410 St. Maroun, founder of the Maronite Christians, died in Cyrrhus region of Syria. The Maronite movement reached Lebanon when St Maroun’s first disciple Abraham of Cyrrhus, who was called the Apostle of Lebanon, realized that paganism was thriving in Lebanon, so he set out to convert the pagans to Christians by introducing them to the way of St Maroun.
411 Proclus (d.485), Greek mathematician and theologian, was born. [see 412]
(WUD, 1994 p.1147)(MC, 4/17/02)
412 Feb 8, St. Proclus, Patriarch of Constantinople, was born. [see 411]
413 Oct 10, Nicias, Athens politician (Peace of Nicias), killed at about age 57.
415 Archbishop Cyril of Alexandria sent a mob of religious police to stop Hypatia, an eccentric pagan ascetic and scholar. The mob kidnapped her, dragged her to a church, stripped and tortured her with broken shards of pottery. Her body parts were then butchered, put on public display and burnt to a crisp. In 2004 Jonathan Kirsch authored “God Against the Gods: The History of the War Between Monotheism and Polytheism.”
(SSFC, 3/21/04, p.M1)
418 Mar 10, Jews were excluded from public office in the Roman Empire.
418 Dec 27, Zosimus, Greek Pope (417-8), died.
419 Jul 2, Valentinian III, Roman emperor (425-55), was born.
420 Padua, Italy, was founded on the edge of the Adriatic.
421 Feb 8, Flavius Constantine became emperor Constantine III of Roman Empire West.
421 Mar 25, Venice was founded on a Friday at 12 PM.
421-438 King Bahram V ruled Persia.
422-432 The Bible and the works of the church fathers were translated into Armenian.
425 Feb 27, Theodosius effectively founded a university in Constantinople.
425-550 The independent Yaftalee ruled in Afghanistan.
426 Yax Kuk Mo founded Copan in what is now western Honduras.
(AM, May/Jun 97 suppl. p.A)
427 Dec, The Patriarch of Constantinople died.
427 The Nalanda Buddhist center of learning was established in Bihar state, India, and continued to 1197. It has been called one of the first great universities in recorded history.
(Econ, 9/4/10, p.46)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nalanda)
428 Apr 10, John Nestorius from Antioch was consecrated as the new Patriarch of Constantinople by Emperor Theodosius.
428 The Arsacid (Arshakuni) monarchy of Armenia ended and control fell under the rule of the Persian Sassanids.
429 Roman Africa was invaded by the Vandals, barbarians who had fought and conquered their way across Germany, France, Spain and across the Strait of Gibraltar.
(Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.168)
430 Aug 28, Augustine (b.354) died in Hippo (Annaba, Algeria) with a Vandal army outside the gates of the city. His writings included “The Confessions.” In 1999 Garry Wills authored the biography “St. Augustine.” Augustine had developed the theory of a “just war” and said a nations leaders must consider among other things, anticipated loss of civilian life and whether all peaceful options have been exhausted before war starts. In 2003 Garry Wills authored “Saint Augustine’s Sin.” In 2005 James J. ODonnell authored Augustine: A New Biography.” Augustine turned against the spirit of intellectual inquiry once he found salvation. His dogmatic invective laid the foundations for centuries of intellectual tyranny by the Catholic church. In 2015 Robin Lane Fox authored Augustine: Conversions and Confessions.”
(SSFC, 12/21/03, p.M6)(Econ, 5/14/05, p.86)(www.connect.net/ron/august.html)(Econ, 1/29/11, p.82)(Econ, 11/28/15, p.77)
431 The Council of Ephesus was held to deal with the heretics and heresies of the day such as Arianism and Apollinarianism. The council condemned Nestorianism, which taught that there were 2 person in Christ and that Mary was the mother of the human Christ but not of God. In 2009 Miri Rubin authored Mother of God: A History of the Virgin Mary.”
(Usenet, 3/4/97)(PTA, 1980, p.86)(Econ, 2/21/09, p.84)
431 The Assyrians and Chaldeans broke from what was to become the Roman Catholic Church over a theological dispute.
(WSJ, 3/12/00, p.A10)
431 A great Mayan dynasty arose at Palenque and soon began trading with communities hundreds of miles away.
(SSFC, 12/7/03, p.C10)
432 About this time St. Patrick was consecrated a bishop and returned to Ireland as missionary. He established Irelands first monasteries and Irish monks made it their mission to copy all literature, sacred and secular, while barbarism swept the continent. This period is covered in the 1995 book “How the Irish Saved Civilization” by Thomas Cahill.
(SFC, 3/17/97, p.A20)(WSJ, 11/5/99, p.W12)
432 Flavius Aetius was appointed commander-in-chief of all the armies of the Western Roman Empire.
(ON, 4/12, p.1)
434-453 Attila the Hun was known in western Europe as the “Scourge of God.” Attila was the king of the Huns from 434 to 453 and one of the greatest of the barbarian rulers to assail the Roman Empire.
435 John Nestorius was banished from his monastery in Antioch by Emperor Theodosius II.
435-808 In Mexico Yaxchilan on the bank of the Usumacinta was occupied at least over this period. King Mah Kina Skull III was one of the rulers during the construction of some 90 stone structures.
(AM, May/Jun 97 suppl. p.G)
437 Nov 30, A glyph in Copan [in later Honduras] records this date and mentions the 1st and 2nd rulers of the city-state.
(NG, 12/97, p.81)
438 Easter, In Ireland St. Patrick used the 3-leaf clover to illustrate the Trinity.
(SFEC, 3/15/98, p.D7)
438-457 The Persian King Yazdegird II ruled. He pressured the Armenians to accept Zoroastrianism and worship the supreme god Ahura Mazda. Mihr-Nerseh, the Persian grand vizier, promulgated an edict that enjoined the Armenians to convert.
439 Oct 9, Ancient city of Carthage was captured by Genseric the Vandal. [see Oct 19,24]
439 Oct 19, The Vandals, led by King Gaiseric, took Carthage and quickly conquered all the coastal lands of Algeria and Tunisia. Egypt and the Libyan coast remained in Roman hands. [see Oct 24]
(Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.168)(HN, 10/19/98)
439 Oct 24, Carthage, the leading Roman city in North Africa, fell to Genseric and the Vandals. [see Oct 19]
439 Oct 29, Vandals under Genseric occupied Carthage. [see Oct 24]
439 In Mauretania (now northern Morocco and Algeria) Roman rule ceased about this time when barbarian incursions forced the legions to withdraw.
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.)
440 Aug 19, Pope Sixtus III (432-440) died.
(PTA, 1980, p.88)
440-790 The Mayan city of Palenque flourished.
(AM, 5/01, p.49)
441 Bishop Patrick allegedly fasted for 40 days on a 2,500-foot peak later named Croagh Patrick in county Mayo. He allegedly banished snakes from Ireland during this time.
(SFCM, 10/14/01, p.23)
444 In Ireland St. Patrick selected the site for the Cathedral of Armagh. It later became Irelands ecclesiastical center and preceded the 360 churches that he established.
(SFEC, 3/15/98, p.D7)
449 The Armenians held a General Assembly to ponder the Persian edict that demanded conversion to Zoroastrianism. They chose to remain Christian and their leaders were summoned to Persia to answer to the king. The leaders opted to yield under heavy pressure but were renounced on their return home.
450 St. Benedict (d.547) was born in Norcia, Italy, about this time.
450 The Hun invasions of India began.
450 In Peru a tattooed Moche woman was entombed about this time, at a site later called El Brujo, with a sacrificed teenage slave and a collection of weapons and jewelry. In 2006 her mummy was discovered in a pyramid called Huaca Cao Viejo.
(SFC, 5/17/06, p.A2)
450-470 The Vakataka emperor Harisena, ruled over central India. He is recognized as bringing India’s Golden Age to its apogee. He oversaw the greatest building phase at the monasteries of Ajanta, where monks lived in rock-cut cells.
(LSA., pp. 10-16)
451 Apr 13, A Persian Army of 300,000 men under Mushkan Nusalavurd arrived at a place between her and Zarevand (now Khoy and Salmast in Iran) to face the Armenian forces.
451 May 26, The Battle of Avarair. Vardan Mamikonian, son of Sparapet (general) Hamazasp Mamikonian and Sahakanush, daughter of the Catholicos Sahak Bartev, led a force of 66,000 Armenians to face the Persians. Prior to battle Vardan read aloud the story of the Jewish Maccabees. Persian losses tripled the Armenian dead, but Mushkan won and Vardan was killed.
451 Apr 8, Attila’s Huns plundered Metz and continued moving south along the Moselle River.
(ON, 4/12, p.2)
451 Jun 20, Roman and Barbarian warriors halted Attilas army at the Catalaunian Plains (Catalarinische Fields) in eastern France. Attila the Hun was defeated by a combined Roman and Visigoth army. Theodoric I, the Visigothic king, was killed. The Huns moved south into Italy but were defeated again. Some sources date this on Sep 20. Attila and his brother Bleda jointly inherited the Hunnish Kingdom, headquartered in what later became Hungary. Attila later murdered Bleda to gain full control.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Catalaunian_Plains)(V.D.-H.K.p.88)(ON, 4/12, p.3)
451 Sep 20, Roman General Aetius defeated Attila the Hun at Chalons-sur-Marne (Battle of the Catalaunian Plains). Many sources date this on Jun 20.
451 Oct 8, Council of Chalcedon (4th ecumenical council) opened. The Council declared that the two natures of Christ, divine and human, were united without change, division or confusion in Christ. This led to the formation of the Coptic Monophysite Church which continued to hold that Jesus had but one divine nature. Copt comes from the Arabic word for Egyptian.
(CU, 6/87)(SFC, 3/31/97, p.A9)(MC, 10/8/01)
451 The Armenians were the first Christians to take up arms in defending their right to worship.
451 Clan leaders of Armenia united to defeat the Sassanians at Avarair.
(CO Enc. / Armenia)
451 John Nestorius, former Patriarch of Constantinople, died about this time. Prior to his death he wrote his book “Bazar of Heracleids.”
451-484 Vahan Mamikonian led the Armenians in a 33-year guerrilla war. The Persian Sassanids underwent 3 rulers and pressure from the Ephthalites, White Huns, and when King Peroz was killed by the White Huns, his successor, Balash, sued for peace. Vahan demanded and was granted religious freedom.
452 Feb 4, The Mayan city of Tikal has a monolith in hieroglyphics that reports an inferior conjunction of Venus”.
452 Jun 8, Italy was invaded by Attila the Hun.
452 Pope Leo I met Attila the Hun on the banks of the Mincio and Attila agreed to make peace and spare Rome.
(PTA, 1980, p.90)
452 Attila the Hun died.
454 Sep 21, In Italy, Aetius, the supreme army commander, was murdered in Ravenna by Valentinian III, the emperor of the West.
455 May 31, Petronius Maximus, senator, Emperor of Rome, was lynched.
455 Jul 9, Avitus, the Roman military commander in Gaul, became Emperor of the West.
455 Jun 16, Rome was sacked by the Vandal army. Gaiseric looted and burned Rome for 14 days. He took the looted treasure, which likely included the 70AD plunder from Jerusalem, by ship to the temple of Carthage.
(V.D.-H.K.p.88)(HN, 6/16/98)(SFC, 10/23/06, p.A15)
455 Genseric, at the invitation of Eudoxia, Valentinian’s widow, sailed to Italy, and took Rome without a blow. At the intercession of Leo the Great, he abstained from torturing or massacring the inhabitants and burning the city, but gave it up to systematic plunder. For 14 days and nights the work of pillage continued. Genseric then returned unmolested to Africa, carrying much booty and many thousand captives, including the empress Eudoxia and her two daughters. The elder became the wife of his son Hunneric; the younger, with her mother, was eventually surrendered to the emperor Leo.
457 Feb 7, A Thracian officer by the name of Leo was proclaimed as emperor of the East by the army general, Aspar, on the death of the Emperor Marcian.
457 A Monophysite was named patriarch of Alexandria.
(SFC, 3/31/97, p.A9)
461 Mar 17, According to tradition, St. Patrick (b.c389), the patron saint of Ireland, died in Saul, County Down. Some sources say he died in 493AD. He was an English missionary and bishop of Ireland. In 2004 Philip Freeman authored “St. Patrick: A Biography.”
(SFC, 3/15/97, p.A16)(WSJ, 3/12/04, p.W13)(AP, 3/17/08)
461 Nov 10, Leo I the Great, Pope (440-61), died.
468 Mar 3, St. Simplicius was elected to succeed Catholic Pope Hilarius.
470 Chinese philosopher Mozi (b.391) died about this time. Mohism or Moism was an ancient Chinese philosophy of logic, rational thought and science developed by the academic scholars who studied under Mozi and embodied in an eponymous book: the Mozi. Mozi taught that everyone is equal in the eyes of heaven. For those in power he believed that it should be based on meritocracy, or those who are worthy of power receive power.
472 Aug 18, Flavius Ricimer, general of the Western Roman Empire, kingmaker, was born.
473 An ancient king in Sri Lanka constructs an impenetrable fortress atop a giant rock that rises 200 yards above the plains. The site is called Sigiriya.
(WSJ, 8/3/95, p.A-8)
474 Jan 18, Leo I, Roman Byzantine Emperor (457-74), died. He was succeeded by his grandson Leo II.