the Principality of Piedmont.
(SFEC, 3/30/97, p.T7)
1729 In China opium smoking was banned.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)
1729 Voltaire and Charles Marie de la Condamine engaged in a bond fund scheme to take advantage of bonds issued by the French government.
1729 Ruinart, a French Champagne house, was founded. In 2006 it remained the oldest Champagne house in the world.
(SFC, 10/13/06, p.F2)
1729 In Italy Filippo Juvarra designed the Palazzina di Caccia, a “little hunting palace” at Stupingi for King Vittorio Amedeo II.
(WSJ, 8/18/99, p.A17)
1729-1742 The building of the Cathedral at Zacateca, Mexico. It has been called the “Parthenon of the Mexican Baroque.”
(SFEC, 11/10/96, p.T3)
1729-1781 Gotthold Lessing, German writer, dramatist-critic, saw Fausts pursuit of knowledge as noble, and in an unfinished play he arranged for a reconciliation between God and Faust. “Think wrongly if you please, but in all cases, think for yourself.”
1729-1801 The Danish East India Company was chartered to carry on trade in the East Indies.
(WUD, 1994, p.449)
1729-1814 William Howe, 5th Viscount, British general in the American Revolutionary War.
(WUD, 1994, p.689)
1730 Jan 14, William Whipple, Declaration of Independence signer, was born.
1730 Jan 23, Joseph Hewes, US merchant (Declaration of Independence signer), was born.
1730 Jan 30, Peter II Alekseyevich (1715-1730), czar of Russia, died.
1730 Apr 9, The 1st Jewish congregation in US formed the synagogue, “Sherith Israel, NYC.”
1730 May 10, George Ross, signer of the Declaration of Independence, was born.
1730 May 13, Marquess of Rockingham, British Prime Minister, was born.
1730 May 15, Robert Walpole became the sole minister in the English cabinet following the resignation of Lord Townshend.
1730 May 29, William Jackson, composer, was born.
1730 Jul 8, A magnitude 8.7 earthquake in Valparasio, Chile, killed at least 3,000 people.
1730 Jul 12, Josiah Wedgwood (d.1795), pottery designer, manufacturer (Wedgwood), was baptized in Burslem, England.
1730 Jul 21, States of Holland put a death penalty on “sodomy.”
1730 Aug 10, Sebastien de Brossard (74), French composer, died. He authored the “Dictionnaire de musique” (Paris, 1703).
1730 Sep 1, Benjamin Franklin married Miss Read.
1730 Sep 17, Friedrich von Steuben, Prussian and US inspector-general of Washington’s army, was born.
1730 Nov 6, Hans Hermann von Katte, Prussian lieutenant, was beheaded.
1730 Nov 10, Oliver Goldsmith, playwright, was born. His work includes “She Stoops to Conquer.”
1730 Jean Baptiste Simeon Chardin (1699-1779), French painter, painted “Still Life With Plums.”
(WSJ, 12/5/96, p.A16)
1730 “Argippo,” the only opera Vivaldi (1678-1741) actually wrote for Prague, was staged just one time in Prague. The score was found in 2006 and another staging was set for 2008.
1730 In Maryland William Fell, a Quaker ships carpenter, purchased a swampy promontory that became known as Baltimores Fells Point.
(WSJ, 12/1/07, p.W11)
1730 Benjamin Franklin became the official printer for Pennsylvania. He ultimately became the official printer for several colonial governments.
(AH, 2/06, p.48)
1730 Smallpox returned to Boston, but by this time inoculation was recognized as a viable means of preventing death from the disease.
(ON, 3/05, p.5)
1730 The French arrived in Swanton, Vermont, and the plague followed. The local Abenaki Indians faded into the woods.
(SFC, 12/13/02, p.J7)
1730 Jean Baptiste Oudry and Pierre-Josse Perrot, artists in the court of King Louis XV, created a drawing for the wall tapestry “Le Coq et Le Perle.” The tapestry was made by French weaving house Savonnerie and went on auction in 1997 for $300-400 thousand.
(WSJ, 2/21/97, p.B10)
1730 Jesuits founded San Jose del Cabo in Baha, Ca.
(SSFC, 2/6/05, p.F8)
1730 The monastery of Saint Serafim Sarofsky in the village of Deveyevo, Russia, was constructed. In 1927 the 266 year old complex was liquidated by the communists and used to store lumber and vegetables until 1991 when it was returned to the church.
(SFC, 5/18/96, p.A-11)
1730 Edward Scarlett, a London optician, began anchoring eyeglasses to the ears with rigid side pieces called temples.
(SFEC, 8/2/98, Z1 p.8)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R21)
1730 Britains Stephenson Clarke Shipping Ltd was established. The company was forced to liquidate in 2012.
1730 In Germany A. Ketterer invented the cuckoo clock.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)
1730 The first legally recognized futures market opened in Japan.
(Wired, 9/96, p.36)
1730 Diamonds were discovered in Brazil, which became the leading supplier until the 1866 discovery in South Africa. [see 1728]
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)
1730 Empress Anna Ivanovna, Peter the Great’s daughter, came to the Russian throne. She recalled Abram Petrovich Gannibal from exile and appointed him to a new post as a captain of military engineering.
1730 Makhtum Kuli, one of Turkmenistans greatest poets, was born. He died in the 1880s.
1730s Tiepolo painted “Alexander and Campaspe in the Studio of Apelles,” one of his 3 paintings on this theme.
(WSJ, 2/11/00, p.W6)
1730s The Hudson Bay Company built a stone fortress on the western shore of the Hudson Bay in Canada for the Chipewyan fur trade.
(NH, 7/96, p.4)
1730s In Buckinghamshire, England, the Palladian Bridge was built in the Stowe Landscape Gardens. Lancelot “Capability Brown did the landscaping.
(SSFC, 3/16/03, p.C6)
1730s German gun makers located in Pennsylvania began producing the Kentucky rifle, so named because it was intended for use on the Kentucky frontier. Its gunpowder was ignited with sparks struck when the hammer, containing a piece of flint, was released. The flintlock Kentucky rifle, with its extra long barrel and small caliber, was the most accurate rifle of its day and was used widely in the French and Indian Wars and American Revolution.
1730-1754 Mahmud I succeeded Ahmed III in the Ottoman House of Osman.
(Ot, 1993, xvii)
1730-1785 William Whipple (b. Jan 14, d. Nov 28) Judge/Jurist, Revolutionary, Declaration of Independence signer.
(DT internet 11/28/97)
1730-1820 The period of the third of four waves of rising prices over the last 800 years as described by David Hackett Fisher in his 1996 book: “The Great Wave: Price Revolutions and the Rhythm of History.”
(WSJ, 12/19/96, p.A16)
1731 Jan 20, Antonio Farnese (b.1679), the eighth and ultimate Farnese Duke of Parma and Piacenza, died. The Farnese art collection passed to Charles III, king of Naples.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_Farnese,_Duke_of_Parma)(Econ, 3/12/11, p.100)
1731 Mar 11, Robert Treat Paine, Declaration of Independence signer, was born.
1731 Apr 8, William Williams, signer of the Declaration of Independence, was born.
1731 Apr 26, Daniel Defoe (~70), English author, died. His work included the novels “Robinson Crusoe,” “Roxana” and the pamphlet “The Shortest Way With Dissenters.” In 1998 Richard West published the biography “Daniel Defoe: The Life and Strange Surprising Adventures.”
(WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A12)(MC, 4/24/02)(MC, 4/26/02)
1731 May 28, All Hebrew books in Papal State were confiscated.
1731 May 29, Orazio Mei composer, was born.
1731 Jun 2, Martha Dandridge, the first First Lady of the United States. Widow of Daniel Park Custis, she married George Washington in 1759.
1731 Jul 1, The Instrument of Association” for the Library Company of Philadelphia was signed under the leadership of Benjamin Franklin. It was Americas first circulating library.
(www.librarycompany.org/Lemay1.pdf)(AH, 2/06, p.56)
1731 Sep 1, Pierre Danican Philidor (50), composer, died.
1731 Oct 10, Henry Cavendish, English physicist, was born. He later discovered hydrogen.
(HN, 10/10/98)(MC, 10/10/01)
1731 Nov 9, Benjamin Banneker was born in Maryland and grew up a free black man. From his farm near Baltimore, Banneker spent much of his time studying the stars. Although he lacked much of a formal education, he taught himself with borrowed books and became a noted mathematician, astronomer and inventor. Carving its gears with a pocket knife, he built a wooden clock in 1770 that was believed to have been the first built in America. Banneker began publishing scientific almanacs in 1791 after accurately predicting a solar eclipse. President George Washington appointed him to the District of Columbia Commission in 1789 to help survey the new capital city of Washington, D.C. Banneker, who died in 1806, also corresponded with Thomas Jefferson about his views against slavery.
1731 Nov 15, William Cowper, English lawyer and poet (John Gilpin), was born. [see Nov 26]
1731 Nov 26 William Cowper, English pre-romantic poet (His Task), was born. [see Nov 15]
1731 Dec 8, Frantisek Xaver Dusek, composer, was born.
1731 Dec 28, Christian Cannabich, German composer and royal chaplain master, was born.
1731 Luis Berrueco, Mexican painter, painted The Martyrs of Gorkum,” a detailed work depicting the 1572 martyrdom of 19 Catholics in Gorinchem, Netherlands, during the Dutch war for independence.
(SFC, 3/5/11, p.E2)(http://tinyurl.com/5s8wnz2)
1731 Giovanni Paolo Panini, Italian artist, made his painting “Interior of St. Peters, Rome.”
(WSJ, 9/8/00, p.W2)
1731 A pioneering collection of graffiti appeared in London titled: The Merry-Thought: or, the Glass-Window and Bog-House Miscellany.” The editor used the pseudonym Hurlo Thrumbo.
(Econ, 12/18/04, p.94)
1731 Henry Fielding wrote his ballad-opera The Lottery.”
(Econ, 7/10/10, SR p.15)
1731 Telemann wrote a sequel to his 1726 collection: “Forsetzung des Harmonischen Gottesdienstes.”
(EMN, 1/96, p.4)
1731 Fort Vincennes, later Fort Sackville, was built by the French near present-day Vincennes, Indiana. It was captured by Colonel George Rogers Clark in 1779.
1731 In Malta the Manoel Theater was constructed.
(AM, Jul/Aug 97 p.40)
1731-1795 Francis Marion, American Revolutionary General. Banastre Tarleton gave American partisan leader Francis Marion the nickname of “The Swamp Fox.” Tarleton, a young lieutenant colonel of British cavalry, had triumphed in a series of bold and lightning-fast attacks against Rebel forces. He was sent by Cornwallis to stop the increasingly troublesome Marion whose strikes on Tory patrols, British convoys and encampments had grown from a minor annoyance to a major problem for British supply lines. Given information on Marions camp, Tarleton hunted the rebel general and his men through about 25 miles of barely passable terrain. Tarleton finally halted at a body of murky water called Ox Swamp and decided to give up the chase. “Come my boys!” he declared to his men. “Let us go back, as for this damned old fox, the devil himself could not catch him.” He spurred his horse and led his men away from the swamp leaving behind the nickname by which Marion is still remembered.
(WUD, 1994 p.877)(HNQ, 7/31/00)
1731-1800 William Cowper, English poet: “No man can be a patriot on an empty stomach.”
1731-1802 Erasmus Darwin, noted physician and grandfather of biologists Charles Darwin and Francis Galton, explored evolutionary concepts in his work “Zoonomia” or the “Laws of Organic Life” that were related to those of French biologist Jean Baptiste Lamarck. Darwin believed that species modified themselves to their environment in a purposeful way. Combining 18th Century values of materialism with simple observations, he is usually noted as a transitional figure in evolutionary theory.
1732 Jan 17, Stanislaw II August Poniatowski, last king of Poland (1764-95), was born.
1732 Jan 20, Richard Henry Lee, American Revolutionary patriot and signer of the Declaration of Independence, was born.
1732 Jan 24, Pierre Caron de Beaumarchais (d.1799), French dramatist, was born. He was best remembered for his plays “Barber of Civil” and “Marriage of Figaro.” He was a conduit for French gold and arms to American Revolution, persecuted by mob during French Rev. “It is not necessary to understand things in order to argue about them.”
1732 Feb 17, Louis Marchand (63), composer, died.
1732 Feb 22, George Washington (1732-1799), first U.S. President, was born in Westmoreland, Virginia. He is revered as the “Father of His Country” for the great services he rendered during America’s birth and infancy–a period of nearly 20 years. He spent most of his boyhood at Ferry Farm, across from the village of Fredericksburg. He later married Martha Custis, a widow with 2 sons. They had no children together. Martha Washington is credited with originating the first US bandanna. He held 317 slaves and once said: “To set the slaves afloat at once would… be productive of much inconvenience and mischief?”. Washington commanded the Continental Army that won American independence from Britain in 1783. In 1787, Washington was elected president of the Constitutional Convention that created the form of American democratic government that survives to this day. Washington was also elected in 1787 as the first president of the United States, serving two terms. One of his officers, “Light-horse Harry” Lee, summed up how Americans felt about George Washington: “First in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen.” George Washington died at his Mount Vernon home on December 14, 1799, at the age of 67.
(A & IP, ESM, p.10)(AHD, p.1446)(SFC, 3/8/96, p.A21)(Hem., 3/97, p.101) (SFC,12/897, p.A27)(HN, 2/22/98)(HNPD, 2/22/99)
1732 Feb 26, The 1st mass celebrated in American Catholic church was at St Joseph’s Church, Philadelphia.
1732 Mar 5, Joseph-Francois Salomon (82), composer, died.
1732 Mar 31, Joseph Haydn (d.1809), Austrian composer who helped develop the classical style, was born. In his career he composed 104 symphonies, 82 string quartets and 60 piano sonatas. He also wrote some 175 baritone pieces for his patron, the Hungarian prince Nickolaus Esterhazy, who played the complex stringed instrument. The Canadian scholar David Schroeder wrote: “Haydn and the Enlightenment.”
(CFA, ’96,Vol 179, p.42)(WUD, 1994, p.651)(WSJ, 8/26/97, p.A14)(HN, 3/31/98)
1732 Apr 5, Jean Honore Fragonard (d.1806), France, painter, was born. He painted “The Shady Grove.” Hubert Robert was a painter friend and the painting “La Jardinaire” was painted by one or the other.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean-Honor%C3%A9_Fragonard)(AAP, 1964)(WSJ, 2/19/99, p.W12)
1732 Apr 13, Frederick Lord North, British prime minister (1770-82) , was born.
1732 Apr 17, The 2nd Kamchatka Expedition was announced in the Russian Senate and Vitus Bering was named as captain commander. I.K. Kirilov, chief secretary of the senate, expanded Berings mandate to include astronomical and scientific observations, to explore the seas between Siberia and Japan and to establish trade relations with peoples encountered.
(ON, 2/06, p.1)
1732 May 13, Theodor Schwarzkopf (72), composer, died.
1732 Jun 3, Pieter Vuyst, Dutch gov-gen. of Ceylon, was executed.
1732 Jun 9, Royal charter for Georgia was granted to James Oglethorpe.
1732 Jun 21, Johann Christoph Frederic Bach (d.1795), composer, was born. He is known as the Buckeburg Bach for serving in that city his whole life.
(LGC-HCS, p.31)(MC, 6/21/02)
1732 Aug 13, Voltaire’s “Zaire,” premiered in Paris.
1732 Sep 2, Pope Clement XII renewed anti-Jewish laws of Rome.
1732 Sep 24, 21 homosexuals were burned in South Horn.
1732 Nov 8, John Dickinson (d.1808), US statesman and publicist, was born. He authored “The Liberty Song” in 1768.
(WUD, 1994 p.400)(SFC, 11/2/02, p.D2)
1732 Nov 14, 1st US professional librarian, Louis Timothee, was hired in Phila.
1732 Dec 4, John Gay (47), English poet (Beggar’s Opera), died.
1732 Dec 6, Warren Hastings, England, 1st governor-General of India (1773-84), was born.
1732 Dec 19, Benjamin Franklin began publishing “Poor Richard’s Almanack.” [see Dec 28]
(AP, 12/19/97)(MC, 12/19/01)
1732 Dec 23, Richard Arkwright (d.1792), English inventor (spinning frame) and industrialist, was born into a poor family in Preston. He amassed one of the first factory fortunes. He invented a water-powered cotton-spinning machine that became the basis for huge cotton mills.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R4,8)(MC, 12/23/01)
1732 Dec 28, The first Poor Richard’s Almanac was published along with the 1st known ad in the Pennsylvania Gazette. The Almanack was published by Richard Saunders (really Ben Franklin). [see Dec 19]
(HFA, ’96, p.20)(MC, 12/28/01)
1732 William Hogarth published his engravings of The Harlots Progress.” They were wildly popular.
(Econ, 2/11/12, p.83)
1732 Marivaux, a French playwright, wrote the play “Le Triomphe de lamour.” In 1997 it was redone as the musical “Triumph of Love.”
(WSJ, 10/29/97, p.A20)
1732 Handel composed his opera “Ezio.” It was about the hero Ezio, who returned to Rome after conquering Attila the Hun only to be wrongly condemned for treason. The libretto was by Metastasio and the work failed. It was stopped by Handel after 5 performances.
(SFC, 3/5/97, p.E3)(SFEC, 4/20/97, BR p.9)(SFC, 4/28/97, p.B3)
1732 The Kaiserbrunn (emperors brook) was discovered by Emperor Charles VI while on a hunting expedition. It later supplied over half of Vienna’s daily requirement of drinking water, through a 130-km-long, rock-cut tunnel called the First Vienna Mountain Spring Pipeline, constructed in 1873.
1732 In Scotland the Beggars Benison Club was founded by members of the upper middle-class. It was devoted to “the convivial celebration of male sexuality.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Beggar%27s_Benison)(Econ, 2/11/12, p.82)
1732-1762 Nicola Salvi, sculptor, spent 30 years on the Fontana de Trevi in Rome. It was the terminus of Agrippas Aqua Virgo.
(SFEC, 7/2/00, p.T4)
1733 Jan 13, James Oglethorpe and 130 English colonists arrived at Charleston, SC.
1733 Feb 1, Augustus the Strong, Elector of Saxony, Grand Duke of Lithuania (1697-1706) and twice King of Poland (1697-1706, 1709-1733), died in Warsaw.
1733 Feb 4, In England the widow Mrs Lydia Duncomb (80), her long term infirm companion Mrs Harrison (60), and servant Ann Price (26) were murdered during a robbery. The servant Sarah Malcolm (22) of County Durham was indicted. She strongly defended herself but was convicted and executed on Mar 7.
(Econ, 9/28/13, p.80)(http://tinyurl.com/kcbjla7)
1733 Feb 12, English colonists led by James Oglethorpe founded Savannah, Ga. Gen. James Edward Oglethorpe sailed up the Savannah River with 144 English men, women and children and in the name of King George II chartered the Georgia Crown Colony. He created the town of Savannah, to establish an ideal colony where silk and wine would be produced, based on a grid of streets around six large squares.
(SFC, 6/25/95, p.T-7)(SFEC,11/30/97, p.T4)(AP, 2/12/98)
1733 Feb 27, Johann Adam Birkenstock (46), composer and sandal designer, died.
1733 Mar 13, Joseph Priestly (d.1804), English chemist, author and clergyman, was born. He is credited with the discovery of oxygen.
(HN, 3/13/99)(WUD, 1994 p.1142)
1733 May 6, 1st international boxing match: Bob Whittaker beat Tito di Carni.
1733 May 12, Maria Theresa was crowned queen of Bohemia in Prague.
1733 May 17, England passed the Molasses Act, putting high tariffs on rum and molasses imported to the colonies from a country other than British possessions.
1733 May 18, Georg Bohm (71), German organist, composer, died.
1733 Jul 30, Society of Freemasons opened their 1st American lodge in Boston.
1733 Aug 24, David Traugott Nicolai (d.1799), composer, was born.
1733 Sep 11, Francois Couperin, French composer (Le Grand), died at 64. [see Sep 12]
1733 Sep 12, Francois Couperin “Le Grand”, French composer, died at 64. [see Sep 11]
1733 Oct 10, France declared war on Austria over the question of Polish succession.
1733 Nov 5, John Peter Zenger (b.1697), German-born immigrant, published the 1st issue of the New York Weekly Journal. Zenger, the partner of William Bradford, had left the Gazette to form the rival New York Weekly Journal. Attorney James Alexander hired Zenger in order to publish anonymously his criticism of NY Governor William Cosby.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R43)(ON, 11/04, p.9)
1733 Voltaire authored his “Lettres Anglaises” in which he hailed England as a “nation of philosophers” and recognized the English Enlightenment.
(WSJ, 12/5/00, p.A24)
1733 Handel’s opera “Orlando” was first performed. The libretto was drawn from Orlando Furioso, the 16th century epic by Ariosto that loosely translates as Orlando goes nuts. The tale follows the fortunes of the Christian warrior Roland, nephew of Charlemagne and defender of the faith against the Moors.
(WSJ, 2/28/96, p.A-16)
1733 The opera “Hippolyte et Aricie” by Rameau had its premiere. The libretto was by Abbe Simon-Joseph Pellegrin and was based on Racines 1677 drama Phèdre.
(WSJ, 5/21/97, p.A12)
1733 Vivaldis opera, “Motezuma” was first performed. The score came to light in 2002 when Hamburg-based musicologist Steffen Voss found a copy of the score in the archives of a Berlin-based choral society.
1733 In New Mexico La Iglesia de Santa Cruz de la Canada was built. It is the oldest and most formal of the 6 adobe missions scattered along the western shoulder of the Sangre de Cristo mountains between Taos and Santa Fe. It features the art work of primitive artist Jose Rafael Aragon, who was buried here in 1862. The book “La Iglesia de Santa Cruz de la Canada, 1733-1983” covered this period. It was edited and published by poet and writer Jim Sagel (d.1998 at 50). Sagel received the Governors Award for the book in 1984.
(SFC, 5/12/96, p.T-5)(SFC, 4/9/98, p.C14)
1733 The Pennsylvania city of Reading became one of America’s first producers of iron and was for nearly a century the foremost in the country. Settled in 1733 by the sons of William Penn, the city is situated on the Schuylkill River in the southeastern part of the state. The Reading foundries furnished cannon for the American forces in the Revolutionary War and the Union during the Civil War.
1733 Gen. James Edward Oglethorpe sailed up the Savannah River with 144 English men, women and children and in the name of King George II chartered the Georgia Crown Colony. He created the town of Savannah, to establish an ideal colony where silk and wine would be produced, based on a grid of streets around six large squares.
(SFC, 6/25/95, p.T-7)(SFEC,11/30/97, p.T4)
1733 John Kay, a British weaver, invented the flying shuttle, allowing the production of wider pieces of cloth.
(Econ 7/1/17, p.15)
1733 Dr. W. Houston, British botanist, died.
(WUD, 1994, p.689)
1733 In Paris the pompiers began fighting fires on the initiative of Louis XV.
(Econ, 12/11/10, p.66)
1733 St. Croix island was purchased from the French by the Dutch West India and Guinea Company.
(NG, Jan, 1968, C. Mitchell, p. 84)
1733-1740 In Malta the Cathedral Museum in Mdina was built as a seminary opposite the Mdina Cathedral. Traces of the classical city of Melite were later found beneath it.
(AM, 7/97, p.48)
1733-1795 Maruyama Okyo, artist, pictured a 50 mile scene in “Both Banks of the Yodo River.”
(WSJ, 12/1/98, p.A20)
1733-1808 Hubert Robert, painter. He painted “The Old Bridge.”
1734 Jan 24, In Cracow the 2nd last king of Lithuania and Poland, August III, was crowned.
1734 Jan 31, Julien-Amable Mathieu, composer, was born.
1734 Jan 31, Robert Morris, Declaration of Independence signer, was born.
1734 Mar 9, The Russians took Danzig (Gdansk) in Poland.
1734 Mar 10, Spanish army under Don Carlos (III) drew into Naples.
1734 Mar 21, Gunther Jacob Wenceslaus (48), composer, died.
1734 Apr 1, Louis Lully (69), French composer, died.
1734 May 23, Friedrich (Franz) Anton Mesmer (d.1815), physician and hypnotist, was born.
(HN, 5/23/98)(WSJ, 5/30/00, p.A24)
1734 Oct 14, Francis Lightfoot Lee, US farmer and signer of the Declaration of Independence), was born.
1734 Oct 22, NY Gov. William Cosby ordered the hangman and whipper of NY to burn 4 back issues of the New York Weekly Journal.
(ON, 11/04, p.9)
1734 Nov 2, Daniel Boone, American frontiersman, was born.
(HFA, ’96, p.18)(HN, 11/2/98)
1734 Nov 17, John Zenger was arrested for libel against NY colonial governor William Cosby. Zenger was later acquitted.
(ON, 11/04, p.9)
1734 Dec 18, Jean-Baptiste Rey, composer, was born.
1734 Filippo della Valle created his sculpture “Allegorical Figure of Temperament.” It was a smaller version of a larger marble statue.
(WSJ, 1/29/02, p.A18)
1734 In Canada a black slave named Marie-Joseph Angelique was hanged for setting fire to the Montreal home of her master. She became the title character in a 1999 play by Lorena Gale.
(WSJ, 6/22/99, p.A24)(SFC, 2/12/10, p.A18)
1734 Holkham Hall in Norfolk, England, was begun by Thomas Coke, later Earl of Leicester. He was a great agricultural reformer and pioneered farming techniques that increased yields from tenants nine fold in 40 years. He held sheep shearings where thousands of farmers also compared notes on new plows and seed.
(NG, Nov. 1985, p.689,691)
1734 Father Nicholas Tamaral attempted to enforce a ban polygamy among the Pericu Indians in Baha California. The Pericu beat him in return and apparently burned him alive.
(SSFC, 2/6/05, p.F8)
1734 Charles III was crowned King of the Two Sicilies. He ordered the island of Ponza rebuilt as part of his defenses. Major Winspeare of the British Royal Army Corp was the engineer of the project and the design was by Carpi, a Neapolitan architect.
(SFEC, 11/8/98, p.T12)
1734-1802 George Romney, English painter. He painted “Miss Willoughby.”
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1243)
1734-1823 Adam Czartoryski, a friend of Rousseau and Ben Franklin and luminary of the enlightenment in Poland, was an art collector and displayed his art at the family estate at Pulawy.
(WSJ, 7/30/97, p.A13)
1735 Jan 1, Paul Revere (d.1818), U.S. patriot who rode through the streets of Boston during the American Revolution, warning of the British landings, was born to Apollos Rivoire and Deborah Hitchbourne, one of 13 children.
(HN, 1/1/99)(HNQ, 6/27/02)
1735 Feb 18, The 1st opera performed in America, “Flora,” in Charleston, SC.
1735 Feb 27, Dr. John Arbuthnot (b.1667), English physician, satirist and polymath, died. In 1712 he invented the figure of John Bull, a national personification of Great Britain in general and England in particular, especially in political cartoons and similar graphic works.
1735 Jun 10, John Morgan, physician-in-chief of Continental Army, was born.
1735 Aug 4, A jury acquitted John Peter Zenger of the New York Weekly Journal of seditious libel.
1735 Aug 18, The Evening Post began publishing in Boston, Mass.
1735 Sep 5, Johann Christian Bach (d.1782), composer, son of JS Bach, was born. He is known as the London Bach. He traveled to Italy, became a Catholic, and went to England where he was mentor to the young Mozart. He also represented the Style Gallant.
(LGC-HCS, p.31)(MC, 9/5/01)
1735 Sep 22, Robert Walpole became the 1st British PM to live at 10 Downing Street.
1735 Oct 30, John Adams, second president of the United States (1797-1801), was born in Braintree (Quincy), Mass.
(AP, 10/30/97)(HN, 10/30/98)(MC, 10/30/01)
1735 William Hogarth made drawings for “The Rakes Progress.”
(SFEC, 1/25/98, DB p.7)
1735 Samuel Johnson (1709-1784) translated a book on Abyssinia by a Portuguese Jesuit: A Voyage to Abyssinia.” In 1759 Johnson authored his prose fiction The History of Rasellas, Prince of Abissinia.” In the novel morality and happiness are shown not as matters of simple alternatives but sometimes impossible ones.
1735 Henry Fielding set up his own theater company at the Little Theater in London’s Haymarket. His 1st production was Pasquin.
(ON, 9/03, p.8)
1735 Handel composed his operas “Ariodante” and “Alcina.” The librettos were drawn from an episode of Orlando Furioso, the 16th century Italian epic by Ariosto.
(WSJ, 2/28/96, p.A-16)(WSJ, 12/8/98, p.A20)
1735 Jean-Philippe Rameau composed his rococo opera-ballet “Les Indes Galantes,” (The Amorous Indies).
(WSJ, 10/21/99, p.A20)
1735 Just-Aurele Meissonier, a royal silversmith, made a Rococo soup tureen for the Duke of Kingston. It later passed to J.P. Morgan and in 1998 was valued at over $8 million.
(WSJ, 5/8/98, p.W12)
1735 Antigua built a prison to hold 150 inmates. In 2016 it held some 400 inmates.
(Econ, 3/12/15, p.34)
1735 In London, England, Col. Sir Thomas De Veil began dispensing justice from a house on Bow Street. De Veil was succeeded by Henry Fielding.
(SFC, 7/14/06, p.A2)
1735 A French expedition to South America was led by Charles-Marie de la Condamine. It produced the earliest maps of the northern part of the continent and led to the introduction of platinum and rubber to Europe. In 2004 Robert Whitaker authored The Mapmakers Wife: A True Tale of Love, Murder, and Survival in the Amazon.” It was an account of Jean Godin (d.1792), the expeditions mapmaker, and his wife, Isabel Grameson. The couple married in Quito in 1741.
(Econ, 5/15/04, p.81)(ON, 5/05, p.1)
1735 Lady Hyegyong was born in Korea. At age 9-10 she married Crown Prince Sado (~10), who was murdered by his father, King Yongjo, in 1762. Hyegyônggung Hong Ssi later authored her memoir Hanjungnok.”
(Econ, 9/11/04, p.79)(www.financial-book-review.com)
1735 Jehan-Jacques Blancpain started making watches in Villeret, Switzerland. The firm later became part of the Swatch Group.
c1735-1736 Jean Baptiste Simeon Chardin (1699-1779), French painter, painted “The Young Schoolmistress.”
(WSJ, 6/19/00, p.A42)
1735-1826 John Adams, 2nd president of the US from 1797-1801.
(AHD, 1971, p.14)(A&IP, Miers, p.17)
1736 Jan 19, James Watt, Scottish inventor of the steam engine who gave his name to a unit of power, was born. [see 1705]
(AP, 1/19/98)(HN, 1/19/99)
1736 Jan 27, Stanislaw Lesheinski gave up the Polish-Lithuanian throne.
1736 Feb 19, Georg F. Handel’s “Alexander’s Feast,” premiered.
1736 Feb 29, Anna Lee, founder of the Shaker movement in America, was born.
1736 Mar 10, NY colonial Gov. William Cosby died. George Clarke became the new governor.
(ON, 11/04, p.10)(www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/zenger/chronology.html)
1736 Mar 16, Giovanni Battista Pergolesi (b.1710), Italian composer (Il Prigioniero Superbo, Stabat Mater), died. Marvin Paymer (d.2002), an expert on Pergolesi, later edited the 26-volume “The New Pergolesi Edition.”
(MC, 1/4/02)(SFC, 6/24/02, p.B6)(MC, 3/16/02)
1736 Mar 23, Iman Willem Falck, Dutch Governor of Ceylon (1765-83), was born.
1736 May 26, British and Chickasaw Indians defeated the French at the Battle of Ackia. In northwestern Mississippi the Chickasaw Indians, supported by the British, defeated a combined force of French soldiers and Chocktaw Indians, thus opening the region to English settlement.
(AHD, 1971, p.11)(HN, 5/26/98)
1736 May 29, Patrick Henry (d.1799), American Colonial patriot, orator and governor of Virginia, was born. He was a slave-owner and justified the fact by saying: “I am driven along by the general inconvenience of living here without them.” He later said “Give me liberty or give me death.”
(SFC,12/897, p.A27)(HN, 5/29/01)
1736 Aug 8, Mahomet Weyonomon, a Mohegan sachem or leader, died of smallpox while waiting to see King George II to complain directly about British settlers encroaching on tribal lands in the Connecticut colony. The tribal chief was buried in an unmarked grave in a south London churchyard.
1736 Sep 10, Carter Braxton, US farmer and signer of the Declaration of Independence, was born.
1736 Sep 16, Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit (b.1686), Gdansk-born German physicist, died in the Netherlands. He discovered that water boils at 212F and freezes at 32F.
1736 Nov 18, Carl Friedrich Christian Fasch, composer, was born.
1736 Nov 26, Charles-Joseph Panckoucke, French publisher (Mercure de France), was born.
1736 Gian Domenico Ferretti (1692-1767) created his painting The Brazen Serpent.”
1736 Henry Fielding presented his play “The Historical Register for the Year 1736,” a pointed attack on the British government of PM Walpole.
(ON, 9/03, p.8)
1736 J.S. Bach played weekly concerts at Zimmermans coffeehouse in Leipzig on Friday evenings from 8 to 10.
1736 Jean Marie Leclair organized the Recreation de Musique.
(EMN, 1/96, p.4)
1736 Early expansion of American Presbyterianism was spurred by the founding of “log colleges,” especially the one formed in this year by Rev. William Tennent, Sr. at Neshaminy.
1736 Georgias founder, General James Edward Oglethorpe, established Fort Frederica on the northern tip of St. Simon Island off the coast of Georgia.
(SFC, 4/28/96, p.T-7)
1736 Britains Mortmain Act (literally meaning ‘dead hand’) was introduced to protect the rights of heirs and frustrate benefactors determined to disinherit their families. It invalidated charitable gifts of land or buildings unless they were made in the last year of the donor’s life.
1736 Samuel Baldwin of Hampshire, England, had his body cast into the ocean. He requested this so that his wife could not carry out her threat to dance on his grave.
(SFEC, 11/14/99, Z1 p.2)
1736 Filippo Juvarra (b.1678), Italian baroque architect, died in Madrid.
1736 Nadir Shah (head of Persia) occupied southwest Afghanistan, and southeast Persia.
1736-1795 The period of Emperor Qianlongs (Chien-lung) reign over China. Qianlong was a painter and calligrapher and showed an insatiable appetite for collecting art. His collection formed the core of the later National Palace Museum.
(SFEC, 10/6/96, DB p.36)(SFC, 10/14/96, p.B3)(WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)
1737 Jan 12, John Hancock, first signer of the Declaration of Independence, was born. [see Jan 23]
1737 Jan 21, Ethan Allen, American Revolutionary commander of the “Green Mountain Boys” who captured Fort Ticonderoga in 1775, was born.
1737 Jan 23, John Hancock (d.1793), American statesman and first Governor of Massachusetts, was born. He was governor twice: (1780-1785 and 1787-1793). His was the first signature in large script at the bottom of the US Declaration of Independence. [see Jan 12]
(HFA, ’96, p.22)(AHD, p.597)
1737 Jan 29, Thomas Paine, political essayist, was born in England and went on to write “The Rights of Man” and “The Age of Reason.” He lived his final years in poverty and obscurity, and died June 8, 1809.
(HN, 1/29/99)(HNQ, 9/21/99)
1737 Feb 20, French minister of Finance, Chauvelin, resigned.
1737 Mar 12, Galileo’s body was moved to Church of Santa Croce in Florence, Italy.
1737 Mar 28, Francesco Zanetti, composer, was born.
1737 Apr 27, Edward Gibbon (d.1794), historian, writer of “Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire,” was born. [see May 8, 1737]
1737 May 8, Edward Gibbon, English historian, author of “Decline and Fall of Roman Empire,” was born. [see April 27, 1737] “All that is human must be retrograde if it does not advance.”
(HN, 5/8/98)(AP, 2/27/00)
1737 May, Sir Robert Walpole argued for censorship of a play in the House of Commons of a satire called “The Golden Rump.” Walpole pressed through Parliament a Licensing Act that lasted over 200 years.
(WSJ, 10/14/97, p.A22)(ON, 9/03, p.8)
1737 Jul 9, Gian Gastone b.1671), the last Medici to rule Tuscany, died. With his death Florence ended its era as an independent state. Tuscany fell to Francis of Lorraine (later Holy Roman Emperor Francis I), husband of Maria Theresa of Austria, in exchange for Lorraine, which went to Stanislaus I of Poland.
(http://tinyurl.com/mylnlb)(SFEC,11/30/97, p.T3)(AM, 7/05, p.39)
1737 Jul 18, The Turkish army beat the Austrians in the Battle at Banja Luka.
1737 Sep 14, Johann Michael Haydn (d.1806), composer and younger brother of Franz Joseph, was born in Austria.
1737 Sep 19, In Indias Bay of Bengal a cyclone destroyed some 20,000 ships. It was estimated that more than 300,000 people died in the densely populated area called the Sundarbans. Later research indicated the population of Calcutta at the time to be around 20,000. An estimate of the number of deaths was revised down to about 3,000.
1737 Dec 18, Antonio Stradivari, the most renowned violin maker in history, died in Cremona, Italy. He made about 1200 violins of great quality of which half still survive. In 2006 Joseph Nagyvary, a Texas biochemist and violin maker, put forward evidence that the quality of sound in a Stradivari violin was due to chemicals used to protect the wood from wood-eating worms.
(WSJ, 10/17/94, p.1)(AP, 12/18/98)(SFC, 12/28/06, p.A20)
1737 Sep 19, Charles Carroll (d.1832), American patriot and legislator, was born. He was the only Roman Catholic signer of the Declaration and his signature read Charles Carroll of Carrollton. He lived in Maryland where, as a Roman Catholic he was forbidden from voting and holding public office. However, the wealthy Carrolls moved in the highest social circle and entertained George Washington and the Marquis de Lafayette at their estate.
(HNQ, 1/14/99)(MC, 9/19/01)
1737 Oct 2, Francis Hopkinson, US writer and lawyer, was born. He designed the Stars & Stripes.
1737 Oct 7, 40 foot waves sank 20,000 small craft and killed 300,000 in Bengal, India.
1737 Oct 22, Vincenzo Manfredini, composer, was born.
1737 The French annual art exhibition known as the Salon was inaugurated.
(WSJ, 11/19/03, p.D12)
1737 The English puppet opera The Dragon of Wantley” was written with music by John Frederick Lampe and libretto by Henry Carey.
(ST, 5/20/04, p.C8)
1737 Frenchman Jacques de Vaucanson created a mechanical, flute playing android.”
(Econ, 3/26/05, p.17)
1737 Handel experienced some mental turbulence after a stroke.
1737 Richmond, Virginia was founded.
(WSJ, 12/21/95, p.A-5)
1737 London officials worried about the large amount of British government bonds held by Dutch investors.
(WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-23)
1737 Rev. Andrew Le Mercier, a Huguenot living in Boston, set the first horses out to graze on Sable Island, 100 miles east of Nova Scotia. A few decades later Thomas Hancock of Boston plundered some 60 horses from Acadian settlers expelled from Nova Scotia by British overlords, and settled them on Sable Island. Hardy descendants of the horses still thrived in 1998.
(SFC, 7/23/98, p.C3)
1737 Florence ended its era as an independent state.
1737 French Captain Gabriel Mathieu de Clieu (1687-1774) was appointed governor of Martinique and the neighboring island of Guadeloupe.
(ON, 10/2010, p.12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gabriel_de_Clieu)
1738 Apr 15, The bottle opener was invented.
1738 May 9, John Pindar, [Peter], physician, poet, was born.
1738 May 24, The Methodist Church was established.
1738 May 28, Dr. Joseph Ignace Guillotine, French inventor of the guillotine, was born.
1738 Jun 4, George III was born (d.1820). He was the King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1760-1820, and the King of Hanover from 1815-1820. He was responsible for losing the American colonies. He passed the Royal Marriages Act, which made it unlawful for his children to marry without his consent.
(HFA, ’96, p.32)(AHD, 1971, p.552)(WSJ, 5/23/96, p.A-10)
1738 Jul 3, John Singleton Copley, finest colonial American artist, was born in Mass.
1738 Oct 10, Benjamin West, painter (Death of General Wolfe), was born.
1738 Nov 15, Sir William Hershel, British astronomer who discovered Uranus, was born.
1738 Dec 9, Jews were expelled from Breslau, Silesia.
1738 Dec 31, Charles Lord Cornwallis (d.1805), soldier and statesman, was born. “Fire when ready Gridley.”
1738 Benjamin Franklin wrote in Poor Richard’s Almanack “Sell not virtue to purchase wealth, nor Liberty to purchase power.”
1738 Handel composed his opera “Serse” and his oratorio “Saul.” Handel’s “Xerxes” was first performed. The original Italian libretto was by Nicolo Minato and Silvio Stampiglia.
(LGC-HCS, p.41,46)(WSJ, 3/25/96, p.A-15)
1738 French inventor Jacques de Vaucanson built a mechanical duck that could quack, flap,, paddle, drink, eat and digest” grain.
(SFC, 1/23/15, p.A10)
1738 Jacques de Vaucanson exhibited a mechanical flute player that actually breathed.
(WSJ, 8/23/02, p.W8)
1738 Pope Clement XII issued a bull against the Freemasons forbidding Catholics to join under threat of excommunication.
(WSJ, 2/6/02, p.A16)
c1738 In Russia the Vaganova Ballet Academy was founded. It was later attached to St. Petersburgs Kirov Ballet.
(WSJ, 3/10/98, p.A1)
1738 Robert Locklear was king of the Cheraw Indians. This tribe is thought by many to be ancestral to what is now called the Lumbee Indian Tribe of North Carolina. The Lumbees have been called Croatan Indians, the Indians of Robeson County, the Cherokee Indians of Robeson County, and since 1952, the Lumbee Indians.
(WSJ, 11/13/95, p.A-1, 5)
1738 Daniel Bernouilli (1700-1782), Swiss physicist and mathematician, son of Johan explained how lift is created, as in a backward spinning golf ball, by a difference of air pressures. He is known for the Bernouilli equation.
(WUD, 1994, p.141)(SFEC, 6/14/98, p.A12)
1738 Nadir Shah (head of Persia) took Kandahar.
1738-1789 Jan 10, Ethan Allen was born. He was the American Revolutionary commander of the Green Mountain Boys in Vermont.
(HFA, ’96, p.22)(AHD, p.34)
1738-1815 John Singleton Copley, American painter. He painted the elite of colonial Boston. His portraits lacked facility but he developed an exceedingly direct approach to his art. His paintings include portraits of Epes Sargent, Moses Gill, Nathaniel Sparhawk, Mary Royall and Samuel Adams.
(WSJ, 6/14/95, p.A-14)
1738-1822 Sir William Herschel, British astronomer, one of the first to formulate the hypothesis that the stellar system to which our Sun belongs occupies a lenticular volume, with the Sun located somewhere inside, near the plane of the lens.
1739 Feb 7, Joseph Pouteau, composer, was born.
1739 Mar 16, George Clymer, US merchant (signed Declaration of Independence and Constitution), was born.
1739 Mar 20, Eligio Celestino, composer, was born.
1739 Mar 20, In India, Nadir Shah of Persia occupied Delhi and took possession of the Peacock thrown. King Nadir Shah later took the golden Peacock Throne back to Persia.
(HN, 3/20/99)(SFEC, 5/21/00, p.T8)
1739 Apr 10, Dick Turpin was executed in England for horse stealing.
1739 May 12, Johann Baptist Vanhal, composer, was born.
1739 Jul 24, Benedetto Marcello, composer, died on 53rd birthday.
1739 Sep 1, 35 Jews were sentenced to life in prison in Lisbon, Portugal.
1739 Sep 7, Joseph Legros, composer, was born.
1739 Sep 9, A slave revolt in Stono, SC, led by an Angolan slave named Jemmy, killed 20-25 whites. Three slave uprisings occurred in South Carolina in 1739. Whites soon passed black codes to regulate every aspect of slave life.
(SFC, 12/18/96, p.A25)(www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part1/1p284.html)(AH, 2/05, p.66)
1739 Sep 13, Grigory Potemkin (d.1791), Russian army officer, statesman, Catherine II’s lover, was born. [see Sep 24]
1739 Sep 18, Turkey and Austria signed peace treaty-Austria ceding Belgrade to Turks. [see Sep 23]
1739 Sep 23, The Austrians signed the Treaty of Belgrade after having lost the city to the Turks. [see Sep 18]
1739 Sep 24, Grigorij A. Potemkin (d.1791), Monarch of Tauris and friend of Catherine II, was born. [see Sep 13]
(MC, 9/24/01)(WSJ, 2/14/02, p.A18)
1739 Oct 3, Russia signed a treaty with the Turks, ending a three-year conflict between the two countries.
1739 Oct 17, King George II granted Thomas Coram, retired sea captain, a royal charter to establish “a hospital for the reception, maintenance and education of exposed and deserted young children.”
(ON, 9/02, p.8)
1739 Oct 19, England declared war on Spain over borderlines in Florida. The War is known as the War of Jenkins Ear because a member of Parliament waved a dried ear and demanded revenge for alleged mistreatment of British sailors. British seaman Robert Jenkins had his ear amputated following a 1731 barroom brawl with a Spanish Customs guard in Havana and saved the ear in his sea chest.
(EWH, 4th ed, p.555)(HN, 10/19/98)(PCh, 1992, p.292)
1739 Nov 2, Karl Ditters von Dittersdorf, composer, was born.
1739 Nov 22, Adm. Edward Vernon captured the Spanish city of Portobello, Panama, with a force of 6 British ships.
(PCh, 1992, p.292)
1739 Dec 25, Chevalier de Saint-Georges (d.1799) was born on the Caribbean island of Guadeloupe. He was the first African American musician to achieve international renown as a classical composer, violinist and conductor.
1739 Handel composed his oratorio “Israel in Egypt.” Text was taken from the books of Exodus and Psalms. The first of the 3 parts is actually a funeral ode written the previous year for Queen Caroline. The gender of the pronouns were changed to serve as a lament for the death of Joseph.
(LGC-HCS, p.46)(SFEC, 9/15/96, BR p.7)(SFC, 9/23/96, D3)
1739 Rameau composed his opera “Dardanus.”
1739 In northern California and Oregon some sort of extreme climactic event slowed the growth of redwood and other trees according to later tree ring studies by researchers.
(SFC, 8/14/13, p.A9)
1739-1740 The Peacock Throne (containing parts of the famous royal Mogul seat) is supposed to have been brought by Nadir Shah to Iran from Delhi. Lord Curzona (father of Ms. Ravensdale) asserted that the throne was discovered in a broken and piecemeal condition by Aga Mohammed Shah, and that he had it made up into the throne of modern shape.
(NG, Sept. 1939, Baroness Ravensdale, p.326,331)
1739-1823 William Bartram, American Quaker naturalist. His work included: “Travels Through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and West Florida” (1791), “Observations on the Creek and Cherokee Indians” and “Some Account of the Late Mr. John Bartram of Pennsylvania.” “A Seminole chief named Cowkeeper… gave him the name of Puc Puggy or “flower hunter”.”
(Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.10-12)
1740 Feb 3, Charles de Bourbon, King of Naples, invited the Jews to return to Sicily.
1740 Feb 7, Adam-Philippe Custine, French earl, general, MP, was born.
1740 Feb 8, Clement XII (87), [Lorenzo Corsini], blind Pope (1730-40), died.
1740 Feb 16, Giambattista Bodoni, printer, typeface designer (Bodoni), was born in Saluzzo, Italy.
1740 May 6, John Penn, signer of the Declaration of Independence, was born.
1740 May 9, Giovanni Paisiello, Italian composer (Barber of Seville), was born.
1740 May 31, Frederick II (1712-1786) ascended to the throne as King of Prussia.
1740 Jun 2, Donatien Alphonse Francois, writer, Marquis de Sade, was born in Paris. He was the French nobleman who was imprisoned for holding orgies in which he whipped and sodomized prostitutes. He wrote “The 120 Days of Sodom” and “Justine.” In 1998 Francine du Plessix Gray authored “At Home With the Marquis de Sade.”
(http://www.geocities.com/SoHo/Atrium/3539/)(WUD, 1994, p.1259)(WSJ, 2/7/96, p.A-12)(WSJ, 11/5/98, p.A20)(WSJ, 2/7/96, p.A-12)(HN, 6/2/99)
1740 Jun 22, King Frederick II of Prussia ended torture and guaranteed religion and freedom of the press.
1740 Jul 8, Pierre Vigne (b.1670), Frenchman, died. He founded the Congregation of Sisters of the Most Holy Sacrament. In 2004 he was beatified by Pope John Paul VI.
1740 Aug 1, Thomas Arne’s song “Rule Britannia,” which celebrated Britains military and commercial prowess, was performed for the 1st time. It grew to become the unofficial anthem.
(HN, 8/1/98)(Econ, 2/3/07, SR p.3)
1740 Aug 26, Joseph-Michel Montgolfier, French inventor, born. He and his brother Jacques-Etienne invented the hot air balloon in 1783.
1740 Sep 11, The first mention of an African American doctor or dentist in the colonies was made in the Pennsylvania Gazette.
1740 Oct 20, Maria Theresa became ruler of Austria, Hungary and Bohemia upon the death of her father, Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI.
1740 Oct 29, James Boswell, Samuel Johnson’s biographer, was born in Scotland.
1740 Dec 16, Prussias Frederick the Great seized Silesia from the newly crowned Archduchess of Austria. She sent troops to reconquer Silesia. A showdown battle occurred on April 10, 1741, in Silesia at Mollwitz. Most of Silesia was seized by King Frederick the Great of Prussia in the War of the Austrian Succession.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silesia)(Econ 6/3/17, p.48)
1740 Henry Fielding began working as a lawyer and read “Pamela or Virtue Rewarded” by Samuel Richardson. Fielding soon authored his satire “Shamela” in response.
(ON, 9/03, p.1)
1740 Boston merchant Peter Faneuil offered to build a public market house as a gift to the city on a site where slaves had previously been auctioned.
(SFC, 8/1/18, p.A6)
1740 A slave plot was uncovered in Charleston that resulted in the hanging of 50 blacks.
1740 The ignoring of the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 led to the War of the Austrian Succession in 1740. When Charles VI died in 1740, Maria Theresas claim was ignored by Elector Charles Albert of Bavaria, Augustus III of Saxony and Poland, and Philip V of Spain, igniting a general European war.
1740 The British sent a huge amphibious force to attack the Spanish in Santiago de Cuba as part of the War of Jenkins Ear. Of 28,000 men, 22,000 were dead within a year due to disease. Only about 1,000 perished in combat.
(Econ, 8/13/11, p.80)
1740 A dark oak room from Rouen, France, was later transferred to the Legion of Honor Art Museum in San Francisco, Ca.
(WSJ, 11/16/95, p.A-18)
1740 Frederick the Great awarded what is believed to be the first medal for combat bravery, the Pour le Merite, nicknamed the Blue Max.
(WSJ, 4/23/99, A1)
1740s Frederick the Great built a summer palace in Potsdam named Sans-souci (without worries).
(SFEC, 7/27/97, p.T11)
1740s Antonio de Solis, a Spanish priest, found the ruins of Palenque, Mexico, while planting a field.
(SSFC, 5/5/02, p.C5)
1740-1790 The period that approximates the years of the Scottish Enlightenment. It centered on the intellectual environment of Glasgow and Edinburgh, Scotland, where men such as Adam Smith and David Hume produced work that greatly influenced James Madison and Alexander Hamilton. This environment is well described in The Life of Adam Smith by Ian Simpson Ross in 1995.
(WSJ, 11/30/95, p.A-20)
1740-1794 Nicolas Chamford, French writer: “The public! the public! How many fools does it take to make up a public?”
1740-1807 John Frere, English archeologist, one of the earliest students of prehistory.
1741 Jan 14, Benedict Arnold, U.S. General turned traitor, was born.
1741 Feb 8, Andre-Ernest-Modeste Gretry, composer, was born.
1741 Feb 9, Henri-Joseph Rigel, composer, was born.
1741 Feb 13, Andrew Bradford of Pennsylvania published the first American magazine. Titled “The American Magazine, or A Monthly View of the Political State of the British Colonies.” Bradford introduced his American Magazine just days before Benjamin Franklin founded his periodical called General Magazine in Philadelphia. Bradfords survived 3 months while Franklins survived for 6 months.
(HFA, ’96, p.24)(HNQ, 9/3/98)(AP, 2/13/01)
1741 Feb 16, Benjamin Franklin’s General Magazine (2nd US Mag) began publishing.
1741 Mar 4, English fleet under Admiral Ogle reached Cartagena, Colombia.
1741 Mar 13, Jozef II, arch duke of Austria, Roman Catholic German emperor (1765-90), was born.
1741 Mar 25, The London Foundling Hospital opened in temporary accommodations in Hatton Garden following extensive efforts by former sea captain Thomas Coram (1668-1751).
1741 Apr 8, Jose B. da Gama, Portuguese poet (O Uraguai), was born.
1741 Apr 13, Dutch people protested the bad quality of bread.
1741 Apr 15, Charles Wilson Peale (d.1827), American portrait painter and inventor, was born. His 2nd teacher was John Singleton Copley.
(SFC, 1/25/97, p.E3)(HN, 4/15/98)
1741 Apr 11, A Russian commission found regent Count Biron guilty of treason and sentenced him to death by quartering. The sentence was commuted to banishment for life in Siberia.
(PCh, 1992, p.294)
1741 Apr 17, Samuel Chase, signer of the Declaration of Independence, was born.
1741 May 8, France and Bavaria signed the Covenant of Nymphenburg.
1741 May 10, Johann Michael Schmidt, composer, was born.
1741 May 29, Johann Gottfried Krebs, composer, was born.
1741 Jun 11, Austria ceded most of Silesia to Prussia by Treaty of Breslau.
1741 Jun 22, Alois Luigi Tomasini, composer, was born.
1741 Jul 15, George Steller, an observer with Vitus Bering (1680-1741), claimed to see the American mainland (Alaska). Bering, a Danish-born mariner, was on an exploratory mission on behalf of Russia.
(WSJ, 9/12/00, p.A24)(SFEC, 3/23/97, p.T5)(ON, 2/06, p.2)
1741 Jul 16, Vitus Bering (1680-1741) first sighted Mt. St. Elias, the second highest peak in Alaska at 18,008 feet.
(AAM, 3/96, p.84)(WUD, 1994 p.140)
1741 Aug 31, Johann Paul Aegidius Martini, composer, was born.
1741 Sep 14, George Frederick Handel (1685-1759) finished “Messiah” oratorio, after working on it in London non-stop for 23 days. Messiah premiered April 13, 1742.
(LGC-HCS, p.41)( http://www.gospelcom.net/chi/GLIMPSEF/Glimpses/glmps147.shtml)
1741 Sep 17, In Colombia Blas de Lezo (b.1689), Spanish admiral, died of typhus four months after leading Spaniards in resisting a siege by a combined British force under the command of Admiral Edward Vernon.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blas_de_Lezo)(SSFC, 10/18/15, p.P5)
1741 Oct, George Wilhelm Steller, German naturalist on the Bering voyage, discovered large sea cows (Hydrodamalis gigas) on Bering Island. Within 20 years the creatures were eaten to extinction.
(CW, Jun 03, p.13)
1741 Nov 20, Melchior de Polignac, French diplomat and clergyman, died.
1741 Nov 27, Jean-Pierre Duport, composer, was born.
1741 Dec 6, Russian princess Elisabeth Petrovna (1709-1762) seized power with the help of the Preobrazhensky Regiment. Petrovna (31), the daughter of Peter the Great, and her husband led a coup detat, deposed the infant Czar Ivan VI, had him imprisoned and reigned until her death in 1762.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth_of_Russia)(PCh, 1992, p.294)
1741 Dec 8, Vitus Bering, Danish-born explorer and commander in the Russian navy, died on an island off the Kamchatka Peninsula, later named Bering Island.
(ON, 2/06, p.4)
1741 Dec 25, Astronomer Anders Celcius introduced the Centigrade temperature scale.
1741 Dec 30, Bartolomeo Giacometti, composer, was born.
1741 Nathanael Greene (d.1786), American Revolutionary War General, was born.
(ON, 12/01, p.12)
1741 Voltaire (1694-1778), French playwright, wrote the play Fanaticism, or Mahomet the Prophet.” He used the founder of Islam to lampoon all forms of religious frenzy and intolerance.
(WSJ, 3/6/06, p.A10)
1741 Rameau composed his “Pieces de clavecin en concerts.”
(SFC, 6/6/96, E3)
1741 Renowned New England theologian Jonathan Edwards delivered the famous sermon “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” at the height of the Great Awakening, a religious revival movement that swept the colonies during the mid-eighteenth century.
1741 A slave revolt in New York caused considerable property damage but left people unharmed. Rumors of a conspiracy among slaves and poor whites in New York City to seize control led to a panic that resulted in the conviction of 101 blacks, the hanging of 18 blacks and four whites, the burning alive of 13 blacks and the banishment from the city of 70. In 2005 Anne Farrow, Joel Lang and Jennifer Frank authored Complicity: The North Promoted, Prolonged and Profited from Slavery,” which included a chapter on the 1941 NYC slave revolt.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York_Conspiracy_of_1741)(SFC, 12/18/96, p.A25)(SSFC, 10/2/05, p.F3)
1741 British troops briefly occupied Cubas Guantanamo Bay while warring against Spanish trade interests.
(SSFC, 1/20/02, p.A7)
1741 The Vieuxtemps Guarneri is a violin built about this time in Cremona by the renowned Italian instrument maker Giuseppe Guarneri. In 2012 it was auctioned for an estimated $16 million. The buyer later made the violin available for life to American violinist Anne Akiko Meyers.
(Econ 5/13/17, p.72)
1741 In Sweden Anders Berch became the first professor of economics in Uppsala.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)
1741-1801 Johann Kaspar Lavater, Swiss theologian: “I am prejudiced in favor of him who, without impudence, can ask boldly. He has faith in humanity, and faith in himself. No one who is not accustomed to give grandly can ask nobly and with boldness.”
1741-1825 (John) Henry Fuseli, English painter, illustrator and essayist. He was born in Switzerland. His work included The Nightmare (c.1790).
(WUD, 1994, p.576)(SFC, 10/31/96, p.E1)
1742 Jan 14, English astronomer Edmond Halley, who observed the comet that now bears his name, died at age 85. In 2005 Julie Wakefield authored Halleys Quest,” in which she covered Halleys travels to Brazil to map the Atlantics magnetic declinations and hopefully solve the problem of calculating longitude.
(AP, 1/14/98)(WSJ, 12/20/05, p.D8)
1742 Jan 24, Charles VII was crowned Holy Roman Emperor during the War of the Austrian Succession.
1742 Apr 13, George Frideric Handel’s “Messiah” was first performed publicly, in Dublin, Ireland.
1742 Apr 13, Giovanni Veneziano (59), composer, died.
1742 May 11, Francesco Stradivari (70), Italian violin maker, son of Antonius, died.
1742 May 17, Frederick great (Emperor of Prussia) beat Austrians.
1742 May 28, 1st indoor swimming pool opened at Goodman’s Fields, London.
1742 Jun 17, William Hooper, signer of the Declaration of Independence, was born.
1742 Jun 26, Arthur Middleton, signer of the Declaration of Independence, was born.
1742 Jul 7, A Spanish force invading Georgia ran headlong into the colony’s British defenders. A handful of British and Spanish colonial troops faced each other on a Georgia coastal island and decided the fate of a colony.
(HN, 5/3/98)(HN, 7/7/99)
1742 Jul 11, Benjamin Franklin invented his Franklin stove.
1742 Jul 11, A papal decree was issued condemning the disciplining actions of the Jesuits in China.
1742 Aug 7, Nathanael Greene, American Revolutionary War General, was born.
1742 Aug 29, Edmond Hoyle (1672-1769) published his “Short Treatise” on the card game whist.
1742 Sep, Bostons Faneuil Hall, a public market house gifted to the city by merchant and slave owner Peter Faneuil (1700-1743), opened to the public. On January 14, 1761, the building burned completely, leaving only its brick shell standing. It was rebuilt by the town in 1762.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faneuil_Hall)(SFC, 6/19/18, p.A7)
1742 Oct 12, Johan Peter Melchior, German sculptor, was born.
1742 Nov 12, The British warship Centurion, commanded by Commodore George Anson, sailed into Macao with a crew of some 200 sick with scurvy.
(ON, 4/01, p.7)
1742 Dec 1, Empress Elisabeth ordered the expulsion of all Jews from Russia.
1742 Dec 9, Carl W. Scheele, Swedish pharmacist and chemist (lemon acid), was born.
1742 Henry Fielding authored his novel “Joseph Andrews.” It dealt seriously with moral issues using a comic approach and was later regarded as a milestone in English literature.
(ON, 9/03, p.1)
1742 England’s “Compleat Housewife” cookbook was published in North America.
(SFC, 8/27/03, p.E4)
1742 Sir Robert Walpole resigned from his duties as British prime minister in order to avoid impeachment.
1742 In Italy Giuseppe Guarneri, aka Guarneri del Gesu, created the violin later dubbed “The Cannon” by Paganini.
(SFEC, 10/24/99, DB p.36)
1742 General James Edward Oglethorpe led a victory over the Spanish at Bloody Marsh on St. Simons Island off the coast of Georgia.
(SFC, 4/28/96, p.T-7)
1742 Edmund Hoyle popularized the card game later called bridge.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)
1742 Taylor-Wharton began operations as an American colonial iron forge. In 1953 it was absorbed into Harsco, an American engineering and industrial service company.
(Econ, 12/18/04, p.105)
1742 Russias Empress Elisaveta Petrovna presented lands south of Pskov to the A.P. Gannibal (1696-1781), an African who had been adopted by Peter the Great and served Peter in various important capacities including spy and privy councilor.
(http://gotorussia.vand.ru/19.phtml?gorod=19&id=11&num=235)(SSFC, 6/18/06, p.M3)
1742-1765 In Arabia Muhammad bin Saud Al Saud allied with Wahhabists and expanded the family domain.
(Econ, 1/7/06, Survey p.6)
1742-1803 Thomas Jones, amateur British painter.
(SFC, 6/4/96, p.E5)
1742-1823 William Combe, English writer. He wrote “The English Dance of Death” that discussed the vice of feasting.
(MT, 6/96, p.9)
1743 Jan 21, John Fitch, inventor (had a working steamboat years before Fulton), was born.
1743 Feb 7, Lodovico Giustini (57), composer, died.
1743 Feb 19, [Rodolfo] Luigi Boccherini, Italian composer, cellist (Minuet), was born.
1743 Feb 23, Meyer Amschel Rothschild, banker and founder of the Rothschild dynasty in Europe, was born.
1743 Mar 3, Peter Faneuil (b.1700), American colonial merchant, slave trader, and philanthropist, died in Boston of dropsy.
1743 Mar 14, The first recorded town meeting in America was held, at Faneuil Hall in Boston.
1743 Mar 23, George Frideric Handel’s oratorio “Messiah” had its London premiere. During the “Hallelujah Chorus,” Britain’s King George II, who was in attendance, stood up followed by the entire audience.
1743 Apr 13, Thomas Jefferson (d.1826), the third president of the United States (1801-1809), was born in present-day Albemarle County, Va. He called slavery cruel but included 25 slaves in his daughters dowry, took enslaved children to market and had 10-year-old slaves working 12-hour days in his nail factory. He stated that blacks were in reason inferior” and in imagination they are dull, tasteless and anomalous.” Were it left to me to decide whether we should have a government without newspapers, or newspapers without a government, I should not hesitate a moment to prefer the latter.” “History, in general, only informs us what bad government is.”
(AP, 4/13/97)(SFC,12/897, p.A27)(AP, 4/13/98)
1743 Apr 24, Edmund Cartwright, inventor of the power loom, was born.
1743 May 20, [Francois D] Toussaint L’Ouverture, leader (Haiti), was born.
1743 May 24, Jean-Paul Marat, French revolutionist, was born. He advocated extreme violence and was assassinated in his own bath.
1743 Jun 8, Alessandro Cagliostro, adventurer, was born in Palermo, Italy.
1743 Jun 20, The British warship Centurion under Commodore George Anson engaged and overcame the Spanish treasure galleon, Nuestra Senora de Covadonga, near the Philippines. 58 Spaniards were killed and 83 wounded. Anson captured over 1 million Spanish silver dollars and 500 pounds of native silver.
(ON, 4/01, p.7)
1743 Jun 27, King George of the English defeated the French at Dettingen, Bavaria. English armies were victorious over the French at Dettingen. This event was celebrated by Handel in his composition “Dettingen Te Deum.”
(BLW, Geiringer, 1963 ed. p. 317)(HN, 6/27/98)
1743 Aug 17, By the Treaty of Abo, Sweden ceded southeast Finland to Russia, ending Sweden’s failed war with Russia.
1743 Aug 19, Marie Jeanne Becu Comtesse du Barry (d.1793), last mistress of Louis XV, was born.
1743 Aug 26, Antoine Laurent Lavoisier, the father of modern chemistry, was born. He discovered “dephlogisticated air” which he called oxygen and was executed by the revolution in 1794.
(HN, 8/26/99)(RTH, 8/26/99)
1743 Sep 14, Nicolas Lancret, French artist, died. He was a brilliant depicter of light comedy which reflected the tastes and manners of French society under the regent Orleans. His work included Study of a Woman Seated on the Ground” and Study of a Man.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicolas_Lancret)(SFC, 7/13/13, p.E3)
1743 Sep 17, Marquis Marie Jean de Condorcet (d.1794), French mathematician and philosopher, a leading thinker in the Enlightenment, was born.
(HN, 9/17/98)(WSJ, 6/22/99, p.A22)
1743 Dec 6, Franz Nikolaus Novotny, composer, was born.
1743 Giovanni Battista Tiepolo painted “The Triumph of Flora.”
(SFEC, 6/7/98, Z1 p.2)
1743 Edward Pococke (1604-1691), English Orientalist, authored his travel book Description of the East.”
(Econ, 12/21/13, p.127)
1743 Joseph Nicolas Pancrace Royer created the opera-ballet: “Le Pouvoir de lAmour.” Royer was later remembered for his harpsichord works.
(WSJ, 3/12/02, p.A24)
1743 Benjamin Franklin and John Bartram founded the American Philosophical Society in Philadelphia as an American counterpart to the British Royal Society.
(WSJ, 4/25/09, p.W3)(www.amphilsoc.org/library/exhibits/nature/stork.htm)
1743 Huguenots in Spitalfields, England, who had fled persecution in France as Calvinists, built their Nueve Eglise place of worship at Fournier Street and Brick Lane. Their community lasted until 1809. The church was later inherited by Methodists. In 1898 it became a synagogue for Jews fleeing pogroms in Russia. In 1976 it was transformed into a mosque for the Bangladeshis and Pakistanis who escaped poverty in South Asia.
(Econ, 12/20/03, p.85)(Econ, 6/30/12, SR p.8)
1743 “Kitchup” was declared a kitchen staple in a British housekeeper’s guide. Fish, mushroom and walnut emerged as the 3 main ketchups.
(SFC, 8/27/03, p.A1)
1743 Genl. James Oglethorpe of England departed Georgia following some small scandal.
1743 British Commodore George Anson reached China in his man-of-war.
(WSJ, 9/4/98, p.W12)
1743 In France Louis XV commissioned an elevator installed at Versailles to link his apartment to that of his mistress.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)(SFC, 8/23/08, p.F4)
1743 French champagne maker Moet was founded.
(Econ, 3/6/04, Survey p.6)
1743 The Frauenkirche was built in Dresden, Germany. It was destroyed by allied bombs in 1945, but plans for rebuilding were scheduled for completion by 2006, the 800th birthday of Dresden. A reconstructed version was consecrated in 2005.
(SFEC, 7/27/97, p.T6)(SSFC, 10/30/05, p.A16)
1743 In Mosul as many as 150 monks who refused to convert to Islam were massacred at St. Elijah’s Monastery by a Persian general.
1743 In Mexico La Cathedral de Nuestra Senora de la Asuncion in Veracruz was dedicated.
(SFEC, 5/17/98, p.T12)
1743-1826 Thomas Jefferson was born in Virginia. Jefferson had his slave Sally Hemings as his lover for 38 years. He wrote the Northwest Ordnance that outlawed the spread of slavery into the trans-Appalachian territories.
(V.D.-H.K.p.224)(WSJ, 2/11/97, p.A18)
1744 Feb 9, Battle at Toulon: French-Spanish faced the English fleet of Adm. Matthews.
1744 Feb 15, John Hadley, inventor (sextant), died.
1744 Feb 21, The British blockade of Toulon was broken by 27 French and Spanish warships attacking 29 British ships.
1744 Mar 13, David Allan, Scottish painter, was born.
1744 Apr 4, Sarah Inglish was arrested and convicted at the Old Bailey for stealing a cloak, three linen aprons and about 7 yards of cloth from a home where she was babysitting. She was sentenced to transport for a term of 7 years.
(SFEC, 10/27/96, p.T9)
1744 May 11, In Britain Elizabeth Robinson of Middlesex and 2 other women were tried and convicted at the Old Bailey on charges of stealing 104 imported China oranges from a grocers warehouse with the intent to sell them. She was sentenced to transport for a term of 7 years. She was pregnant and gave birth on ship.
(SFEC, 10/27/96, p.T9)
1744 May, Jack Campbell, captain of the Justicia, transported convicted British criminals to the US and sold them as indentured servants.
(SFEC, 10/27/96, p.T10)
1744 Jun 15, The warship Centurion under British Commodore George Anson returned to England with a treasure valued at £800,000. In 1748 Anson authored “A voyage Around the World.”
(WSJ, 9/4/98, p.W12)
1744 Aug 1, Jean-Baptiste-Pierre-Antoine Monnet de Lamarck, French zoologist, was born.
1744 Aug 25, Johann G. von Herder, German philosopher, theologist, poet, was born.
1744 Oct 4, The HMS Victory sank in the English Channel with at least 900 men aboard. The 175-foot sailing ship had separated from its fleet during a storm. In 2009 Odyssey Marine Exploration reported finding the vessel about 330 feet beneath the surface and more than 50 miles from where anybody would have thought it went down.
1744 Nov 11, Abigail Smith Adams, 2nd 1st lady (1797-1801), was born.
1744 Nov 25, Austrian forces pillaged and killed Jews of Prague.
1744 Handel composed his opera “Semele” based on Ovids account of one of Jupiters tangled love affairs.
(WSJ, 12/21/00, p.A16)
1744 Rules for cricket set the wicket to wicket pitch at 22 yards. The 1727 Articles of Agreement had set the distance at 23 yards.
1744 The Iroquois sachem (chief) Cannasatego advised the American colonists to from a union like that of the Iroquois. Benjamin Franklin acknowledged the admonition in 1751 and applied it in his Albany Plan of 1754.
(WSJ, 4/10/97, p.A15)
1744 The title Lordship of Wimbledon was bestowed to the Spencer family of Britain.
(WP, 6/29/96, p.F3)
1744 This was the era of Londons gin fever.
(SFEC, 10/27/96, p.T9)
1744 Fort Richelieu was built in Sete on the French Mediterranean coast of the Languedoc region.
(SSFC, 6/17/01, p.T10)
1744 The Royal Porcelain Manufactory of Vienna began to use an upside down shield, resembling a beehive, as its emblem. Royal Vienna porcelain was made until 1864.
(SFEC, 10/9/96, Z1 p.8)(SFC, 10/17/07, p.G2)
1744 In Arabia Muhammad Ibn Saud, local ruler of Ad-Dar’ia forged a political and family alliance with Muslim scholar and reformer Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab. Abdul Aziz, the son of Ibn Saud, married the daughter of Imam Muhammad.
(NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)
1744-1812 Mayer Rothschild, banker, rose from a ghetto in Frankfurt to become the banker to Prince William of Prussia. His son, Nathan Rothschild, worked in London as a banker and invested Prussian money in the Napoleonic Wars and smuggled it to Wellington in Spain. His 4 other sons established banks in Vienna, Naples and Paris.
(WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R18)
1744-1818 Abigail Adams, American first lady, writer of letters and wife of John Adams: “These are times in which a genius would wish to live. It is not in the still calm of life, or the repose of a pacific station, that great characters are formed…. Great necessities call out great virtues.”
(AHD, 1971, p.14)(AP, 6/29/97)
1744-1840 Caspar David Friedrich, romantic painter. His work included “Coffin on a Grave.”
(SFC, 11/16/98, p.E3)
1745 Jan 7, Jacques Etienne Montgolfier (d.1799), French inventor, was born. He and his brother, Joseph (1740-1810), launched the first successful hot-air balloon in 1783.
(HN, 1/7/99)(WUD, 1994 p.928)
1745 Jan 8, England, Austria, Saxony and the Netherlands formed an alliance against Russia.
1745 Jan, Handels oratorio “Hercules,” written in 1744, premiered at the Kings Theater in London. The libretto was based on writings by Sophocles and Ovid.
(WSJ, 2/22/06, p.D12)(http://tinyurl.com/gdt6w)
1745 Feb 15, Colley Cibber’s “Papal Tyranny,” premiered in London.
1745 Feb 18, Count Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta (d.1827), Italian physicist, inventor (battery), was born.
(AHD, 1971 p.1436)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alessandro_Volta)
1745 Feb 18, Bonnie Prince Charlie’s troops occupied Inverness, Scotland.
1745 Feb 20, Johann Peter Salomon, composer, was born.
1745 Feb 20, Bonnie Prince Charlie’s troops occupied Fort August, Scotland.
1745 Mar 9, Bells for 1st American carillon were shipped from England to Boston.
1745 Mar 18, Robert Walpole (68), 1st British premier (1721-42), died. His children found that he had run up debts of over £50,000. In 2007 Edward Pearce authored The Great Man Sir Robert Walpole: Scoundrel, Genius and Britains First Prime Minister.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Walpole)(Econ, 2/10/07, p.89)(Econ, 5/18/13, p.89)
1745 Mar 31, Jews were expelled from Prague.
1745 Apr 20, Philippe Pinel (d.1826), French physician and founder of psychiatry, was born.
(WUD, 1994, p.)(HN, 4/20/98)
1745 Apr 22, Peace of Fussen was signed, restoring the status quo of Germany.
1745 Apr 29, Oliver Ellsworth, third Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, was born.
1745 May 9, Tomaso Antonio Vitali (82), composer, died.
1745 May 11, French forces defeated an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army at Fontenoy.
1745 Jun 4, Frederick the Great of Prussia defeated the Austrians & Saxons.
1745 Jun 16, English fleet occupied Cape Breton on St. Lawrence River.
1745 Jun 17, American New Englanders captured Louisburg, Cape Breton, from the French. The ragtag army captured France’s most imposing North American stronghold on Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia.
(HN, 5/17/98)(WSJ, 10/5/99, p.A24)(MC, 6/17/02)
1745 Jul 23, Charles Stuart (1720-1788), the Younger, and 7 companions landed at Eriskay Island, in the Hebrides.
1745 Aug 16, Skirmish at Laggan: Glengarry beat the Royal Scots.
1745 Aug 20, Bonnie Prince Charlie reached Blair Castle, Scotland.
1745 Sep 17, Edinburgh was occupied by Jacobites under Young Pretenders.
1745 Sep 21, A Scottish Jacobite army commanded by Lord George Murray routed the Royalist army of General Sir John Cope at Prestonpans.
1745 Sep 22, Bonnie Prince Charlie’s army returned to Edinburgh.
1745 Sep 28, Bonnie Prince Charlie became “king” of Scotland.
1745 Oct 19, Jonathan Swift (b.1667), Irish born clergyman and English writer (Gulliver’s Travels), died. In 1963 Prof. Edward Rosenheim (1918-2005) authored Swift and the Satirists Art.” In 1998 Victoria Glendinning published the biography: “Jonathan Swift: A Portrait.” In 2017 John Stubbs authored Jonathan Swift: The Reluctant Rebel”.
(WUD, 1994, p.1437)(SFEC, 8/1/99, BR p.8)(SFC, 12/1/05, p.B7)(Econ, 2/18/17, p.69)
1745 Nov 11, Bonnie Prince Charlie’s army entered England.
1745 Nov 18, Bonnie Prince Charlie’s troops occupied Carlisle. [see Nov 29]
1745 Nov 28-29, French troops attacked Indians at Saratoga, NY.
1745 Nov 29, Bonnie Prince Charlie’s army moved into Manchester and occupied Carlisle.
1745 Dec 4, Bonnie Prince Charles reached Derby.
1745 Dec 6, Bonnie Prince Charlie’s army retreated to Scotland.
1745 Dec 12, John Jay, first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, was born. He became a diplomat and governor of NY, served as the first Supreme Court Head Justice, and negotiated treaties for the United States
(HN, 12/12/98)(MC, 12/12/01)
1745 Dec 17, Bonnie Prince Charlie’s army retreated to Scotland. [see Dec 6]
1745 Dec 20, Bonnie Prince Charlie’s army met de Esk.
1745 Dec 22, Jan Dismas Zelenka (66), composer, died.
1745 Dec 24, Benjamin Rush, American medical pioneer and signer of the Declaration of Independence, was born in Byberry, Pa.
(HN, 12/24/98)(MC, 12/24/01)
1745 Dec 25, Prussia and Austria signed the Treaty of Dresden. This gave much of Silesia to the Prussians.
1745 Dec 31, Bonnie Prince Charlie’s army met with de Esk.
1745 Schneur Zalman Boruchovitch of Liadi (d.1813), founder of the Jewish Chabad-Lubavitch Chassidic Movement, was born. He labored for 20 years to complete the Tanya before it was printed in 1796. In 1814, the Ravs Shulchan Aruch fast became regarded by all scholars of Jewish law as a major source and reference guide in the study and application of Jewish law. In 2003 Sue Fishkoff authored “The Rebbe’s Army,” a study of the sect.
(Internet, 7/18/03)(WSJ, 7/18/03, p.W17c)
1745 William Hogarth made his print series “Marriage A-la-Mode” in which he made fun of the new social mobility.
(SFC, 1/28/98, p.E1)
1745 French composer Jean-Philippe Rameau wrote the lyric comedy “Platee.” It was an amalgam of song, dance and spectacle based on a simple plot where Jupiter tries to cure Juno of her jealousy. It was a parody of late-Baroque opera. It was staged on the occasion of the Dauphin Louis marriage to Princess Maria Teresa of Spain. It was about a lovesick frog.
(WSJ, 10/1/97, p.A20)(SFC, 1/20/98, p.E1)(SFEM, 6/7/98, p.8)(WSJ, 6/16/98, p.A17)(WSJ, 10/30/01, p.A21)
1745 The French opera Le Temple de la Gloire” (The Temple of Glory) by composer Jean-Philippe Rameau premiered at Versailles. The libretto was written by Voltaire.
(SFC, 4/27/17, p.E9)
1745 Georges Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, suggested that another body such as a giant comet had hit the sun, knocking from it the spinning gas and matter that became the planets.
1745 The Habeas Corpus Suspension Act 1745 was an Act of Parliament of the Parliament of Great Britain passed in 1745, and formally repealed in 1867.
1745 In France the renowned Champagne house of Moët & Chandon was established in the city of Epernay.
1745 Richard Hennessey arrived in France from Ireland as an exile from wars with England.
(SSFC, 10/16/11, p.N4)
1745 During the Jacobite uprising some prisoners captured by the Jacobites were kept at Doune Castle, Scotland. These included John Witherspoon, who later moved to the American colonies, became president of Princeton, a delegate to the Continental Congress and a signer of the American Declaration of Independence.
(SSFC, 11/23/03, p.C6)
1745-1796 Anthony Wayne, American General in the Revolutionary War, also known as Mad Anthony Wayne. [The HFA says he attacked Stony Point in 1799]
(HFA, ’96, p.34)(AHD, 1971, p.1450)
1745-c1806 Kim Hong-do, Korean artist, created genre paintings.
(WSJ, 8/10/98, p.A12)
1745-1829 John Jay, US statesman and jurist. He served as the governor of New York and was the first chief justice of the US Supreme Court (1789-1795).
(WUD, 1994, p.764)(WSJ, 8/7/98, p.W13)
1745-1833 Hannah More, English religious writer: “The world does not require so much to be informed as reminded.” “Obstacles are those frightful things you see when you take your eyes off the goal.”
(AP, 4/28/97)(AP, 9/9/97)
1746 Jan 8, Bonnie Prince Charlie’s troops occupied Stirling. [see Jan 19]
1746 Jan 17, Charles Edward Stuart, the young pretender, defeated the government forces at the battle of Falkirk in Scotland.
1746 Jan 19, Bonnie Prince Charlie’s troops occupied Stirling. [see Jan 8]
1746 Jan 24, Gustav III, king during Swedish Enlightenment (1771-92), was born.
1746 Feb 20, Bonnie Prince Charlie occupied the Castle of Inverness. [see Mar 3]
1746 Feb 27, Gian Francesco Fortunati, composer, was born.
1746 Mar 3, Bonnie Prince Charlie occupied the Castle of Inverness. [see Feb 20]
1746 Mar 5, Jacobin troops left Aberdeen, Scotland.
1746 Mar 8, Cumberland’s troops occupied Aberdeen, Scotland.
1746 Mar 27, Carlo Bonaparte, Corsican attorney, father of emperor Napoleon, was born.
1746 Apr 16, Bonnie Prince Charles was defeated at the battle of Culloden, the last pitched battle fought in Britain. King George II won the battle of Culloden. Bonnie Prince Charlie used English rifleman and virtually annihilated the sword-wielding, rebellious, Highlander clans of Scotland at Culloden. It was the last major land battle fought on British soil. The Battle of Culloden was a crushing defeat for Bonnie Prince Charlie and the Highlander clans that backed him.
(PCh, 1992, p.297)(SFC, 6/25/95, p.T-7)(SFC, 12/4/96, p.B1)(SFEC,12/797, p.T4)(HN, 4/16/99)
1746 Jul 28, Thomas Heyward, soldier, signed Declaration of Independence, was born.
1746 Jul 28, John Peter Zenger, journalist involved in 1st amendment fight, died.
1746 Jun 29, Bonnie Prince Charlie fled in disguise to Isle of Skye.
(PC, 1992, p.297)