Timeline of the Eighteenth Century: 1725-1749 2

1746 Sep 20, Bonnie Prince Charlie fled to France from Scotland. [see Oct 1]
(MC, 9/20/01)

1746 Sep 21, A French expeditionary army occupied Labourdonnais. Colonial governor Joseph Francois Dupleix occupied Madras.
(PCh, 1992, p.298)(MC, 9/21/01)

1746 Oct 1, Bonnie Prince Charlie fled to France. [see Sep 20]
(MC, 10/1/01)

1746 Oct 7, William Billings, hymn composer (Rose of Sharon), was born in Boston, Mass.
(HN, 10/7/00)(MC, 10/7/01)

1746 Oct 22, Princeton University in New Jersey received its charter as the College of New Jersey. The Univ. later established a reputation for its spring ritual of sophomores running naked at midnight after the first snowfall.
(SFEC, 3/22/98, p.A23)(AP, 10/22/08)

1746 Oct 28, A tsunami caused by the Lima–Callao earthquake destroyed the entire port of Callao. Lima was almost completely destroyed by the earthquake that killed 1,141. The tsunami killed 5-6 thousand people.

1746 Tadeusz Kosciusko (d1817), Polish patriot and general in the American Revolutionary army, was born in Lithuania. [see Feb 4, 1747]
(WUD, 1994 p.794)

1746 Francisco Jose de Goya y Lucientes (d.1828), Spanish painter, was born.
(WSJ, 11/3/95, p.A-12)(WSJ, 4/16/99, p.W2)

1746 Tiepolo painted his “Saint Catherine of Siena.”
(WSJ, 1/23/97, p.A12)

1746 Parisian book publisher Andre Francois Le Breton hired Denis Diderot (32) to work on a project called the Encyclopedie. The plan was to produce a French translation of Ephraim Chamber’s 1728 Cyclopedia. In 1747 he named Diderot co-editor with Jean D’Alembert.
(ON, 4/05, p.8)(WSJ, 6/29/05, p.D8)

1746 The American Presbyterian College of New Jersey was founded.
(HNQ, 7/6/99)

1746 The first lectures on electricity in the American colonies were given by John Winthrop IV at Harvard in 1746. Winthrop, born in 1714, was the professor of mathematics and natural philosophy at Harvard. Benjamin Franklin began his experiments in electricity in 1747.
(HNQ, 7/8/98)

1746 The solitaire of Reunion, a flightless pigeon, was gone by this year.
(NH, 11/96, p.24)

1746 A consortium of London publishers offered Samuel Johnson (36) a modest sum to compose a dictionary of the English Language. He promised to do the job in 3 years, but didn’t finish the 1st edition until 1755.
(WSJ, 10/12/05, p.D13)

1746 Nicholas de Largilliere (b.1656), French painter, died.
(WSJ, 10/30/03, p.D10)

1746 Elisha Nims (26) died from a musket ball at Fort Massachusetts during the French and Indian War. His grave was discovered in 1852 and his last remains were reburied in 2000.
(SFC, 11/11/00, p.A13)

1746 William, the Duke of Cumberland, led an English military force into Scotland to defeat the rebels there.
(SFC, 10/14/00, p.B3)

1746-1818 Gaspard Monge, Comte de Peluse, French mathematician. He served with Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier on the revolutionary commission to devise the metric system.
(WUD, 1994, p.924)(NH, 12/98, p.24)

1746-1828 Francisco Jose de Goya y Lucientes, Spanish painter. 128 of his paintings are at the Prado in Madrid, Spain. Among these are: “La Maja Desnuda,” “La Maja Vestida,” “El Dos de Mayo,” “El Tres de Mayo,” “The Witches Sabboth,” “Saturn eating one of his children,” “La Quinta del Sordo” (House of the Deaf Man) murals (1820-1823) that he applied to the walls of his Madrid rooms. Known as El Rapidisimo, he painted more than 600 works. Other works include: “Los Caprichos,” “Disasters of War,” “Family of Charles IV,” “Boys Climbing a Tree,” “The Kite,” “The Injured Workman,” “The Drunken Workman,” “The Wedding,” “The Duchess of Alba” and “Pinturas Negras.” Goya spent his last years in France.
(WSJ, 5/20/96, p.A-12)(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.612)(WSJ, 5/4/99, p.A20)

1747 Feb 4, Tadeusz Kosciusko, patriot, American Revolution hero (built West Point), was born in Poland. [see 1746]
(MC, 2/4/02)

1747 Mar 4, Casimir Pulaski (d.1779), Count, American Revolutionary War General, was born in Poland. Pulaski led troops in some of the bloodiest fighting of the Revolutionary War.
(HN, 3/4/98)(SC, 3/4/02)

1747 Mar 31, Johann Abraham Peter Schulz, German composer (Moon has Risen), was born.
(MC, 3/31/02)

1747 Apr 9, Simon Fraser, 12th baron Lovat (Jacobite), became the last man to be officially beheaded in England.
(MC, 4/9/02)

1747 Jun 19, Alessandro Marcello (77), composer, died.
(MC, 6/19/02)

1747 Jul 2, Marshall Saxe led the French forces to victory over an Anglo-Dutch force under the Duke of Cumberland at the Battle of Lauffeld.
(HN, 7/2/98)

1747 Jul 6, John Paul Jones, naval hero of the American Revolution, was born near Kirkcudbright, Scotland. As a US naval commander he invaded England during the American War of Independence.
(HN, 7/6/98)(MC, 7/6/02)

1747 Jul 9, Giovanni Battista Bononcini (76), Italian opera-composer, died.
(MC, 7/9/02)

1747 Jul 10, Persian ruler Nadir Shah was assassinated at Fathabad in Persia. The Afghans rise rose again in revolt under the leadership of Ahmad Shah Abdali and retook Kandahar to establish modern Afghanistan.
(www.afghan, 5/25/98)(HN, 7/10/98)

1747 Jul 30, Antonio Benedetto Maria Puccini, composer, was born.
(MC, 7/30/02)

1747 Sep 16, The French captured Bergen-op-Zoom, consolidating their occupation of Austrian Flanders in the Netherlands.
(HN, 9/16/98)

1747 Dec 9, England and Netherlands signed a military treaty.
(MC, 12/9/01)

1747 Mark Catesby, English naturalist, used his 220 watercolors for etchings in his work on the flora and fauna of North America. The paintings were purchased by George III in 1768 and preserved in the Royal Library. In 1997 they were reproduced in the book: “Mark Catesby’s Natural History of America: Watercolors from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle” by Henrietta McBurney.
(NH, 6/97, p.12)

1747 Thomas Gray wrote: “Where ignorance is bliss, tis folly to be wise.”
(SFC, 4/22/00, p.E3)

1747 Samuel Foote, an out of work actor, established himself as the first stand-up comedian.
(SFC, 4/22/00, p.E3)

1747 Nadir Shah (head of Persia) was assassinated, and the Afghans rose once again. Afghans, under the leadership of Ahmad Shah Abdali (Durrani) retook Kandahar, and established modern Afghanistan.
(NG, 10/1993, p. 66)(https://www.afghan-web.com/history/chronology/)
1747 Ahmad Shah Abdali (d.1773) consolidated and enlarged Afghanistan. He defeated the Moghuls in the west of the Indus, and he took Herat away from the Persians. Ahmad Shah Durrani’s empire extended from Central Asia to Delhi, from Kashmir to the Arabian sea. It became the greatest Muslim empire in the second half of the 18th century.

1747 The British government swiftly acted to break Scots’ resistance. The wearing of tartan, teaching Gaelic and even playing the bagpipes were outlawed by the Act of Proscription.
(Reuters, 2/16/12)
1747 In Britain a tax was imposed on carriages.
(SFC, 4/22/00, p.E3)

1747 Parisian book publisher Andre Francois Le Breton, producer of the Encyclopedie, named Denis Diderot co-editor with Jean D’Alembert. In 2005 Philipp Blom authored “Enlightening the World,” an account of the project.
(WSJ, 6/29/05, p.D8)
1747 In France the National School of Bridges and Roads was founded.
(Econ, 4/23/15, p.43)

c1747 In Germany man-made dykes were built in the Oderbruch region north of Frankfurt an der Oder around land that was drained and cleared for farming. The dykes faced disaster in 1997 during heavy July rains.
(SFC, 7/26/97, p.A12)

1747 Carlo Bergonzi, the last of the great Cremonese violin makers, died.
(Econ, 7/30/05, p.78)

1747 The Iglesia de Nuestra Senora de la Paz was built in Todos Santos on the southern Baja peninsula.
(SSFC, 11/4/01, p.T12)

1747 A Scottish chemist found out that beets contained sugar.
(SFC, 4/22/00, p.E3)

1747-1830 Madame Dorothee Deluzy, French actress: “We believe at once in evil, we only believe in good upon reflection. Is this not sad?”
(AP, 9/21/00)

1747-1838 Lorenzo Da Ponte, wrote the libretto for Mozart’s Don Giovanni.

1747-1773 Rule of Ahmad Shah Abdali (Durrani). Ahmad Shah consolidated and enlarged Afghanistan. He defeated the Moghuls in the west of the Indus, and he takes Herat away from the Persians. Ahmad Shah Durrani’s empire extended from Central Asia to Delhi, from Kashmir to the Arabian sea. It became the greatest Muslim empire in the second half of the 18th century.
(www.afghan, 5/25/98)

1748 Feb 5, Christian Gottlob Neefe, German composer, conductor, tutor of Beethoven, was born.
(MC, 2/5/02)

1748 Feb 15, Jeremy Bentham (d.1832), philosopher, originator (Utilitarian), was born in London, England.

1748 Mar 10, John Playfair, clergyman, geologist, mathematician, was born in Scotland.
(MC, 3/10/02)

1748 Mar 19, English Naturalization Act was passed granting Jews right to colonize US.
(MC, 3/19/02)

1748 Apr 1, The ruins of Pompeii were found. The city of Pompeii, buried in 79AD, was discovered.
(SFEC, 4/12/98, p.T3)(OTD)

1748 Apr 12, William Kent (b.c1685), English sculptor and architect (Kensington Palace), died. Kent introduced the Palladian style of architecture into England with the villa at Chiswick House.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Kent)(Econ, 3/22/14, p.83)

1748 Apr 28, Lorenz Justinian Ott, composer, was born.
(MC, 4/28/02)

1748 Jun 28, A riot followed a public execution in Amsterdam and over 200 were killed.
(MC, 6/28/02)

1748 Aug 15, United Lutheran Church of US was organized.
(MC, 8/15/02)

1748 Aug 30, Jacques-Louis David (d.1825), Neo-classical painter (Death of Marat), was born. He painted “Madame Hamelin.” He also painted a portrait of Napoleon crossing the St. Bernard Pass on a rearing horse. Jean Ingres began his career as a pupil of David.
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.369)(WSJ, 5/19/97, p.A16)(WSJ, 5/28/99, p.W12)(MC, 8/30/01)

1748 Sep 24, Philipp Meissner, composer, was born.
(MC, 9/24/01)

1748 Oct 18, The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle brought the war of Austrian Succession, which began in 1840, to an end and upheld the Pragmatic Sanction.
(HNQ, 7/29/99)(MC, 10/18/01)

1748 Nov 1, Christoph Rheineck, composer, was born.
(MC, 11/1/01)

1748 Robert Feke, American painter, created his portrait of “Mrs. Charles Apthorp.”
(SFC, 2/28/01, p.E3)

1748 Samuel Richardson wrote his novel “Clarissa.” In 1976 Robin Holloway composed a 2-act opera based on the novel that was premiered in 1990 by the English National Opera.
(SFEC, 12/6/98, DB p.35)

1748 British Commodore George Anson published an account of his trip to China.
(WSJ, 9/4/98, p.W12)

1748 Handel composed his oratorio “Solomon.”
(SFEC, 9/6/98, DB p.11)

1748 Lord Fairfax, Virginia land owner, commissioned a survey of the Patterson Creek Manor, which later became part of West Virginia. The surveyor was accompanied by the nephew of Lord Fairfax and the nephew’s best friend, George Washington (16). The survey was unusually erroneous.
(WSJ, 4/21/06, p.R8)

1748 In Denmark the Royal Theater was inaugurated.
(SFEC, 11/1/98, p.T3)

1748 Henri Francois d’Aguesseau, chancellor of France, granted an official license for the new Encyclopedie following a presentation by Denis Diderot.
(ON, 4/05, p.8)
1748 French police started a file on Voltaire (1694-1778).

1748 In Germany an oil painting by Elias Gottlob Haussmann showed bewigged composer Johann Sebastian Bach aged around 60 holding the score to one of his canons.
(AFP, 6/12/15)

1748 The city of Pompeii, buried in 79AD, was discovered.
(SFEC, 4/12/98, p.T3)

1748 Scottish economist David Hume wrote an essay setting out the first coherent theory of the links between money, inflation and growth.
(Econ, 9/13/14, p.84)

1748-1758 Santa Prisca church in Taxco, Mexico, was built by the wealthy miner Jose de la Borda. It has twin towers of pink stone and an adjacent tiled dome.
(SFEC, 11/10/96, p.T6)

1748-1813 Alexander Fraser Tytler. He wrote “The Decline and Fall of the Athenian Republic.” He stated that democracy collapses when voters begin selecting candidates who promise the most financial benefits.
(SFEC, 10/25/98, p.D6)

1748-1828 Henry Livingston, poet. He is alleged to have written “A Visit from St. Nicholas” better known as “The Night Before Christmas.” [see 12/23/1823]
(AH, 4/01, p.12)

1748-1979 In Chile the Cathedral of Santiago was built. The current structure replaced three earlier ones destroyed by fires or earthquakes.
(SFEC, 10/27/96, p.T8)

1749 Jan 16, Vittorio Alfieri (d.1803), Italian dramatist and tragic poet famous for Cleopatra and Parigi Shastigliata, was born. “Often the test of courage is not to die but to live.”
(HN, 1/16/99)

1749 Jan 19, Isaiah Thomas, US printer, editor, publisher, historian, was born.
(MC, 1/19/02)

1749 Feb 7, Andre Cardinal Destouches (76), composer, died.
(MC, 2/7/02)

1749 Feb 8, Jan van Huysum (66), Dutch still life painter, died.
(MC, 2/8/02)

1749 Feb 28, The 1st edition of “The History of Tom Jones: A foundling” was published. Henry Fielding (1707-1754) wrote the book and a film based on the novel was made in 1963. A TV production premiered in 1998.
(SFEM, 11/24/96, p.59)(SFC, 4/2/98, p.E1)(MC, 2/28/02)(ON, 9/03, p.9)

1749 Mar 23, Hugo Franz Karl Alexander von Kerpen, composer, was born.
(SS, 3/23/02)
1749 Mar 23, Pierre-Simon Laplace (d.1827), French mathematician, astronomer, physicist, was born.
(WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre-Simon_Laplace)

1749 Mar, Jean Godin, French geographer, left Quito, part of the Viceroyalty of Peru (later Ecuador), in an attempt to reach France to settle his family estate. He traveled by an eastern route across South America and became stranded in French Guiana for over 20 years. In 2004 Robert Whitaker authored “The Mapmaker’s Wife: A True Tale of Love, Murder, and Survival in the Amazon.” It was an account of Jean Godin (d.1792), French mapmaker, and his wife, Isabel Godin. They managed to reunite in 1770.
(Econ, 5/15/04, p.81)(ON, 5/05, p.4)

1749 May 19, George II granted a charter to the Ohio Company to settle Ohio Valley.
(DT internet 5/19/97)

1749 May 17, Edward Jenner, physician, discoverer of vaccination, was born.
(HN, 5/17/98)

1749 Jun 19, Jean-Marie Collot d’Herbois, French revolutionary (Committee of Public Safety), was born.
(MC, 6/19/02)

1749 Jul 20, Earl of Chesterfield said: “Idleness is only refuge of weak minds.”
(MC, 7/20/02)

1749 Jul 24, Denis Diderot was arrested in Paris during a government crackdown on writers and publishers of subversive books. He was released Nov 3 to continued his work on the Encyclopedie.
(ON, 4/05, p.8)

1749 Jun 25, Massachusetts residents were asked to fast due to a severe drought.
(SFC, 6/25/09, p.D8)

1749 Aug 28, German author Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (d.1832), “the master spirit of the German people,” was born at Frankfurt am Main. Scientist, philosopher, novelist, and critic as well as lyric, dramatic, and epic poet, he was the leading figure of his age after Napoleon. He had early pretensions in the visual arts and was an avid draftsman into old age. He is best known for “Faust.” : “True excellence is rarely found, even more rarely is it cherished.”
(V.D.-H.K.p.239)(AP, 8/28/97)(WSJ, 7/16/98, p.A16)(HN, 8/28/98) (AP, 9/4/98)

1749 Sep 10, Emilie du Chatelet (b.1706), writer and mathematician, died from an infection that followed a pregnancy. Her work included a translation of Newton’s Principia from Latin to French. She met Voltaire in 1733 and they soon began living together. In 1957 Nancy Mitford authored “Voltaire in Love.” In 2006 David Bodanis authored “Passionate Minds: The Great Enlightenment Love Affair” and Judith P. Zinsser authored “La Dame d’Esprit.”
(www.math.wichita.edu/history/women/chatelet.html)(WSJ, 12/9/06, p.P12)

1749 Oct 26, The Georgia Colony reversed itself and ruled slavery to be legal.
(MC, 10/26/01)

1749 Nov 2, The English Ohio Trade Company formed its 1st trade post.
(MC, 11/2/01)

1749 Nov 23, Edward Rutledge, (Gov-SC), attorney and signer of Declaration of Independence, was born.
(MC, 11/23/01)

1749 Nov 27, Balthasar Schmid (44), composer, died.
(MC, 11/27/01)
1749 Nov 27, Gottfried Heinrich Stolzel (59), composer, died.
(MC, 11/27/01)

1749 Giovanni Battista Piranesi began his painting “The Gothic Arch.’
(WSJ, 4/28/00, p.W8)

1749 King George commissioned Handel’s “Music for the Royal Fireworks” to highlight the end of the War of the Austrian Succession.
(WSJ, 6/25/97, p.A20)

1749 Rameau’s composition “Zoroastre,” a lyric tragedy, was first performed in Paris. It did not do well and the composer reworked it with his librettist, Louis de Cahusac, for a Les Arts performance in 1756.
(WSJ, 4/13/98, p.A20)

1749 Henry Fielding, novelist and magistrate, commissioned a half dozen constables known as the Bow Street Runners. The runners vanished in 1829 with the creation of the Metropolitan Police, who established their headquarters at Scotland Yard.
(SFC, 7/14/06, p.A2)

1749 Marie-Thérèse Geoffrin launched her weekly dinners and provided the Enlightenment Republic of Letters a ‘center of unity’. The Republic of Letters emerged in the 17th century as a self-proclaimed community of scholars and literary figures that stretched across national boundaries but respected differences in language and culture.

1749-1803 Vittorio Alfieri, Italian dramatist. “Often the test of courage is not to die but to live.”
(AP, 3/27/01)



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