Timeline 1CE -299CE

1CE Dec 25, The celebrated birth of Christ in Bethlehem. The birth of Jesus is celebrated on Dec. 25th because the Romans needed to replace the pagan holiday called the Feast of the Unconquered Sun. In Ethiopia Jan 7 is the day that Christmas is celebrated. According to the gospel of Matthew, Joseph soon fled with his family to Egypt following a decree by Herod that ordered all boys of Bethlehem under age 2 to be put to death. The gospels of Luke and Matthew are inconsistent on historical facts. Christ’s birth on this day was officially set by the Roman Church in 336AD. [see 6-2BCE]
(SFC, 12/4/94, p. S-4)(SFC, 8/2/99, p.A10)(Econ, 1/1/05, p.38)
1CE The three wise men that reportedly visited the baby Jesus were said to be from Arabia and Nubia, Godolia and Tarsus.
(Econ, 12/20/14, p.30)

1CE As long as 2,000 years ago, a Native Indian People later known as the Cherokee, lived in the area of the Southern Appalachians who had probably split from the Iroquois about this time.
(NG, 5/95, p.78)

c1CE Stone forts were built on the 3 Aran islands: Inishmore, Inishmaan, and Isisheer, whose total area was 18 sq. miles. The islands are on the west coast of Ireland at the mouth of Galway Bay.
(SFEC, 1/23/00, T8,9)

c1CE The 2000 year-old city of Dujiangyan, perched on the hills where the River Min leaves the Tibetan highlands for the Sichuan plain, was founded.
(SFC,12/26/97, p.A18)

c1CE In Laos stone jars at the Plain of Jars that measured on average 10-feet high and 9-feet wide are believed to be 2,000 years old and to have been used for burials. Only 300 jars are intact due to the bombing during the 1960s Vietnam War.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.E)

c1CE The Mayan city of La Milpa was founded.
(SFC, 6/23/96, p.A10)

c1CE Ceramic cups are found in Karanog graves of Nubia that depict a herdsman with his dog and cattle, a face with scarification patterns on the forehead, and eye-motifs.
(MT, 10/95, p.10-11)

c1CE Nazca, Peru. The Owl Man was dug out of a dry hillside with one arm pointing to the sky and the other to earth.
(NG, March 1990, J.B. Carlson, p.76)

c1-30 The life of Jesus Christ. In 1998 “The Acts of Jesus — What Did Jesus Really Do? The Search for the Authentic Jesus” was published with translation and commentary by Robert W. Funk, director of the Westar Institute and The Jesus Seminar. In 2001 Philip Jenkins authored “Hidden Gospels: How the Search for Jesus Lost Its Way,” in which he examines the motives and methodologies of radical biblical scholars.
(SFEM, 4/19/98, p.6)(WSJ, 4/30/01, p.A16)

1CE-50CE Scribonius Largus, Roman court physician to emperor Claudius, lived about this time. He prescribed the shock of an electric eel for headaches.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scribonius_Largus)(Econ., 3/7/15, p.16)

1-100CE The first century CE Villa dei Papiri by the Bay of Naples was used as a model for the J. Paul Getty Museum of the 20th cent. on the Pacific Coast Highway of California.
(Hem., Nov. ’95, p.78)

c1-100CE Steam engines–machines harnessing the heat energy of hot steam to perform work–date to the steam turbine invented by Hero of Alexandria in the 1st century CE called the aeolipile. However, the aeolipile was regarded as a curiosity demonstrating a mechanical principle and was not developed into a practical engine.
(HNQ, 1/18/01)

1-100CE A Teutonic tribe known as the Frisians (or Friesians) settled in what is now the Netherlands in the first century A.D.
(HNQ, 3/5/00)

c1-100CE Hungary was the Roman province of Pannonia and Pecs was the capital.
(Hem., 6/98, p.128)

1-100CE Christianity came to Illyrian populated areas.
(www, Albania, 1998)

1-100CE The first century Greek physician, Dioscorides, recommended the use of orchid tubers as an aphrodisiac.
(NH, 4/97, p.77)

1-100CE The 1st century Roman gourmet, Marcus Gavius Apicius, was thought to be the writer of the earliest known cookbook.
(SFEC, 4/16/00, Z1 p.2)

1-100CE Quintus Curtius Rufus, Roman historian, wrote a Latin test on the History of Alexander the Great. It was translated into French in the 15th century.
(SFEC, 1/26/97 BR, p.7)

1-100CE The Greek city of Berenice on the coast of Libya was acquired by the Romans. The site later became a suburb of Benghazi and was studied by British archeologist John Lloyd (d.1999) in the 1970s.
(SFC, 6/15/99, p.C6)

1-300CE Kushan Empire. The Kushan nomads, pushed west by Huns, united with the Scythian nomads 130 years before Christ and raged across the Central Asian steppes. When they crossed the Amu Darya (the Oxus river to Alexander the Great) they laid waste the Greco-Bactrian lands. They later rebuilt the cities they had sacked and created the great Kushan Empire on their own debris.
(NG, March 1990, p.63)

1-600CE In Thailand the Non Muang Kao was a moated settlement of this time.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.G)

c1-1250CE The cliff-dwelling Anasazi flourished in the Four corners area of the American Southwest.
(NH, 5/96, p.8)

c1-1500 Paintings were made on rock surfaces in the central mountain ranges of the Baha Peninsula by unknown native Indians. In 1997 Harry W. Crosby published “Cave Paintings of Baha California.”
(WSJ, 3/5/98, p.A20)

2CE Feb 17, Jupiter again appeared to pass very close to the star Regulus, “the King’s Star.”
(SSFC, 12/23/01, Par p.9)

2CE May 8, Jupiter appeared to pass very close to the star Regulus, “the King’s Star” for a 3rd time in recent months.
(SSFC, 12/23/01, Par p.9)

2CE Jun 17, Jupiter and Venus drew close together and appeared to fuse as a single star. This was later thought to be the Biblical star of Bethlehem.
(SSFC, 12/23/01, Par p.9)

2CE A Chinese census counted 57,671,400 people.
(NG, Feb, 04, p.12)

2-8CE Ovid wrote the “Metamorphosis.” It was an epic poem that begins with the creation of the world and ends with the rise of Julius Caesar. Rolfe Humphries made a translation in 1955 that became a standard. A 1997 translation by Ted Hughes, “Tales From Ovid,” retold 24 of the original 250 stories.
(WSJ, 1/9/98, p.A14)

3CE Feb 19, Sadiq Hidajat, Persian writer (Blind Person Owl), was born.
(MC, 2/19/02)

3CE Aug 12, Venus-Jupiter were in conjunction: alleged “Star of Bethlehem.” [see Feb 17, May 8, Jun 17, 2CE]
(MC, 8/12/02)

3-427CE The Korean Kokuryo Dynasty rules over Manchuria. Its second capital is said to have been Jiban. A contemporary Chinese guidebook claims that Jiban at this time was controlled by China’s Western Han Dynasty.
(WSJ, 10/9/95, p.A-8)

4CE Gaius Caesar (24), the nephew and adopted heir of Caesar Augustus, died.
(WSJ, 6/23/07, p.P16)
4CE Tiberius (42BC-37CE) was chosen by Augustus as emperor of Rome. He later banished the young Nero to the island of Ponza.
(V.D.-H.K.p.77)(SFEC, 11/8/98, p.T12)

c4CE Romans terraced the steep slopes of the Mosel River for the cultivation of grapes.
(SFEC, 4/30/00, p.T8)

6CE The Romans named Caesarea as a regional capital.
(SFC, 6/18/02, p.A2)

6CE Sulpicius Quirinius (Cyrenius), Roman governor of Syria, ordered a 2nd census of Judea.
(Econ, 1/1/05, p.38)(www.biblehistory.net/volume2/Quirinius.htm)

9CE Jan, Wang Mang seized the throne from the Liu family and founded the Xin (or Hsin, meaning “new”) Dynasty.

9CE Sep 9, Publius Quinctilius Varus (59), Roman governor of Germania (6-9CE), died of likely suicide following defeat at the Battle of Teutoburg Forest. Arminius, aka Hermann the German, had stopped a Roman advance eastward across the Rhine at the battle of Teutoburg, setting a limit on the Roman border.
(http://www.fact-index.com/p/pu/publius_quinctilius_varus.html)(Econ, 8/7/10, p.86)

9CE Emperor Tiberius of Rome subjugated the Illyrians and divided present day Albania between Dalmatia, Epirus, and Macedonia.
(www, Albania, 1998)

10CE Hillel the Elder, Jewish religious leader, died in Jerusalem. He is associated with the development of the Mishnah and the Talmud. “That which is hateful to you, do not do to your fellow. That is the whole Torah; the rest is the explanation; go and learn.”

12CE-41CE Caligula (little boots, a nickname by the soldiers), Gaius Caesar. He was chosen by Tiberius as successor.

13CE Nov 16, Tiberius made his triumphant procession through Rome after siege of Germany.
(MC, 11/16/01)

14CE Aug 14, Emperor Caesar Augustus (b.63BC) died. His rule passed to Tiberius. Augustus was the founder of the Roman Principate and considered the first Emperor, controlling the Roman Empire from 27 BC until his death. Augustus in order to ensure the loyalty of his soldiers, offered a pension for those in the army who had served for 16 years (later 20), equivalent in cash or land to 12 times their annual salary.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augustus)(V.D.-H.K.p.77)(Econ, 9/24/16, p.25)

15CE May 24, Julius Caesar Germanicus, Roman commandant, was born.
(MC, 5/24/02)

17CE Jan 2, Publius Ovidius Naso, Roman poet, died.
(MC, 1/2/02)

17CE May 26, Germanicus of Rome celebrated a victory over the Germans.
(HN, 5/26/98)

19CE Oct 10, Julius Caesar Germanicus (33), Roman commandant of Rijnleger and the best loved of Roman princes, died of poisoning. On his deathbed he accused Piso, the governor of Syria, of poisoning him.
(HN, 10/10/98)(MC, 10/10/01)

22CE Sulpicius Quirinius (Cyrenius), Roman soldier and civilian governor of Syria, died.
(Econ, 1/1/05, p.38)(www.biblehistory.net/volume2/Quirinius.htm)

23 Oct 26, Wang Mang (b.~45BC), emperor of the Western Han Dynasty, died. His rule marks the separation between the Western Han Dynasty (before Xin) and Eastern Han Dynasty (after Xin). Chinese rebels known as Red Eyebrows entered Changan and beheaded Emp. Wang Mang. Liu Xiu (Guang Wu Di), a 9th generation descendant of Emp. Liu Bang, proclaimed himself emperor and led his followers to Luoyang to begin the Eastern Han rule.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wang_Mang)(NG, Feb, 04, p.21)

23CE Tiberius lost his son Drusus, and from then on seems to have lost interest in the Empire and occupied himself with pleasure.

23-24 Strabo (b.~63-64BC), Greek geographer and historian, died about this time. He had traveled to Egypt and Kush, met members of the Noba tribe, and decided to call their country Nubia. Strabo is mostly famous for his 17-volume work Geographica, which presented a descriptive history of people and places from different regions of the world known to his era.
(Arch, 9/02, p.55)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strabo)

23-79CE Pliny the Elder, Gaius Plinius Secundus, Roman naturalist, encyclopedist and writer. He died in the eruption of Vesuvius. [see 79CE] He wrote the classic 37-volume “Natural History.” “Among these things but one thing seems certain — that nothing certain exists, and that nothing is more pitiable or more presumptuous than man.”
(WUD, 1994, p.1106)(SFC, 9/1/97, p.A2)(AP, 11/5/98)

25CE Aug 5, Emperor Guangwu (5BC-57CE), became emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty. He was born as Liu Xiu and became founder of the Later Han or Eastern Han (the restored Han Dynasty). He ruled over parts of China at first, and through suppression and conquest of regional warlords, the whole of China was consolidated by the time of his death. His government used rumors as a barometer of public sentiment. In 2011 Lu Zongli authored “Rumors in the Han Dynasty.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emperor_Guangwu_of_Han)(Econ, 3/17/12, p.56)

25-220CE The Eastern Han Dynasty received embassies from Persia who brought lions to the court as tribute. From this originated the Lion Dancing which represents purity and protection to the Chinese. The dances are preformed on special occasions and on the Chinese New year.
(Hem. 1/95, p. 123)(WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)

27-37CE Tiberius moved to the isle of Capri and never returned to Rome.
(V.D.-H.K.p.77)(SFEM, 10/11/98, p.54)

28CE Jan 28, The Roman Emperor Nerva named Trajan, an army general, as his successor.
(HN, 1/28/99)

c29-30CE Aug 28, John the Baptist was beheaded by King Herod, perhaps at whim of Salome.
(HFA, ’96, p.36)(MC, 8/28/01)

30 From about 30 to 64/67 Peter served as the first pope. By 2003 he was still noted as the longest-serving, for a total of 34 or 37 years.
(AP, 10/16/03)

30 Apr 30, Jesus of Nazareth was crucified [see 33AD]. Christ died on hill of Golgotha, Jerusalem. His path along the Via Dolorosa was later disputed as to whether he was tried by Pontius Pilate at the palace of Herod or at the Roman fortress of Antonia. His death was at an abandoned quarry, the site of today’s Church of the Holy Sepulchre. In 1998 Robert Funk and the Jesus Seminar published “The Acts of Jesus: The Search for the Authentic Deeds of Jesus.” The group had published an earlier work “The Five Gospels,” in which the sayings of Jesus were examined. In 1999 Thomas Cahill authored “Desire of the Everlasting Hills,” a book about Jesus and his effect on the world. In 2010 Paul Johnson authored “Jesus: A Biography From a Believer.” Also in 2010 Philip Pullman authored “The Good Man Jesus and the Scoundrel Christ,” in which he proposes that Jesus and Christ were twin brothers.
(SFC, 3/27/97, p.C2)(SFEC, 4/12/98, BR p.8)(HN, 4/30/98)(WSJ, 11/5/99, p.W12)(Econ, 4/3/10, p.85)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chronology_of_Jesus)
30 When the Roman governor of Palestine was confronted by an angry Jewish crowd demanding the execution of the leader of a small, radical religious movement, like Socrates, he cross-examined him. When he asked him if he was a king, the man replied, “To this end I was born, and for this cause I came into the world, to bear witness to the truth. Everyone that belongs to the truth will hear me.” The governor, being a Roman, answered as any educated Roman would. For Pontius Pilate had been raised on the Greek and Roman skeptical traditions that denied that there was anything like certain truth, only probable knowledge. So, as any other Roman would have done, he asked the question, “What is truth?,” but received no answer. In 2000 Ann Wroe authored the historical novel “Pontius Pilate.”
(WWW, WC, 8/15/98)(SFEC, 5/21/00, Par p.19)

30CE Queen Helena, a Mesopotamian monarch, converted to Judaism about this time. Helena of Adiabene (d.~50-56 CE) was a queen of Adiabene (modern-day Erbil, Iraqi Kurdistan), an ancient kingdom in Assyria, and Edessa (modern-day Urfa, Turkey) and the wife of Monobaz I, her brother, and Abgarus V. With her husband, Monobaz I, she was the mother of Izates II and Monobaz II. The names of some of her family members and the fact that she was married to her brother indicate an Iranian, Zoroastrian or Magian origin.

30-33 Dismas was the repentant thief crucified with Christ.
(WSJ, 11/2/98, p.B1)

c30-33 Lazarus lived in Cyprus as a bishop after the miracle by Christ.
(NH, 4/97, p.62)

c30-33 Easter [in commemoration of the resurrection of Christ] is generally observed on the Sunday following the first full moon of spring. In 1215 the 4th Lateran Council announced that “Christ descended into Hell, rose again from the dead, and ascended into Heaven. But he descended in soul, rose again in the flesh, and ascended equally in both.”
(PacDis, Spring/’94, p. 40)(WSJ, 4/18/03, p.W13)

~30-33 St. John wrote the “Book of Revelations” and the “Apocalypse” on the Greek island of Patmos.
(WSJ, 11/10/95, p. A-6)

~30-33 In the midst of political persecution the early Christians sold their possessions and began taking their meals together, but they kept their houses. In 1998 Andrew Harvey published “The Teachings of the Christian Mystics,” selections the gospel of Thomas to Thomas Merton.
(WSJ, 11/26/97, p.A12)(SFEC, 4/12/98, BR p.8)

30-40 The decade following the execution of Jesus. In 1998 John Dominic Crossan published “The Birth of Christianity: Discovering What Happened in the Years Immediately After the Execution of Jesus.”
(SFEC, 4/12/98, BR p.8)

31CE Mar 25, The 1st Easter, according to calendar-maker Dionysius Exiguus (470-540).
(MC, 3/25/02)(www.nndb.com/people/741/000104429/)

31 Sep 18, Sejanus, Roman head of praetorian guard, was executed.
(MC, 9/18/01)

33 Apr 3, Christ was crucified (according to astronomers Humphreys and Waddington). The date is highly debated. See April 30, 30AD.
(Econ, 4/23/11, p.64)

33-34CE Road builders linking Roman legionary camps during the reign of Tiberius left inscriptions in the rock in the Lepenski Vir region on the Danube near the Iron Gates gorges.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.25)

36CE Ancient Chinese records recorded an August meteor shower that was later assumed to be the Perseids. The meteorites originated when the Swift-Tuttle comet passed so close to the sun that its ice head melted and left a stream of pea-sized particles.
(SFC, 8/11/99, p.A2)

37CE Feb 15, Claudius Drusus Germanicus Caesar Nero (d.68CE), emperor of Rome (54-68), was born. [see Dec 15]
(MC, 2/15/02)

37 Mar 16, Tiberius Claudius Nero (78), Roman emperor (14-37), died on a trip to the Italian mainland from his home on Capreae. He was succeeded by Caligula.
(PCh, 1992, p.36)(HN, 3/16/99)(AP, 3/15/07)

37CE Mar 18, The Roman Senate annulled Tiberius’ will and proclaimed Caligula emperor.
(HN, 3/18/99)

37CE Dec 15, Nero Claudius Caesar, emperor of Rome who is blamed for the great fire of Rome, was born. Nero (Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus) was born (d. 68CE). [see Feb 15]
(WUD, 1994, p.959)(HN, 12/15/98)

37CE Caligula succeeded Tiberius and went mad within a year. His cruelty was so bad that he was murdered by the tribune of the palace guard after 4 years. He imprisoned his nieces on the island of Ponza for converting to Christianity.
(V.D.-H.K.p.78)(SFEC, 11/8/98, p.T12)

37 Some 20,000 pieces of jewelry and other objects were buried about this time with a warrior-prince and 5 women in northern Afghanistan. In 1978-79 a team led by Russian archeologist Viktor Sarianidi discovered their 6 sealed tombs at a site called Tillya Tepe (hill of gold). The findings became known as the “Golden Hoard of Bactria.”
(WSJ, 11/19/08, p.D7)

37-41 Caligula ruled Rome. He had 2 large ships built and anchored for his pleasure on Lake Nemi.
(AM, 5/01, p.26)

37-100?CE Flavius Josephus, original name Joseph Ben Matthias, Jewish historian and general.
(AHD, 1971, p.707)

38 According to tradition, St. Andrew founded the See of Byzantium (Constantinople) installing Stachys as bishop. Andrew is said to have been later martyred by crucifixion at the city of Patras (Patræ) in Achaea, on the northern coast of the Peloponnese.

39CE Nov 3, Lucan, Latin poet (Bellum Civile), was born in Cordova, Spain.
(MC, 11/3/01)

39CE Dec 30, Titus, 10th Roman emperor (79-81) and conqueror of Jerusalem, was born.
(MC, 12/30/01)

40CE Jun 13, Gnaeus Julius Agricola, Roman general and governor of Britain, was born. [WUD says 37-93CE]
(WUD, 1994, p.29)

c40CE Saul of Tarsus, while on the road to Damascus, experienced a profound conversion to Christianity. He became known as St. Paul. In 1997 A.N. Wilson wrote “Paul: The Mind of the Apostle.” Wilson argued that Paul was the real founder of the Church of Jesus. Paul was a student of the Jewish scholar Raban Gamliel.
(CU, 6/87)(SFC, 3/28/97, p.C11)(Internet)

40CE Mauretania was divided into the provinces of Tingitana and Caesariensis.
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.22)

40CE-60CE The Pont du Gard was built to carry an aqueduct serving Nimes, France. The 160-foot high structure is 900 feet long with 3 tiers of stone arches.

40CE St. Ignatius Theorphorus (d.107), Apostolic Father was, born. He later served as the bishop of Antioch.
(WUD, 1994 p.708)

41CE Jan 24, Shortly after declaring himself a god, Gaius Caligula Germanicus, emperor from 37-41, was assassinated by two Praetorian tribunes.
(HN, 1/24/99)(MC, 1/24/02)

43CE The Romans under Claudius, the great nephew of Caesar, invaded and conquered Britain. They founded a settlement on the “Tamesis River” where a bridge could be built that grew to become London.
(SFEC, 6/22/97, BR p.3)(ON, 6/09, p.7)

43CE The Briton Caratacus, also known as Caradoc and chief of the Catuvellauni, mounted a guerrilla uprising against the Romans. His uprising ultimately failed after he was betrayed by the Brigantian queen, Cartimandua. He was taken to Rome where he was later pardoned by Claudius.
(HNQ, 9/23/00)

43CE The Romans brought with them the board game latrunculi (little soldiers), when they conquered Britain.
(Arch, 1/05, p.39)

44CE In Syria the funeral Tower of Ketout was built in Palmyra. It became famed for vivid scenes etched into its walls. In 2015 it was one of three funeral towers blown up by Islamic State militants.
(AFP, 9/4/15)

45CE The Apostle Paul is said to have preached the gospel in Cyprus at this time and converted the island’s Roman governor Sergius Paulus, the first Roman official to undergo conversion.
(AP, 9/30/11)
45CE Greek sailors discovered the monsoon winds and were able to sail from the Horn of Africa to Kerala, India in 40 days. This shifted the spice trade from north Indian ports to Muziris which called the “first commercial center of India.”
(NG, 5/88, p.609)