isaac newton timelines
1675 – February 18 – Newton attends his first meeting of Royal Society.
November 26 – Newton elected to Parliament by Cambridge Senate.
Sir Isaac Newton, who was ironically born the same year that Galileo died, is popularly known as one of history’s greatest scientists. Many of his discoveries and theories in the areas of light, color, and optics form the basis for current scientific thought in these disciplines. In addition to his extensive work in optics, Newton is perhaps best known for his theory of universal gravitation. He also is considered one of the inventors of calculus along with German mathematician Gottfried Willhelm von Leibniz. Newton’s three laws of motion are considered basic to any physics student’s education. Newton, like Galileo, owed the formation of several of his discoveries to a period of self-study and scientific observation unencumbered by structured or formal education.
Newton is thought to have been born on Christmas day in 1642, a short time after the death of his father. His mother remarried, leaving him with his grandmother to be educated in Lincolnshire. Reports of his academic progress characterize Isaac as “idle” and “inattentive,” which led to his being removed from school altogether by his mother. An uncle saw promise in Newton, prepared him for the university, and enrolled him at Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1661. While at Trinity, Newton studied philosophy, mathematics, mechanics, astronomy, and law.
Einstein proposed that an excited atom could return to a lower energy state by releasing energy in the form of photons in a process called spontaneous emission.
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The death of Hooke in 1703 allowed Newton to take over as president of the Royal Society, and the following year he published his second major work, “Opticks.” Composed largely from his earlier notes on the subject, the book detailed Newton’s painstaking experiments with refraction and the color spectrum, closing with his ruminations on such matters as energy and electricity. In 1705, he was knighted by Queen Anne of England.
Isaac Newton is best know for his theory about the law of gravity, but his “Principia Mathematica” (1686) with its three laws of motion greatly influenced the Enlightenment in Europe. Born in 1643 in Woolsthorpe, England, Sir Isaac Newton began developing his theories on light, calculus and celestial mechanics while on break from Cambridge University. Years of research culminated with the 1687 publication of “Principia,” a landmark work that established the universal laws of motion and gravity. Newton’s second major book, “Opticks,” detailed his experiments to determine the properties of light. Also a student of Biblical history and alchemy, the famed scientist served as president of the Royal Society of London and master of England’s Royal Mint until his death in 1727.
- Chap. I. Of the Chronology of the First Ages of the Greeks.
- Chap. II. Of the Empire of Egypt.
- Chap. III. Of the Assyrian Empire.
- Chap. IV. Of the two Contemporary Empires of the Babylonians and Medes.
- Chap. V. A Description of the Temple of Solomon.
- Chap. VI. Of the Empire of the Persians.
The book attempts to revise the accepted ancient chronology of Newton’s day, in order to prove that Solomon was the earliest king in the world, and that his Temple the first ever built, with all others being copies, beginning with Sesostris, King of Egypt, followed by others. Newton’s results, therefore, diverge widely from presently accepted dates, often more widely than the system that he attempted to displace.