c389 Mar 17, St. Patrick (d.461), the patron saint of Ireland, was born. Calpurnius, his father, was a deacon and local official who lost his son to Irish raiders when Patrick was 16. Patrick allegedly drove all the snakes (i.e. pagans) out of Ireland.
(HN, 3/17/99)(HNQ, 3/17/01)(WSJ, 3/12/04, p.W13)
c389-461 St. Patrick, an English missionary and bishop of Ireland. March 17 is celebrated in his honor. He was a Celt born in Romanized Britain and was kidnapped by Irish pirates at 16, sold into slavery, and served for 6 years as a shepherd until he escaped.
(SFC, 3/15/97, p.A16)(WUD, 1994, p.1057)(SFC, 3/17/97, p.A20)
390 Jul 16, Brennus and Gauls defeated the Romans at Allia.
392 May 15, Valentinianus II (21), emperor of Rome (375-392), was murdered.
392 Nov 8, Theodosius of Rome passed legislation prohibiting all pagan worship in the empire and declared Christianity the state religion.
(HN, 11/6/98)(MC, 11/8/01)
393 The ancient Olympic Games were held at intervals beginning in 776 BC until about 393 CE when they were abolished by Roman emperor Theodosius I after Greece lost its independence. The modern Olympic Games were started in 1896. [see 396CE]
394 Sep 6, Theodosius became sole ruler of Italy after defeating Eugenius at the Battle of the River Frigidus.
394 Sep 8, Arbogast, French general, committed suicide.
395 Jan 17, Emperor Theodosius I (49), the Great, Spanish head of Rome, died. Theodosius I wrote into his will that upon his death the eastern and western sections of the empire should be declared separate empires. His death in this year marks the split of the Roman and Byzantine Empire.
(ATC, p.24)(MC, 1/17/02)
396 The last Olympic Games were held under Emp. Theodosius I, who halted them due to increasing professionalism and corruption. [see 393CE] In 2004 Nigel Spivey authored The Ancient Olympics.”
(SFC, 7/14/96, p.T1)(WSJ, 8/13/04, p.W8)
397 Nov 8, Martin of Tours, [St Martin], bishop of Tours, died. [see Nov 11]
397 Nov 11, Martinus (81), (St Martin), Roman bishop of Tours, died. [see Nov 8]
397 In southeastern Turkey the Mor Gabriel monastery was founded by Syriac Christians. In 2009 it had just 3 monks and 14 nuns and faced the loss to the state of some 100 acres representing 60% of its core property.
(WSJ, 3/7/09, p.A8)
400 A stable form of ink was developed with iron-salts, nutgalls and gum.
(SFC, 7/26/04, p.F4)
400 The Barbarians, Hsiung-nu nomads, moved West. These “Huns” displaced the Goths and the Vandals, who moved west. The displaced Goths broke into two groups, one moving west into Gaul forcing the native Germanic peoples south, the other branch, called the Visigoths, headed south into Italy. The Vandals continues to move west, and turned south through Gaul and into Spain. They ravaged Spain and crossed into Africa and later recrossed the Mediterranean into Italy.
400 Afghanistan was invaded by the White Huns. They destroyed the Buddhist culture, and left most of the country in ruins.
400 About this time sage-prince Kambu of the Cambodian legends, who belonged to the Kamboja lineage, appears to have sailed from Indian subcontinent, probably from Saurashtra/Gujarat on the west coast of India and established a small Kamboja kingdom in Bassac around Vat-Ph’u hill in Mekong Basin. The first Khmer or king, know as Kambu, founded Kambujadesa, which means the Sons of Kambu or Kambuja for short.
(SFEC, 10/20/96, T5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kambu_Svayambhuva)
400 By this time the Chinese had developed rigid metal stirrups which gave the rider more security in the saddle.
400 In Ireland the Celtic ruler Niall of the Nine Hostages lived around this time.
(SFC, 7/14/97, p.E1)
400 About this time Kalidassa wrote the great Indian literature: “Kumaras Fight Against the Demon Taraka.”
400 About this time Nubia faded as a independent civilization.
(MT, 10/95, p.10-11)
400 About this time people from the chiefdom Dal Riata in northern Ireland crossed the Irish Sea and settled along the Scottish coast of County Argyll.
(AM, 7/01, p.46)
400-500 The Angles and Saxons crossed the North Sea to England bringing with them the 5 day week: Tiwsday – of the god Tiw; Wodensday – of the god Woden; Thorsday – of the god Thor; Frigsday – of the goddess Frig; and Seternesday – of the god Seterne. The Anglo-Saxons, a group of Germanic tribes, gradually invaded England by sea starting in the 5th century in the wake of the collapse of the Roman Empire.
(K.I.-365D, p.107)(AP, 9/24/09)
400-500 About this time Apicius, a Roman gourmand, authored De re coquinara” (concerning cookery). It is considered to be the first Western cookbook. The first printed edition came out in 1483.
(Econ, 12/20/08, p.140)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apicius)
400-500 The Quraysh tribe of west-central Arabia makes treaties with neighboring areas to ensure the safe passage of trade caravans through the desert around Mecca.
400-500 During this period the Jutes of Jutland, at the northern tip of the Danish peninsula, migrated to Britain as part of a Germanic invasion. The notion that they settled in what is now Kent and the Isle of Wight, as is recorded by Anglo-Saxon chronicler Bede the Venerable, has been confirmed by archaeological evidence.
400-500 A tomb in 1996 was found in the ruins of the Maya city of La Milpa in Belize near the Mexican border. It contained the skeleton of a man adorned with a pendant depicting the head of a vulture, signifying lord or ruler. Archeologist Norman Hammond speculated that it could be the burial place of the king known as Bird Jaguar, who lived around 450, or his successor.
(SFC, 6/23/96, p.A10)
400-500 Yax Kuk Mo (Blue-Green Quetzal Macaw) was the 5th century founder of Copan in Honduras, although the site was occupied from early preclassic to late classic times.
(AM, May/Jun 97 suppl. p.F)
400-500 In Ashkalon, Israel, bones from this period of some 100 infants were discovered in 1988 in the debris of a sewer adjacent to a bath house of this time.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.12)
400-500 The 63-volume, 2,711-page compendium of Jewish law was compiled in Mesopotamia during this time. In 1923 the custom, known as Daf Yomi,” Hebrew for daily page,” began, when Polish Rabbi Meir Shapiro conceived of the idea of reading the Talmud with the aim of uniting Jews globally in a daily regimen of Talmud study. It takes seven years and five months to finish at a rate of a single page per day.
400-500 The Aymara people lived on the shores of Lake Titicaca between Bolivia and Peru since the 5th century. Their ancient capital was Tiahuanaco. Their world is described in “Valley of the Spirits” (1996) by Alan L. Kolata.
(NH, 8/96, p.14)
400-500 St. Ursula, a legendary British princess, and her 11,000 martyr virgins were said to have been slaughtered by the Huns at Cologne in the 5th century.
(WUD, 1994, p.1573)(SFEC, 2/15/98, p.T8)
400-500 During this period the Indian philosopher Yashomitra made commentaries on Buddhism and described it as “awakened” (vibuddha) and “full-bloomed” or “perfected” (prabuddha).
400-500 In Japan two imperial tombs of this time in Miyazaki Prefecture, Kyushu, are held by legend to belong to Ninigi, grandson of the sun goddess Amaterasu and his wife.
(AM, Jul/Aug 97 p.12)
400-500 The leap year tradition of women proposing marriage to men began in 5th century Ireland.
(SFEC, 6/8/97, Z1 p.6)
400-600 The large Buddha at Bamiyan, Afghanistan, 170 feet tall, was constructed during this period. It was an enlargement of an Indian Buddha of the Gupta period.
(WSJ, 3/5/00, p.A22)
401 Apr 10, Theodosius II, the Younger, Eastern Roman emperor, was born.
401 Dec, St. Innocent, born in Albano, Italy, became pope. He was the pope nine years later when the Visigoths captured and sacked Rome.
402 Apr 6, Battle at Pollentia: Roman army under Stilicho beat the Visigoths.
402 The capital of the Roman empire was moved from Rome to Ravenna on the Adriatic.
404 Jan 1, The last known gladiatorial contest was held in Rome.
405 In Northern Ireland St. Patrick (16) was sold about this time as a slave by King Nialls men.
(WSJ, 3/15/02, p.W15)
405 The Armenian alphabet was invented.
406 Aug 23, At the Battle at Florence the Roman army under Stilicho beat the Barbarians under Radagaisus.
(PC, 1992, p.50)
406 Dec 31, Godagisel, king of the Vandals, died in battle as some 80,000 Vandals attacked over the Rhine at Mainz.
406 Some of the inscriptions from a stone monument from the Maya city of La Milpa have been deciphered to give this date.
(SFC, 6/23/96, p.A10)
407 Sep 14, Johannes Chrysostomus (b.c347), patriarch of Constantinople (398) and exiled in 404, died in Pontus (later northeast Turkey). He is generally considered the most prominent doctor of the Greek Church and the greatest preacher ever heard in a Christian pulpit.
408 May 1, Theodosius II succeeded to the throne of Constantinople.
408 Aug 22, Flavius Stilicho (48), West Roman field leader (395-408), died.
408-450 Theodosius II was emperor of Rome.
410 Aug 18, King Alaric I’s Visigoths occupied and plundered Rome. [see Aug 24]
(PC, 1992, p.50)
410 Aug 24, Rome was overrun by the Visigoths, an event that symbolized the fall of the Western Roman Empire. German barbarians sacked Rome [see Aug 18].
(V.D.-H.K.p.87)(AP, 8/24/97)(HN, 8/24/98)
410 Rome abandoned its British provinces.
(AM, 11/04, p.41)
410 Flavius Aetius, the son of a Roman general, was sent to live as a hostage of the Huns.
(ON, 4/12, p.1)
410 St. Maroun, founder of the Maronite Christians, died in Cyrrhus region of Syria. The Maronite movement reached Lebanon when St Maroun’s first disciple Abraham of Cyrrhus, who was called the Apostle of Lebanon, realized that paganism was thriving in Lebanon, so he set out to convert the pagans to Christians by introducing them to the way of St Maroun.
411 Proclus (d.485), Greek mathematician and theologian, was born. [see 412]
(WUD, 1994 p.1147)(MC, 4/17/02)
412 Feb 8, St. Proclus, Patriarch of Constantinople, was born. [see 411]
413 Oct 10, Nicias, Athens politician (Peace of Nicias), killed at about age 57.
415 Archbishop Cyril of Alexandria sent a mob of religious police to stop Hypatia, an eccentric pagan ascetic and scholar. The mob kidnapped her, dragged her to a church, stripped and tortured her with broken shards of pottery. Her body parts were then butchered, put on public display and burnt to a crisp. In 2004 Jonathan Kirsch authored “God Against the Gods: The History of the War Between Monotheism and Polytheism.”
(SSFC, 3/21/04, p.M1)
418 Mar 10, Jews were excluded from public office in the Roman Empire.
418 Dec 27, Zosimus, Greek Pope (417-8), died.
419 Jul 2, Valentinian III, Roman emperor (425-55), was born.
420 Padua, Italy, was founded on the edge of the Adriatic.
421 Feb 8, Flavius Constantine became emperor Constantine III of Roman Empire West.
421 Mar 25, Venice was founded on a Friday at 12 PM.
421-438 King Bahram V ruled Persia.
422-432 The Bible and the works of the church fathers were translated into Armenian.
425 Feb 27, Theodosius effectively founded a university in Constantinople.
425-550 The independent Yaftalee ruled in Afghanistan.
426 Yax Kuk Mo founded Copan in what is now western Honduras.
(AM, May/Jun 97 suppl. p.A)
427 Dec, The Patriarch of Constantinople died.
427 The Nalanda Buddhist center of learning was established in Bihar state, India, and continued to 1197. It has been called one of the first great universities in recorded history.
(Econ, 9/4/10, p.46)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nalanda)
428 Apr 10, John Nestorius from Antioch was consecrated as the new Patriarch of Constantinople by Emperor Theodosius.
428 The Arsacid (Arshakuni) monarchy of Armenia ended and control fell under the rule of the Persian Sassanids.
429 Roman Africa was invaded by the Vandals, barbarians who had fought and conquered their way across Germany, France, Spain and across the Strait of Gibraltar.
(Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.168)
430 Aug 28, Augustine (b.354) died in Hippo (Annaba, Algeria) with a Vandal army outside the gates of the city. His writings included “The Confessions.” In 1999 Garry Wills authored the biography “St. Augustine.” Augustine had developed the theory of a “just war” and said a nations leaders must consider among other things, anticipated loss of civilian life and whether all peaceful options have been exhausted before war starts. In 2003 Garry Wills authored “Saint Augustine’s Sin.” In 2005 James J. ODonnell authored Augustine: A New Biography.” Augustine turned against the spirit of intellectual inquiry once he found salvation. His dogmatic invective laid the foundations for centuries of intellectual tyranny by the Catholic church. In 2015 Robin Lane Fox authored Augustine: Conversions and Confessions.”
(SSFC, 12/21/03, p.M6)(Econ, 5/14/05, p.86)(www.connect.net/ron/august.html)(Econ, 1/29/11, p.82)(Econ, 11/28/15, p.77)