Timeline 17th Century: 1626-1660 – 2

1654 Jan 10, Russia’s Czar Alexander announced a war against Lithuania and Poland. It lasted to 1667.
(LHC, 1/9/03)

1654 Apr 12, England, Ireland and Scotland united.
(MC, 4/12/02)

1654 Apr 26, Jews were expelled from Brazil.
(MC, 4/26/02)

1654 May 3, A bridge in Rowley, Mass., was permitted to charge a toll for animals, while people crossed for free.
(AP, 5/3/97)

1654 Jun 6, Queen Christina of Sweden resigned and converted to Catholicism.
(MC, 6/6/02)

1654 Jun 7, Louis XIV was crowned King of France in Rheims.
(AP, 6/7/97)(HN, 6/7/98)

1654 Aug 22, Jacob Barsimson, the 1st Jewish immigrant to US, arrived in New Amsterdam.
(MC, 8/22/02)

1654 Sep 8, Peter Claver, Spanish saint (baptized 300,000 slaves), died.
(MC, 9/8/01)

1654 Oct 12, Carel Fabritius (b.1622), Dutch painter, died in a gunpowder explosion in Delft. He was one of Rembrandt’s most gifted pupils.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carel_Fabritius)(WSJ, 7/20/01, p.W11)(Econ, 10/26/13, p.93)

1654 Nov 21, Richard Johnson, a free black, was granted 550 acres in Virginia.
(MC, 11/21/01)

1654 Nov 23, Blaise Pascal (1623-1662), scientist and philosopher, underwent a mystical experience. He entered a hermitage at Port-Royal des Champs and never again published in his own name. He came up with the idea that believing in God is safer than not believing because it might gain one eternal life. He was a Jansenist, and thereby rejected free will in favor of predestination. Pascal and Fermat devised the laws of probability by trying to determine who 2 players should share the stakes when they leave a game of chance uncompleted.
(SFC, 9/22/96, Par. p.21)(WSJ, 10/15/98, p.A20)

1654 Jacob van Loo painted “An Allegory of Venus and Cupid as Lady World and Homo Bulla.” It hangs in the Speed Museum of Louisville, Ky.
(WSJ, 12/18/97, p.A20)
1654 Rembrandt van Rijn painted a portrait of poet-businessman Jan Six, one of the richest Amsterdammers of his time. His work this year also included “A Woman Bathing in a Stream” and “Flora.” His work this year also included the etching and drypoint “The Descent From the Cross by Torchlight.”
(WSJ, 6/19/00, p.A42)(WSJ, 3/904, p.D8)(SFC, 1/28/06, p.E4)(Econ, 6/23/07, p.96)

1654 Roger Williams (1603-1683) was elected as the 9th president of President of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
(ON, 2/12, p.8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_Williams_%28theologian%29)

c1654 Samuel Stockhausen, a physician in Goslar in the Harz Mountains of Germany, identified the ailment of Huttenkatze as stemming from lead poisoning in the local mining towns. This find later made possible Gockel’s discovery of the cause of colica Pictonum.
(NH, 7/96, p.51)

1654 The earliest circular coin bearing the inscription “rouble” on it in Russia was struck by Czar Alexiei Mikhailovitch.
(VilNews, 12/17/10)

1654-1656 Rembrandt van Rijn painted a medallion portrait of Muhammed Adil Shah of Bijapur.
(SFEM, 2/1/98, p.16)(SFC, 2/7/98, p.E8)

1654-1705 Jacob Bernouilli, Swiss mathematician and physicist. The Bernouilli effect is named after him.
(WUD, 1994, p.141)

1655 Mar 25, Puritans jailed Governor Stone after a military victory over Catholic forces in the colony of Maryland.
(HN, 3/25/99)
1655 Mar 25, Christiaan Huygens, Dutch inventor and astronomer, discovered Titan, Saturn’s largest satellite.

1655 Apr 4, Battle at Postage Farina, Tunis: English fleet licked Barbarian pirates.
(MC, 4/4/02)

1655 Apr 26, Dutch West Indies Co. denied Peter Stuyvesant’s desire to exclude Jews from New Amsterdam.
(MC, 4/26/02)

1655 Apr 28, English admiral Blake beat a Tunisian pirate fleet.
(MC, 4/28/02)

1655 May 10, Jamaica was captured by English.
(MC, 5/10/02)

1655 Jul 28, French dramatist and novelist Cyrano de Bergerac, the inspiration for a play by Edmond Rostand, died in Paris.
(AP, 7/28/05)

1655 Aug 8, Eastern Lithuania was occupied by Russian and Cossack forces. Western Lithuania was occupied by Swedish forces. Following three days of pillaging Vilnius was burned in a fire the lasted 17 days.

1655 Aug 13, Johann Christoph Denner, inventor of the clarinet, was born.
(HN, 8/13/00)

1655 Aug 28, New Amsterdam & Peter Stuyvesant barred Jews from military service.
(MC, 8/28/01)

1655 Aug 29, Swedish king Karel X Gustaaf occupied Warsaw.
(MC, 8/29/01)

1655 Sep 26, Peter Stuyvesant recaptured Dutch Ft. Casimir from Swedish in Delaware.
(MC, 9/26/01)

1655 Oct 15, Jews of Lublin, Poland, were massacred.
(MC, 10/15/01)

1655 Nov 24, English Lord Protector Cromwell banned Anglicans.
(MC, 11/24/01)

c1655 Esteban Murillo (1617-1682), Spanish artist, painted a self-portrait. Some of his mid-century work in Seville portrayed the effects of the Plague that killed 50% of the population in 4 months. [see 1649]
(WSJ, 4/9/02, p.D19)

1655 Rembrandt van Rijn painted “Polish Rider.”
(WSJ, 12/5/96, p.A16)

1655 Vermeer painted his Saint Praxedis. [see Vermeer, 1632-1675]
(WSJ, 11/15/95, p.A-20)

1655 In Bologna Domenico Cassini persuaded the builders of the Basilica of San Petronio that they should include a major upgrade of Danti’s old meridian with a new entry hole for daylight to track the projected sun on the cathedral floor. Sassini was able to use the observatory to confirm Kepler’s version of the Copernican theory.
(SFC, 10/25/99, p.A4)

1655 In Paris the church of St. Medard was built. Medard was a 6th century counselor to the Merovingian kings who bestowed wreaths of roses upon virtuous maidens.
(SSFC, 7/28/02, p.C1)

c1655 Archbishop James Usher of Dublin, Ireland, developed a timetable that set the creation of the world to 4004BC, and Noah’s landing on Mt. Ararat in 2348BC.
(NG, Nov. 1985, edit. p.559)

1655 The first slave auction was held in New Amsterdam (later NYC).
(SFC, 10/19/98, p.D3)

1655 Peter Stuyvesant launched an offensive against Swedish soldiers who had seized control of the fur trade along the Delaware. In his absence Indians attacked New Amsterdam and took dozens of hostages.
(ON, 4/00, p.2)

1655 The three Cayman Islands came under British control when Oliver Cromwell’s army captured nearby Jamaica from the Spanish.
(AP, 5/10/03)

1655 By this time a house had been built on Ghana’s cape, and over the coming years it was enlarged using slave labor into Carolusburg Fort, named after the then Swedish king. This fort was captured and enlarged by the Danish in 1657, and after a few more shuffles of power the English got their hands on it 1664. In 2006 William St. Clair authored “The Grand Slave Emporium: Cape Coast Castle and the British Slave Trade.

1655-1660 Rembrandt van Rijn painted his picture called “The Auctioneer.”
(WSJ, 11/3/95, p.A-12)

1655-1661 In Vilnius some 8-10 thousand residents were killed by occupying Russian forces.

1656 Jan 8, Oldest surviving commercial newspaper began in Haarlem, Netherlands.
(MC, 1/8/02)

1656 Mar 10, In the colony of Virginia, suffrage was extended to all free men regardless of their religion.
(HN, 3/10/99)

1656 Jan 24, Jacob Lumbrozo, 1st Jewish doctor in US, arrived in Maryland.
(MC, 1/24/02)

1656 Feb 20, James Ussher (76), Irish bible scholar, Anglican archbishop, died. [see Mar 21]
(MC, 2/20/02)

1656 Feb 22, New Amsterdam was granted a Jewish burial site.
(MC, 2/22/02)

1656 Mar 13, Jews were denied the right to build a synagogue in New Amsterdam.
(MC, 3/13/02)

1656 Mar 21, Armagh James Ussher (76), Archbishop (said world began 4004 BC), died. [see Feb 20]
(MC, 3/21/02)

1656 Jul 1, The 1st Quakers, Mary Fisher and Ann Austin, arrived in Boston and were promptly arrested.
(MC, 7/1/02)

1656 Jul 26, Rembrandt declared he is insolvent.
(MC, 7/26/02)

1656 Sep 22, In Patuxent, Md., the first colonial all-female jury heard the case of a woman accused of murdering her child. The jury voted for acquittal.
(HFA, ’96, p.38)(AP, 9/22/98)

1656 Oct 2, US colony Connecticut passed a law against Quakers.
(MC, 10/2/01)

1656 Oct 3, Myles Standish (b.1654), Plymouth Colony leader, died.
(WUD, 1994 p.1386)(MC, 10/3/01)

1656 Oct 24, Treaty of Vilnius (Lithuania): Russia and Poland signed an anti-Swedish covenant.
(MC, 10/24/01)

1656 Oct 25, A party of Oneida Indians killed 3 Frenchmen near Montreal. In response Gov. Gen. Louis d’Ailleboust arrested a hunting party of 12 Mohawks and Onondagas and ordered the arrest of all Iroquois in the French colonies.
(AH, 4/01, p.34)

1656 Oct 29, Edmund Halley (d.1742), astronomer, was born about this time in Hagerston, Middlesex, England. The birth date is somewhat uncertain because it is not known if at that time in his village the Gregorian or the Julian calendar was in use. There’s also some dispute over the year. [see Nov 8]
1656 Nov 8, Edmond Halley, mathematician and astronomer who predicted the return of the comet which is named for him, was born. [see Oct 29]
(HN, 11/6/98)

1656 Dec 14, Artificial pearls were 1st manufactured by M. Jacquin in Paris. They were made of gypsum pellets covered with fish scales.
(MC, 12/14/01)

1656 Diego de Velazquez painted “Las Meminas.”
(WSJ, 1/14/00, p.W12)

1656 Vermeer created his painting “The Procuress.”
(WSJ, 11/15/95, p.A-20)

1656 Christiaan Huygens interpreted Saturn’s “ears” as a simple flat ring.
(NH, 10/1/04, p.29)
1656 Christian Huygens invented the first pendulum clock, as described in his 1658 article “Horologium”. It was built by Solomon Coster and was later put on exhibit at the Time Museum in Rockford, Ill. The time-pieces previously in use had been balance-clocks, Chris Huygens’ pendulum clock was regulated by a mechanism with a “natural” period of oscillation and had an error of less than 1 minute a day.
(http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/bl_huygens.htm)(SF E&C, 1/15/1995, T-10)

1656 The first performance of an English opera was given in a room at the Smithfield home of Sir William Davenant.
(Econ, 11/27/10, p.41)
1656 Oliver Cromwell allowed Jews to return to England. They soon established their first synagogue on Creechurch Lane.
(WSJ, 10/28/06, p.P16)

1656 French King Louis XIV charged the architect Liberal Bruant to build a hospital on the location of a gun powder factory, founding the Hospice de la Salpetriere in Paris. The building was expanded in 1684.

1656 In Norway merchant Herman Leopoldus (d.1696) began doing business after immigrating from Lübeck to Christiania. His son, also named Herman Leopoldus (1677–1750), became very rich and was in 1739 ennobled by letters patent.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/L%C3%B8venskiold_%28noble_family%29)(Econ, 3/12/15, p.64)

c1656 European settlers arrived at the cape of South Africa. Robben Island in Cape Town’s Table Bay from this time on was variously used as a mental institution, leper colony and prison.
(SFC, 9/5/96, p.A10)

1657 Feb 11, Bernard Fontenelle, French scientist, writer (Plurality of Worlds), was born.
(MC, 2/11/02)

1657 Mar 23, France and England formed an alliance against Spain.
(HN, 3/23/98)

1657 Mar 31, English Humble Petition offered Lord Protector Cromwell the crown.
(MC, 3/31/02)

1657 Apr 3, English Lord Protector Cromwell refused the crown.
(MC, 4/3/02)

1657 Apr 20, English Admiral Robert Blake fought his last battle when he destroyed the Spanish fleet in Santa Cruz Bay.
(HN, 4/20/99)

1657 May 5, Jacques Danican Philidor, composer, was born.
(MC, 5/5/02)

1657 May 9, William Bradford, Governor (Plymouth Colony, Mass), died.
(MC, 5/9/02)

1657 Jun 1, 1st Quakers arrived in New Amsterdam (NY). (MC, 6/1/02)

1657 Jul 13, Oliver Cromwell constrained English army leader John Lambert.
(MC, 7/13/02)

1657 Aug 7, Bogdan Chmielnicki (b.1593), Ukraine-born Cossack leader, murderer of 300,000 Jews, died.

1657 Sep 24, The 1st autopsy and coroner’s jury verdict was recorded in the state of Maryland.
(MC, 9/24/01)

1657 The last wolf in Boston, Mass., was killed.
(Econ, 12/22/12, p.125)

1657 Vermeer painted his “The Little Street” about this time.
(WSJ, 11/15/95, p.A-20)

1657 Settlers in Vlissingen (later Flushing, Queens, NY) signed a declaration of religious freedom called the Flushing Remonstrance.
(SSFC, 4/17/05, Par p.12)

1657 By this time the White Tower of London was no longer inhabited by royalty and was almost completely given over to the storage of gunpowder.
(Hem, 9/04, p.28)

1657 By this time the White Tower of London was no longer inhabited by royalty and was almost completely given over to the storage of gunpowder.
(Hem, 9/04, p.28)

1657 Pope Alexander VII entrusted Italian Baroque master Gian Lorenzo Bernini with building the colonnade surrounding St. Peter’s Square. A restoration project was lauched in 2009. In 2012 the Vatican sought funds directly from pilgrims, stamp collectors and tourists to pay for the ambitious restoration.
(AP, 11/27/12)

1657 Venice re-admitted the Jesuits ushering in a period of cultural conservatism that marked the end of the “Renaissance project.”
(WSJ, 5/5/07, p.P10)

1658 Mar 5, Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, French colonial governor of America, was born.
(MC, 3/5/02)

1658 Apr 22, Giuseppe Torelli, composer (Concert Grossi op 8), was born in Italy.
(MC, 4/22/02)

1658 Jun 15, The Mogul emperor Aurangzeb imprisoned his father the Shah, after winning a battle at Samgarh.
(HT, 6/15/00)

1658 Jun 25, In India Aurangzeb proclaimed himself emperor of the Moghuls. Aurangzeb, son of Shah Jahan, overthrew his father and locked him up in the Jasmine tower.
(HT, 4/97, p.24)(HN, 6/25/98)

1658 Aug 12, The 1st US police corps formed in New Amsterdam.
(MC, 8/12/02)

1658 Sep 3, Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of the New Commonwealth, i.e. ruler over England’s Puritan parliament (1653-58), died at age 59. Richard Cromwell had succeeded his father as English Lord Protector. Cromwell was responsible for shipping Romanichal Gypsies (i.e., Gypsies from Britain) as slaves to the southern plantations; there is documentation of Gypsies being owned by freed black slaves in Jamaica.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oliver_Cromwell)(AP, 9/3/97)(http://tinyurl.com/q7kfjwn) (ON, 12/00, p.5)

1658 Vermeer (1632-1675), Dutch artist, completed his painting “The Milkmaid” about this time.
(Econ, 9/19/09, p.98)

1658 In New Amsterdam (later NYC) a night watchman kept a lookout for Indian attacks.
(WSJ, 11/3/98, p.A20)

1658 The sultan of Brunei gave Sabah, the northeastern part of Borneo, to the sultan of Sulu, who ruled a part of what later became the Philippines.
(Econ, 2/23/13, p.39)

1658 Construction began on the Royal Palace in Turin, Italy.
(SSFC, 1/22/06, p.E6)

1658 In France Moliere was anointed with the patronage of King Louis XIV.
(SFC, 6/20/96, p.D2)

1658-1716 Ogata Korin, Japanese artist. The artist created the cartoonish “Gods of Wind and Thunder.”
(WSJ, 12/1/98, p.A20)

1658-1742 Nicholas Roosevelt, the common ancestor of later US presidents Theodore and Franklin Roosevelt.
(WSJ, 12/18/97, p.A20)

1659 Jan 18, Benedikt Lechler (64), composer, died.
(MC, 1/18/02)

1659 Mar 7, Henry Purcell, English organist, composer (Dido & Aeneas), was born.
(MC, 3/7/02)

1659 Mar 22, The Warsaw parliament decided to issue metal currency, shillings, for Lithuania and Poland.
(LHC, 3/22/03)

1659 Mar 26, William Wollaston, English philosopher, was born.
(SS, 3/26/02)

1659 Apr 22, Lord protector Cromwell disbanded the English parliament.
(MC, 4/22/02)

1659 May 25, Richard Cromwell resigned as English Lord Protector.
(SC, 5/25/02)

1659 Sep 30, Robinson Crusoe was shipwrecked (according to Defoe). [see Feb 12, 1709]
(MC, 9/30/01)
1659 Sep 30, Peter Stuyvesant of New Netherlands forbade tennis playing during religious services (1st mention of tennis in US).
(MC, 9/30/01)

1659 Oct 13, Gen. John Lambert drove out the English Rump government. The “Rump Parliament” was restored in Dec.
(PCh, 1992, p.247)(MC, 10/13/01)

1659 Oct 10, Able Janszoon Tasman, navigator, died at about 56. He discovered Tasmania.
(WUD, 1994 p.1455)(MC, 10/10/01)

1659 Oct 12, English Rump government fired John Lambert and other generals. [see Oct 13]
(MC, 10/12/01)

1659 Oct 13, Gen. John Lambert drove out the English Rump government. The “Rump Parliament” was restored in Dec. [see Oct 12]
(PCh, 1992, p.247)(MC, 10/13/01)

1659 Rembrandt Harmenszoom van Rizn (Rijn)(1606-1669), Dutch painter, made “Jupiter and Antiope” (1659).
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1213)(WSJ, 10/1/96, p.A20)

1659 Cornelius Meylin, patroon of Staten Island, wrote in his recollections that Staten Island was acquired in 1630 in exchange for “kittles, axes, Hoos, wampum, drilling awles, Jews Harps and diverse small wares.” Wampum was also referred to as peag or seawan by Native Americans and consisted of strung cylindrical beads made from polished shells. It was formerly used by some North American Indians as currency and jewelry. It was also used to record events, as a medium of communication and sometimes for ceremonial and spiritual purposes.
(WSJ, 11/19/99, p.W10)(HNQ, 3/23/02)

1659 Christiaan Huygens published “Systema Saturnium,” his observations on Saturn.
(NH, 10/1/04, p.29)
1659 Christien Huygens of Holland used a 2-inch telescope lens and discovered that the Martian day is nearly the same as an Earth day.
(SFC, 11/29/96, p.A16)

1659 Quaker leader Mary Dyer was sentenced to death by a Puritan court in Massachusetts Bay Colony amid the Salem witch trials. She refused to leave the colony and was hanged in 1660.
(SFC, 3/30/97, Z1. p.6)(SFEC, 1/16/00, Z1 p.1)

c1659 The British Parliament invoked law that made it a crime, punishable by burning at the stake, to forecast the weather.
(SFEC, 8/3/97, Z1 p.2)
1659 A London discussion group called the Amateur Parliament met at Miles’ coffee house.
(Econ, 12/20/03, p.90)
1659 In Britain a check was written and made out for 400 pounds (equivalent to around 42,000 pounds in 2009). It was signed by Nicholas Vanacker, made payable to a Mr Delboe and drawn on Messrs Morris and Clayton, scriveners and bankers of the City of London. As of 2009 it was the oldest surviving British check.
(AP, 12/16/09)

1659 The French colony of Saint-Domingue was founded on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola and continued to 1804.

1659 Christian Huygens of Holland used a 2-inch telescope lens and discovered that the Martian day is nearly the same as an Earth day.
(SFC, 11/29/96, p.A16)

1659 Senegal’s second city, Saint-Louis, was founded and was the capital of the west African nation until 1957. It also served as the capital of French West Africa, as it was then known, between 1895 and 1902.
(AFP, 2/3/18)

1659-1661 Michael Sweerts, Flemish painter, created his rosy “Portrait of a Youth.”
(SFC, 6/17/02, p.D1)

1660 Mar 13, A statute was passed limiting the sale of slaves in the colony of Virginia.
(HN, 3/13/99)

1660 Mar 28, Georg Ludwig, German monarch of Hanover, King George I of Great Britain, was born.
(MC, 3/28/02)

1660 Apr 16, Hans Sloane, founder of British Museum, was born.
(HN, 4/16/98)

1660 May 3, Prince Charles, Son of King Charles I, returned to England from France.
(ON, 7/06, p.8)

1660 May 7, Isaack B. Fubine of Savoy, in The Hague, patented macaroni.
(MC, 5/7/02)

1660 May 8, The son of the late Charles I is proclaimed King ending 11 years of civil war.
(PCh, 1992, p.248)

1660 May 26, Charles II (29), returning from exile, landed at Dover.
(PCh, 1992, p.248)

1660 May 28, George I, king of England (1714-1727), was born.
(HN, 5/28/98)(MC, 5/28/02)

1660 May 29, Charles II, who had fled to France, was restored to the English throne after the Puritan Commonwealth. Charles made a deal with George Monck, a general of the New Model Army, and with the old parliamentary foes of his father. The British experiment with republicanism came to an end with the restoration of Charles II.
(V.D.-H.K.p.218)(WSJ, 5/6/97, p.A20)(HN, 5/29/98)(WSJ, 2/28/00, p.A36)
1660 May 29, Gyorgy Rakosi II prince of Transylvania, died in battle.
(SC, 5/29/02)
1660 May 29, Peter Scriverius (44), lawyer, historian, died.
(SC, 5/29/02)

1660 Aug 6, Diego Rodriguez de Silva Velazquez (b.1599), Spanish court painter, died in Madrid. In 1906 C. Lewis Hind authored “Days with Velazquez.” In 1986 Jonathan Brown authored “Velazquez: Painter and Courtier.” In 2016 Laura Cumming authored “The Vanishing Man: In Pursuit of Velazquez.”
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diego_Vel%C3%A1zquez)(Econ, 1/23/16, p.79)

1660 Aug 21, Hubert Gautier, engineer, wrote 1st book on bridge building, was born in Nimes, France.
(SC, 8/21/02)

1660 Sep 27, St. Vincent de Paul, Vincentian founder, died.
(MC, 9/27/01)

1660 Oct 15, Asser Levy was granted a butcher’s license for kosher meat in New Amsterdam.
(MC, 10/15/01)

1660 Oct 16, John Cooke (b.1608), England’s solicitor-general during the 1649 trial of Charles 1, was hanged as Charles II looked on in approval. Cooke was hanged slowly until he passed out and then was revived to watch as his genitals were sliced off. A length of his bowel was yanked from his body, pulled before his face and set alight as he bled to death. In 2006 Geoffrey Robertson authored “The Tyrannicide Brief,” an account of Cooke during this period.
(WSJ, 9/6/06, p.D10)(www.pepysdiary.com/archive/1660/10/13/)

1660 Oct, England’s King Charles II enacted his first Declaration of Indulgence.

1660 Nov 28, The London Royal Society formed. Members included Christopher Wren, William Petty, Robert Boyle, John Wilkins and Lawrence Rooke.
(www.royalsoc.ac.uk/page.asp?id=2176)(NYTBR, 2/2/03, p.12)

1660 Dec 3, Jacques Sarazin (70), French sculptor and painter, died.
(MC, 12/3/01)

1660 Dec 8, The first Shakespearian actress to appear on an English stage (she is believed to be a Ms. Norris) made her debut as ‘Desdemona.’
(HN, 12/8/99)

1660 Dec 24, Mary I Henriette Stuart (29), queen of England, died.
(MC, 12/24/01)

1660 Rembrandt van Rijn painted “The Old Woman Cutting Her Nails” about this time.
(WSJ, 11/3/95, p.A-12)

c1660 The Dutch crafted an early version of a boat they called a “yacht.”
(SFC, 7/18/98, p.E3)

1660s The British began to dominate the trade in port wine from Portugal after a political spat with the French denied them the French Bordeaux wines. Brandy was added to the Portuguese wines to fortify them for the Atlantic voyage.
(SFEC, 1/12/97, p.T7)(SFEC, 7/12/98, p.T8)

1660 Bartholomew Sharpe, a British pirate, turned Belize into a base to harvest logwood. British buccaneers settled the coast.
(SFC, 11/2/00, p.A12)

1660 The Palacio Clavijero was built as a Jesuit temple in Valladolid (later Morelia), Mexico.
(SSFC, 5/22/05, p.E6)

1660 Pieter Claesz (b.ca.1597), Dutch still-life painter, died.
(WSJ, 11/22/05, p.D8)

1660-1669 Samuel Pepys (1633-1703), administrator of the navy of England and Member of Parliament, kept a diary over this period.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Pepys)(Econ, 9/2/17, p.73)

1660-1685 King Charles II was ruler of Great Britain. He was the son of Charles I. Under his reign the Italian artist Antonio Verrio painted 2 huge frescoes that covered the entire walls and ceiling of what is now St. George’s Hall. One painting depicted Christ healing the sick in the Temple of Jerusalem and the other was of King Charles II. The frescoes were destroyed in the 1820s under King George IV to reflect a new national style. One fresco was rediscovered in 1996 during reconstruction after a fire in 1992. Charles is known as “the Merry Monarch” because of his many mistresses, enthusiasm for parties and mockery of Puritan values.
(SFC, 5/25/96, p.A12)(WUD, 1994, p.249)(ON, 12/00, p.4)

1660-1725 Alessandro Scarlatti, Italian musician and composer, father of Domenico.
(LGC-HCS, p.40)

1660-1731 Daniel Defoe, English novelist and political journalist. He was born as Daniel Foe and became a successful merchant in woolen goods. For a time he was jailed due to his debts. He became a supporter of William of Orange and wrote over 500 publications on his behalf. Some regard him as the father of modern journalism. Among other works he wrote “Robinson Crusoe,” “Moll Flanders,” “General Histories of the Robberies and Murders of the Most Notorious Pirates,” “A Tour of the Whole Island of Great Britain,” and “Journal of the Plague Year.” In 1999 Richard West published “Daniel Defoe: The Life and Strange Surprising Adventures.”
(WUD, 1994, p.379)(WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A12)

1660-1830 In the 1990s literary critic Claude Rawson wrote “Satire and Sentiment: 1660-1830.”
(WSJ, 1/15/98, p.A17)



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