Timeline Eleventh Century

1000 Jan 1, Stephen became the first king of Hungary.
(SFEC, 8/8/99, p.T5)

1000 Oct 9, Leif Ericson discovered “Vinland.” [see 1001]
(MC, 10/9/01)

c1000 A 174-page manuscript was copied onto goatskin parchment in Constantinople from papyrus versions of Archimedes’ original calculations and mathematical diagrams. Over the years it was written over. The Archimedes Palimpsest was later discovered and examined using x-ray technology at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.
(SFC, 5/23/05, p.A4)

c1000 An early Andean culture known as the Huari cultivated crops with complex irrigation systems back to this time.
(NH, 10/02, p.62)

1000 In Brazil megaliths were arranged into an astronomical observatory in the Rego Grande area of the Amazon. The stones were uncovered in the 1990s during deforesting operations in the area. In 2016 scholars in the field of archaeoastronomy determined that an indigenous culture had arranged the megaliths about this time.
(SFC, 12/15/16, p.A4)

1000 Gunpowder was invented in China about this time.

1000 Scientists suspect that the sun was particularly bright for a period of time that is called the Medieval Optimum with global temperatures about 1 to 2 degrees higher than today.
(NOHY, 3/90, p.127)

c1000 The Sinagua Indians, in what is now Arizona, made granaries in the cliffs along the Verde River some 100 miles north of Phoenix.
(SFEC, 9/28/97, p.T6)

c1000 The Numic-speaking Shoshone Indians took part in a widespread migration out of the Cosos Mountains on the northwestern edge of the Mojave Desert about this time and populated a large portion of the western US.
(PacDis, Summer ’97, p.10)

c1000 The Cahokia settlement in Southern Illinois numbered about 30,000.
(SFC, 3/20/99, p.B4)

c1000 The Mississippian transformation was marked by the rise of agriculture and the appearance of belligerent chiefdoms. The Calusa Indians of southern Florida avoided the Mississippian transformation and maintained their ancient lifeways based on fishing and collecting.
(AM, 7/97, p.75)

1000 By this time the whole of East and Central Africa was occupied by the Bantu people. Older inhabitants such as the Hottentots and Bushmen were either absorbed or pushed into less desirable places such as the Kalahari.
(Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.169)

1000 By about this time the initial Arctic culture had given way to a second eastward flow of a people now known as the Thule. (Evidence from Ellesmere Island in Canadian Arctic).
(NG, 6/1988, 762)

1000 A divided England, ruled by Ethelred the Unready, was in a state of intermittent warfare with the Vikings, who controlled much of the realm.
(SFC, 4/23/01, p.E1)
c1000 In England the Vikings established a thriving economy in the town they called Jorvik. It had been founded by the Romans as a fortress and later came to be called York.
(SFEC,10/26/97, p.T4)

1000 The Loire Valley vineyard Chateau de Goulaine was founded. In 2004 it was considered to be Europe’s oldest and continuous family business
(Econ, 12/18/04, p.104)

c1000 Cloisters take up brewing at about the turn of the first millennium. The monks were particularly interested in the scientific aspects of brewing, and so it was that at the Brabant Cloister zum Würzen that hops were tried for the very first time. That probably led to the legend that Brabant King Gambrinus was the inventor of beer. He is still remembered today as a great patron of the brewers and a beer lover in his own right.

1000 The Gypsy people (Romany) migrated from Rajasthan, India, about this time.
(Wired, 9/96, p.46)(Econ, 6/21/08, p.35)

1000 In Agnone, Italy, the Fonderia Pontificia Marinelli, a bell foundry, was founded about this time.
(SFC, 4/14/06, p.D1)

c1000 Graves of rich Curonian warriors from near Kretinga in western Lithuania revealed cremated bones in a tree-trunk coffin, nine fibulae, a leather belt with bronze and amber beads, 3 spears and an iron battle-axe, an iron instrument for striking fire, a sickle, an iron key and bronze scales, a saddle and iron bridle bits along with miniature tools and weapons.
(DrEE, 11/23/96, p.3)

1000 Large portions of the island fauna of Madagascar, that once included a lemur the size of bear and the ostrich-like Elephant Bird, was eliminated by the Malagash people of Madagascar.
(NOHY, 3/90, p.188)
1000 The flightless elephant bird Aepyornis maximus, which had stalked the savannah and rainforests of Madagascar, was hunted to extinction about this time. The elephant bird died out after a new wave of human settlers arrived. Researchers in 2018 said the creature would have stood at least three meters (10 feet) tall, and had an average weight of 650 kg, making it the largest bird genus yet uncovered.
(AFP, 9/26/18)

1000 In Cracow, Poland, the Wawel Castle was built overlooking the Vistula River.
(WSJ, 7/13/00, p.A24)

c1000 In Siberia the Yakut nation, a Turkish-speaking people, wandered north about this time to avoid the Mongols.
(SFC, 1/21/98, Z1 p.4)

1000 About this time in the Hadramawt region of Yemen a dam burst near the village of Senna, and the people of the valley fled. In 1997 researchers using DNA studies found that the Lemba, a Bantu speaking people of southern Africa carry markers distinctive of the Cohanim, Jewish priests believed to be descended from Aaron. Lemba oral tradition held that they came to Africa from Senna. Dr. Tudor Parfitt authored “Journey to the Vanished City,” a description of his work on the Lemba.
(SFEC, 5/9/99, p.A24)(www.answers.com/topic/lemba)

1000 The Zapotecs founded and ruled the archeological site of Monte Alban in the Mexican state of Oaxaca for more than a millennium until about this time when the Mixtecs took over.
(SFC, 5/5/96, p.T-8)

1000 In 1999 Robert Lacey and Danny Danziger published “The Year 1000: What Life Was Like at the Turn of the First Millennium.” It focused on life in England and used the Julius Work Calendar as a major source. Other millennium books included “AD 1000: A World on the Brink of Apocalypse,” and “The Last Apocalypse: Europe at the Year 1000 AD.”
(WSJ, 1/29/99, p.W7)(WSJ, 4/6/99, p.B1)(SFEC, 7/25/99, BR p.2)

1000 The population at this time was about 200 million people in the world.
(WSJ, 12/23/99, p.A18)

1000-1020 The Bamberg Apocalypse, a richly illuminated manuscript containing the Book of Revelation and a Gospel Lectionary, was created in the scriptorium at Reichenau during this period.
(SSFC, 6/9/13, p.E7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bamberg_Apocalypse)

1000-1100 There was a Confucian revival in China. The scholar Ch’eng I held that the I Ching was a means of inquiry into any possible matter.
(NH, 9/97, p.12)

1000-1100 In 2002 the remains of a longhouse from this time were uncovered in northern Iceland. It was believed to be associated with Snorri Thorfinnson, son of Viking explorers and the 1st European born in the New World.
(SFC, 9/16/02, p.A2)
1000-1100 The writer Mahmud of Kashgar recorded a variant of an Uighur story that Alexander the Great during his conquests ordered his doctors to invent a remedy for sick people that was good to eat. In the original story they then came up with pilaf, but Mahmud substituted tutmach (noodles) in a setting of starvation.
(SFC, 8/14/96, zz-1 p.2)

1000-1100 Chinese kilns mass produced ceramics for the imperial court.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

c1000-1100 Tenkaminen reigned as Caliph of Ghana. He exported gold, ivory and salt and kept his wealth in gold. He put glass windows into his palace in Kumbi and kept a menagerie of elephants and giraffes.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)

1000-1100 From India the sandstone sculpture “Uma Maheshvara” is a variant of the archetypal couple Shiva and Parvati.
(SFC, 6/28/97, p.E1)

1000-1100 In southern India an 11th century temple was constructed in Thanjavur.
(WSJ, 6/9/97, p.A1)

c1000-1100 A Buddhist shrine was constructed in Uji, Japan. In 1968 the Byodo-In Temple at the foot of the Koolaus Mountains on Oahu, Hawaii, was built as a replica of the 900-year-old shrine.
(SFEM, 10/12/97, p.20)

1000-1100 In Laos Wat Phu was last renovated by King Suryavarnam I.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.F)

1000-1100 Marrakech was founded in the 11th century. It was the terminus of a trade route running southward to the Niger River and of another running eastward to Cairo.
(NH, 5/96, p.40)

1000-1100 In Mali the desert village of Araouane, 161 miles north of Timbuktu, was first mentioned about this time. It was a wealthy settlement that flourished off the caravans and drew water from 150-foot wells.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.84)

c1000-1200 The 11th or 12th century document “De Mirabilibus Brittanniae” (the Wonders of Britain) was written by Radulfi de Diceto Lundoniensis.
(AM, 9/01, p.42)

1000-1250 Early post classic period of the Maya.
(AM, May/Jun 97 suppl. p.B)

1000-1260 The Popoloca Indians of Mexico’s Puebla state built the Ndachjian-Tehuacan temple complex during this period. In 2018 archeological excavations found the first temple of the Flayed Lord, Xipe Totec, depicted as a skinned human corpse, at the complex. The Popolocas were later conquered by the Aztecs.
(SFC, 1/4/19, p.A2)

1000-1300 Bantu people called the Shona build the Great Zimbabwe, which means “Houses of Stone.” This grand city became Zimbabwe’s capital and trade center.
(ATC, p.135)

c1000-1400 Angkor Thom, capital of the Khmer empire, reached its apogee during this period. It included the religious monument of Angkor Wat. In 2007 new technology indicated that the city covered an area over 115 square miles at its peak and used sophisticated technology for managing and harvesting water.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.A)(SFEC, 7/26/98, p.T6)(SFC, 8/14/07, p.A18)
c1k-14kCE The Mapungubwe kingdom thrived in South Africa. It was rediscovered by archeologists in the 1930s.
(Arch, 1/05, p.10)

1001 Otto III was ousted. He had moved his thrown from Germany to Rome and fancied himself Holy Roman Emperor.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R54)

c1001 Norse sagas claim that Leif Ericson and a band of 35 men sailed for western lands based on an account by the Viking Bjarni Herjulfsson, who had sighted land after being blown off course. They found a land they called Vinland and built houses but returned to Greenland before the winter.
(HT, 5/97, p.31)

1002 Jun 6, German king Henry II, the Saint, was crowned.
(MC, 6/6/02)

1002 Jun 21, Pope Leo IX was born. He brought the conflict between Rome and the eastern Church to a head in 1054, ending with the Patriarch of Constantinople being excommunicated and the creation of the Schism.
(Camelot, 6/21/99)

1002 Aug 2, Abu Amir Mohammed ibn Abd Allah ibn Mohammed ibn Abi Amir (64) died.
(MC, 8/2/02)

1002 Nov 13, English king Ethelred II launched a massacre of Danish settlers.

1002 Thorer Eastman (d.1002), a Norwegian sea captain, was blown off course on a trading voyage from Iceland to Greenland. He and his wife, Gudrid, along with a crew of 13 became stranded on a rock near the coast of Newfoundland for weeks until they were rescued by Leif Eriksson, who was on his way home to Greenland from North America with a cargo of timber. That fall an epidemic swept Greenland and Eastman died.
(ON, 12/07, p.4)

1002-1019 In Japan Lady Murasaki Shikibu wrote her classic court novel “The Tale of Genji.” The novel “Genji Monogatari” (Genji the Shining One) was later considered the world’s 1st novel. The long work explored the imperial court of the Heian period through the life and many loves of Genji, son of the emperor’s favorite concubine. Arthur Waley made an English translation in 6 installments between 1925 and 1933. Edward Seidensticker made a translation in 1976. Royall Tyler made a new translation in 2001. In 2000 Liza Dalby authored her novel “The Tale of Murasaki.”
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)(WSJ, 2/5/98, p.A20)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)(WSJ, 7/5/00, p.A20)(WSJ, 11/16/01, p.W14)(SFEC, 7/16/00, BR p.3)

c1002-1066 Edward the Confessor, English king (1042-1066), saint and founder of Westminster Abbey.
(WUD, 1994, p.454)

1003 May 12, Gerbert, French scholar, died in Rome.
(SC, Internet, 5/12/97)

1003 Gregory of Narek (b.951) died in Armenia. He was later is considered one of the most important figures of medieval Armenian religious thought and literature. His Book of Prayers, also called the Book of Lamentations, is his best-known work. In 2015 Pope Francis named St. Gregory named a doctor of the church.
(AP, 2/23/15)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gregory_of_Narek)

1003 The church of Maria di Criptu was built in the village of Fossa in the Grand Sassi mountains of central Italy.
(SFC, 7/26/00, Z1 p.1)

1004 The San Nilo abbey was founded atop a Roman villa in the Alban Hills.
(SSFC, 11/10/02, p.C6)

c1004 In 2004 archaeologists in western Norway found the remains of a harbor complex built by the Vikings about this time, at the ancient harbor complex at Faanestangen, near the west coast city of Trondheim, some 250 miles north of Oslo.
(AP, 3/6/04)

1005 Leaf Ericson’s brother, Thorvald, had arrived in Vinland but was killed by native Indians and his Viking companions returned to Greenland. A 3-year settlement was begun a few years later when Thorfin Karlsefni established a base with around 100 men and women at the L’Anse aux Meadows in Newfoundland.
(HT, 5/97, p.33)(ON, 12/07, p.5)
1005 Gudrid Thorbjarnardottir and Thorstein Erikson set sail to the New World to recover the body of Thorvald Erikson and to start a new colony. They failed to catch easterly winds and spent the winter in northwest Greenland. That winter Thorstein died.
(ON, 12/07, p.5)

1006 Thorfinn Karlsefni arrived in Greenland from Iceland and married Gudrid Thorbjarnardottir. She soon talked him into leading an expedition to the New World.
(ON, 12/07, p.5)

1007 Thorfinn Karlsefni and Gudrid Thorbjarnardottir embarked with a 3-ship expedition to the new World. Snorri Thorfinnson, son of Gudrid Thorbjarnardottir and Thorfinn Karlsefni, was born in Vinland (probably Newfoundland), the 1st European born in the New World. The family later returned east and settled in Iceland.
(SFC, 9/16/02, p.A2)(ON, 12/07, p.5)

1005 Kazan, the capital of the Russian province of Tatarstan, was founded on the Volga River. In 2005 the city celebrated a millennial anniversary.
(AP, 8/26/05)

1006 May 1, A supernova was observed by Chinese and Egyptians in constellation Lupus.
(MC, 5/1/02)

1008 The Univ. of Bologna (Italy) was founded. It was later recognized as the oldest university in Europe.
(Econ, 4/25/09, p.57)
1008 The earliest known water-powered wool-processing plant was operated at Ludi near Milan.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1009 Feb 14, Lithuania was 1st mentioned in relation to an announcement of the death of St. Bruno. [see Mar 9]
(LHC, 2/14/03)

1009 Mar 9, Lithuania’s name (Lituae) was first mentioned in Quedlinburg’s annals: “St. Bruno, an archbishop and monk, who was called Boniface, was struck in the head by Pagans during the 11th year of his conversion at the Russian and Lithuanian border (in confinio Rusciae et Lituae), and along with 18 of his followers, entered heaven on March 9th” (Feb 14 is also cited in other sources).
(DrEE, 10/12/96, p.2)(Book of the Millennium. Kaunas: Krastotvarka, 1999. Vol. 1: The State, p. 10, series “Acquaintance with Lithuania”) http://www.krastotvarka.lt
(DrEE, 10/12/96, p.2)

1009 Oct 18, Al-Hakim ordered the destruction of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem and its associated buildings, apparently outraged by what he regarded as the fraud practiced by the monks in the “miraculous” Descent of the Holy Fire, celebrated annually at the church during the Easter Vigil.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Hakim_bi-Amr_Allah)(WSJ, 5/7/01, p.A20)(WSJ, 1/27/07, p.W13)

1010 May 3, Ansfried (~69), 9th bishop of Utrecht (995-1010), saint, died.
(MC, 5/3/02)

1010 Thorfinn Karlsefni and Gudrid Thorbjarnardottir returned from the New World to Greenland and then moved to Iceland the following year, where they raised a large family.
(ON, 12/07, p.5)

1010 Abolqasem Firdawsi (Ferdowsi), a Persian poet, completed the “Shahnameh,” or “Book of Kings.” It is an epic of more than 50,000 rhyming couplets weaving the history of ancient shahs with myth and legend. One might call it the Iliad of Persia. Over the centuries shahs have had the poem copied and illustrated by the best artists of the day. In 2006 Dick Harris made an abridged translation to English in prose.
(WSJ, p. A-18, 10/13/94)(WSJ, 3/7/06, p.D8)

1010 King Ly Thai To decided to move Vietnam’s capital 62 miles (100 km) north to Hanoi, then called Thang Long.
(AP, 10/10/10)

1012 The Arabian trade with Europe abruptly ceased and no more Cufic coins streamed into Europe.
(VilNews, 12/17/10)

1013 The last Viking attempt to settle Vinland was made.
(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.25)

1014 Feb 3, Sweyn Forkbeard (b.960), Danish-born Viking king of England (1013-14), died.

1014 Feb 14, Pope Benedict VIII crowned Henry II, German King (1002), as Roman German emperor (1014-1024).
(HN, 5/6/98)(MC, 5/6/02)(MC, 2/14/02)

1014 Apr 23, The Battle of Contarf ended Danish rule in Ireland but a Dane killed Irish King Brian Boru (87).
(PCh, 1992, p.80)(MC, 4/23/02)

1014 Oct 6, The Byzantine Emperor Basil II (958-1025) earned the title “Slayer of Bulgars” after he ordered the blinding of 15,000 Bulgarian troops. Basil II was godfather to Russia’s Prince Vladimir.
(HN, 10/6/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basil_II)(Econ, 2/16/08, p.60)

1015 Sep 12, Lambert I with the Beard, count of Leuven, died in battle at about 65.
(MC, 9/12/01)

1015 After converting to Christianity in France, Olaf Haraldsson returned to Norway and promptly conquered land held by Denmark, Sweden and Norwegian lords.
(HNQ, 11/30/00)

1015 Vladimir I (b.958), a prince of Novgorod and grand prince of Kiev, died. He had married the sister of Byzantine Emp. Basil II and was baptized in Crimea. Originally a Slavic pagan, Vladimir had converted to Christianity in 988 and Christianized the Kievan Rus. His domain split into warring fiefs that eventually gave rise to Belarus, Russia and Ukraine.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vladimir_I_of_Kiev)(Econ, 11/5/16, p.44)

1016 Apr 23, Ethelred II “the Unready”, king of England (979-1016), died.
(MC, 4/23/02)

1016 Oct 18, Danes defeated the Saxons at Battle of Assandun (Ashingdon).
(MC, 10/18/01)

1016 Nov 30, Edmund II (27), Ironsides, King of Saxons, died.
(MC, 11/30/01)

1016-1029 In Norway Olaf Haraldsson served as king. He later became Saint Olaf, the patron saint of Norway.
(WUD, 1994, p.1002)

1016 Canute, Prince of Denmark became King of England as Canute I.
(AHD, 1971, p.198)

1017 Oct 28, Henry III, Roman Catholic German emperor (1046-56), was born.
(MC, 10/28/01)

1017 In China a hermit introduced the prime minister to “variolation,” an inoculation using germs from smallpox survivors.
(NW, 10/14/02, p.47)

1017 The south Indian Cola Empire transferred the capital of Sri Lanka to Polonnaruva which then served as the capital of Sri Lanka until 1300. It was a fortified citadel surrounded by Hindu and Buddhist religious complexes.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.D)(Arch, 7/02, p.34)

1017-1144 A Romanesque nave was added to the abbey Mont St. Michel off the coast of Normandy, France.
(WSJ, 10/7/06, p.P18)

1018 By this year Basil II had annexed Bulgaria.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)

1019 Canute, King of England, became also King of Denmark as Canute II or Canute the Great.
(AHD, 1971, p.198)

1019 Machmud of Ghazni, a kingdom in central Asia, invaded India and took so many captives that the prices of slaves plummeted for several years. He invade India annually for 25 years.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R4)

1019-20 BabaTaher, Persian poet, died.
(WSJ, 1/25/00, p.A18)

1021 Feb 13, Al-??kim bi-Amr All?h, the sixth Fatimid caliph and 16th Ismaili imam (996–1021), died. He is known as the “mad caliph of Cairo.” The Fatimid Caliphate was an Ismaili Shia Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west.

1023 In China a government agency was formed to print paper money.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1024 Apr 7, Pope Benedict VIII died.
(PTA, 1980, p.288)

1024 Jul 13, Henry II, the Monk, German King (1002-24), died.
(MC, 7/13/02)

1024 Sep 4, Conrad II (the Sailor) was chosen as German king.
(MC, 9/4/01)

1024 In China the first state-backed paper money was introduced.
(Econ, 2/25/12, SRp.4)
1024 Olaf Haraldsson introduced a religious code in his efforts to convert the Norwegians to Christianity.
(HNQ, 11/30/00)

1025 Dec 15, Basil II was succeeded as emperor [by] Constantine VIII, his brother and co-ruler.
(HN, 12/15/98)

1026 Mar 23, Koenraad II (Conrad II) crowned himself king of Italy.
(SS, 3/23/02)

1027 Mar 26, John XIX crowned Conrad II the Salier Roman German emperor.
(SS, 3/26/02)

1028 Canute the Great (d.1035) became also King of Norway.
(AHD, 1971, p.198)

1028 Olaf Haraldsson was forced to flee Norway by Canute, king of England and Denmark, Olaf returned to reconquer Norway, but was defeated and killed at the Battle of Stiklestad in 1030.
(HNQ, 11/30/00)

1029-1094 Al-Mustansir, ruler of most of North Africa. He was the wealthiest of the Fatimid caliphs and was based in Cairo.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)

1030 Jul 29, The patron saint of Norway, King Olaf the Second, was killed in the Battle of Stiklestad. Olaf Haraldsson was born a pagan and lived as a warrior for most of his years going on to become the patron saint of Norway. The son of Harald I, Oaf’s early career was spent outside Norway fighting the Danes and English among others.
(HNQ, 11/30/00)(AP, 7/29/01)

1030 Mahmud Ghazni died. Conflicts between various Ghaznavid rulers arose and as a result the Afghan empire started to crumple.

1030 In China a landslide on the Yangtze River cut off navigation for 21 years.
(NH, 7/96, p.32)
1030 Fan Kuan (b.960), Chinese artist, died. His work included “Travelers and Streams and Mountains.”
(WSJ, 10/29/08, p.D9)

1030 The city of Tartu in Estonia was founded.
(Hem, 4/96, p.24)

1030-1093 In China Shen Kua was an engineer and high official Chinese astronomer. In his1086 work “Dream Pool Essays,” Shen Kua made the first reference to the magnetic compass. The work also gave the first account of relief maps and an explanation of the origin of fossils, along with other scientific observations. Shen Kua wrote his essays after being banished from office after an army under his command lost 60,000 killed in a battle with Khitan tribes.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)(HNQ, 4/22/99)

1031 Sep 2, In Hungary Emeric (b.1007), the son of King Stephen, was killed by a boar while hunting. On Nov 5, 1083, King Ladislaus I unearthed Emeric’s bones in a large ceremony. Emeric was canonized for his pious life and purity along with his father and Bishop Gerhard by Pope Gregory VII.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Emeric_of_Hungary)(Econ, 9/19/15, p.48)

1031 Oct 19, Abbot Humbertus van Echternach opened the grave of Saint Willibrord.
(MC, 10/19/01)

1031 Olaf II, aka Olaf Haraldsson (d.1030) of Norway, was named a saint.
(HNQ, 11/30/00)

1032 Feb 2, Conrad II claimed the thrown of France.
(HN, 2/2/99)

1032 Theophylactus, the nephew of Pope John XIX, became Pope Benedict IX. His papacy was bought for him by his father.
(PTA, 1980, p.292)(Econ, 2/9/13, p.61)

1033 An enormous pilgrimage to Jerusalem marked the 1000th anniversary of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ.
(SFC, 1/6/97, p.A3)

1034 Apr 11, Romanus III Argyrus, Byzantine emperor (1028-34), was assassinated by his wife.
(MC, 4/11/02)

1035 Nov 12, King Canute (b.994) died. He was king of Denmark, England and Norway.
(HN, 11/12/98)

1032 Theophylactus, the nephew of Pope John XIX, became Pope Benedict IX. His papacy was bought for him by his father.
(PTA, 1980, p.292)(Econ, 2/16/13, p.61)

1035 In Spain 66 Jews were killed in Castrojeriz near Burgos. Others were expelled and settled on a nearby hill that was named Castrillo Motajudios (Jew’s Hill). Records from 1627 show the name was changed to Castrillo Matajudios, meaning “Kill Jews.” In 2014 the 56 town residents planned a May 25 vote on changing the name back to Castrillo Mota de Judios. The name change was celebrated on Oct 23, 2015.
(AP, 4/22/14)(http://tinyurl.com/pzmhvqh)(SFC, 10/24/15, p.A2)

1036 The Romans drove Pope Benedict IX out of Rome.
(PTA, 1980, p.292)

1036-1056 Henry III ruled the Holy Roman Empire, which extended from Hamburg and Bremen in the north to the instep of Italy to the south, Burgundy in the west, and Hungary and Poland to the east.

1037 May 28, Holy Roman Emperor Conrad II issued The Constitutio de feudis (“Constitution on Fiefs”), a law regulating feudal contracts. It included a phrase similar to “law of the land.” The law was based, in its own words, on the “legal code of our predecessors” (constitucio antecessorum nostrorum).
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitutio_de_feudis)(Econ, 12/20/14, p.34)

1037 Jun 21, Avicenna (b.980), a Persian polymath, died in Iran. Of the 450 works he is known to have written, around 240 have survived, including 150 on philosophy and 40 on medicine.

1038 King Stephen of Hungary died.
(SFC, 8/7/99, p.A8T5)

1040 Mar 7, Harold I, King of England (1035-40), died.
(MC, 3/7/02)

1040 Aug 15, In Scotland Donnchad led an army into Moray, where he was killed by Mac Bethad at Pitgaveny near Elgin.

1040-1057 Macbeth ruled over Scotland. He succeeded King Duncan.
(WSJ, 5/23/96, p.B-1)

1040-1100 Eruptions at Sunset Crater, Az., are believed to have lasted over this period.
(NH, 6/97, p.56)(AM, 3/04, p.50)

1040-1275 In Arizona as many as 12 families occupied the White House of Canyon de Chelly.
(SSFC, 1/7/01, p.T10)

1041 In China Bi Sheng devised the first movable-type printing system with clay characters.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1042-1066 Edward the Confessor (b.1002) served as King of England. Monks penned the manuscript “The Life of King Edward the Confessor” and in 1998 it was put on a WWW page: www.lib.cam.ac.uk/MSS/Ee3.59
(WUD, 1994, p.454)

1043 Apr 3, Edward the Confessor was crowned king of England.
(MC, 4/3/02)

1044 The Romans drove Pope Benedict IX out of Rome for a 2nd time. John, bishop of Sabina, was set up as Pope Sylvester III, but Benedict’s family base from Tusculum fought their way back into Rome and restored Benedict.
(PTA, 1980, p.292)

1044-1287 Bagan served as the capital of the Pagan empire, ruling what later became known as Myanmar during this period. The rulers of Bagan built more than 10,000 magnificent religious monuments.
(AP, 8/25/16)

1045 Pope Benedict IX abdicated and, for a large sum of money, turned the papacy over to his godfather, archpriest John Gratian, who became Pope Gregory VI.
(PTA, 1980, p.292)

1045 Richard of Aversa, a nephew of Rainulf of Aversa, came from Normandy to southern Italy in 1045 with 40 knights.
(HNQ, 7/17/00)

1045-1066 In Norway King Harold Hardready reigned.
(DrEE, 11/23/96, p.3)

1046 Sep 24, In Hungary Gerard Sagredo (b.980), an Italian bishop from Venice (also known as Gellert or Gerhard), was placed on a 2-wheel cart, hauled to a hilltop and rolled down the later named Gellert Hill, and still being alive at the bottom was beaten to death. He operated in the Kingdom of Hungary (specifically in Budapest), and educated Saint Emeric of Hungary, the son of Saint Stephen of Hungary). Gellert played a major role in converting Hungary to Christianity. He was canonized in 1083 along with St. Stephen and St. Emeric and became one of the patron saints of Hungary.

1046 Dec, Pope Gregory VI abdicated. As Benedict IX, Sylvester III, and Gregory VI claimed the papal throne, all were deposed by Henry III in the Synod of Sutri. Henry selected Clement II. Clement then crowned Henry and his wife as emperor and empress.
(PTA, 1980, p.294)(V.D.-H.K.p.111)

1046 Dec 25, Suidger, bishop of Bamberg, was enthroned as Pope Clement II.
(PTA, 1980, p.296)

1046 AD Synod of Sutri where three men claimed the papal throne, but were all deposed by Henry III, who selected Clement II. Clement then crowned Henry and his wife as emperor and empress.

1047 Oct 9, Pope Clement II died.
(PTA, 1980, p.296)

1047 Oct 25, Magnus I Godhi, king of Norway and Denmark (1035-47), died.
(MC, 10/25/01)

1047 Pope Gregory VI died.
(PTA, 1980, p.294)

1047 In France construction began on the Abbaye-aux-Dames near the town of Saintes.
(SFEC, 6/15/97, p.T8)

1048 Jul 17, Damasus II, born as Poppo, became Pope. He was the second of the German pontiffs nominated by Emperor Henry III.

1048 Aug 9, Pope Damasus II, born as Poppo, died. He was the second of the German pontiffs nominated by Emperor Henry III.

1048 Dec 13, Al-Biruni (74), Arabic royal astrologer, died.
(MC, 12/13/01)

1049 King Svein ruled in Denmark.
(DrEE, 11/23/96, p.3)

1049-1051 Snorre Sturleson wrote the “Heimskringla.”
(DrEE, 11/23/96, p.3)(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1050 Nov 11, Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor, was born.
(HN, 11/11/98)

1050 An Anasazi trade center in New Mexico offered pottery, turquoise and buffalo meat.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1050 Arabs brought their decimal system to Spain.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

c1050 In 2004 some 280 silver coins, that probably originated from a trade journey by Gotlanders to the area around the river Elbe in Germany around 1050, were found on the Swedish island of Gotland.
(AP, 3/1/04)

1051 King Magnus ruled in Denmark.
(DrEE, 11/23/96, p.3)

1053 Jun 18, In Italy Richard of Aversa helped win the Battle of Civitate, inflicting a decisive defeat over the papal army, which had joined Byzantium in an alliance against the Normans.

1054 Mar 12, Pope Leo IX escaped captivity and returned to Rome.
(MC, 3/12/02)

1054 Jul 4, Chinese and Arabian observers first documented the massive supernova of the Crab Nebula created thousands of years ago and consisting of a huge expanding cloud of gas and dust 6,000 light-years from Earth. The great nova, as Oriental astronomers described it, was six times brighter than Venus and was only outshone by the sun and moon. For 23 days the nova could be observed in broad daylight. An entry in the Records of the Royal Observatory of Peking reads: “In the first year of the period Chihha, the fifth moon, the day Chi-chou, a great star appeared approximately several inches southeast of T’ien-Kuan (i.e. Zeta Tauri). After more than a year it gradually became invisible.” In 1999 the Chandra X-Ray Telescope observed a ring around the heart of the Crab Nebula which continued to generate energy of more than 100,000 suns.
(LSA., p.29)(TNG, p.96)(SCTS, p.183)(IB, Internet, 12/7/98)(SFC, 9/30/99, p.A7)

1054AD Jul, The Council of Florence in 1445 established this date for the Great Schism between the Eastern and Western (Orthodox and Catholic). An official date was needed so that talks could begin on reunion.
(WSJ, 7/16/97, p.A23)

1054AD The Roman and Orthodox Churches split decisively. [see 330AD] The Orthodox Church did not accept the papal authority from Rome. Christians in southern Albania were left under the ecumenical patriarch of Constantinople and those in the north under the pope in Rome. The Orthodox Church maintained the tradition of married priests.
(WSJ, 11/14/95, p. A-12)(WP, 6/29/96, p.B7)(www, Albania, 1998)(SFC, 3/16/02, p.A3)

1055 The Seljuks under Tughril Beg ousted the Buyids (Buwayhids) in Baghdad. The nomadic Turks from Central Asia, descended from a warrior named Seljuk, took control of the government and continued governing the empire in the tradition of Islamic law.

1056 Apr 22, Supernova Crab nebula was last seen by the naked eye.
(MC, 4/22/02)

1057 Jul 10, Lady Godiva rode naked on horseback throughout Coventry on a dare from her husband, the Earl of Mercia, who abolished taxation in this year.
(MC, 7/10/02)

1057 Aug 15, Macbeth, the King of Scotland, was mortally wounded at the Battle of Lumphanan, by Malcolm Canmore, the eldest son of King Duncan I, who was killed by Macbeth 17 years earlier.
(AP, 8/15/07)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macbeth_of_Scotland)

1057 Aug 31, Leofric, count of Mercia and husband of Lady Godiva, died. His wife, the Countess Godgifu (Godiva), had founded a Benedictine priory on a hill overlooking the River Sowe, and the town of Coventry grew up around it. The priory probably ran a market that would have formed the nucleus of the growing town. Such a market would bring fees and taxes to the priory and the Earl while flooding the district with goods and money. Godiva may well have ruled the settlement between Leofric’s death and her own in 1066.
(HNC, 12/2/00)(MC, 8/31/01)

1057 King Anawratha, founder of the first Burmese empire, conquered the Mon kingdom to the south and introduced Theravada Buddhism to the Burmese people. He and his heirs oversaw building projects and Bagan (Pagan) became a center of Buddhist learning.
(WSJ, 1/23/09, p.W12)

1057 In Italy Richard of Aversa seized Capua.
(HNQ, 7/17/00)

1058 Nov 28, Kazimierz I Restaurator (b.1015), grand duke of Poland (1034-58), died. He succeeded in reuniting the central Polish lands under the hegemony of the Holy Roman Empire, but he was never crowned king.
(MC, 11/28/01)(www.infoplease.com)

1058 Despite protests from the cardinals Count Gregory of Tusculum led the selection of John, bishop of Velletri, as Pope Benedict X.
(PTA, 1980, p.306)

1058 Al-Ma’arri (b.973), a blind Syrian philosopher, poet and writer, died. He attacked the dogmas of religion and rejected the claim that Islam or any other religion possessed the truths they claimed.
(Econ, 7/13/13, SR p.13)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Ma%CA%BFarri)

1058-1111 Al-Ghazali (Algazal), Islamic scholar.
(WSJ, 7/7/99, p.A23)

1059 May 23, Henri I crowned his son King Philip I of France.
(MC, 5/23/02)

1059 A council gathered at Lateran and declared that the election of Benedict X was invalid. The council enthroned Gerard of Burgundy as Pope Nicholas II. A synod at Rome followed and set decrees for papal elections that rested election powers with the cardinal-bishops.
(PTA, 1980, p.306)

1059 Richard of Aversa and his brother-in-law, Robert Guiscard, met with Pope Nicholas II. The Norman chiefs swore allegiance to the Pope in return for papal recognition for their conquests, whereupon Richard was invested as prince of Capua.
(HNQ, 7/17/00)

1060 Aug 4, Henry I (52), King of France (1027-60), died.
(MC, 8/4/02)

1060 England minted a coin shaped like a four-leaf clover. Users broke off each leaf as needed as a separate piece of currency.
(SFC, 6/30/96, Z 1 p.5)(SFEC, 8/1/99, Z1 p.8)

1060 Rashi, the great Talmudist, studied in Worms.
(NH, 9/96, p.24)

1061 Apr 24, Halley’s Comet inspired an English monk to predict that England would be destroyed.
(MC, 4/24/02)

1061 Jul, Pope Nicholas II died in Florence.
(PTA, 1980, p.306)

1062 Marrakech [Marakesh], the Arab name for Morocco, was built as a fortified city by the first Berber dynasty, the Almoravids. It was the terminus of a trade route running southward to the Niger River and of another running eastward to Cairo.
(NH, 5/96, p.40)(SFEC, 7/25/99, p.T10)

1065 Apr 12, Pilgrims under bishop Gunther of Bamberg reached Jerusalem.
(MC, 4/12/02)

1064 Jun 9, Coimbra, Portugal, fell to Ferdinand, the King of Castile.
(HN 6/9/98)

1065 Apr 16, The Norman Robert Guiscard took Bari, ending five centuries of Byzantine rule in southern Italy.
(HN, 4/16/98)

1065 Dec 28, Westminster Abbey opened in London.
(MC, 12/28/01)

1066 Jan 5, Edward the Confessor (b.1003), king of England (1043-66), died heirless.

1066 Jan 6, (Harald) Harold Godwinson, Earl of Wessex, was crowned King of England.
(TLC, BTCW, 6/25/95)(HN, 1/6/99)

1066 Feb 28, Westminster Abbey opened.
(HN, 2/28/98)

1066 Mar 23, The 18th recorded perihelion passage of Halley’s Comet. Haley’s Comet was seen and soon after depicted on the Bayeux Tapestry. The 230-foot tapestry was created by craftsmen working for a Norman Bishop to depict the 1066 Norman invasion. In 2005 Andrew Bridgeford authored “1066: The Hidden History in the Bayeux Tapestry.”
(SS, 3/23/02)(NH, 7/98, p.78)(WSJ, 4/22/05, p.W6)

1066 Sep 21, At the Battle at Fulford Norway king Harald III Hardrada beat the British militia.
(MC, 9/21/01)

1066 Sep 25, King Harold Godwinson II marched north and attacked the Vikings at the Battle of Stampford Bridge in Yorkshire. Harald III Hardrada (51), King of Norway (1046-1066), died in battle. Godwinson’s forces destroyed the Vikings who returned to Norway in 24 of their 300 ships. Marching north to face a Norwegian invasion force commanded by King Harald Sigurdsson, aka Hardraade, and by his usurper brother, Tostig, Godwinson defended his crown at Stamford Bridge, resulting in a Saxon victory and the deaths of both Harald and Tostig. Soon afterward, however, Harold had to march south to face another invading contender for his throne, Duke William the Bastard of Normandy, who defeated and killed Harold at Hastings on October 14, and took the English crown as William the Conqueror.

1066 Sep 28, William the Conqueror invaded England to claim the English throne.
(AP, 9/28/97)(HN, 9/28/98)

1066 Sep, Duke William of Normandy sailed with 12,000 men to capture the English crown. His fleet encountered a severe storm that disrupted his landing.
1066 Sep, Harold Hardrata, King of Norway, sailed south with 10,000 men in 300 ships to attack England.
(TLC, Battles That Changed the World, 6/25/95)

1066 Oct 2, The Normans landed in southern England and King Harold was forced to march his men south to face the Normans.
(TLC, Battles That Changed the World, 6/25/95)

1066 Oct 14, King Harold and his army locked into a massive shield wall and faced Duke William, William the Conqueror, and his mounted knights near the town of Hastings, Battle of Hastings. Duke William planned a three point attack plan that included a) heavy archery b) attack by foot soldiers c) attack by mounted knights at any weak point of defense. The bloody battle gave the name Sen Lac Hill to the battle site. The Normans won out after Harold was killed by a fluke arrow. This placed William on the throne of England.
(TLC, Battles That Changed the World, 6/25/95)(AP, 10/14/97)(HN, 10/14/98)

1066 Dec 25, William the Conqueror (d.1087), Duke William of Normandy, was crowned king of England. Under the reign of William I the construction of Windsor Castle began. Over the next 50 years every English cathedral church and most big abbeys were raised to the ground, and rebuilt in a new continental style.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_the_Conqueror)(SFC, 5/25/96, p.A12)(AP, 12/25/97)(Econ, 12/24/16, p.34)

1066 Edith Svanneshals was the beautiful mistress of the ill-starred Harold Godwinsson, king of the Anglo-Saxons and loser at Hastings. No picture of her exists. Her last name means “swan’s throat.”
(EHC, 5/12/98)
1066 The Channel Islands, 35 miles off the coast of France, became possessions of the English Crown when the Normans conquered England.
(SFC, 8/10/96, p.A10)
1066 In England prior to 1066, hunting was virtually unrestricted. The Forest Laws, strictly enforced by English kings starting in the 11th century, placed restrictions on hunting, making it the sole privilege of the nobility. Unauthorized slayers of the king’s deer were often put to death. The Game Act of 1831, enacted under William IV, extended hunting rights to anyone who obtained a license.
(HNQ, 3/3/00)
1066 The Countess Godgifu (Godiva) died. She had founded a Benedictine priory on a hill overlooking the River Sowe, and the town of Coventry grew up around it.
(HNC, 12/2/00)

1067 Minsk (Belarus) was founded.
(SFC, 7/5/97, p.C2)

1067 Chepstow Castle was built in Wales to protect a strategic crossing of the River Wye and for the defense of the Wye Valley near the English border by the troops of William the Conqueror.
(SFEC, 5/25/97, p.T5)(SFEC, 5/10/98, p.T4)

1068AD Historian al-Bakri wrote his “Book of the Roads and Kingdoms.” He described Ghana in the Western Sudan from information given him by merchants and others.
(ATC, p.113)(Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.171)

1070 Jun 4, Roquefort cheese was accidentally discovered in a cave near Roquefort, France, when a shepherd found a lunch he had forgotten several days before.
(HN, 6/4/01)

1070 In Egypt a famine forced Al-Mustansir to send the women of Cairo to Baghdad to escape starvation.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)

1070 The 8 gates of Marrakech, Morocco, were built.
(SSFC, 12/18/05, p.F5)

1070 Bergen was founded on the southwest coast of Norway.
(SSFC, 6/5/05, p.F7)

1071 Aug 26, Seljuk Turks under King Alp Arslan defeated the Byzantine army under Emperor Romanus IV at Manzikert (later Malazkirt), Eastern Turkey. Romanus was taken prisoner.
(PCh, 1992, p.85)(Ot, 1993, p.4)(Econ, 9/9/17, p.51)

1072 Jan 10, Robert Guiscard and his brother Roger took Palermo in Sicily.
(HN, 1/10/99)

1072 Oct 6, Sancho II, king of Castilia (1065-72), was murdered.
(MC, 10/6/01)

1073 Sep 30, Pope Alexander II, born as Anselmo da Baggio, began serving as Pope.

1073 Apr 21, Pope Alexander II, born as Anselmo da Baggio, died. He had begun serving as Pope in 1061.

1073 Apr 22, Gregory VII, St. Hildebrand, became Pope. He was later driven from Rome and died in exile in 1085.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Gregory_VII)(WSJ, 3/10/99, p.A22)

1073 Dec 20, Domingo, Spanish monastery founder, abbot, saint, died.
(MC, 12/20/01)

1073 Pope Gregory VII canonized Paschasius Radbertus (785-865), a monk of Corbje in Picardy, later northern France.

1074 Pope Gregory VII summoned a council in the Lateran palace, which condemned simony and confirmed celibacy for the Church’s clergy.

1075 Feb 16, Ordericus Vitalis, French monk, historian, poet, was born.
(MC, 2/16/02)

1075 The Jiaozhi (Vietnam) launched a war against China, with a force of some 100,000 surrounding Yongzhou (the southern region of Nanning). It was captured after a siege of 42 days.

1075 The 3rd Cathedral at Santiago de Compostela in Spain was built on the site of the tomb of St. James. There had been a Cathedral on the site since the 9th century.
(SFC, 9/22/96, p.T5)

1076 Feb 14, Pope Gregory VII excommunicated Henry IV.
(MC, 2/14/02)

1076 Feb 22, Godfried III, with the Hump, duke of Lower Lorraine, was murdered. [see Feb 26]
(MC, 2/22/02)

1076 Feb 26, Godfried III with the Hump, duke of Netherlands-Lutheran, was murdered. [see Feb 24]
(SC, 2/26/02)

1076AD The Al Moravids, a group of Muslim warriors who lived in the Sahara, set out to conquer Ghana. They captured Koumbi in this year but gave it back up to the Soninke in 1087. The Muslim religious reform Almoravid movement under Abu Bakr recaptured Audoghast and then all of Ghana.
(ATC, p.117)(Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.172)

1076AD The Danish King Svein Estrithson died.
(DrEE, 1/4/97, p.3)

1077 Jan 28, Pope Gregory VII pardoned German emperor Henry IV at Canossa in northern Italy. Henry had insisted that he reserved the right to “invest” bishops and other clergymen, despite the papal decree, but became penitent when faced with permanent excommunication.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walk_to_Canossa)(Econ, 5/9/09, p.88)

1077 Apr 24, Geza I, King of Hungary (1074-7), died.
(MC, 4/24/02)

1077 Windsor Castle was erected by William the Conqueror to monitor travel on the Thames River.
(USAT, 11/19/97, p.2D)

1077-1090 The “heavenly clockwork,” a mechanical water clock of Su Sung, was housed in a pagoda 5 stories high.
(AM, 3/04, p.44)

1078 William the Conqueror began work on the Tower of London. Henry III ordered it whitewashed in 1240.
(NG, V184, No. 4, Oct. 1993, p.41)(Hem, 9/04, p.28)

1079 May 9, Stanislaus, Polish bishop of Cracow, was murdered.
(MC, 5/9/02)

1079 Peter Abelard (d.1142) was born in Brittany. He later became a great medieval scholar in Paris. Around 1117 he secretly married Heloise, niece of the Canon Fulbert of the Cathedral of Notre Dame. The Canon Fulbert hired gangsters who waylaid and castrated Abelard. His most famous theological work, “Sic et Non” (Yes and No), consisted of a collection of apparent contradictions drawn from various sources, together with commentaries showing how to resolve the contradictions and providing rules for resolving others. He also wrote “Scito te Ipsum” (Know Thyself), which advanced the notion that sin consists not in deeds, which in themselves are neither good nor bad, but only in intentions. In 2005 James Barge authored “Heloise and Abelard: A New Biography.”
(V.D.-H.K.p.116)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R22)(WSJ, 2/11/05, p.W6)

1080 The Knights of St. John (the Hospitallers) were founded in Jerusalem about this time to care for the sick.

1081 Albania and Albanians were mentioned for the first time in a historical record by a Byzantine emperor.
(www, Albania, 1998)

1081-1151 Abbot Suger of St. Denis, France. He was the 1st great patron of the arts in the current millennium.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R53)

1083 Jun 3, Henry IV of Germany stormed Rome capturing St. Peter’s Basilica.
(MC, 6/3/02)

1084 Mar 31, Anti-pope Clemens crowned German emperor Hendrik IV.
(MC, 3/31/02)

1085 May 25, Alfonso VI, Spanish Christian ruler, took Toledo, Spain, from the Moslems.
(ATC, p.100)(HN, 5/25/99)
1085 May 25, Gregory VII [Ildebrando], Pope (1073-85), died.
(SC, 5/25/02)

1085 Oct 8, San Marcos monastery in Venice started.
(MC, 10/8/01)

1085 May 25, Alfonso VI, Spanish Christian ruler, took Toledo, Spain, from the Moslems.
(ATC, p.100)(HN, 5/25/99)
1085 May 25, Gregory VII [Ildebrando], Pope (1073-85), died.
(SC, 5/25/02)

1085 Oct 8, San Marcos monastery in Venice started.
(MC, 10/8/01)

1085 William the Conqueror ordered the Domesday survey of English manor’s production capacity in order to collect taxes. The survey was completed in 1086.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Domesday_Book)

1086 Jul 10, Knut IV, the Saint, king of Denmark (1080-86), was murdered.
(MC, 7/10/02)

1086 Aug 1, English barons submitted to William the Conqueror.
(MC, 8/1/02)

1086 In China Shen Kua (1030-1093) gave an account of a magnetic compass for navigation in his work “Dream Pool Essays.” The work also gave the first account of relief maps and an explanation of the origin of fossils, along with other scientific observations. Shen Kua wrote his essays after being banished from office after an army under his command lost 60,000 killed in a battle with Khitan tribes.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)(HNQ, 4/22/99)

1086 In France St. Bruno founded the austere Carthusian order of monks in Grenoble. The silent order’s mother house in La Grand Chartreuse, France, later maintained support by the sale of its Chartreuse liqueur.
(WUD, 1994, p.227)(SFC, 2/24/98, p.A22)

1087 Sep 9, William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy and King of England, died in Rouen while conducting a war which began when the French king made fun of him for being fat.
(HN, 9/9/00)

1087 The Soninke of Ghana recaptured their capital, Koumbi, from the Al Moravids. They tried to re-establish their empire but a number of their states had adopted Islam and others broke away to form separate kingdoms.
(ATC, p.117)

1087 At Myra (Demre), Turkey, merchants from the Italian port of Bari reportedly stole the bones of St. Nicholas.
(WSJ, 8/31/98, p.B1)

1088 Cristodoulos persuaded the Byzantine emperor to let him develop the Greek island of Patmos as an independent monastic state.
(WSJ, 6/28/02, p.AW8)

1089 May 28, Lanfrance, Archbishop of Canterbury, died.
(MC, 5/28/02)

1089-1125 David the Builder, a king who increased Georgia’s wealth and prestige after, at age 16, taking the reins of a country beset by attackers.
(AP, 1/25/04)(Internet)

1090 Bernard of Clairvaux. He was known as “doctor mellifluus” for the honeyed sweetness of his style. It was Bernard who got the pope to silence Abelard. He said of Abelard: “This man presumes to be able to comprehend by human reason the entirety of God.” Bernard had a simple favorite prayer: “Whence arises the love of God? From God. And what is the nature of this love? To love without measure.” He wrote a letter to kings and popes on the monsters decorating churches: “What is the meaning of these unclean monkeys, these savage lions, and monstrous creatures?… Almighty God! If we do not blush for such absurdities we should at least regret what we have spent on them.”
(V.D.-H.K.p.117)(Hem, 4/96, p.51)

1090 Guo Xi (b.~1001), Chinese artist of the song Dynasty, died about this time.
(SFC, 6/28/08, p.E1)

1091 The Norman conquest of Saracen-held Sicily provided access to Arabic manuscripts that showed a place-notated decimal system that forms the basis of modern mathematics.
(I&I, Penzias, p.47)

1091 A trading deal was made between Mahdiyah, near Tunis, and Genoa.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)

1093 Aug 12, In England the foundation stone for Durham Cathedral was laid down. The main chapel was completed in 1175. It served as the seat of the Bishop and the church of the Benedictine monastery of Durham.
(SSFC, 12/14/08, p.E4)(www.sacred-destinations.com/england/durham-cathedral.htm)

1093 Trade guilds were noted in England.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1094 Jun 15, Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar [El Cid] occupied Valencia on the Moren.
(MC, 6/15/02)

1094 Oct 8, St. Mark’s Basilica in Venice was dedicated. Remains believed to have belonged to St Mark, the Evangelist, were buried there.

1094 The Islamic terrorist organization Nizari Ismailiyun, a Shiite politico-religious sect, was founded by Hasan-e Sabah. He and his followers captured the hill fortress of Almaut in northern Iran, which became their base of operations.

1095 Nov 26, Pope Urban urged the faithful to wrest the Holy Land from the Muslims, heralding start of Crusades.
(AP, 11/26/02)

1095 Nov 27, In Clermont, France, Pope Urbana II made an appeal for warriors to relieve Jerusalem, defeat the Turks and recapture the Holy Sepulchre from the Muslims. He was responding to false rumors of atrocities in the Holy Land. The first Crusade sparked a renewal of trade between Europe and Asia. Urban declared to the assembled that Europe was “too narrow for your large population” and urged them to take up swords against the Saracens who defiled “that land that floweth with milk and honey,” thus inspiring the Crusaders. Peter, a disheveled former soldier, seized the moment, preaching the “People’s Crusade” and quickly gathering a following of more than 20,000 Crusaders, including Walter, a French Knight.
(V.D.-H.K.p.109)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)(HN, 11/27/99)(HN, 6/26/98)

1095-1099 The 1st Crusade.
(WSJ, 1/4/02, p.A11)

1096 May 18, Crusaders massacred the Jews of Worms. Before embarking on the First Crusade to wrest the Holy Land from Muslim Turks, Count Emich von Leiningen and his army swept through their own German homeland, murdering thousands of Jews, whom they had declared “murderers of Christ.” When Emich arrived in the town of Worms in May, the town’s Roman Catholic Bishop tried to protect the Jewish population, but the Crusaders overran his palace and slaughtered some 500 people who had taken shelter there. Another 300 were killed over the next two days. The graves of the massacre victims can still be seen at the Jewish Cemetery at Worms.
(HNPD, 5/12/99)(SC, 5/18/02)

1096 Jun 25, The 1st Crusaders slaughtered the Jews of Werelinghofen, Germany.
(MC, 6/25/02)

1096 Jun 26, Peter the Hermit’s crusaders forced their way across Sava, Hungary. Peter the Hermit and Walter the Penniless (also known as Peter of Amiens and Walter Sansavoir) were two of the leaders of the “Crusade of the Poor People” in 1096-1097, an ill-fated prelude to the several campaigns waged in the Holy Lands between 1096 and 1270 that are commonly referred to as the Crusades.
(HN, 6/26/98)

1096 Jul 12, Crusaders under Peter the Hermit reach Sofia in Hungary.
(HN, 7/12/99)

1096 Aug 1, The crusaders under Peter the Hermit reached Constantinople. Anna Comnena, a 13 year-old Christian in Constantinople, watched as the crusaders marched into the city.
(ATC, p.18)(HN, 8/1/98)

1096 Oct 21, Seljuk Turks under Sultan Kilidj Arslan of Nicea slaughtered thousands of German crusaders at Chivitot.
(HN, 10/21/99)(MC, 10/21/01)

c1096 The Church of the Holy Sepulcher was built in Jerusalem on the traditional site of the burial and resurrection of Jesus Christ. In 1997 renovation was completed with a new 115-foot dome, designed by Fresno architect Ara Normart.
(SFC, 1/3/97, p.A18)

1096 In France Saint-Eutrope’s church was consecrated in the town of Saintes, the ancient capital of the Saintonge.
(SFEC, 6/15/97, p.T8)

1096-1291 European Christians fought Arab Muslims for control of Jerusalem and the Holy Land. In 2000 Evan S. Connell authored “Deus Lo Volt,” a history of the Crusades that included the 12th century accounts by pilgrims Geoffrey de Villehardouin and Jean de Joinville that had been earlier published as “Chronicles of the Crusades.”
(ATC, p.160)(WSJ, 6/9/00, p.W8)

1097 Jun 30, The Crusaders defeated the Turks at Dorylaeum.
(HN, 6/30/98)

1097 Jul 1, The 1st Crusaders defeated Sultan Kilidj Arslan of Nicea.
(MC, 7/1/02)

1097 Oct 20, The 1st Crusaders arrived in Antioch.
(MC, 10/20/01)

c1097 The pilgrimage routes of France (chemins de pelerinage) were begun. Their 900th anniversary was celebrated in 1997.
(SFEC, 6/15/97, p.T8)

1081 Jan 8, Henry V, Roman German king, emperor (1098/1111-25), was born.
(MC, 1/8/02)

1098 Jun 3, Christian Crusaders of the First Crusade seized Antioch, Turkey.
(HN, 6/3/99)

1098 Feb 10, Crusaders defeated Prince Redwan of Aleppo at Antioch.
(MC, 2/10/02)

1098 Dec 12, The 1st Crusaders captured and plundered Mara, Syria.
(MC, 12/12/01)

1099 Jan 13, Crusaders set fire to Mara, Syria.
(MC, 1/13/02)

1099 Apr 14, Conrad, bishop of Utrecht, was stabbed to death.
(MC, 4/14/02)

1099 Jun 5, Knights and their families on the First Crusade witnessed an eclipse of the moon and interpreted it as a sign from God that they would recapture Jerusalem.
(HN, 6/5/99)

1099 Jul 8, In Jerusalem 15,000 starving Christian soldiers marched around barefoot while the Muslim defenders mocked them from the battlements.
(HN, 5/23/99)

1099 Jun 12, Crusade leaders visited the Mount of Olives where they met a hermit who urged them to assault Jerusalem.
(HN, 6/12/99)

1099 Jul 13, The Crusaders launched their final assault on Muslims in Jerusalem.
(HN, 7/13/99)

1099 Jul 15, Jerusalem fell to the crusaders following a 7 week siege. A massacre of the city’s Muslim and Jewish population followed with the dead numbered at about 3,000.
(V.D.-H.K.p.109)(HN, 7/15/98)(SSFC, 4/13/03, p.E3)

1099 Jul 16, Crusaders herded the Jews of Jerusalem into a synagogue and set it afire.
(MC, 7/16/02)

1099 Aug 12, At the Battle of Ascalon 1,000 Crusaders, led by Godfrey of Bouillon, routed an Egyptian relief column heading for Jerusalem. The Norman Godfrey, elected King of Jerusalem, had assumed the title Defender of the Holy Sepulcher. Disease starvation by this time reduced the Crusaders to 60,000, down from an initial 300,000, and most of the survivors left for home.
(HN, 8/12/99)(PC, 1992, p.88)

1099 The Aleppo Codex, owned by Jewish community in Jerusalem, was seized by Crusaders who sacked the city. It was then ransomed and made its way to Cairo, Egypt.
(AP, 9/27/08)



Timeline The Twelfth Century 

1100 Aug 2, William II (44), [Rufus], king of England, was shot dead in New Forest.
1100 Aug 2, Henry I (1068-1135), the son of William the Conqueror, became King of England. He soon published the Charter of Liberties to persuade barons that he would behave more reasonably than his brother William Rufus.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_I_of_England)(Econ, 12/20/14, p.34)

1100 The Tower of London took in its 1st prisoner.
(Hem, 9/04, p.28)

c1100 St. Cono was born in Teggiano in southern Italy. He became a Benedictine monk and went on to perform numerous miracles. His remains were later embedded in a statue in the church of Santa Maria Maggiore.
(WSJ, 11/10/98, p.A1)

c1100 Timbuktu was founded about this time as a seasonal Tuareg nomad camp around a well that was maintained by a group of slaves under an old woman, Buktu, “the place of Buktu.” Tuareg is a derisive Arab term meaning abandoned by the gods. Natives prefer to be know as Kel Tamashek people.
(AM, 11/00, p.51)(SSFC, 4/11/04, p.D6)(SFC, 10/30/04, p.E1)

1100 In the Netherlands Wittem Castle in Limburg dates to this time.
(SFEC, 1/31/99, p.T13)

c1100 In Spain the town of Santo Domingo de la Calzada was founded by a man known as St. Dominic of the Walkway.
(SFEC, 6/15/97, p.T5)

1100 By the 1100s the Chinese began to use the magnetic compass.
(ATC, p.11)

1100 By this time East African traders in Kilwa controlled the export of gold and ivory from the southern kingdoms. Kilwa was the most prosperous of the east African city-states.
(ATC, p.143)

1100 Statue (moai) building began about this time on Easter Island and continued to the 1700s.
(SSFC, 9/18/05, p.E14)

1100 A volcano erupted about this time in the area of Flagstaff, Arizona.
(SSFC, 7/23/06, p.G4)

1100s Troubadour musicians organized in southern France.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1100s Bushmills Distillery in Northern Ireland began producing whiskey.
(SFEC, 1/10/99, p.T8)

c1100-1154 Geoffrey of Monmouth, English chronicler. The Welsh cleric claimed that Merlin used magic to bring the stones of Stonehenge from Ireland.
(WUD, 1994, p.592)(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.12)

1100-1200 In Cambodia the Khmer empire reached its peak under King Jajavarman II in the 12th century.
(SFEC, 7/26/98, p.T7)

1100-1200 The 16-foot scroll titled “Qingming Shanghe Tu” (Qingming Festival on the River) was created in the 12th century. It was believed to have been painted by Zhang Zeduan, an artist of the Song Dynasty.
(SFC, 9/14/05, p.E2)(www.ibiblio.org/ulysses/gec/painting/qingming/)
1100-1200 The Song capital of Kaifeng in northern China was later believed to have been the most populous city of this period.
(Econ, 1/21/12, p.44)
1100-1200 Muhammed ibn-Musa al-Khwarizmi, Arab mathematician and astronomer, wrote “hisab al-jabr w’ al muqabalah” (the science of reduction and comparison) in the 9th cent. The work dealt with solving equations. It was the first time that algebra was discussed as a separate branch of mathematics. In the 12th century it was translated into Latin as “Ludus algebrae et almucgrabalaeque.”
(Alg, 1990, p.87)
c1100-1200 Shihab el-Din was an anti-Crusader cleric. He was believed to be buried in Nazareth next to the Basilica of the Annunciation. A cornerstone for a mosque was laid at the site in 1999.
(SFC, 11/24/99, p.A16)

1100-1200 Chretien de Troyes of France in the 12th century introduced Camelot into the Arthurian legend and placed Lancelot in the saga along with the quest for the Holy Grail.
(WSJ, 3/27/98, p.W10)
c1100-1200 Albigenses were members of the Catharistic sect that arose in southern France in the 11th century. [see 1244]
(WUD, 1994 p.34)
1100-1200 In France the Abbot Suger was busy embellishing the abbey of St. Denis.
(WSJ, 3/28/97, p.A16)

1100-1200 The German Stammheim Missal was made. It told stories from Creation to the crucifixion of Christ. In 1997 it was acquired by the J. Paul Getty Museum.
(SFC, 4/26/97, p.E3)
1100-1200 Berlin was founded amid the sandy plains and swamps of Brandenburg. In 1998 Alexandra Richie published “Faust’s Metropolis: A History of Berlin.”
(WSJ, 5/1/98, p.W5)
1100-1200 In Germany the Oberburg Castle was built in the 12th century by the Knights of Leyen.
(SFEC, 4/30/00, p.T8)
1100-1200 Two 12th century castles along the Rhine were owned, according to legend, by the brothers Conrad and Heinrich of Boppard. They came to blows over a woman, Hildegarde, and the ruins of the castles were named the Warring Brothers.
(SFEC, 3/15/98, p.T5)
c1100-1200 The Festung Ehrenbreitsen, Europe’s largest fortress, was built at the convergence of the Mosel and Rhine Rivers.
(SFEC, 4/30/00, p.T1)

c1100-c1200 Basavanna was a 12th-century Hindu Lingayat philosopher, statesman, Kannada poet in the Niraakaara Shiva-focussed Bhakti movement and a social reformer during the reign of the Kalachuri-dynasty king Bijjala I in Karnataka, India. He founded Lingayatism, often considered a Hindu sect, but it rejects the authority of the Vedas, the caste system, and Hindu beliefs such as reincarnation and karma. Worship is centred on Shiva as the universal god in the iconographic form of Ishtalinga. Lingayatism emphasises qualified monism, with philosophical foundations similar to those of the 11th-12th century South Indian philosopher Ramanuja.
1100-1200 In India the bronze sculpture “Shiva Nataraya” depicted the Hindu god of creation and destruction doing the dance that sustains the universe.
(SFC, 6/28/97, p.E1)
1100-1200 In India the comic man-elephant “Ganesha” sculpture was carved in schist.
(SFC, 6/28/97, p.E1)

1100-1200 In Ireland Cistercian monks established an abbey on Clare Island.
(SFEC, 4/12/98, p.T8)
1100-1200 In Limerick, Ireland a 12th century cathedral was built.
(SFEC, 3/15/98, p.T11)

c1100-1200 In Japan Nichiren Daishonin, the son of a fisherman in Awa, established a new sect of Buddhism. In 1930 the Soka Gakkai (value-creation society) was founded in Tokyo based on his teachings.
(WSJ, 4/23/99, B1)

1100-1200 The Norse visited Ellesmere Island in the Canadian Arctic as early as the 12th century and traded with the Thule, evidenced by chain mail. boat rivets, knife blades, and other artifacts turned up near Bache Peninsula.
(NG, 6/1988, p.763)
1100-1200 Norwegian Chronicles mentioned a stave church in the village of Vaga.
(WSJ, 8/27/96, p.A12)

1100-1200 Era of the 12 century Persian poet Nizami of Ganja.
(SFC, 5/19/96, p.C-13)

1100-1200 Serbs occupied parts of northern and eastern Albanian inhabited lands.
(www, Albania, 1998)

c1100-1200 San Isidro, a Spanish farmer, later became the patron saint of Madrid.
(WSJ, 11/18/97, p.A20)
c1100-1200 Judah Halevi was a Jewish poet who lived in Muslim Spain in the 12th century. He wrote “City of the Great King, for thee my soul is longing.”
(WSJ, 12/12/00, p.A24)

1100-1200 In Turkey Constantinople was devastated by fires in the 12th century.
(SFC, 7/27/98, p.A8)

1100-1200 The 12th century book “Gyuschi” was a compilation of Tibetan medicine that described the making and applications of medications extracted from herbs, roots and minerals often served as hot teas.
(SFC, 2/20/98, p.C4)

1100-1300 About this period volcanic ash and molten rock sprayed the area of the Wupatki Basin near Flagstaff, Arizona for as long as 200 years.
(SSFC, 7/23/06, p.G5)

1100-1300 Over 100 new towns were founded in England during this period and the population jumped from 2.25 million to 6 million.
(Econ, 12/24/16, p.34)

1100-1400 The official stave churches of Norway were mostly built during this period.
(WSJ, 8/27/96, p.A12)

1101 Most of the inhabitants of Caesarea were massacred by the army of Baldwin I (1100–1118), king of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem.
(AFP, 12/3/18)

1101 William IX, the Duke of Aquitaine, returned from the Crusades and composed songs about his adventures, thus becoming the first troubadour. He was excommunicated for licentious acts, but his lyrics led to the “courtly love” genre.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1101-1125 Huizong ruled over China. He was a calligrapher, painter and Confucian advocate of embracing antiquity. He broadened the scope of Imperial collecting to embrace bronze ritual objects as well as old paintings and calligraphy.
(SFEC, 10/6/96, DB p.36)

1102 In England the Westminster Council outlawed “the selling of men like brute animals.”
(ON, 12/08, p.8)

1102 Coats were forced to enter into a union with Hungary and to recognize the Hungarian king as their own.
(WSJ, 7/14/99, p.A23)

1103 Aug 24, Magnus III Berbein, [Blootbeen], King of Norway (1093-1103), died.
(MC, 8/24/02)

1105 Nov 24, Rabbi Nathan ben Yehiel of Rome completed a Talmudic dictionary.
(MC, 11/24/01)

1106 Aug 7, Henry IV (54), Holy Roman Emperor (1056/84-1105), died.
(MC, 8/7/02)

1106 Sep 28, King Henry I of England defeated his brother Robert Curthose of Normandy at the Battle of Tinchebrai and reunited England and Normandy. Robert remained a prisoner until he died in 1134.
(HN, 9/28/98)(PC, 1992, p.90)

1107 China printed money in 3 colors to thwart counterfeiters.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1107 Mi Fu (b.1051), Chinese calligrapher of the Northern Song period, died.
(SFC, 5/14/03, p.D3)(SFC, 7/1/06, p.E1)

1107-1205 Enrico Dandolo, ruler of Venice. He was blind and spearheaded the 4th Crusade. He funded an army to capture Constantinople and after the “rape of Constantinople” pocketed some of the city’s riches. He stole 4 bronze horses and placed them over the entry to the Cathedral of San Marco.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)

1109 Apr 21, Anselmus, philosopher, archbishop of Canterbury, died.
(MC, 4/21/02)

1109 Apr 28, Hugo van Cluny, 6th abbot of Cluny, saint, died.
(MC, 4/28/02)

1109 Jul 12, Crusaders captured harbor city of Tripoli.
(MC, 7/12/02)

1110 May 13, Crusaders marched into Beirut causing a bloodbath.
(MC, 5/13/02)

1110 Dec 4, Syria harbor city of Saida (Sidon) surrendered to the Crusaders.
(MC, 12/4/01)

1111 Feb 12, Henry V of Germany presented himself to Pope Paschal II for coronation along with treaty terms that commanded the clergy to restore fiefs of the crown to Henry. The pope refused to crown and Henry left Rome taking the pope with him. When Paschal was unable to get help, he confirmed Henry’s right of investiture and crowned him.
(PCh, 1992, p.91)

1113 Feb 13, Pope Paschal II issued a papal bull recognizing the Knights of Malta as independent from bishops or secular authorities. The order traces had establishment an infirmary in Jerusalem that cared for people of all faiths making pilgrimages to the Holy Land.
(AP, 2/5/13)

1113 Aug 24, Geoffrey Plantagenet, conquered Normandy, was born in France.
(MC, 8/24/02)

1114 Trade fairs were held at Champagne, France, at the crossing of roads from Flanders, Germany, Italy and Provence.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

c1117 Abelard (1079-1142), master of a school in Paris, impregnated Heloise, his single female student. [See 1079]
(WSJ, 2/11/05, p.W6)

1118 Apr 2, Boudouin I of Bologne and Edessa, 1st crusader, king of Jerusalem, died.
(MC, 4/2/02)

1118 Apr 7, Pope Gelasius II excommunicated Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor.
(MC, 4/7/02)

1118 Dec 18, Afonso the Battler, the Christian King of Aragon captured Saragossa, Spain, a major blow to Muslim Spain.
(HN, 12/18/98)

1118 Dec 21, Thomas Becket (d.1170), archbishop of Canterbury, was born (some sources say 1120). His close friend Henry II of England later ordered his martyrdom.

1118 The military order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon was founded in Jerusalem to protect pilgrims in the Holy Land following the First Crusade. The Knights Templar were founded to protect pilgrims in the Holy Land during the second Crusade.
(AHD, 1971, p.724)(AP, 10/12/07)
1118 Seborga became the provenance of nine Knight Templars returning from the crusades.
(SFEC, 3/30/97, p.T7)

1119 The French knight Hugues de Payens approached King Baldwin II of Jerusalem and Warmund, Patriarch of Jerusalem, and proposed creating a monastic order for the protection of the pilgrims.

1120 Nov 25, Countess of Perche, bastard daughter of English king Henry I, drowned along with William (17), English crown prince and son of Henry I.
(MC, 11/25/01)

1121 Mar 2, Dirk VI became count of Holland.
(SC, 3/2/02)

1121 Mar 2, Dirk VI became count of Holland.
(SC, 3/2/02)

1122 Mar 2, Floris II, the fat one, count of Holland, died.
(SC, 3/2/02)

1123 In the film “The Visitors” The noble Sir Godefroy of this time is transformed to 1996 France to do battle with short order cooks, rescue bag ladies and learn modern etiquette in order to find the descendant of his betrothed sweetheart’s descendant, the Duchess Frenegonde.
(SFC, 7/16/96, p.E1)

1123 Omar Khayyam, Persian poet and mathematician, died.
(WUD, 1994, p.1005)

1124 Apr 27, Alexander I, king of Scotland (1107-24), died.
(MC, 4/27/02)

1124 May 6, Balak, Emir of Aleppo (Syria), was murdered.
(MC, 5/6/02)

1124 Jul 7, Tyre [Tyrus] surrendered to the Crusaders.
(MC, 7/7/02)

1124 The quality of English silver coins improved after mint masters caught adulterating coins had their right hands cut off.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1125 May 25, Hendrik V, last Salische German king, died.
(SC, 5/25/02)

1125 William of Malmesbury (c1095-c1143) completed his Gesta Regum Anglorum (“Deeds of the English Kings”), consciously patterned on Bede, which spanned from AD 449–1120.

1125 Sinaguan people built a 5-story limestone dwelling, later known as Montezuma Castle, near Sedona, Az.
(SSFC, 7/6/03, p.C9)

1126 Nov 26, Al-Borsoki, emir of Aleppo-Mosoel (Syria), was assassinated.
(MC, 11/26/01)

1126AD A drought that lasted 1-2 centuries, as measured from tree rings in the Sierra Nevada, was centered on this time. It coincided with a Medieval warm period when Vikings navigated the waters surrounding Greenland. A 2nd drought centered at 1340AD.
(NH, 9/96, p.38)

1126-1198 Averroes (Ibn Rushd), Arab philosopher and commentator who translated Aristotle from the original Greek to Arabic, which was then translated to Latin. He wrote a major reinterpretation of Plato’s Republic. He lamented the fact that Islam had not adopted Plato’s view of women as the equal of men and had thus failed to give them civic equality.
(V.D.-H.K.p.117)(WSJ, 7/7/99, p.A23)

1127 Mar 2, Charles the Good, Count of Flanders, was murdered. Flemish towns (Ghent, Bruges and Ypres) forced the selection of Thierry of Alsace as the new count despite Louis VI’s choice of the son of Normandy’s Robert Curthose.
(PCh, 1992, p.92)(SC, 3/2/02)

1127-1279 In 2007 Chinese archeologists raised a merchant ship loaded with porcelain and other rare antiques to the surface in a specially built basket. The 100-foot Nanhai No. 1, discovered in 1987, sank off the south China coast during the Southern Song Dynasty (1127-1279).
(AP, 12/21/07)

1128 Jun 24, Afonso I of Portugal defeated the army of his mother Theresa.
(MC, 6/24/02)

1128 Scotland’s Royal High School in Edinburgh was founded by a group of Friars to prepare children for a life in the church. It was not described as a high school until 1505. In the early 19th century it served as a model for America’s first public secondary school.
(SFC, 4/22/98, p.A10)(Econ, 8/27/16, p.41)

1129 Aug 21, The warrior Yoritomo was made Shogun without equal in Japan.
(HN, 8/21/98)

1130 Feb 14, Jewish Cardinal Pietro Pierleone was elected as anti-pope Anacletus II.
(MC, 2/14/02)

1130 Sep 27, Roger II (1095-1154) became King of Sicily.

1130 The Knights of St. John (the Hospitallers) became a military order some 60 years after having been founded in Jerusalem to care for the sick.
(Arch, 9/02, p.27)

1130 China’s Master-of-the-Nets Garden in Suzhou was built about this time.
(SSFC, 6/25/06, p.A16)

1130 The first travel book was written by a French priest about travel on the Camino de Santiago (the road of St. James) in northern Spain.
(SFEC, 6/15/97, p.T5)
1130 The French church at the abbey at Cluny was completed and measured over 400 feet long.
(SFEC, 11/21/99, p.T4)

1130-1150 Tree growth rings revealed that a drought occurred in the southwest US. This period corresponded with the abandonment of Anasazi dwelling sites in Arizona.
(Hem., 5/97, p.79)

1130-1200 Chu codified Confucian thought.
(SFEC, 11/28/99, Z1 p.5)

1131 Mar 1, Stephen II, King of Hungary (1116-31), died.
(SC, 3/1/02)

1131 Oct 25, Louis VII the Young, King of France, was crowned.
(MC, 10/25/01)

1132 In China invaders established what became known as the southern Song dynasty in Hangzhou.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R51)

1133 Mar 25, Henry II, King of England (1154-1189) , was born.
(HN, 3/24/98)

1133 Jun 4, In Rome Pope Innocentius II crowned German King Lothair II as emperor at the Church of the Lateran.
(MC, 6/4/02)(PCh, 1992, p.92)

1133-1193 Rashid Al-Din Sinan, also known as “The Old Man of the Mountain,” was a leader of the Assassins. He used the Syrian Masyaf castle as a base for spreading the beliefs of the Nizari Ismaili sect of Islam to which he and his followers belonged.
(www.iis.ac.uk/view_article.asp?ContentID=104843)(Reuters, 7/13/07)

1134 In Germany the Cistercian Himmerod Abbey was founded by the French abbot Bernard of Clairvaux. In 2017 it had just six resident monks before its closure was decided, down from about 30 monks in the 1970s.
(AP, 10/14/17)

1135 Dec 1, Henry I Beauclerc of England died and the crown was passed to his nephew Stephen of Bloise. He had decreed that the standard linear measure of one foot be a third the length of his arm which was 36 inches. He was the 1st English king able to read.
(HN, 12/1/98)(SFEC, 2/14/99, Z1 p.8)(MC, 12/1/01)

1135 Dec 22, Stephen of Blois was crowned the king of England.
(HN, 12/22/98)

1135 Maimonides (d.1204), Jewish scholar, philosopher and rabbi was born in Spain. He analyzed linkages between wealth and charity and created a ladder of giving with each rung representing a higher degree of virtue. The most virtuous way to give was to help a stranger by offering him a loan or job so that he would no longer need help. The lowest rung was to make a grudging donation.
(WUD, 1994, p.864)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)(WSJ, 10/5/01, p.W17)

1136 The people of Novgorod, Russia, expelled their prince, assigned by Kiev, and transferred his power to the local nobility and merchant class who formed a sort of city council known as the vieche.
(AM, 11/00, p.32)

1137 Aug 1, Louis the Younger (1120-1180) of France was crowned King Louis VII. He had married Eleanor, the Duchess of Aquitaine, just a few months earlier.
(ON, 6/12, p.3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_VII_of_France)

1138 May 29, Anti-Pope Victor IV (Gregorio) overthrew self for Innocentius II.
(SC, 5/29/02)

1139 Apr 20, The Second Lateran Council opened in Rome. The crossbow was outlawed in the 12th century, at least against Christians, by the second Lateran council (the 10th ecumenical council), called by Pope Innocent II. Capable of piercing chain mail from a range of up to 1,000 feet, this formidable missile weapon remained a fixture of technically-advanced European armies throughout the Middle Ages. Although it was used after the introduction of firearms, it was eventually succeeded by the harquebus—a primitive gun—in the late 15th century. The council attempted universal enforcement of priestly celibacy in the Roman Catholic Church.
(HN, 4/20/98)(HN, 4/20/98)(HNQ, 12/5/00)(SFC, 3/16/02, p.A3)

1138 Aug 22, English defeated Scots at Cowton Moor. Banners of various saints were carried into battle which led to its being called Battle of the Standard.
(MC, 8/22/02)

1139 Incendiary weapons that burned people to death were banned by the countries of northern Europe as “too murderous.” The practice was resumed the next century.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.57)

1140 Gratian wrote the illuminated “Decretum,” a standard treatise on canon law in Bologna about this time. He wrote three volumes on the subject which were lavishly illustrated. The three volumes were later published by the Vatican in 1975.
(WSJ, 7/13/95, p.A-12)

1140 Ghorid leaders from central Afghanistan captured and burned Ghazni, then moved on to conquer India.

1140 Somerled first appeared in historical chronicles as the regulus, or King, of Kintyre (Cinn Tìre) when he marries Raghnailt the daughter of Olaf (or Amhlaibh), King of Mann and the Scottish Isles.

1141 Jan 31, Pope Innocent II authorized Bishop Henry of Moravia to preach Catholicism in Prussia.
(LHC, 1/31/03)

1141 Sep 8, Battle of Samarkand (Uzbekistan): Yelutashi defeated Islams.
(MC, 9/8/01)

1141 Dec 29, Yue Fei, Chinese general, was executed.
(MC, 12/29/01)

1141 The Barone Ricasoli family founded a wine and oil firm and produced Chianti wine.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(SFC, 4/14/06, p.D1)

1142 Apr 21, Pierre Abelard (62), French philosopher (priestly lover of Heloise), died.
(MC, 4/21/02)

1143 William of Malmesbury (b.c1095), the foremost English historian of the 12th century, died about this time.

1144 Mar 8, Celestine II [Guido], Italian Pope (1143-44), died in battle.
(MC, 3/8/02)

1144 The Saracens recaptured the crusader’s castles along the Palestine coast.

1144 In Syria the Knights Hospitallers began expanding a fortress 90 miles northwest of Damascus. It became known as The Crac des Chevaliers. The Mamelukes captured it in 1271 and converted the chapel into a mosque.
(WSJ, 1/31/09, p.W12)

1146 Aug 30, European leaders outlawed the crossbow with the intention to end war for all time. [see 1139]
(MC, 8/30/01)

1146 Sep 14, Zangi of the Near East was murdered. The Sultan Nur ad-Din, his son, pursued the conquest of Edessa (NW Mesopotamia).
(HN, 9/14/98)

1146 France’s warrior-abbot Bernard of Clairvaux built the La Cordelle chapel in northern Burgundy.
(SFCM, 10/7/07, p.18)

1147 Oct 25, At the Battle at Dorylaeum (Turkey) Arabs beat Konrad III’s crusaders. Conrad III of Germany and Louis VII of France had assembled 500,000 men for the 2nd Crusade. Most of the men were lost to starvation, disease and battle wounds.
(PCh, 1992, p.94)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Dorylaeum_%281147%29)

1147 Moscow was founded by Prince Yuri Dolgoruky, a ruler of the northeastern Rus. He built the first fortress, or Kremlin, along the Moscow River.
(SFC, 11/12/96, p.A14)(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.27,28)

1148 Jul 24, Crusaders, led by Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany, attacked Damascus. It was a dismal failure and effectively ended the 2nd Crusade.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Crusade)(V.D.-H.K.p.109)(ON, 6/12, p.5)

1149 In Jerusalem the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, rebuilt by the Crusaders, was consecrated.
(Arch, 9/02, p.28)

1150 Mar 26, Tichborne family of Hampshire, England, started tradition of giving a gallon of flour to each resident to keep deathbed promise.
(SS, 3/26/02)

c1150 The original Hopi territory in the southwest encompassed some 225,000 sq. miles around villages established about this time.
(SFC, 1/3/97, p.A26)

c1150 A group of Anasazi villages in southwest Colorado were suddenly abandoned during a period of severe drought. In 2000 evidence showed that a raiding party had swept through the area, killed the inhabitants and ate their flesh.
(SFC, 9/6/00, p.A3)

1150 Adelard of Bath (b.1080), Englishman, died. He had traveled widely and translated the Arabic version of Euclid’s “Elements” into Latin as well as several Arabic books on astronomy.
(SSFC, 2/8/04, p.M2)

c1150 Suryavarman II, Khmer ruler, died about this time. He commissioned the building of Angkor Wat, possibly the largest religious monument in the world. He traded elephant tusks, rhinoceros horns and kingfisher feathers for gold. The feathers were prized in China for bridal attire.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)

1150 The municipality of Genoa raised 400 lira by granting to investors the tax revenue raised from stallholders in the marketplace over a term of 29 years. This became the first recorded public bond.
(Econ, 1/10/09, p.74)

1151 Sep 7, Geoffrey Plantagenet, earl of Anjou and duke of Normandy, died at 38.
(MC, 9/7/01)

1151 In Iceland the first known fire and plague insurance was offered.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1152 Mar 4, Frederick Barbarossa was chosen as emperor and united the two factions, which emerged in Germany after the death of Henry V.
(HN, 3/4/99)

1152 Mar, The marriage between King Louis VII of France and Eleanor of Aquitaine was annulled at a royal council in Beaugency.
(ON, 6/12, p.5)

1153 Mar 23, Treaty of Konstanz between Frederik I “Barbarossa” and Pope Eugene III.
(SS, 3/23/02)

1152 May 18, Eleanor of Aquitaine married Henry Plantagenet, a rebellious vassal of King Louis VII.
(ON, 6/12, p.5)

1153 May 23, David I (~68), king of Scotland (1124-53), died.
(MC, 5/23/02)

1153 May 24, Malcolm IV became king of Scotland.
(MC, 5/24/02)

1153 Aug 20, Bernard de Clairvaux, French saint, died.
(MC, 8/20/02)

1153 A wandering Arab holy man converted the king of the Buddhist islanders of the Maldives.
(WSJ, 7/22/96, p.A12)

1153 A chicken restaurant, the world’s oldest existing eatery, opened in Kai-Feng, China.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1153 Anna Komnene (b.1083), Byzantine princess and scholar, died. She was a daughter of the Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos and Irene Doukaina. She is one of the first known female historians, having written the Alexiad.

1154 Feb 26, Roger II Guiscard (60), King of Sicily (1101-54), died. William the bad succeeded his father, Roger the II.

1154 Oct 25, King Steven of England (1135-54), died.
(MC, 10/25/01)

1154 Dec 19, Henry Plantagenet of the Angevin dynasty was crowned Henry II, King of England with Eleanor of Aquitaine as queen.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eleanor,_Duchess_of_Aquitaine)(ON, 6/12, p.5)

1155 Jan, Sir Thomas Becket (~1118-1170) was given the high office of Chancellor to the King, Henry II.

1155 Jun 18, German-born Frederick I, Barbarossa, was crowned emperor of Rome by Pope Adrian IV.
(HN, 6/18/98)(MC, 6/18/02)

1155 A map of western China was printed and is the oldest known printed map.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1156 May 28, Battle at Brindisi: King William of Sicily beat a Byzantine fleet.
(MC, 5/28/02)

1156 The first foreign exchange contracts were issued and allowed the repayment of Genoese pounds debt with Byzantine bezants.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1157 Sep 8, Richard I, [Richard the Lion Hearted], King of England (1189-99), was born.
(MC, 9/8/01)

1157 The Bank of Venice issued the first government bonds to raise funds for was with Constantinople.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1158 Aug 31, Sancho III, King of Castilia, died.
(MC, 8/31/01)

1158 Nov 11, Emperor Frederik I Barbarossa declared himself ruler of North Italy.
(MC, 11/11/01)

1159 Sep 1, Adrian IV, [Nicole Breakspear], only English pope (1154-59), died.
(MC, 9/1/02)

1159 John of Salisbury authored a religious book called “The Metalogicon.” It included the phrase: “”We are like dwarfs sitting on the shoulders of giants. We see more, and things that are more distant, than they did, not because our sight is superior or because we are taller than they, but because they raise us up, and by their great stature add to ours.” In 2003 Robert Merton’s book “On the Shoulders of Giants” quotes Bernard of Chartres as saying in about 1130: “We are like dwarfs standing [or sitting] upon the shoulders of giants, and so able to see more and see farther than the ancients.”

1160 Feb 3, Emperor Frederick Barbarossa hurtled prisoners, including children, at the Italian city of Crema, forcing its surrender.
(HN, 2/3/99)

1160 May 18, Erik IX Helgi (The Saint), King of Sweden, died. According to legends, the king was beheaded and miracles occurred after his death. Uppsala Cathedral was later built on the murder site to house his remains.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eric_IX_of_Sweden)(AP, 4/23/14)

1160 Jul 21, Peterus Lombardus, Italian theologian, bishop of Paris, died.
(MC, 7/21/02)

1160 Dec 6, Jean Bodel’s “Jeu de St Nicholas,” premiered in Arras, France.
(MC, 12/6/01)

1160-1216 Giovanni Lotario de’ Conti, served as Pope Innocent III from 1198-1216.
(WUD, 1994, p.733)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)

1160-1225 Ma Yuan, an academic painter, made his Southern Song masterpiece “Banquet by Lantern Light.”
(SFEC, 10/6/96, DB p.37)

1162 May 23, Thomas Becket was elected archbishop of Canterbury.

1162 This date was given by Marco Polo for the Tartars settling around the area south of Lake Baikal and forming a city called Karakoram.
(TMPV, P.80)

1162 A man in Constantinople fashioned sail-like wings from fabric into pleats and folds. He plummeted from the top of a tower and died.
(NPub, 2002, p.2)

1163 In France construction began on the Notre-Dame Cathedral in Paris.
(AFP, 4/16/19)

1164 Jan 27, Abraham ibn Ezra, poet, philosopher, died.
(MC, 1/27/02)

1164 Jan 30, Henry II held a council at the Clarendon hunting lodge and presented a document called the Constitutions of Clarendon. In sixteen constitutions he sought less clerical independence and a weaker connection with Rome. Thomas Becket, the archbishop of Canterbury, refused to sign.
(ON, 8/20/11, p.2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Becket)

1164 Apr 20, Victor IV, [Ottaviano Montecello], Italian antipope (1159-64), died.
(MC, 4/20/02)

1164 Apr 22, Raynald of Dassel named Guido di Crema as anti-pope Paschalis III.
(MC, 4/22/02)

1164 Nov 2, Thomas Becket, the archbishop of Canterbury, fled England and landed in Flanders.
(ON, 8/20/11, p.2)

1164 Somerled, military and political leader of the Scottish Isles, assembled an army to repel the Stuarts. He advanced to the centre of the their territory at Renfrew, where a great battle was fought. Much confusion surrounds the manner of the battle, and indeed whether a battle occurred at all, but what is certain is that Somerled was assassinated, after which his army retreated from the area. DNA evidence later suggested that Somerled was of Viking descent.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Somerled)(AM, 7/05, p.14)

1165 Jul 28, Ibn al-‘Arabi, Muslim mystic, philosopher, was born.
(SC, 7/28/02)

1165 Aug 21, Philip II Augustus, 1st great Capetian king of France (1179-1223), was born.
(SC, 8/21/02)

1165 Nov 23, Pope Alexander III returned from exile to Rome
(MC, 11/23/01)

1165 Dec 9, Malcom IV (24), king of Scotland (1153-65), died.
(MC, 12/9/01)

1166 Diarmaid Mac Murchada, King of Leinster, met with Henry II in Aquitaine after he was dispossessed of land by Ruaidhri O Conchobair, the High King of Ireland. This meeting instigated the Norman invasion of 1169.
(Econ, 5/28/11, p.18)
1166 El-Idrisi (b.1099), a Muslim geographer, died. The Arab geographer Idrisi claimed that Indians preferred iron from East Africa over their own because of its malleability.
(SSFC, 9/2/07, p.A18)(NH, 6/97, p.44)

1167 Feb 27, Robert of Melun, English philosopher, bishop of Hereford, died.
(MC, 2/27/02)

1167 Aug 14, Raynald van Dassel, archbishop of Cologne, died.
(MC, 8/14/02)

1167 Dec 1, Northern Italian towns formed the Lombardi League.
(MC, 12/1/01)

1167 Dec 24, John “Lackland” Plantagenet, King of England (1199-1216), was born.
(HN, 12/24/98)(MC, 12/24/01)

1167 Sweden’s King Charles VII was assassinated after ruling for 6 years. Charles VII was the first Swedish king with the name Charles.

1167 Genghis Khan (d.1227) was born in the Hentiyn Nuruu mountains north of Ulan Bator in the early 1160’s (it has been argued between 1162 and 1167, but recently agreement has been made for 1167), the son of the Kiyat-Borjigid chieftain Yisugei. His given name was Temujin, “the ironsmith,” and he seized control over much of 5 million square miles that covered China, Iran, Iraq, Burma, Vietnam, and most of Korea and Russia. His efforts in Vietnam were not successful. “In Search of Genghis Khan” is a book by Tim Severin. He was succeeded by his son Ogedai, who was succeeded by Guyuk. Ogedai ignored numerous pleas from his brother Chaghatai to cut down on his drinking and died of alcoholism as did Guyuk. [see 1167]
(www.royalalbertamuseum.ca/vexhibit/genghis/biog.htm)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)

1168 Sep 20, Paschal III, [Guido di Crema], Italian anti-Pope, died.
(MC, 9/20/01)

1169 Mar 23, Shirkuh, Kurd General, vizier of Cairo, Saladin’s uncle, died.
(SS, 3/23/02)

1169 May 1, The Norman invasion of Ireland, a two-stage process, began when a force of loosely associated Norman knights landed near Bannow, County Wexford. This was at the request of Dermot MacMurrough (Diarmait Mac Murchada), the ousted King of Leinster, who sought their help in regaining his kingdom. Stage 2 began in 1171 with the arrival of Henry II.

1169 Dec, Owain Gwynedd, ruler of North Wales in the twelfth century, died. He had nineteen children, six of whom were legitimate. MADOC, one of the bastard sons, was born in a castle at Dolwyddelan, a village at the head of the Lledr valley between Betws-y-Coed and Blaenau Ffestiniog. The brothers fought amongst themselves for the right to rule Gwynedd. MADOC, although being brave and adventurous, was a man of peace. He and his brother, Riryd, left the quay on the Afon (River) Ganol at Aber-Kerrik-Gwynan, on the North Wales Coast (now Rhos-on-Sea) in two ships, the Gorn Gwynant and the Pedr Sant. They sailed west, leaving the coast of Ireland ‘farre north’ and landed in Mobile Bay, in what we now know as Alabama in the USA.

1169-1181 The heyday of the Kiyomori Clan in Japan.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)

1170 Jun 14, Henry II of England crowned his son as heir apparent in a ritual performed by the archbishop of York.
(ON, 8/20/11, p.2)

1170 Dec 2, Thomas Becket, archbishop of Canterbury, returned to Canterbury from France.
(ON, 8/20/11, p.3)

1170 Dec 29, Thomas Becket (b.1117), archbishop of Canterbury, was murdered in Canterbury Cathedral by 4 English knights. Barons had heard Henry II cry out, “Will no one rid me of this meddlesome priest?”
(AP, 12/29/97)(HN, 12/29/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Becket)

c1170 Leonardo Fibonacci, Italian mathematician, was born. It is believed Fibonacci discovered the relationship of what are now referred to as Fibonacci numbers while studying the Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt and by investigating how fast rabbits could breed in ideal circumstances. Suppose a newborn pair of rabbits, one male, one female, is put in a field. Rabbits are able to mate at the age of one month so at the end of its second month a female can produce another pair of rabbits. Suppose our rabbits never die and the female always produces one new pair (one male, one female) every month from the second month on. The puzzle Fibonacci posed was: How many pairs will there be in one year? At the end of the first month, they mate, but there is still one only 1 pair. At the end of the second month the female produces a new pair, so now there are 2 pairs of rabbits in the field. At the end of the third month, the original female produces a second pair, making 3 pairs in all in the field. At the end of the fourth month, the original female has produced yet another new pair, the female born two months ago produces her first pair also, making 5 pairs. The number of pairs of rabbits in the field at the start of each month is 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, … The next number in the Fibonacci sequence is arrived at by adding the previous two values together. Thus, to get the next value after 34 add 21 to 34 and arrive at 55. As you can see, Fibonacci numbers are a sequence of numbers in which each successive number is the sum of the two previous numbers: 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233, 377, 610, etc. Now, if you take any two adjacent values and divide each one by their sum, a peculiar thing occurs, the values converge to 38.2% and 61.8%. These numbers also possess an intriguing number of natural interrelationships, such as the fact that any given number is approximately 1.618 times the preceding number and any given number is approximately 0.618 times the following number. The booklet Understanding Fibonacci Numbers by Edward Dobson contains a good discussion of these interrelationships.
(BMTI, 8/2/00)

c1170 Hua was chief of Hana, in what is now the Hawaiian Islands.
(SFEM, 3/16/97, p.46)

1170 Madoc, a Welsh prince, is reputed to have discovered America. Many believe that he and his followers initially settled in the Georgia/Tennessee/ Kentucky area, eventually moving to the Upper Missouri, where they were assimilated into a tribe of the Mandans. New evidence is also emerging about a small band of Madoc’s followers who remained in the Ohio area and are called “White Madoc.”

1170-1221 Domingo de Guzman, a Spanish monk founded the Dominicans, also called mendicants, for they abjured great abbeys and cloisters in favor of a life of utmost simplicity and poverty. The Order of St. Dominic was fashioned to minister to the educated classes in the new towns.
(V.D.-H.K.p.108)(CU, 6/87)

1171 May 1, Dermot MacMurrough (b.1110), last Irish King of Leinster, died.

1171 Oct 18, Henry II (1133-1189) arrived in Ireland from France with an army and declared himself “Lord of Ireland”. All of the Normans, along with many Irish princes, took oaths of homage to Henry by November, and he left after six months. He never returned, but in 1177 he named his youngest son, Prince John, as Lord of Ireland.

c1171 Benjamin ben Jonah, a Spanish Jew, returned to his home in Tudela and published an account of his 6-year journey to Constantinople, Cyprus, Palestine, Damascus, Persia and Egypt: “The Travels of Benjamin of Tudela.”
(WSJ, 8/8/02, p.D10)

1172 Mar 4, Stephan III, King of Hungary (1162-72), died.
(SC, 3/4/02)

1172-1216 Shota Rustaveli, a Georgian poet, lived about this time. He is considered by many to be one of the greatest representatives of the literature of the medieval world. His literary work included “The Knight in the Panther’s Skin” (“Vepkhistkaosani” in Georgian), the Georgian national epic poem.

1173 Feb 21, Pope Alexander III canonized Thomas Becket (1117-1170) of Canterbury.

1173 Queen Eleanor took the part of her young son in his rebellion against Henry II. The rebellion was put down and Henry imprisoned Eleanor. She remained inprisoned for 16 years.
(ON, 6/12, p.5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eleanor,_Duchess_of_Aquitaine)

1173 The first stone of the Tower of Pisa was laid. It began tilting in 1174 and became known as the Leaning Tower of Pisa. Work halted for nearly a century as Pisa warred with Florence.
(WSJ, 2/16/99, p.A1)(SSFC, 10/19/03, p.C3)

1173 The Waldensian church was founded about this time by a wealthy merchant from Lyon, France, Pierre Valdo (c1140-c1205), who gave up his belongings to preach a Gospel of simplicity and poverty that condemned papal excesses. He was excommunicated in the early 1180s and his followers persecuted as heretics by Rome. By 1215, the Waldensians were declared heretical and subject to intense persecution; the group endured near annihilation in the seventeenth century, and were then confronted with organized and generalized discrimination in the centuries that followed. In 2015 Pope Francis asked forgiveness for the Catholic Church’s persecution of members the Waldensian church.

1174 Jul 11, Amalric I, king of Jerusalem, died.
(ON, 6/07, p.5)

1174 Jul 15, Baldwin (13), son of Amalric I, was crowned Baldwin IV, king of Jerusalem.
(ON, 6/07, p.5)

1174 Nureddin, the ruler of Syria died. Saladin, the vizier of Egypt, married Nureddin’s widow and assumed control of both state. The Ayyubids under Saladin spent the next decade launching conquests throughout the region and by 1183, the territories under their control included Egypt, Syria, northern Mesopotamia, Hejaz, Yemen, and the North African coast up to the borders of modern-day Tunisia.
(ON, 6/07, p.5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ayyubid_dynasty)

1174 The earliest known English horse races were held.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1175 William de Braose (1130-1211), a court favorite of King John of England, carried out the Abergavenny Massacre, luring three Welsh princes and other Welsh leaders to their deaths.

1176 May 22, There was a murder attempt by “Assassins” (hashish-smoking mountain killers) on Saladin near Aleppo.
(MC, 5/22/02)

1176 May 29, Lombard League defeated Frederick Barbarossa at Battle of Legnano.
(SC, 5/29/02)

1177 Aug 2, Philip of Flanders arrived in Acre. A Christian army under the joint command of Philip of Flanders and Raymond of Tripoli marched west to campaign against the Muslims around Tripoli.
(ON, 6/07, p.5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_of_Flanders)

1177 Nov 18, Saladin marched north from Egypt with 26,000 light cavalry intent on capturing the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
(ON, 6/07, p.5)(www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_ramleh.html)

1177 Nov 25, Baldwin of Jerusalem and his armored knights encountered the Muslim army of Saladin below the castle of Montgisard and defeated them in a surprise attack.
(ON, 6/07, p.6)

1177 Lal Shahbaz Qalandar (d.1274) was born as Seyyed Shah Hussain Marandi in Marand (near the city of Tabriz) in Azerbaijan (at this time a part of Iran). He is also known as Shaikh Hussain Marandi. He migrated to Sindh and settled in Sehwan and was buried there. He was a Sufi in the regions that lie in the Sindh province of Pakistan.

1178 Aug 29, Anti-Pope Callistus III gave pope title to Alexander III.
(MC, 8/29/01)

1178 Jun 18, 5 Canterbury monks reported an explosion on moon (only known observation). This is the proposed time of origin of lunar crater Giordano Bruno.
(MC, 6/18/02)

1178 Jul 30, Frederick I (Barbarossa), Holy Roman Emperor, was crowned King of Burgundy.
(MC, 7/30/02)

1178 A Chinese colored scroll from this time depicted Buddhist guardians washing their clothes in a mountain stream. Buddha (d.483BCE) was said to have entrusted 16 disciples with the task of guarding the faith.
(SFC, 12/5/03, p.D7)

1178 English raiders attacked the Irish town of Clonmacnoise but spared the churches.
(SFEC, 8/1/99, p.T8)

1178 The wise King Giorgi III of Georgia had his daughter, Tamara (19), crowned as his co-ruler to provide an orderly succession.

1179 Sep 17, Hildegard von Bingen (b.1098), mystic and composer (Ordo Virtutum), died at 81. The abbess Hildegard concocted the Lingua Ignota, an artificial language. Her work included the morality play “Ordo Virtutum.” In 2012 she was named a “doctor” of the Catholic church.
(WSJ, 6/20/96, p.A16)(Wired, 8/96, p.84)(WSJ, 7/30/98, p.A16)(AP, 10/7/12)

1179 Pope Alexander III established The Apostolic Penitentiary, or Tribunal of Conscience, for sins considered so heinous by the Catholic Church that only the Pope can grant absolution to those who perpetrate them.
(www.bishop-accountability.org/AbuseTracker/)(AP, 1/14/09)

1180 Aug 11, Guillaume de Sens, French master builder (Canterbury), died.
(MC, 8/11/02)

1180 Nov 14, Laurcan O’Toole (b.1128), Archbishop of Dublin (1161-1180), died in France. His name was later anglicized to Laurence O’Toole. He was canonized only forty-five years after his death.

1180 In Belgium the Castle of the Counts was built in Ghent to intimidate the city’s independence-minded citizens.
(SSFC, 12/11/16, p.G8)

1180 The Kingdom of Jerusalem under Baldwin IV reached a truce with Egypt under Saladin.
(ON, 6/07, p.6)

1180 In Montpellier, France, a medical school was founded.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R22)

1180-1185 War between the Taira and Minamoto clans in Japan.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)

1181 Aug 4, A supernova was seen in Cassiopeia. Chinese and Japanese astronomers observed a supernova. The star 3C58 was later identified as the heart of the explosion in the constellation Cassiopeia. In 2002 it was thought to be composed of quarks.
(MC, 8/4/02)(SFC, 4/11/02, p.A2)

1182 Francis of Assisi was born as Guiovanni di Bernardone (d.1226), the son of a rich Umbrian cloth merchant. He later created an Order to minister to the poor and destitute clustered in the slums outside the walled towns.
(V.D.-H.K.p.108)(CU, 6/87)(SFC, 10/4/99, p.A21)

1182 In Constantinople a mob massacred the Latins who ruled as agents of the regent Maria of Antioch. They killed the city officials and proclaimed an uncle of Alexius II Comnenus co-emperor to rule as Andronicus I Comnenus together with his nephew.
(PCh, 1992, p.98)

1183 James Goldman wrote his 1966 play “The Lion in Winter,” set in 1183 England. The 1968 film “The Lion in Winter” focused on Henry II and his estranged wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine, and their battle over succession. The 1834 opera by Gaetano Donizetti, “Rosmonda d’Inghilterra,” was the story of Rosamond Clifford, who was put in a tower by her lover King Henry II, and offered death by dagger or poison by Queen Eleanor.
(SFC, 10/30/98, p.D4)(WSJ, 11/10/98, p.A20)(WSJ, 3/17/99, p.A24)

1184 Jun 15, King Magnus of Norway was defeated by his rival, Sverre.
(HN, 6/15/98)

1184 The first medieval inquisition, the episcopal inquisition, was established by a papal bull entitled Ad abolendam, “For the purpose of doing away with.” The inquisition was in response to the growing Catharist heresy in southern France. It is called “episcopal” because it was administered by local bishops, which in Latin is episcopus. In 2012 Cullen Murphy authored “God’s Jury: The Inquisition and the making of the Modern World.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medieval_Inquisition)(SSFC, 2/5/12, p.F7)

1184-1199 In Morocco the Koutoubia Mosque was built during this period in the heart of Marrakesh.

1185 Mar, Baldwin IV (23), king of Jerusalem, succombed to his leprosy.
(ON, 6/07, p.6)(http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article-9356429/Baldwin-IV)

1185 Sep 12, Andronicus I Comnenus, Byzantine emperor (1183-85), was lynched.
(MC, 9/12/01)

1185 The Bishopric of Livonia was founded by Meinhard of Germany.
(TB-Com, 10/11/00)
1185 Arab traveler Ibn Jubayr (1145-1217) returned to Granada after travelling to Medina, Mecca Damascus, Mosul, Acre and Baghdad at Basra he saw how Indian timber was carefully used to make Lateen sail ships, returning in 1185 by way of Sicily. His path was not without troubles, including a shipwreck. On both occasions he travelled on Genoese ships.

1185-1333 The Kamakura Period of Japan. A sect known as Pure Land Buddhism began to enjoy great popularity.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)(SFC, 3/14/03, p.D1)

1186 In Cambodia the temple monastery of Ta Prohm at Angkor was consecrated. Inscriptions say that 79,365 servants were required to for its upkeep. It was paid by funds from over 3,000 villages.
(SFEC, 7/26/98, p.T7)

1186 The Waalo kingdom was founded in the northern plains of what later became known as Senegal, where communities began to choose their leaders.
(AP, 2/25/12)

1186 Zara (present-day Zadar, Croatia), previously part of the Venetian republic, rebelled against Venice and allied itself with Hungary, posing competition to Venice’s maritime trade.
(HNQ, 1/23/01)

1187 Jul 4, In the Battle of Hittin (Tiberias) Saladin defeated Reynaud of Chatillon. Salah al Din, who ruled from his imperial seat in ancient Syria, defeated Christian armies of the Crusaders and forced their retreat from the Holy Land. The battle was depicted in a mosaic that was found and restored for the palace of Pres, Hafez Assad of Syria. Saladin personally executed Crusader Reynaud of Chatillon (b.1124/5). Reynaud of Chatillon, Lord of Kerak, Jordan, had violated twice violated a tenuous truce and earlier this year attacked a caravan of pilgrims returning from Mecca.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raynald_of_Chatillon)(WSJ, 9/30/96, p.A1)(Econ, 5/30/09, p.24)

1187 Sep 5, Louis VIII, [Coeur-de-Lion] king of France (1223-26), was born.
(MC, 9/5/01)

1187 Oct 2, Sultan Saladin captured Jerusalem from Crusaders.

1189 Jan 21, Philip Augustus, Henry II of England and Frederick Barbarossa assembled the troops for the Third Crusade.
(V.D.-H.K.p.109)(HN, 1/21/99)

1189 Feb 6, Riots of Lynn in Norfolk spread to Norwich, England.
(MC, 2/6/02)

1189 May 11, Emperor Frederik I Barbarossa and 100,000 crusaders departed Regensburg.
(MC, 5/11/02)

1189 Jul 6, Henry II (56), King of England (1154-89), died.
(SFC, 10/30/98, p.D4)(MC, 7/6/02)

1189 Sep 3, After the death of Henry II, Richard Lionheart, King Richard I, was crowned king of England in Westminster. Richard was the 2nd son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine.
(AP, 9/3/97)(HN, 9/3/98)(ON, 6/12, p.5)
1189 Sep 3, Jacob of Orleans, Rabbi, was killed in the London anti Jewish riot in which 30 Jews were massacred.
(MC, 9/3/01)

1189 Giraldus Cambrensis authored “History of the Conquest of Ireland.”
(ON, SC, p.1)

1189 The first lord mayor was elected in London.
(WSJ,3/13/95, p.A-1)

1190 Mar 16, An estimated 150 Jews were massacred in York, England. The Jewish population of York fled to Clifford’s Tower overlooking the rivers Ouse and Foss during an anti-Jewish riot. A crazed friar set fire to the tower and rather than be captured, the inhabitants committed mass suicide.
(http://www.historyofyork.org.uk/themes/norman/the-1190-massacre)(SFEC, 10/26/97, p.T5)(HN, 3/16/99)

1190 Mar 18, The people of Bury St. Edmonds, England, killed 57 Jews.

1190 Jun 10, Frederick I van Hohenstaufen, Barbarossa (1123-1190), king of Germany and Italy and the Holy Roman Empire, drowned crossing the Saleph River while leading an army of the Third Crusade. Frederick struggled to extend German influence throughout Europe, maneuvering both politically and militarily. He clashed with the pope, the powerful Lombards and fellow Germans among others throughout the years. He joined the Third Crusade in the Spring of 1189 in their efforts to free Jerusalem from Saladin’s army
(WUD, 1994, p.565)(HN, 6/10/98)(HNQ, 2/3/01)

1190 Matthaeus Platerius, a teaching physician at the School of Salerno, wrote his manuscript “Circa Instans,” a Latin work on the medicinal properties of plants.
(WSJ, 7/7/98, p.A14)

1190 The Louvre Museum in Paris was built as a fortress.
(SFC, 6/16/96, T-5)

1190 Emo of Friesland entered Oxford and was later remembered as Oxford’s first recorded foreign student.
(Econ, 8/7/10, p.13)

1190 Mongol leader Temujin (Genghis Khan) lost a battle against Jamuka, a rival war leader, and was forced to retreat. His enemy boiled alive some 70 captives. Several clans deserted Jamuka and joined Temujin.
(ON, 8/12, p.8)

1191 Apr 14, Giacinto Bobo (85) became Pope Coelestinus III.
(MC, 4/14/02)

1191 May 12, Richard the Lionheart married (Bernegaria) Berengaria of Navarre in Limassol, Cyprus.
(NH, 4/97, p.62)(EofA, p.161)

1191 Jul 12, Richard Coeur de Lion and Crusaders defeated the Saracens at Acre.
(MC, 7/12/02)

1191 Aug 20, Crusader King Richard I (1157-1199), Coeur de Lion (the “Lionheart”), executed some 2,700-3,000 Muslim prisoners in Acre (Akko).
(MC, 8/20/02)

1191 Zen Buddhism, guided by the Dao (The Way) arrived to Japan from China.
(Hem., 2/96, p.58)

1191 In Cambodia Preah Khan was dedicated on what is thought to be the site where the Khmer defeated their eastern neighbors the Cham. The central temple was dedicated by Jayavarman VII to his father, King Dharanindravavarman II, in the name of Lokesvara, a god who embodies the compassionate qualities of the Buddha. The temple covers 140 acres.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.E)(Arch, 5/04, p.64)

1192 Sep 2, Sultan Saladin and King Richard the Lion Hearted signed a cease fire.
(MC, 9/2/01)

1192 Oct 9, Richard Coeur de Lion left Jerusalem in disguise. [see Sep 21, 1192]
(MC, 10/9/01)

1192 Dec 20, English King Richard I the Lionheart was captured in Austria on his return from the Third Crusade. He was held in a castle above Durnstein, Austria, after disrespecting local Duke Leopold V. An entire year’s supply of wool from the Cistercian and two other monasteries in England was promised as ransom for the King. It was never paid in full.
(NG, 5.1988, pp. 569)(http://tinyurl.com/33kall)(SSFC, 8/5/12, p.N4)

1192 The Order of the Teutonic Knights of St. Mary’s Hospital in Jerusalem established their headquarters in Acre.

1192 The founding of the Kamakura Shogunate in Japan.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)

1192 Enrico Dandolo (85) was elected doge of Venice.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)

1193 Mar 4, Saladin [Salah ed-Din]) Yusuf ibn Ayyub (52), Kurdish sultan of Egypt and Syria (1175-1193), died. Saladin led the Muslims against the Crusaders. He had reimposed Sunni orthodoxy in Egypt after routing the Fatimids, a dynasty of Ismaili Shias which had ruled for two centuries.
(SSFC, 9/29/02, p.M6) (PC, 1992, p.100)(AP, 3/4/04)(Econ, 5/4/13, p.52)

1193 In 1779 The German playwright, Gotthold Lessing, wrote a play that was set at this time in Jerusalem. [see 1779, Lessing]
(WSJ,11/24/95, p.A-6)

1193 The Nalanda Buddhist learning center in Bihar state was sacked by Turkic Muslim invaders under Bakhtiyar Khalji, a milestone in the decline of Buddhism in India. Khalji was a member of the Muslim Turkic Khilji, or the Khalaj tribe as it is known in Iran and Afghanistan.

1193 In Tibet the Karma Kargyu sect preceded the Geluk sect of the Dalai Lama. It introduced the idea of religious succession by reincarnation when a great lama used it to predict his own rebirth.
(SFEM, 12/20/98, p.18)

1194 Feb 4, Richard I, King of England, was freed from captivity in Austria with the payment of Leopold VI’s ransom of 100,000
(HN, 2/4/99)(ON, 8/07, p.9)

1194 Feb 20, Tancredo of Lecce, King of Sicily, died.
(MC, 2/20/02)

1194 Mar 13, Richard I, King of England, landed at Sandwich and immediately prepared to march north to recover his castles.
(ON, 8/07, p.9)

1194 Mar 27, The Archbishop of Canterbury, on behalf of King Richard I, talked with the rebels inside the castle at Nottingham, who soon surrendered.
(ON, 8/07, p.10)

1194 May 5, Kazimierz II, the Justified, grand duke of Poland (1177-94), died.
(MC, 5/5/02)

1194 Dec 26, Frederick II, German Emperor (1212-1220) and King of Sicily (1198-1250), was born in Lesi, Italy. He became the Holy Roman emperor and King of Italy in 1220 and continued to 1250.

1194 The French cathedral at Chartres was mostly destroyed by fire. The Sancta Camisia relic survived intact and the cathedral was rebuilt in 29 years. In 2008 Leo Hollis authored “Universe of Stone: Chartres Cathedral and the Triumph of the Modern Mind.”
(Hem., 10/97, p.86)(Econ, 6/7/08, p.97)

1195-1270 Rabbi Moshe ben Nahman (Nahmanides) was a Catalan kabbalist.
(SFEC, 10/25/98, BR p.6)

1196 The Chateau Gaillard in Normandy was built by Richard the Lionhearted, Duke of Normandy, to protect his domain from Philip Augustus, King of France.
(AMNH, DT, 1998)

1197 Dec 4, Crusaders wounded Rabbi Elezar ben Judah.
(MC, 12/4/01)

1197 Sep 29, Emperor Henry VI died in Messina, Sicily.
(HN, 9/29/98)

c1197 The sacred cross of Lalibela dates to this time. It was believed to belong to King Lalibela of Ethiopia who ordered “on command of God and with the help of angels” the construction of a holy city hewn from rock. In 1997 it was reported lost.
(SDUT, 6/6/97, p.E4)

1197 Scotland’s new Glasgow Cathedral was consecrated. The first stone building was consecrated in about 1136 in the presence of King David I and his Court when John (1117-1147) was Bishop.
(SSFC, 3/10/13, p.H4)( www.glasgowcathedral.org.uk/history/)

1198 Jan 8, Lotario de Conti di Sengi became Pope Innocent III (d.1216). He raised the papacy to an acme of papal prestige and power, and Christian Europe came close to being a unified theocracy with no internal contradictions. He oversaw 2 crusades and established fees for indulgences to fatten the Church’s treasury. He hired Italian merchant bankers to manage papal funds and sanctioned the new Franciscan and Dominican orders.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Innocent_III)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)

1198 The German Bishop Bertold shipped up the Baltic with armed forces and attacked the native people of Livonia. The attack was repulsed.
(Ist. L.H., 1948, p.39-40)(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1198 The Fourth Crusade was funded by Enrico Dandolo, doge of Venice.

1198 Fleeing from the Turks, a group of Armenian nobles and their followers settled in Byzantine Cilicia where they established a state know as Lesser or Little Armenia. In this year the area attained the status of kingdom and survived to 1375.

1198 The Giralda bell tower in Seville, Spain, was built as a Muslim minaret.
(SSFC, 8/15/10, p.M5)

1199 Apr 6, Richard I “the Lion-hearted” (41), King of England (1189-99), died. Richard was killed by an arrow at the siege of the castle of Chaluz in France.
(HN, 4/6/99)(MC, 4/6/02)

1199 Sep 30, Rambam (Maimonides) authorized Samuel Ibn Tibbon to translate “Guide of Perplexed” from Arabic into Hebrew.
(MC, 9/30/01)

1199 Prince John (d.1216) was crowned King of England.
(ON, 7/04, p.1)



Timeline 600CE-999CE

600 Feb 16, Pope Gregory the Great declared “God bless you” to be the correct response to a sneeze. It was once thought that sneezing was an omen of death, since many dying people fell into sneezing fits.

600 Li Shimin, son of Chinese General Li Yuan (the Duke of Tang), was born about this time.
(ON, 5/06, p.1)
600 Yang Di (Yangdi), a Sui emperor, extended the Grand Canal. He reportedly assumed power by poisoning his father. Ma Shu-mou, aka Mahu, was one of the canal overseers and was said to have eaten a steamed 2-year-old child each day he worked on the canal. On completion the canal extended for 1,100 miles. 5.5 million people were pressed into service to complete 1,550 mile canal.
(WSJ, 10/25/99, p.A50)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R51)
600 Quill pens, made from the outer feathers of crows and other large birds, became popular. The 1st books were printed in China.
(SFC, 7/26/04, p.F4)
600 A synagogue at Ein Gedi on the shores of the Dead Sea was destroyed about this time by fire. It had stood there from about 800BC. In 1970 archeologists digging at the site discovered a trove of scrolls. Technology in 2016 determined the scrolls to be of Leviticus, one of the first five books of the Bible, which dated to 200AD-300AD.
(Econ, 9/24/16, p.77)

c600 Small porkers came to Hawaii with the Polynesians some 1400 years ago, and big pigs arrived with the Europeans.
(WSJ, 7/25/95, p.A-6)

c600 Early settlers from the Marquesas built the Alakoko fishpond and taro fields on Kauai, Hawaii.
(SFEC, 8/29/99, p.T6)

c600 The Joya de Ceren Maya site in El Salvador was buried beneath 16 feet of ash from nearby Loma Caldera.
(AM, May/Jun 97 suppl. p.D)

600 Germanic invaders, who occupied England after 600AD, saw themselves as a nation of immigrants, according to Prof. Nicholas Howe (1953-2006) of UC Berkeley, author of “Migration and Mythmaking in Anglo-Saxon England” (1989).
(SFC, 10/16/06, p.B6)

c600 “The Navigatio Sancti Brendani Abbatis” (Voyage of St. Brendan the Abbott) recounts a 7-year trip to a land across the sea by the Irish saint and a band of acolytes about this time.
(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.24)

c600-625 The burial site of the Prince of Prittlewell, an East Saxon prince or king, dated to about this time.

600-700 The Tantras, Buddhist texts for generating deep religious experiences, were produced in India.
(SFEC,12/14/97, p.T5)
600-700 The silk road linking China’s merchants with Central Asia, the Middle East, Africa and Europe was revived in the 7th century after war had made it unusable for hundreds of years.
(Econ, 7/2/16, p.37)
c600-700 King Songstan Gampo reigned over Tibet in the 7th century. He introduced Buddhism and started construction of the Potala Palace and Jokhang Temple. He married the Chinese princess Wen Cheng.
(WSJ, 8/2/01, p.A12)
600-700 The library at Alexandria, Egypt, disappeared in the 7th century.
(WSJ, 6/1/00, p.A1)
600-700 In the seventh century the Frisians clashed with the Franks and resisted Christianity, but succumbed to Frankish rule and accepted Christianity a century later. Citizens of the Netherlands’s province of Friesland are still called Frisians and the Frisian language is still spoken there.
(HNQ, 3/5/00)
600-700 Irish monastic monks founded a monastery at Skellig Michael (Michael’s Rock) during the 7th century and for the next 600 years the island was a center of their monastic life. In 1996 UNESCO listed it as a World Heritage Site.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skellig_Michael)(Econ, 9/12/09, p.94)
c600-700 St. Willibrord, an Irish missionary, spread Christianity in the region of Luxembourg.
(SFC, 9/1/96, T3)
600-700 Calinicus (Callinicus), an engineer from Heliopolis, Syria, is thought to have brought “Greek fire,” (flammable petrochemicals) to Constantinople. The incendiary liquid could be fired from siphons toward enemy ships or troops. The weapon helped save the Byzantine Empire from Islamic conquest for several centuries.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.57)(NH, 10/98, p.24)
600-700 The Caracol Maya site in Belize was one of the most prosperous cities in the pre-Columbian world with some 120,000 people in a 65-square-mile metropolis. It has the 140-foot-high platform Caana, or “Sky-Place. ”
(SFC, 4/26/97, p.E4)
600-700 Lady K’abel, considered the greatest ruler of the Mayan Late Classic period, ruled with her husband, K’inich Bahlam, for at least 20 years in the 7th century. She was the military governor of the Waka kingdom for her family, the imperial house of the Snake King, and she carried the title “Kaloomte” — translated as “Supreme Warrior,” higher in authority than her husband, the king. In 2012 her tomb was discovered in northern Guatemala.
(AP, 10/4/12)
600-700 The martial art of “tie-kwan-doe” (kick-strike-art) was developed as part of the military training for young noblemen charged with protecting the kingdoms of what became Korea.
(WSJ, 10/3/97, p.A1)
600-700 Serbs and Croats came into Montenegro in a second wave in the 7th century.
(www, 6/3/98)
600-700 In Vietnam Hoi An was a port site of the Cham kingdoms of central Vietnam. It may date back to the 2nd century BC.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.H)

600-800 In 2003 evidence of an Indian village was found at an Illinois site some 35 miles east of St. Louis, that dated to the Late Woodland period.
(SFC, 4/21/03, p.A6)

c600-800 Irish monks began to seek solace in Iceland.
(NH, 6/96, p.53)

600-800 Polynesian seafarers 1st landed on Easter Island, 1400 miles from the coast of South America. They later carved nearly 900 colossi of compressed volcanic ash: the moai. In 1722 A Dutch explorer stopped by on Easter Sunday. It later became a possession of Chile.
(WSJ, 2/8/02, p.W11C)

c600-850 Late Classic Mayan paintings were found at a site in eastern Chiapas, Mexico, named “Bonampak,” (painted walls).
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.35)

600-900 Late classic period of the Maya. The San Andres site in El Salvador flourished during the late classic. The El Tajin civilization thrived on the central coast of what became Mexico.
(AM, May/Jun 97 suppl. p.BC)(SFC, 9/14/00, p.C8)

600-900 A three hundred year dynasty ruled over Palenque. In the Pyramid of Inscriptions is the tomb of Pakal, the greatest king of the dynasty.
(SFC, 5/19/96, T-9)

600-1100 The Wari ruled during this period and were the first people to unite diverse tribes into a sophisticated network across most of the Peruvian Andes. A Wari tomb was discovered in 2013.

600-1200 In Malaysia ceramic shards at Kampong Sungai Mas in the Bujang Valley date to this time. Brick foundations and a block of shale with a Buddhist mantra inscribed in Sanskrit was also found.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.F)

600-1600 (See entries under Myanmar) Pagan was the seat of Burma’s greatest dynasty and the site shows the remains of more than 7,000 temples and monuments of this period.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.F)

602-628 The Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 was the final and most devastating of the series of wars fought between the Byzantine Empire and the Sasanian Empire of Iran. The previous war between the two powers had ended in 591 after Emperor Maurice helped the Sasanian king Khosrow II regain his throne. In 602 Maurice was murdered by his political rival Phocas. Khosrow proceeded to declare war, ostensibly to avenge the death of Maurice. This became a decades-long conflict, the longest war in the series, and was fought throughout the Middle East: in Egypt, the Levant, Mesopotamia, the Caucasus, Anatolia, Armenia, the Aegean Sea and before the walls of Constantinople itself.

604 Mar 12, Gregory I the Great (64), Pope (590-604), died. In 1997 R.A. Markus authored “Gregory the Great and His World.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Gregory_I)(WSJ, 4/12/08, p.W8)

604 In Japan a 17 article constitution was promulgated by Prince Shotoku (574-622). It was a Confucian document that focused more on ethics and virtue than on the basic laws by which the state was to be run. [see 702]

604-617 King Saebert of Essex reigned in England. St. Mellitus converted him to Christianity.

607 Mar 13, The 12th recorded passage of Halley’s Comet occurred.
(HN, 3/13/98)

607 The first envoy from Japan was sent to China.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)

609 May 13, Pope Boniface I turned Roman Pantheon into Catholic church.
(MC, 5/13/02)

610 Apr 6, Lailat-ul Qadar: The night that the Koran descended to Earth. Muhammad is believed by his followers to have had a vision of Gabriel. The angel told him to recite in the name of God. Other visions are supposed to have Gabriel lead Muhammad to heaven to meet God, and to Jerusalem to meet Abraham, Moses and Jesus. These visions convinced Mohammad that he was a messenger of God.
(ATC, p.59)(MC, 4/6/02)

610 Oct 5, Heraclitus’ fleet took Constantinople.
(MC, 10/5/01)

610-632 A Muslim tradition has it that Mohammed one day found that his favorite wife, Aisha, had purchased some cushions decorated with birds and animals. The prophet proclaimed that only God could bestow life and that pale imitations should be avoided. Thus the hadith, or tradition of the prophet, holds that: The house which contains pictures will not be entered by the angels.”
(WSJ, 7/22/96, p.A12)
610-632 During Mohammed’s ministry in Mecca and Medina the definition of jihad moved from persuasive proselytism to Muslim war against all infidels.
(WSJ, 10/10/01, p.A10)

610-641 Heracles ruled the Byzantine Empire.
(ATC, p.69)

611 In Cambodia at Angkor Borei the earliest known Khmer inscription dates to this time.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.D)

614 Croats settled in the area between the Adriatic Sea and the rivers Sava and Drava.
(WSJ, 7/14/99, p.A23)

614 Christian Palestine was invaded by the Persians. The 5th century monastery of St. Theodosius east of Beit Sahour near Bethlehem was destroyed by the Persians. The Jews of Jerusalem allied with the Persians during the invasion and entered into the cave beneath the tomb of Christ in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.
(SFEC, 12/22/96, p.T3)(WSJ, 4/5/02, p.W12)(SFC, 10/23/06, p.A15)

615 May 8, St. Boniface IV ended his reign as Catholic Pope.
(MC, 5/8/02)

615 May 25, Boniface IV, Pope (608-15), died.
(SC, 5/25/02)

615 Nov 23, Columbanus, Irish explorer, monastery founder, poet and saint (Poenitentiale), died (aka St. Columba).
(MC, 11/23/01)

615 Yang Di (Yangdi), a Chinese Sui emperor, announced a 4th attempt to conquer Korea. In response to peasant rebellions in the north, Yangdi moved to the eastern city of Yangzhou.
(ON, 5/06, p.1)

615 Pakal (12) became the Mayan ruler of Palenque. His reign ended with his death in 683.
(SSFC, 12/7/03, p.C10)(WSJ, 9/16/04, p.D12)

617 Jun, Chinese general Li Yuan (the Duke of Tang) declared his rebellion and ordered the Tang army to prepare a march against Chang’an (later Xian), capital of China and the world’s largest city.
(ON, 5/06, p.2)(Econ, 3/15/08, p.101)

617 Dec 12, The Chinese city of Chang’an fell to the Tang army.
(ON, 5/06, p.2)

617-1279 The Tang Dynasty unified China.
(ATC, p.69)

618 Apr, General Li Yuan, the Duke of Tang, claimed the throne of China after receiving word that Emperor Yangdi had been assassinated in the city of Yangzhou. Yuan proclaimed himself Emperor Gaozu, the 1st monarch of the new Tang dynasty.
(ON, 5/06, p.3)

618-907 The Tang Dynasty was in China. The marble head of Eleven-headed Avalokiteshvara dates to the Tang period. Porcelain was invented during the T’ang dynasty.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)(NH, 7/96, p.32)(WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)(WSJ, 8/28/98, p.W10)

618-907 The area of Tiananmen Square was first cleared.
(SFC, 6/25/98, p.A8)

619 Li Shimin led his armies against 2 warlords in northern China.
(ON, 5/06, p.3)

620 Aug 22, This day corresponds to the 27th day of Rajab, 1427, in the Islamic calendar. It commemorates to the night flight of Muhammad on the winged horse Buraq to the farthest mosque, usually identified with Jerusalem, and then to heaven and back.
(WSJ, 8/8/06, p.A10)(www.atheists.org/Islam/mohammedanism.html)

620 In northern China Gen’l. Li Shimin (~20) attacked Luoyang, which was held by the warlord Wang Shichong.
(ON, 5/06, p.3)

620 The town of Cholula was founded in central Mexico. It was later said to be the oldest continuously occupied town in all of North America.
(SSFC, 2/26/06, p.F10)

620 Mohammad gained about a hundred converts including some wealthy Meccan families. This made other Meccans hostile. Mohammad in this year dreamed of being transported from Mecca to the Rock of Mariah in Jerusalem, from which he ascended into heaven and received instructions from God for himself and his followers.
(ATC, p.59)(ON, 7/03, p.6)

621 Mar, In China a force of 120,000 men from Xia province advanced to rescue the city of Luoyang.
(ON, 5/06, p.3)

621 May 28, In China Dou Jiande, general of the Xia army, was wounded and captured by the Tang army under Gen’l. Li Shimin at Hulao Pass. 3,000 Xia were killed and 50,000 were taken prisoners. The city of Luoyang soon surrendered. Xia province surrendered in turn.
(ON, 5/06, p.4)

622 Jul 16, Islamic Era began. Mahomet began his flight from Mecca to Medina (Hegira).
(MC, 7/16/02)

622 Sep 20, Prophet Mohammed Abu Bakr arrived in Jathrib (Medina).
(MC, 9/20/01)

622 Sep 24, In the Hegira Muhammed left Mecca for Medina (aka Yathrib) with 75 followers. This event marked the beginning of the Islamic lunar calendar. The new faith was called “Islam,” which means submission to Allah. Believers in Islam are called Muslims– “Those who submit to Allah’s will.” In Medina Mohammad tried to unite the Jews and Arabs and initially faced Jerusalem to pray. The Jewish leaders did not accept Mohammad as a prophet and so Mohammad expelled from the city the Jews who opposed him. From then on he commanded the Muslims to face the Kaaba in Mecca when praying.
(V.D.-H.K.p.19)(ATC, p.60)

623-658 The first state of the Slavs living on the Middle Danube was Samo’s Realm, a tribal confederation existing between 623 and 658. It encompassed the territories of Moravia, Slovakia, Lower Austria, Carantania, Sorbia at the Elbe, and probably also Bohemia, which lies between Sorbia and other parts of the realm.

622 The Constitution of Medina was drafted by the Islamic prophet Muhammad about this time. It constituted a formal agreement between Muhammad and all of the significant tribes and families of Yathrib (later known as Medina), including Muslims, Jews, and pagans.

624 Muslims engaged non-believers for the 1st time at the Battle of Badr

624-628 Several Jewish clans in the Arabian peninsula joined forces with an Arab tribe, the Quraysh, to make war on a renegade Qurayshi named Mohammad, who claimed he was a prophet of God.
(Econ, 8/14/10, p.68)

c625 Raedwald, king of the East Angles and high king of the English peoples, was buried about this time.
(Arch, 7/02, p.61)

626 Aug 7, Battle at Constantinople: Slavs, Persians and Avars were defeated. Emp. Heraclius repelled the attacks. The attacks began in 625.
(PCh, 1992, p.60)(MC, 8/7/02)

626 In China Gen’l. Li Shimin foiled an assassination attempt by 2 brothers. He ambushed his older brother, Jianchen, killing him him with a bow and arrow, and became the oldest son and crown prince. Li Yuan abdicated 2 months later and Shimin became the new ruler under the name Emperor Taizong.
(ON, 5/06, p.4)

627 Byzantine Emperor Heraclius defeated the Persian army and regained Asia Minor, Syria, Jerusalem and Egypt.
(ATC, p.45)

628 Apr 3, In Persia Kavadh sued for peace with the Byzantines. He handed back Armenia, Byzantine Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine and Egypt.
(HN, 4/3/99)(AP, 4/3/99)
628 Apr 3, Chosroes II, emperor of Persia (579-628), was murdered by his son.
(MC, 4/3/02)

629 A Chinese pilgrim reported seeing a 1000-foot reclining Buddha at Bamiyan, Afghanistan. By 2004 the sleeping Buddha had not been seen for several hundred years. [see 632]
(SFC, 8/31/04, p.A2)

629-645 Hsuang-Tsang, Chinese pilgrim, journeys over 5,000 miles from China to India and back to collect Buddhist teachings. He recorded fantastic tales of his adventures.
(ATC, p.13)

630 Mar 21, Heraclius restored the True Cross, which he had recaptured from the Persians.
(HN, 3/21/99)

630 Mohammad raised an army of 10,000 and took over Mecca (Makkah). He immediately set out to destroy all the idols at Kaaba. The black stone remained embedded in the corner. The area around became the first mosque, or Muslim house of worship. Mohammad returned from Medina and began the Islamic conquest of Arabia.
(ATC, p.60)(WSJ, 11/15/01, p.A16)

632 Jun 8, Mohammed, the founder of Islam and unifier of Arabia, died. Iqra, which means read in Arabic, was reportedly the first word that the archangel Gabriel spoke to Mohammed. His companions compiled his words and deeds in a work called the Sunna. Here are contained the rules for Islam. The most basic are The Five Pillars of Islam. These are: 1) profession of faith 2) daily prayer 3) giving alms 4) ritual fast during Ramadan 5) Hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca. The Sunna also calls for “jihad.” The term means struggle, i.e. to do one’s best to resist temptation and overcome evil. Four contenders stood out to succeed Mohammad. They were Abu Bakr, his trusted father-in-law. Umar and Uthman, long-time friends and advisers, and Ali, a cousin and blood relative. Ali was Mohammad’s son-in-law and the father of Mohammad’s grandsons. Abu Bakr was chosen as caliph i.e. successor. In 2001 Minou Reeves, Iranian-born scholar, authored “Muhammad in Europe: A Thousand Years of Western Myth-Making.” In 2013 Lesley Hazleton authored “The First Muslim: The Story of Muhammad.”
(ATC, p.60,63)(SFC, 12/15/98, p.A7)(AP, 6/8/03)(SFC, 10/22/98, p.C5)(WSJ, 12/12/01, p.A15)(SSFC, 1/27/13, p.F1)

632 Jun 16, Origin of Persian [Yazdegird] Era.
(MC, 6/16/02)

632 Hiuan-tsang, an Chinese pilgrim, visited the great Buddhas of Bamiyan, Afghanistan.
(WSJ, 12/20/01, p.A13)

632-661 The Rashidun Caliphate, also known as the Rightly Guided Caliphate, comprising the first four caliphs in Islam’s history, was founded after Muhammad’s death. At its height, the Caliphate extended from the Arabian Peninsula, to the Levant, Caucasus and North Africa in the west, to the Iranian highlands and Central Asia in the east. It was the one of the largest empires in history up until that time.

633 Muhammad’s chief clerk collected Mohammad’s revelations into one work called the Koran (Quran). Loosely translated it means “recitation.” “Whoever witnesses the crescent of the month, he must fast the month.” (Koran, al Baqarah 2:185) Ramadan begins the day after the crescent of the new moon is sighted and confirmed by 2 witnesses. Muslims must abstain from food and sex during daylight hours for a month to celebrate the revelation of the Koran to Mohammed. The later Sunnah holy text reported the sayings and deeds of Muhammad. The Muslim beard tradition is from the Sunnah.
(ATC, p.60)(WSJ, 1/7/97, p.A1)(WSJ, 11/27/01, p.A14)

633 Gen Khalid ibn al-Walid sent a letter to the Persian emperor that said: “Submit to our authority and we shall leave you and your land and go against others. If not, you will be conquered against your will by men who love death as you love life.”
(WSJ, 10/19/01, p.W19)

c633 Nikbanou, a 7th century Persian Zoroastrian princess, fled to a mountain refuge at Chak to escape Arab horsemen planting the green pennants of Islam in Iranian soil.
(AP, 7/15/04)

633 The 4th Synod of Toledo took on the right to confirm elected kings. Jews were obliged to be baptized. The vernacular language, of Latin origin, prevailed over that of the Visigoths.

634 Aug 22, Abu Bekr Abd Allah (61), [al-Siddik], successor of Mohammed, died. He was a friend, an Arabic merchant, Mohammed’s father-in-law and the first Caliph. Before his death he appointed Mohammed’s adviser Omar (Umar) as his successor.
(ATC, p.66)(PC, 1992, p.61)

634 Sophronius (74), Christian monk, was elected patriarch and political ruler of Jerusalem.
(ON, 7/03, p.3)

635 Damascus was captured by the Muslims.
(ATC, p.78)

636 Summer, A Byzantine army arrived in the region of Jerusalem and was defeated by a much smaller Muslim army at the Yarmuk River. With Muslims at the gate Sophronius, head of Jerusalem, requested a meeting with Caliph Omar.
(ON, 7/03, p.5)

636 Jul 23, Arabs gained control of most of Palestine from Byzantine Empire.
(MC, 7/23/02)

636 Aug 15, At the Battle at Yarmuk, east of the Sea of Galilee, Islamic forces beat a Byzantine army and gained control of Syria.
(PC, 1992, p.61)

636 Nov 1, Nicholas Boileau-Despreaux, French poet, was born. He was also a critic and official royal historian and wrote “Lutrin. ”
(HN, 11/1/99)

636 Nov, The Siege of Jerusalem began as part of a military conflict between the Byzantine Empire and the Rashidun Caliphate. It began when the Rashidun army, under the command of Abu Ubaidah, besieged Jerusalem. After six months, Patriarch Sophronius agreed to surrender, on condition that he submit only to the Caliph. In April 637, Caliph Umar traveled to Jerusalem in person to receive the submission of the city. The Patriarch thus surrendered to him.

636-638 As Muslims conquered the Holy Land St. Sophronius (560-638), the patriarch of Jerusalem, sent Pope Theodore I a wooden structure believed to be part of the manger where Jesus was born.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sophronius_of_Jerusalem)(SSFC, 12/1/19, p.A2)

637 Apr, Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab came to Jerusalem after the conquest of Jerusalem and toured the city with Sophronius, the Patriarch of Jerusalem .

637 Ctesiphon, a center of Christianity southeast of Baghdad, was taken by Arabs, who renamed it Madain.
(SFC, 3/31/03, p.W5)

637 Muslim armies conquered Mesopotamia.
(ATC, p.78)

638 cJan, Sophronius met with Caliph Omar and obtained a set of guarantees and regulations that came to be known as “the Covenant of Omar.”
(ON, 7/03, p.3)

638 Mar 11, Sophronius of Jerusalem, saint, patriarch of Jerusalem, died.

638 Arabs conquered the city of Hebron. They allowed the Jews to build a synagogue near Abraham’s burial site.
(SFC, 12/4/08, p.A27)

640 Muslim Arabs invaded Armenia and capture Dvin, its principal town.
(CO Enc. / Armenia)

640 The Muslim government began minting coins about this time.
(ATC, p.83)

641 Feb 11, Heraclius (~65), emperor of Byzantium (610-641), died.
(MC, 2/11/02)

641 Fustat was established as an encampment for the Muslim Arab conqueror of Egypt. The city reached its peak in the 12th century, with a population of approximately 200,000. It was the center of administrative power in Egypt, until it was ordered burned in 1168 by its own vizier, Shawar, to keep its wealth out of the hands of the invading Crusaders. The remains of the city were eventually absorbed by nearby Cairo, which had been built to the north of Fustat in 969 when the Fatimids conquered the region.
(SSFC, 7/24/11, p.F7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fustat)

642 May, Khalid bin Al-Waleed (b.585), Muslim commander prominent in leading the conquest of Iraq and Syria, died in Syria. It was under his military leadership that Arabia, for the first time in history, was united under a single political entity, the Caliphate.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khalid_ibn_al-Walid)(SFC, 3/30/18, p.A5)

642 Sep 17, Arabs conquered Alexandria and destroyed the great library. Omar, the second caliph, successor of Mohammed, conquered Alexandria, then the capital of world scholarship.
(V.D.-H.K.p.103)(MC, 9/17/01)

642 The Arabs conquered the Sassanids.
(ATC, p.33)

642 Pope Theodore I began using the title “Patriarch of the West.” In 2006 the Vatican took the unusual step of explaining its decision to renounce the title, saying the omission of “patriarch of the West,” from the new edition of the Annuario Pontificio, the Vatican’s 2,373-page directory of prelates, should benefit relations with the Orthodox Church, not hinder them.
(AP, 3/23/06)

644 Nov 3, Umar of Arabia, the 2nd Caliph of Islam, was stabbed by Abu Lulu while leading the morning prayers at Medina. He died 4 days later on Nov 7. On his deathbed Umar named a council to choose the next caliph. The council appointed Uthman. Uthman continued to expand the Muslim empire.

645 Downfall of the Soga Clan in Japan.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)

649 May 14, Theodore, Greek Pope (642-49), excommunicated by Paul II, died.
(MC, 5/14/02)

649 Jul 5, St. Martin I began his reign as Pope.
(MC, 7/5/02)

650 The Khazars’ aggressive territorial expansion drove some Bulgars
westward. These Bulgars soon founded a kingdom in the southeastern Balkans that became known as Bulgaria.
(TJOK, 1999, p.16)

c650 An early Mayan classic temple in Copan was closed and covered about this time. Ritual items of flint knives and stingray spines was later discovered.
(Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.28)

c650 The first pyramid of the Teotihuacan culture was built in Cholula. Over the next 800 years a nested series of 4 pyramids were constructed. The most important and largest city of pre-Colombian central Mexico, the Nahuatl meaning of Teotihuacan was “Where Men Become Gods” or “The City of Gods.” Just north of Mexico City, Teotihuacan was planned at about the beginning of the Christian era and was sacked and burned by invading Toltecs in 650 CE.
(SFEC, 11/8/98, p.T10)(HNQ, 4/24/99)

650-700 In northern Peru archeological evidence later indicated that civil strife during this period, which followed some 30 years of drought, led to the demise of the Moche civilization.
(PBS, 10/1/06)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moche)

650-750 In Mexico the Teotihuacan culture began declining and was almost abandoned by the end of this period.
(SFC, 10/22/98, p.C2)

c650-850 The alliterative epic poem Beowulf was composed at least 100 years before the manuscript was written. It was written in the 8th century. In 1999 Seamus Heaney wrote a new translation of the old English tale of a Scandinavian warrior who kills a trio of monsters including Grendel. In the Anglo-Saxon epic Beowulf, the hero of the Geats people, mortally wounds the monster Grendel–who has been terrorizing the court of the king of Danes–by tearing off one of his arms with his bare hands. Based on folk tales known to the Anglo-Saxons prior to their invasion of England, the work is made up primarily of pagan myths and legends. The poem is believed to date from the late seventh or early eighth century and the only surviving text, now in the British Museum, dates from about 1000 A.D.
(WUD, 1994, p.140)(WSJ, 2/24/00, p.A16)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R53)(HNQ, 1/10/02)

651 In Persia Yazdegird III, the last Sassanian king, was murdered.
(WSJ, 2/2/00, p.A24)

652 Arabs introduced Islam to Afghanistan.

653 Pope Martin I was charged with treason. He was stripped naked in public and exiled to Crimea.
(Econ, 2/16/13, p.61)

654 A Saxon monk founded St. Botolph’s Town in England. The name gradually changed to Boston.
(SFC, 8/12/00, p.B3)
654 The Mon kingdom of Haripunjaya (later part of northern Thailand) was founded by a holy man named Wasuthep. The town of Lamphun was originally the center of the Mon Kingdom known as Hariphunchai and believed to have been founded in the late 7th or early 8th century AD. Queen Chammathewi introduced Buddhism into the city of Hariphunchai (later known as Lamphun).
(http://tinyurl.com/ycc6pgw8)(Econ 5/20/17, p.33)

656 In Saudi Arabia Uthman (Othman), the 3rd caliph, was murdered. Under his rule a full, standard text of the Quran was compiled. He had appointed members of his own family as regional governors and caused bitter jealousy among other families. This caused an angry mob of 500 to murder him. This gave Ali an opportunity to claim power. Some claim that Ali plotted Uthman’s murder. Civil war broke out. Muawija, Uthman’s cousin and governor of Syria, challenged Ali’s right to rule. Ali prepared for war but was murdered by an angry former supporter. The followers of Ali became known as Shiites from the Arabic meaning “the party of Ali.” Those who believe that the election of the first three caliphs was valid and who claim to follow the Sunna reject the Shiite idea of the Imam, and are called the Sunnis.
(ATC, p.67-68)(WSJ, 1/12/08, p.A6)
656 The Imam Ali mosque in Najaf marks the grave of Ali, the son-in-law of Mohammed and a central figure in Shiite Islam.
(SFC, 4/23/98, p.A16)

657 Jun 2, St. Eugene I ended his reign as Catholic Pope.
(SC, 6/2/02)

657 Jul 26, Mu’awiyan defeated Caliph Ali in the Battle of Siffin in Mesopotamia.
(HN, 7/26/98)

658 Hirafu Abe went to meet with the Ainu on Hokkaido after he had defeated an indigenous tribe called Emishi in the northeast region of Honshu.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 217)

661 Jan 27, Ali ibn Abu Talib, caliph of Islam (656-61), was murdered in Kufa, Iraq. Caliph Ali, son-in-law of Mohammed, was assassinated and his followers (Shiites) broke from the majority Muslim group. A member of the anarchist sect of Kharajites assassinated Ali. This sect believed that there are no verdict’s but God’s.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ali_ibn_Abi_Talib)(SFC, 3/16/02, p.A14) (SSFC, 6/30/02, p.M6)(http://tinyurl.com/44dtom)

661 The Umayyad regime was founded by Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan (602-680, long-time governor of Syria, after the end of the First Muslim Civil War.
661 Muawija became caliph. He moved the capital from Medina to Damascus. His followers were called the Umayyads. Muawija was one of the soldiers who helped capture Damascus and for 25 years he had served as governor of Syria. Muawija began the practice of appointing his own son as the next caliph, and so the Umayyads ruled for the next 90 years. Muslim forces expanded into North Africa and completely conquered Persia. The Islamic Empire continued to expand into Afghanistan and Pakistan. After the Omayyad Caliphs conquered Damascus, they build the palace at Qasr Al-Kharaneh (in Jordan) as a recreational lodge.
(ATC, p.67,78)(SFEC, 4/11/99, p.9)

662 Aug 13, Maximus Confessor (b.c580), Greek theologian, died.
(MC, 8/13/02)

662 By 2004 Simon Martin, Mayan scholar, worked out an almost day-by-day account of events from this year in the plain of Tabasco, Mexico.
(Econ, 5/22/04, p.79)

668 Jul 15, Constantine II (37), emperor of Byzantium, died.
(MC, 7/15/02)

668-1392 In Korea the Silla Kingdom united the peninsula and began the Koryo Dynasty from which Korea derived its name.
(SFC, 7/26/97, p.E3)

669 Theodore, a native of Tarsus in Cilicia, arrived in England to take over the See of Canterbury under the direction of Pope Vitalian. He was well received everywhere and was the first Archbishop whose authority the whole English Church was willing to acknowledge.

c670 A Japanese inventor based the first design of a folding fan on the structure of a bat’s wing.
(SFEC, 8/3/97, Z1 p.2)

671 Chinese monk I-Tsing, wrote that he visited Srivijaya in for 6 months during this year. Srivijaya (also written Sri Vijaya) was a powerful ancient thalassocratic Malay empire based on the island of Sumatra, modern day Indonesia, which influenced much of Southeast Asia.

c672 The Venerable Bede (d.735), Beda Venerabilis, English speaking church historian, was born.
(WSJ, 10/22/03, p.D12)

676 Cairo was built by the Arabs only 1300 years ago. The name comes from the Egyptian “El Qahir,” the name of the planet Mars.
(Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.165)(SFEC, 8/17/97, Z1 p.2)

678 Jun 27, St. Agatho began his reign as Catholic Pope.
(SC, 6/27/02)

680 Oct 10, Imam Hussein, grandson of prophet Mohammed, was beheaded. He was killed by rival Muslim forces on the Karbala plain in modern day Iraq. He then became a saint to Shiite Muslims. Traditionalists and radical guerrillas alike commemorate his martyrdom as the ceremony of Ashura. The 10-day mourning period during the holy month of Muharram commemorates the deaths of Caliph Ali’s male relatives by Sunnis from Iraq. Shiites went on to believe that new leaders should be descendants of Mohammad and Ali. Sunnis went on to vest power in a body of Muslim scholars called the ulema.
(http://countrystudies.us/iraq/15.htm)(SFC, 3/16/02, p.A14)(SFC, 2/24/06, p.A15)

681 Bulgaria’s 1st kingdom was established.
(WPR, 3/04, p.28)

682 Aug 17, Leo II, later St. Leo, began his reign as Catholic Pope.
(SC, 8/17/02)

682-721 Ah Cacaw (Lord of Cocoa) ruled over Tikal (later Guatemala) during this period. His burial tomb was later found deep inside the 145-foot high Temple of the Great Jaguar.
(SFEM, 6/13/99, p.8)

683 Pacal, Mayan ruler of Palenque, died. His sarcophagus, found in 1952, has the intricately carved lid later suggested to represent an extra-terrestrial visitor.
(SSFC, 5/5/02, p.C5)(WSJ, 9/16/04, p.A1)

683-685 Khazars invaded Transcaucasia and inflicted much damage and stole much booty. The Khazar invaders killed the rulers of Armenia and Georgia.
(TJOK, p.159)

684 Jun 26, Benedict II (d.685) was consecrated as Pope.
(PTA, 1980, p.162)

684-702 Mayan leader Kan Balam II, son of Pakal, ruled over Palenque.
(SSFC, 12/7/03, p.C10)

685 May 8, St. Benedict II ended his reign as Catholic Pope.
(MC, 5/8/02)

685 May 21, Battle at Nechtansmere: Picts trounced the Northumbrians.
(MC, 5/21/02)

685 In China a manual on calligraphy was made. It summarized the aesthetic ideals and theories of Chinese writing.
(SFEC, 10/6/96, DB p.37)

685-705 Abd al Malik, Umayyad caliph, influenced the shaping of Islamic culture. He declared Arabic as the official language of the empire and established a common coinage system that was purely Arabic. They had no images but were inscribed with quotations from the Koran.
(ATC, p.83)

686 Aug 2, John V, 1st Greek-Syrian Pope (685-86), died.
(MC, 8/2/02)

687 Cuthbert, a former monk hermit and reluctant bishop of Lindisfarne, died. His life and “miracles” were set down by the Venerable Bede. A gospel commissioned to honor Cuthbert was placed in his coffin around 698. His remains were carried to the mainland when the monks and people of the island fled Viking invaders, and ended up in Durham. In 1104 the coffin was opened in preparation for a formal reinterment and the book was re-discovered. It was given to the Jesuits in 1769 and in 2011 they sold it to Britain for £9 million.
(Econ, 7/16/11, p.62)(Reuters, 5/17/12)

687-714 Pepin II united and ruled the Franks.
(ATC, p.51)

688 North Africa was conquered by the Muslims under Abd al Malik.
(ATC, p.83)

688-714 The Maya of Tonina and Palenque fought several battles over watershed areas in the region that fed the Usumacinta river, which now marks the boundary between Mexico and Guatemala.
(AP, 7/7/11)

691 Muslims built the Dome of the Rock mosque in Jerusalem. It contained inscriptions that later were held as the 1st evidence of the Koran.
(SFC, 3/2/02, p.A15)(WSJ, 5/20/06, p.P16)

692 Oct 2, A Mayan prisoner from Copan, depicted in a well-preserved stone sculpture found in 2011, was captured on this day.
(AP, 7/8/11)

694 Nov 9, Spanish King Egica accused Jews of aiding Moslems and sentenced them to slavery.
(MC, 11/9/01)

696 Jun 27, A Mayan ballcourt at Tonina was dedicated and sculptures, found in 2011, were created to commemorate the dedication.
(AP, 7/8/11)

c696 Feng Du, a 1,300-year-old Tang dynasty city near the Yangtze River gorges, known as the city of ghosts.
(WSJ, 10/8/96, p.A20)

697 The first Arab Islamic currency was struck in Damascus by the Umayyad ruler Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (697-698 A.D.)

c697 The last major earthquake occurred in the Salt Lake City region of Utah about this time. A major quake hits the region about every 1300 years.
(SFEC, 4/6/97, p.C13)

697 In Ireland an assembly was called at the hill of Tara to put an end to the participation of Irish women in battle.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.11)

699 Li Po (d.762), classical Chinese poet, was born. His poems included “Drinking Alone With the Moon.”
(SFC, 10/30/03, p.A26)

699 En no Ozunu appeared in the official Japanese national log of events or the ‘Shoku Nihongi.’ It is in this year that En was banished from society, following the charge that he “misused his magical powers to control people.” It is believed that En No Gyoja was historically known as En no Ozunu. The Japanese ascetic En-no-Gyoja founded the Shugendo religion on Mount Omine (5,640 feet). He blended aspects of tantric Buddhism, Shintoism, Taoism, Confucianism and Japanese shamanism.
(SSFC, 10/2/05, p.E4)(http://tinyurl.com/8s4gm)

c700 Nov 1, The Celts of Ireland, Great Britain and northern France celebrated Oct. 31 to Nov 2 as their New Year from around 1000-500BC. The pagan harvest event incorporated masks to ward off evil ones, as dead relatives were believed to visit families on the first evening. The Catholic holiday of All Saints’ Day, set for Nov. 1, was instituted around 700 CE to supplant the Druid holiday and Pope Gregory (731-741) made it official. Halloween was transplanted to the US in the 1840s. [see 835]
(WSJ, 10/28/99, p.A24)(WSJ, 10/29/99, p.W17)

c700 The mound building Caddo culture began flourishing in the Texas and Oklahoma area. It lasted to the mid-18th cent.
(AM, Vol. 48, No. 3)

700 The Egypttian port city of Heracleion, founded about 800BC, was swallowed by the sea about this time. Researchers later found it—150 feet beneath the surface of Egypt’s Bay of Aboukir.

c700 Abd al Malik issued the first pure Islamic coins.
(ATC, p.83)

c700 The Chinese gained control over Manchuria from the Koreans about this time.
(WSJ, 10/9/95, p.A-1)

c700 Trade along the coast of East Africa expanded and promoted the founding of such settlements as Kismayu, Mogadiscio, Gedi, Malindi, Mombasa, Kilwas and others.
(Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.169)

c700 In Mexico the Zapotec city of Monte Alban was abandoned about this time.
(SFEC, 10/3/99, p.A24)

c700 The Potala Palace in Lhasa, Tibet, was constructed. It became the traditional home of the Dalai Lama.
(SSFC, 10/5/03, p.D2)

700-800 King Offa decreed that an earthen barrier be built along the border between Wales and his kingdom of Mercia. Llwybr Clawdd Offa opened as a hiking trail in 1971.
(SSFC, 4/7/02, p.C10)
700-800 In Bulgaria the Madara Horseman in Kaspichan was carved into a sandstone cliff.
(SFEC, 8/28/98, p.T4)
700-800 The Catholic Church changed its rules on fasting and allowed fish to be eaten on Fridays and during Lent.
(NH, 5/96, p.58)
c700-800 Dionysus Exiguus (Dennis the Short), a Catholic monk, created a chronology for Pope St. John I with a calendar that began in the year CE 1.
(SFEC,11/16/97, BR p.5)
700-800 In Bhutan the Taktsang monastery was founded by tantric master Padmasambhava, often described as “another Buddha.”
(SFEC, 2/23/96, p.T5)
700-800 An earthquake during this period sent the Nile port cities of Canopus, Menouthis and Thonis-Herakleion into the Mediterranean Sea. Evidence of the submerged cities was revealed by a pilot in 1933.
(SFC, 6/8/01, p.A1)(Econ, 5/21/16, p.73)
700-800 According to Iraqis Muslim forces “liberated” Iraq from the Persians in the 8th century qadissiyah battle.
(SFC, 2/1/02, p.A18)
700-800 Escaped slaves called the Zanj took refuge from the early Islamic empire in the marshes of southern Iraq.
(SSFC, 12/28/03, p.A6)
700-800 The Tanka (short song) poetry form emerged in Japan about this time. The unrhymed verse formalized to 31 syllables arranged in a 5 line pattern of 5-7-5-7-7. In 2005 it became popular on cell phones.
(WSJ, 10/4/05, p.A1)
700-800 In Japan a priest in the 8th century discovered the mineral hot springs at Yamashiro Onsen.
(WSJ, 7/19/05, p.A1)
700-800 The village site of Galu, Kenya, produced the world’s oldest crucible steel.
(NH, 6/97, p.44)
700-800 The Bonampak site in Chiapas, Mexico, has frescoes painted on the stucco walls of Structure I from this time. They depict war, sacrifice and celebration. The name glyph for Shield Jaguar II, king of nearby Yaxchilan, was recognized.
(AM, May/Jun 97 suppl. p.F)(AM, May/Jun 97 p.37)
700-800 Invading Slavs assimilated the Thracians in the area of modern Bulgaria and parts of Greece, Romania, Macedonia and Turkey.
(SFC, 8/17/05, p.A2)
700-800 Slav tribes settle into the territories of present-day Slovenia, Bosnia, Croatia, Montenegro and Serbia, and assimilated the Illyrian populations of these regions. The Illyrians in the south averted assimilation.
(www, Albania, 1998)
700-800 Vikings settled the Faeroe Islands in the 8th century replacing Irish settlers. In 1948 the group of 18 islands, located between Britain and Iceland, became an autonomous region of Denmark.
(SSFC, 7/29/07, p.G8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faroe_Islands)
700-800 Vikings began arriving to the Orkney Islands.
(SFEC, 3/23/97, p.T3)

700-900 In Nigeria the Yoruba-speaking kingdom of Ife began to develop as a center of trade and weaving and bead manufacture.
(Econ, 9/4/10, p.92)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ife)

701 Sep 8, Sergius I, Syrian and Italian Pope (687-701), died.
(MC, 9/8/01)

702 Japan’s first civil and penal code was promulgated. [see 604CE]
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)

705 Mar 1, John VII began his reign as Catholic Pope.
(SC, 3/1/02)

705 Oct 8, Abd al-Malik, caliph of Damascus, died.
(MC, 10/8/01)

708 Mar 25, Constantine began his reign as Catholic Pope.
(HN, 3/24/98)

708 In France Bishop Aubert of Avranches had a dream in which Archangel Michael persuaded him to build an oratory dedicated to the saint on the rock off the Normandy coast known as Mont Tombe. Over the years it grew and became known as Mont St. Michel.
(WSJ, 10/7/06, p.P18)

709 Apr 24, Wilfried (~76), bishop of York, died.
(MC, 4/24/02)

709 May 25, Aldhelmus (~69) of Ealdhelm, England, abbot, bishop, poet, saint, died.
(SC, 5/25/02)

710 The Fujiwara clan established the Kasuga Shrine in Nara, Japan.
(Hem, 9/04, p.46)

710-784 The Nara Period of Japan. Japan’s 1st permanent capital arose in the Nara basin.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)(Hem, 9/04, p.41)

711 Apr 14, Childebert III (~27), king of the French, died.
(MC, 4/14/02)

711 Jul 19, The Muslim troops crossed the Strait of Gibraltar and defeated the Visigoth king Rodrigo at the battle of Guadalete. Berbers under Tarik-ibn Ziyad occupied Northern Spain. The Umayyads with the help of the Berbers in North Africa moved across the Strait of Gibraltar and began the conquest of Spain and Portugal. The word Gibraltar comes from the term Jabal-al-Tarik, which means the hill of Tarik. Gebel-al-Tarik means “Rock of Tarik.”
(ATC, p.79)(SFEC, 9/29/96, Z1 p.2)(www.sispain.org/english/history/visigoth.html)

711 Dec 11, Justitianus II (~42), emperor of Byzantium, died.
(MC, 12/11/01)

712 The publication of Kojiki in Japan, the Record of Ancient Matters. The work was compiled by the court to strengthen its control over various noble lineages. Fictitious rulers were inserted to project the nation’s founding back to 660BC
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.34)

712 Muza ben-Nosair completed the Muslim conquest of Spain. The Visigothic period ended.

713 In China construction began on the Great Buddha of Leshan under the direction of the monk Haitong. It was completed after 90 years. In 2002 a $30 million restoration project aimed to preserve the 233-foot statue, the largest Buddha in the world.
(Arch, 9/02, p.19)

715 Apr 9, Constantine I, Greek-Syrian Catholic Pope (708-15), died.
(HN, 4/9/98)(MC, 4/9/02)

715 May 19, St. Gregory II began his reign as Catholic Pope.
(HN, 5/19/98)

718 The Japanese inn Hoshi Ryokan was founded in Komatsu.
(Econ, 12/18/04, p.104)(SFC, 4/14/06, p.D1)

720 The Nihon Shoki (the Chronicle of Japan), the oldest recorded Japanese document, was published. It was compiled by the court to strengthen its control over various noble lineages.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.34)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R46)

721-764 Kinich Ahkal Mo’ Nab ruled Palenque.
(AM, Jul-Aug/99, p.16)

c722 In China a 233-foot Buddha was built in Sichuan province. In 2002 a $30 million restoration project was undertaken.
(SFC, 7/4/02, p.A12)

727 May 30, Hubertus (72), bishop of Tongeren-Maastricht, saint, died.
(MC, 5/30/02)

727 Houei-tch’ao, a Korean pilgrim, visited the great Buddhas of Bamiyan, Afghanistan.
(WSJ, 12/20/01, p.A13)

729 Apr 24, Egbertus (89), English bishop, St. Egbert, died in Iona.
(MC, 4/24/02)

729 Emperor Leo the Isaurian ordered the destruction of an icon of Christ set in the great Bronze Gate in Constantinople. Theodosia led a group of enraged women who killed the officer removing the image. Theodosia was killed in the forum and became a martyr-saint. Her saint’s day was May 29.
(Ot, 1993, p.3)

730 Khazar commander Barjik led Khazar troops through the Darial Pass
to invade Azerbaijan. At the Battle of Ardabil, the Khazars defeated an entire Arab army. The Battle of Ardabil lasted three days, and resulted in the death of a major Arab general named Jarrah. The Khazars then conquered Azerbaijan and Armenia and northern Iraq for a brief time.
(TJOK, pages 160-161)

731 Feb 11, Pope Gregory II (b.669), born in Rome as Gregorius Sabellus, died.

731-741 Gregory III served as Pope.
(WUD, 1994, p.621)

732 Oct 10, At Tours, France, Charles Martel killed Yemenite general Abd el-Rahman and halted the Muslim invasion of Europe. Islam’s westward spread was stopped by the Franks at the Battle of Tours (also known as the Battle of Poitiers).

732 Pope Gregory III banned horseflesh from Christian tables after he learned that pagans of northern Europe ate it in their religious rites.
(SFC, 5/30/98, p.E4)

735 May 26, The Venerable Bede (~62), Beda Venerabilis, English speaking church historian, died.
(MC, 5/26/02)(WSJ, 10/22/03, p.D12)

737 Marwan, an Arab general, captured the Khazar khagan and forced him to pledge support to the Caliphate and convert to Islam.
(TJOK, pages 162-163)

738 The great Lord 18 Rabbit built a ball court at the Mayan city of Copan. In a surprise attack he was captured and decapitated by Cauac Sky from the city of Quirigia, some 60 km. to the east. In 1998 Michael D. Coe and Justin Kerr published “The Art of the Maya Scribe,” a look at the progress made in decoding the Mayan writing system.
(Hem, Dec. 94, p.123)(SFEC, 7/5/98, BR p.10)

738 Butz Tiliw’ or Cauac Sky defeated his overlord, Copan’s 13th ruler, 18 Rabbit. Monuments to this event are at the Quirigua Maya site in Guatemala.
(AM, May/Jun 97 suppl. p.F)

739 Nov 7, Willibrord (81), [Clemens], 1st bishop of Utrecht (695-739) and saint, died in Luxembourg.

740 Tah ak Chaan (Taj Chan Ank) began a 50 year rule over the city of Cancuen in what later became Guatemala.
(SFC, 9/9/00, p.A2)(AM, 7/04, p.16)

740 The Virupaksha temple in Pattadakal, an early capital of the Chalukyas of southern India, was built by Queen Lokamahadevi about this time to commemorate her husband’s victory over the Pallavas.

741 Jun 18, Leo III de Isaurier, Byzantine Emperor (717-41), died.
(MC, 6/18/02)

741 Oct 22, Charles Martel of Gaul died at Quiezy. His mayoral power was divided between his two sons, Pepin III and Carloman.
(HN, 10/22/98)

741 The Arab slave trade was one of the elements that sparked the great Berber rebellion in North Africa and Islamic Spain (http://tinyurl.com/2zrltp).
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hisham_ibn_Abd_al-Malik)(Econ, 7/7/07, p.79)

742 Apr 2, Charlemagne (d.814), Charles I the Great, King of the Franks and first Holy Roman emperor (800-14), was born. His capital was at Aachen (Acquisgrana in Latin).
(V.D.-H.K.p.105)(SFEM, 10/12/97, p.46)(HN, 4/2/98)

743 Mar 1, Slave export by Christians to heathen areas was prohibited.
(SC, 3/1/02)

743-1194 In France five cathedrals were built on the site of Chartres cathedral over this period.
(Hem., 10/97, p.83)

744 Lords of the Lowland Maya city of Caracol conducted a burning ritual in the cave at Naj Tunich, in the Peten of Guatemala.
(AM, 7/97, p.51)

745 Some 200,000 Slovenians, settled in a pocket of the eastern slopes of the Alps, were threatened by the Avars and the Bavarians. For safety they adopted Christianity and accepted the protection of the Frankish emperor
(SFC, 5/26/96, T-5)

745-840 The Uighur of eastern Turkestan formed an empire in the north that was ended by an invasion of the Kyrgyz peoples.

746 Jun 12, The estimated date for the dedication of the Mayan Temple 22 in Copan.
(Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.31)

748 Wasil ibn Ata, Muslim theologian and jurist, died. He had left the teaching lessons of Hasan al-Basri after a theological dispute regarding the issue of Al-Manzilah bayna al-Manzilatayn. He and his followers, including Amr ibn Ubayd (d.761), were labeled Mu’tazili. The adherents of the Mu’tazili school (Mutazilites) are best known for their having asserted that, because of the perfect unity and eternal nature of God, the Qur’an must therefore have been created, as it could not be co-eternal with God. Mutazilites stressed human reason.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wasil_ibn_Ata)(Econ, 8/6/11, p.22)

749 Dec 4, John of Damascus (b.~676), a Christian Arab theologian, died at the Mar Saba monastery near Jerusalem. He is considered “the last of the Fathers” of the Eastern Orthodox church and is best known for his strong defense of icons.
(Econ, 3/30/13, p.80)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_of_Damascus)

749 An earthquake cause great damage in the area of the Sea of Galilee.
(SFC, 6/18/02, p.A2)

c750 The Anasazi built entire cities into cliffs around the West since at least this time. Before that they were digging pit houses and even earlier, about 350 B.C., were probably living in Colorado caves. Their present name comes from a Navajo word meaning “the ancient ones” or “the ancient enemy.”
(HNQ, 7/1/01)

750 Constantinople, as the center of eastern rule used the Greek language for communication.

c750 Arab immigrants settled upstream from Soba, the capital of Alwa, and developed a strong new state called Funj.
(Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.170)

c750 Teotihuacan, the 1st major urban center of Mesoamerica, fell about this time. It was burned, deserted and its people scattered. It contained the Pyramid of the Moon and the Pyramid of the Sun.
(SSFC, 5/6/01, p.T8)

c750-850 The Maya city of La Milpa reached its peak with about 50,000 people.
(SFC, 6/23/96, p.A10)

750-1258 Muslim power in Persia was held by the Abbassid caliphs, who claimed lands that stretched from Central Asia to North Africa and Spain. One Abbasid general, Abdullah, invited 80 Umayyad leaders to a banquet where they were killed by Abdullah’s men. Only one Umayyad, Abd al Rahman, was able to escape. He fled all the way to Spain where he united the warring Muslin groups there and built a new Umayyad government. So now the Muslims were split in two groups. The Abbassid dynasty of the Moslem Empire ruled Arabia and the eastern empire. All of the caliphs of this era claim descended from Abbas, the uncle of Mohammed.
(AHD, 1971, p.2)(ATC, p.84)(SFC, 4/12/03, p.A14)

750-1375 The Sican culture flourished on Peru’s northern desert coast. In 2006 archaeologists unearthed 22 graves containing a trove of Sican artifacts, including the first “tumi” ceremonial knives ever discovered by archaeologists rather than looted by thieves.
(AP, 11/22/06)

751 The Chinese army was beaten by the Arabs of the Abassid Caliphate at the Battle of Talas (Kyrgyzstan). Chinese prisoners soon taught Arabs the technology for making paper.
(http://tinyurl.com/lwk9h5a)(Econ, 6/7/14, p.87)

751- 987 The Frankish dynasty of Pepin the Short began the Carolingian period.
(AHD, 1971, p.205)

752 Mar 23, Pope Stephen II was elected to succeed Pope Zacharias; however, Stephen died 4 days later.
(AP, 3/23/97)(PTA, 1980, p.184)

752 Mar 26, Pope Stephen II died 4 days after his election.
(SS, 3/26/02)(PTA, 1980, p.184)

752 Abu Jafar al Mansur, the second Abbasid caliph, moved the capital to Baghdad.
(ATC, p.85)

c752 Emperor Shomu built a great Buddhist temple and started a collection from the gifts that were brought to its dedication. Rulers for the next 12 centuries added to the collection.
(WSJ, 1/13/98, p.A20)

752 The dedication of the Great Buddha of Todai Temple in Nara.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)

754 Jun 5, Friezen murdered bishop Boniface [Winfrid], English saint, archbishop of Dokkum, and over 50 companions.
(MC, 6/5/02)

754 The Iconoclasts (image smashers) prevailed and religious art was banned in churches by an edict that remained in effect for a century.
(WSJ, 3/10/97, p.A16)

756 May 15, Abd-al-Rahman was proclaimed the emir of Cordoba, Spain. Abd al Rahman united the Umayyad forces in Spain and made the ancient Roman city of Cordoba his new capital.
(ATC, p.95)(HN, 5/15/98)

755 Dec 16, The An Lushan rebellion began when general An Lushan declared himself emperor in Northern China, establishing a rival Yan Dynasty. The rebellion was quashed in 763.
(Econ, 6/9/12, p.87)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/An_Lushan_Rebellion)

757 Apr 26, Stephen II ended his reign as Catholic Pope.
(HN, 4/26/98)

757 May 29, St. Paul I (d.767) began his reign as Catholic Pope.
(PTA, 1980, p.188)(SC, 5/29/02)

760 May 22, The 14th recorded perihelion passage of Halley’s Comet occurred.
(MC, 5/22/02)

762 Jul 30, A Persian astrologer, selected by caliph al-Mansur (the Victorious), selected this day as propitious for breaking ground for the city of Baghdad. Al-Mansur was one of the founders of the Abassid dynasty.
(WSJ, 2/14/09, p.W8)

762 Li Bai (b.701), Chinese poet, died. He was acclaimed from his own day to the present as a genius and a romantic figure who took traditional poetic forms to new heights.

763 Feb 17, The An Lushan rebellion, begun in 755, ended. It had spanned the reigns of 3 Tang emperors before it was quashed. The rebellion and subsequent disorder resulted in a huge loss of life and large-scale destruction.
(Econ, 6/9/12, p.87)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/An_Lushan_Rebellion)

763 Tibetan armies occupied the capital of China.
(SFEM, 1/24/99, p.6)

763 Altar Q depicts Yax Pasah (Yax Pasaj), Copan’s last dynastic ruler, receiving the symbolic baton of office from founder K’inich Yax K’uk’ Mo’ in this year.
(NG, 12/97, p.80)(AM, 3/04, p.43)

764-770 In Japan Empress Shotoku had a million miniature pagodas made in thanks for regaining control of the throne. Sacred text was placed in each one and distributed to the 10 most important temples.
(WSJ, 7/27/00, p.A20)

765 Dec 31, The coffin of Ho-tse Shen-hui was interred in a stupa built in China.
(MC, 12/31/01)

765-790 The Mayan palace of Cancuen, one of the largest in Guatemala, was built by King Taj Chan Ahk.
(AP, 4/23/04)

766-787 The Chinese poet Du Fu arrived in Baidi Cheng and was given the means to write poetry by the local warlord. He wrote a third of his life’s work with many poems in the regulated style called lushi.
(NH, 7/96, p.32)

768 Sep 24, Pepin the Short (54) of Gaul died. His dominions were divided between his sons Charles (Charlemagne) and Carloman.
(PC, 1992, p.67)

768-814 Charlemagne becomes king of the Franks and emperor of the former Western Roman Empire.
(V.D.-H.K.p.105)(ATC, p.72)

770 The Syrian Orthodox Church of St. Thomas (Mar Toma) was built in Mosul (Iraq).
(SFC, 12/24/09, p.A3)

771 Dec 4, With the death of his brother Carloman, Charlemagne became sole ruler of the Frankish Empire.
(HN, 12/4/98)

771-814 Reign of Charlemagne.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)

772 Mar 1, Po Tjiu-I (Bai Juyi), Chinese poet (d.846), Governor of Hang-tsjow, was born. His work included the narrative poem “Song of the Pipa,” which protested the social evils of his day.
(WSJ, 3/17/00, p.W2)(SC, 3/1/02)

774-814 Charlemagne became king of the Lombards.

775 According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle a red crucifix appeared in the heavens after sunset. Scientists later believed that solar radiation had stimulated auroras and generated high levels of ¹?Carbon.
(Econ 7/22/17, p.64)

776 Al-Jahiz (d.868), Muslim theologian and scholar, was born in Basra about this time. He is credited with writing nearly two hundred works, although fewer than one hundred survive today. His most famous work is Al-Hayawan” (The Book of animals), which merges discussions of zoology with philosophy.
(Econ, 2/7/09, p.72)(www.enotes.com/classical-medieval-criticism/al-jahiz)

776-795 Chan Muan (Sky Screech Owl) reigned over the Bonampak site in what is now eastern Chiapas, Mexico. The site was abandoned at the end of his reign.
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.35)

777 A wealthy trader and landowner named Totone donated Campione, an Italian enclave on the shores of Switzerland’s Lake Lugano, to the monastery of Sant’Ambrogio in Milan, which became part of Italy in 1797. It was later renamed Campione d’Italia, under the rule of dictator Benito Mussolini. A gaming establishment was first opened in Campione in 1917, but its main purpose was to spy on foreign diplomats during World War I, and it closed two years later. It reopened in 1933 thanks to a decree, which remains in effect, requiring the casino proceeds to cover all municipal costs. In 2020 the enclave is due to become part of the European Union customs area, raising practical questions about interactions with non-EU member Switzerland.
(AFP, 5/26/19)

778 Aug 15, At the Battle at Roncesvalles the Basques beat Charlemagne.
(PC, 1992, p.67)

778 In Japan the Kiyomizu-dera Buddhist temple was founded in Kyoto. Its main hall (Hondo) was built in 1633 without a single nail.
(SSFC, 3/16/14, p.P4)

779 King Trisong Detsen led Tibet. Under his rule the first Buddhist monastery, Samye, was built. It was built under the influence of Padmasambhava (Guru Rimpoche), Tibet’s greatest saint. Padmasambhava was an 8th century sorcerer and saint who converted Tibet to Buddhism. Legend has it that he dictated “sacred geography” texts to his queen consort and then hid them for future discovery. The texts were discovered by 17th century charismatic lamas.
(Hem., 4/97, p.72,75)(SFEC,12/14/97, p.T5)(WSJ, 3/11/99, p.A20)

780 A group of West Africans called the Soninke took control of Ghana and developed it into a major trading empire.
(ATC, p. 113)

781 Yakib ben Laith, a Saffarid prince from an eastern Iranian dynasty, stripped the sanctuaries of Bamiyan, Afghanistan, of their metal idols.
(WSJ, 12/20/01, p.A13)

783 Jul 12, Bertha “with the great feet”, wife of French king Pippin III, died.
(MC, 7/12/02)

784 The Emir ‘Abd al-Rahman I purchased the christian half of a Catholic church built by the Visigoths, which had been shared following the Muslim conquest of Spain in 711. He then destroyed the church and built the Great Mosque of Cordoba. In 1236 it was reverted to a Catholic church as the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Assumption.
(http://tinyurl.com/pk2r3cx)(Econ, 10/10/15, p.54)

785 The English Penny, originally a coin of 1.3 to 1.5 grams (0.042 to 0.048 troy ounces; 0.046 to 0.053 ounces) pure silver, was introduced about this time by King Offa of Mercia. These coins were similar in size and weight to the continental deniers of the period, and to the Anglo-Saxon sceats which had gone before it.

786 Feb 4, Harun al-Rashid (786-809) succeeded his older brother the Abbasid Caliph al-Hadi as Caliph of Baghdad.
(HN, 2/4/99)(Econ, 12/19/15, p.67)

786 Sep 24, Al-Hadi, Arabic caliph of Islam (185-86), died.
(MC, 9/24/01)

786 Abd al Rahman began construction of the Great Mosque of Cordoba. It was under construction for 200 years.
(ATC, p.95)

787 Sep 24, The 2nd Council of Nicaea (7th ecumenical council) opened in Asia Minor.

787 Oct 23, Byzantine Empress Irene (c. 752-803) attended the final session of the 2nd church council at Nicaea, Bithynia [now Iznik, a city in Anatolia (now part of Turkey)]. The council formally revived the adoration of icons and reunited the Eastern church with that of Rome.

c791 Croats established the principalities of Primortska Hrvatska on the Adriatic coast and Posavska Hrvatska in inland Croatia.
(WSJ, 7/14/99, p.A23)

791 In Morocco Idriss I (b.745), a descendant of the Prophet Mohammed, was laid to rest in Moulay Driss Zerhoun. The Sufi saint founded Morocco’s first Islamic dynasty.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Idris_I_of_Morocco)(AFP, 8/21/18)

792 The first paper making factory in the Islamic Empire was built in Baghdad.
(ATC, p.89)

793 Jun 8, Vikings raided the Northumbrian coast in England. Corfe served as a center of West Saxon resistance to Viking invaders. Vikings plundered the monastery and St. Cuthbert convent at Lindsfarne
(HN, 6/8/98)(AM, 7/00, p.64)(PC, 1992, p.68)

794 Aug 10, Fastrada (30), 3rd wife of French king Charlemagne, died.
(MC, 8/10/02)

794 Charlemagne created a single currency for his empire.
(Econ, 6/18/11, p.30)
794 The capital of Japan was moved from Nara to Kyoto and the new Imperial Palace was built there. It remained there until 1868.
(Hem., 2/96, p.57-58)(Hem, 9/04, p.41)

794-1185 The Heian Period in Japan. The kimono originated in this period. Prof. Helen McCullough (d.1998) of UC Berkeley and her husband translated “A Tale of Flowering Fortunes,” whose notes and appendixes made it an encyclopedia of Heian court life. She published 11 volumes of studies and translations of classical Japanese poetry that included: “The Tale of the Heike” and “The Great Mirror.”
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)(SFC, 2/7/97, p.D1)(SFC, 4/23/98, p.B4)

795 Taj Chan Ahk, the Mayan ruler of Cancuen (Guatemala), died.
(SFC, 11/17/05, p.A17)

795 Vikings first raided Ireland.
(SFEC, 8/1/99, p.T8)

795-1185 The Heian period was a time of elegant and refined rice papers.
(SFC, 5/17/97, p.A20)

796 Jul 26, Offa, king of Mercia (in central England), died.
(MC, 7/26/02)

796 Frankfurt, Germany. This 1200 year old city of 650,000 is the hub of Germany’s banking and business community.
(SFC, 5/5/96, p.T-7)

796 A 600-pound limestone altar was carved to honor a treaty in the Mayan city of Cancuen (Guatemala). It was uncovered in 2001 and soon stolen. It was retrieved in 2003.
(USAT, 10/30/03, p.12D)(SFC, 10/30/03, p.A11)

796-821 Anglo Saxon king Coenwulf of Mercia, ruled a kingdom that covered vast swathes of the English midlands and northern counties to the southeast. In 2001 a metal detector enthusiast discovered a gold coin beside the River Ivel in Bedfordshire, southern England. The 4.25 gram coin depicts Anglo Saxon king Coenwulf of Mercia.
(AFP, 2/8/06)

c797 The 1,200 year-old Book of Kells, an illuminated manuscript of the Gospels, was made by Irish monks. It was later kept in the library of Dublin’s Trinity College. The Book of Kells is a richly decorated copy of the four gospels–Matthew, Mark, Luke and John–produced by Christian monks, possibly in the late 700s on the Scottish isle of Iona or in the Irish town of Kells. Joyce later used it as a model for Ulysses.
(SFC, 3/17/97, p.A20)(HNQ, 1/13/99)(SFEM, 5/16/99, p.7)

799 Nov 29, Pope Leo III, aided by Charlemagne, returned to Rome.
(MC, 11/29/01)

799 Imam Musa ibn Jaafar al-Kadhim (55), one of the 12 principle Shiite saints, died from poisoning in Baghdad.

c799-878 St. Ignatius Nicetas. He served as the Patriarch of Constantinople from 846-858 and 867-878.
(WUD, 1994 p.708)

800 Dec 25, Pope Leo III crowned Frankish warrior-king Charlemagne as heir of the Roman emperors at the basilica of St. Peter’s at Rome.
(V.D.-H.K.p.105)(Econ, 9/4/10, p.56)

800 Ohlone Indians occupied the cliffs near Mussel Rock, later Daly City, Ca., beginning from about this time.

800 The Tairona peoples of Colombia made Ciudad Perdida their capital from about this time until the arrival of the conquistadors.
(SSFC, 12/4/11, p.H4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ciudad_Perdida)

c800 England’s King Lear lived about this time. Shakespeare wrote his play “King Lear” in 1606.
c800 The inhabitants of the British Isles did not comb their hair until they were taught by the Danes about this time.
(SFC, 6/30/96, Z1 p.5)

800 About this time unidentified conquerors destroyed the Mayan palace at Cancuen (Guatemala) and killed the members of the court. Archeologists in 2005 reported that King Maax, son of Taj Chan Ahk, was found buried in full regalia.
(SFC, 11/17/05, p.A17)
c800 The height of the Mayan city of Copan. Some 20,000 people lived in the Copan pocket, a fertile section of the Copan River valley in what is now Honduras.
(Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.29)

c800 The stone image of Fudo Myo-o, a fierce Japanese deity of fire and thunder was carved by a revered priest in Kyoto about this time. It was transferred to Narita about 940.
(Hem, 8/95, p.56)

800 The city of Jenne-jeno on the Niger (Mali) grew to a bustling trade center of about 10,000 people. By 1400 the city was abandoned.
(ATC, p.111)

c800 The first Polynesians come from somewhere in the central Pacific to New Zealand. These people are called the tangata whenua, which means “people of the land,” but are more commonly called in English the moa-hunters, for hunting the large grass-eating, ostrich-like bird.
(NG, Aug., 1974, p.196)

c800-900 In England Nennius wrote a history in the early 9th century and mentioned King Arthur as a fabulous figure.
(WSJ, 3/27/98, p.W10)

c800-900 The Alawi faith was founded in the 9th century by a Muslim, who declared himself the “gateway” to the divine truth and abandoned Islam.
(WSJ, 6/12/00, p.A30)
800-900 Buran, the wife of the Caliph of Baghdad, had a lavish wedding. The groom was led to a carpet of woven gold and 1,000 pearls were poured over his head in honor of a poet who had described the surface of a glass of white wine as: “pearls scattered like pebbles on a plain of gold.”
(SFC, 12/18/96, zz-1 p.8)

800-900 In northern Bangladesh the Buddhist monastic complex at Paharpur was built by the Pala dynasty.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.B)

800-900 In China the 9th cent. poet Chu Chen Pu wrote about the hedgehog.
(NH, 7/98, p.54)
c800-900 “The Diamond Sutra,’ a 9th century Chinese work, was found in 1900 in a cave in Duhuang by Sir Airel Stein, a British scholar-explorer, and handed over to the British Library.
(SFEC, 6/11/00, p.A30)

800-900 Ninth century monks called Bhutan “the hidden world.”
(WSJ, 3/6/97, p.A8)

800-900 In France monks moved inland from the Loire valley to escape the depredations of the Vikings and revived the making of Chablis wine with Chardonnay grapes.
(SFC, 7/16/97, Z1 p.4)

c800-900 In Germany Archbishop Hatto of Mainz supposedly hoarded grain during a time of famine and said that starving masses were nothing more than mice. He was beleaguered by rodents and took refuge on his island in the Rhine where legend has it that mice devoured him.
(SFEC, 3/15/98, p.T4)

800-900 The Mayan site of Xultun (Guatemala) dated to about this time. It was discovered in 1912. In 2010 paintings were discovered at the site dating to this period. Figures were captioned as “Older Brother Obsidian,” or “Senior Obsidian,” and “Younger Brother Obsidian,” or perhaps “Junior Obsidian.”

800-900 The first Khmer or king, know as Kambu, founded Kambujadesa, which means “The Sons of Kambu” or Kambuja for short. Construction of the city and temple complex known as Angkor Wat was begun.
(SFEC, 10/20/96, T5)

800-900 Muhammed ibn-Musa al-Khwarizmi, Arab mathematician and astronomer, wrote his “ab al-jabr w’ al muqabalah” (the science of reduction and comparison). The work dealt with solving equations. It was the first time that algebra was discussed as a separate branch of mathematics. In the 12th century it was translated into Latin as “Ludus algebrae et almucgrabalaeque.”
(Alg, 1990, p.87)

800-900 The Vikings brought ponies to Iceland.
(SFC, 3/21/98, p.A9)

800-900 A timber mosque was built at Shanga, Kenya.
(NH, 6/97, p.43)

800-900 In Poland a 9th century edict forbade Jews from baking. The law was supposedly circumvented by boiling bread and then toasting it. This process is believed to have led to the creation of the bagel.
(WSJ, 11/29/08, p.W11)

c800-900 In Southern Korea peasant uprisings led to the establishment of 2 rival states.
(SFEM, 6/20/99, p.6)

800-900 In Scandinavia Futhark evolved around the 9th century. Instead of 24 letters, the Scandinavian “Younger” Futhark had 16 letters. In England, Anglo-Saxon Futhorc started to be replaced by the Latin alphabet by the 9th century, and did not survive much more past the Norman Conquest. Futhark continued to be used in Scandinavia for centuries longer, but by 1600 CE, it had become nothing more than curiosities among scholars and antiquarians.

800-900 The Uygur, a Turkic people, fled the Mongolian steppe and settled in Xinjiang.
(NG, Feb, 04, p.12)

800-900 In Thailand Sadokkokthom was a Khmer sanctuary on the Thai-Cambodian border in the Aranyaphrathet region.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.H)

800-1000 At the beginning of the ninth century, Arabian merchants frequented Lithuania to purchase fine furs, beeswax and precious amber. Brisk trading between Arabians and Lithuanians went on for about two hundred years.
(VilNews, 12/17/10)

800-1050 Ghana controlled West Africa’s rich trade, yet villagers continued to use cowry shells for money. Koumbi, Ghana’s capital, became the busiest and wealthiest marketplace in West Africa.
(ATC, p.107,115)

c800-1200 Wat Phu (mountain temple) in southern Laos was a religious complex patronized by the Khmer of Cambodia.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.E)

c800-1700 The Calusa Indian tribe, nicknamed “The Fierce Ones,” dominated Florida’s Gulf coast from about 800 to 1700. They escaped from Florida to Cuba in the early 1700s after Spanish soldiers and other tribes overran their region.
(AP, 3/14/04)(AM, 11/04, p.47)

802 Oct 31, Empress Irene was driven out of Byzantium.
(MC, 10/31/01)

802 Jayavarman II proclaimed himself a “universal monarch” in a ritual that united religion and politics (Cambodia) and gave rise to the cult of the Devaraja (deified king). He declared the region’s independence from Java.
(WSJ, 7/3/97, p.A9)(SFC, 8/14/07, p.A18)

802 Vikings stage their 1st raid of Iona (Scotland).
(AM, 7/01, p.50)

803 Harun al-Rashid (d.809), the fifth Abbasid Caliph and the last to make Raqqa his capital, had his most loyal adviser cut into three pieces.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harun_al-Rashid)(Econ, 3/25/17, p.40)

804 Vikings returned to Iona and killed 68 of the monastic community.
(AM, 7/01, p.50)

809 Mar 24, Harun al-Rashid (44), caliph of the Abbasid empire (786-809), died.
(MC, 3/24/02)

810 Jul 8, Pepin, son of Charlemagne and King of Italy, died.
(MC, 7/8/02)

811 Jul 26, Byzantine Emperor Nikephoros I, or Nicephorus I (b.750), died in the Battle of Pliska, one of the worst defeats in Byzantine history. He served as emperor from 802 to 811. Both Syriac sources such as Michael the Syrian and Arabic ones like al-Tabari and Mas’udi hold that the emperor was of a Ghassanid Arab origin. The Byzantines had plundered and burned the Bulgar capital Pliska which gave time for the Bulgarians under monarch Krum to block passes in the Balkan Mountains that served as exits out of Bulgaria.

813 Sep 25, Al-Amin, Arabic Caliph of Islam (809-813), was murdered.
(MC, 9/25/01)

c813 Pelayo to Dantiago, a Spanish hermit, was guided, according to legend, by strange lights in the sky to discover the long-forgotten tomb of the apostle St. James (San Tiago). This led others to make pilgrimages across northern Spain to the city of Santiago de Compostela. [see 1130]
(SFC, 3/11/04, p.F9)

813-833 Caliph al Ma’mun founded a school in Baghdad called the House of Wisdom. In this school scholars translated Greek philosophy classics into Arabic.
(ATC, p.89)

814 Jan 28, Charlemagne (71), German emperor, Holy Roman Emperor (800-814), died. In 1968 Jacques Boussard authored “The Civilisation of Charlemagne.”
(MC, 1/28/02)(Econ, 1/3/04, p.39)

814 Abu-Nuwas al-Hasan ben Hani al-Hakami (b.756), one of the greatest of classical Arabic poets, died. He also composed in Persian on occasion. Born in the city of Ahvaz in Persia, of an Arab father and a Persian mother, he became a master of all the contemporary genres of Arabic poetry. Abu Nuwas has entered the folkloric tradition, and he appears several times in The Book of One Thousand and One Nights. His witty and humorous poetry, which dealt not with the traditional desert themes, but with urban life and the joys of wine and drinking (khamriyyat – khamriyaat), and ribald humor (mujuniyyat).
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abu_Nuwas)(Econ, 12/20/03, p.68)(Econ, 8/18/12, p.55)

816 Nov, Fatima, sister of the eighth Imam, was buried in a sanctuary at Qum (Qom), Iran, one of the sacred cities of the Shia faith.
(http://tinyurl.com/htuz4ky)(NG, 9/1939, p.320)

818 Imam Reza, a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad, died. Shiites later believed that he was fed poisonous grapes by a Sunni leader of the Muslim world. Reza was buried in Sanabad, which later became known as Mashad, “place of martyrdom.” A major shrine grew at the site and by 2007 the Imam Reza Shrine Foundation was the largest (bonyad) in Iran and accounted for 7.1% of the country’s GDP.
(WSJ, 6/2/07, p.A12)

819 In northern Afghanistan most of the recently built Noh Gonbad (Nine Domes) mosque collapsed following an earthquake. It was later believed to have been built on the remains of a Buddhist monastery. Another earthquake a hundred years later hit the outer walls and most of the 15 arches.
(AP, 1/6/18)

820 Jan 20, Abu Abdallah Mibn Idris al-Sjafi’i, Islamic author of Book of Mother, died.
(MC, 1/20/02)

820 Dec 25, Leo V, the Armenian, Byzantine gen and Emperor (813-20), was murdered.
(MC, 12/25/01)

c820 The collapse of the Mayan ruling Classic period dynasty in Copan.
(Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.25)

821-822 In Europe the Danube, Rhine and Seine rivers froze this winter thick enough to allow crossing by horse and cart.
(Econ 7/22/17, p.64)

822 In Iceland an eruption of the Katla volcano about this time led to a rupture of the Myrdalsjokull, a glacier overlying the volcano. This led to a major flood that knocked over a forest 35 km away. Temperatures plunged and the following winters in Europe turned particularly cold with hailstorms and snow that led to plague and famine.
(SFC, 12/27/17, p.64)

825 The Buddhist temple of Borobudur on the island of Java was completed about this time under the supervision of an architect named Gunadharma. The site was abandoned after 100-200 years. In 1814 British Gov. Thomas Stamford Raffles was advised of its location and dispatched an expedition to locate and excavate the legendary monument.
(SFEC, 3/28/99, p.T9)(WSJ, 9/13/08, p.W18)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borobudur)

828 Apr 5, Nicephorus (~77), patriarch of Constantinople (806-815), died.
(MC, 4/5/02)

828 Venetian merchants stole the relics of Saint Mark from a Coptic church in Alexandria and brought them home in triumph.
(Econ, 12/23/06, p.125)

830 The Utrecht Psalter was produced in the Netherlands. Its 166 ink drawings illustrated passages in the psalms. In the eleventh century an English copy was made that became known as the Harley Psalter.
(Econ, 6/13/09, p.86)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Utrecht_Psalter)

833-900 Great Moravia was founded when Mojmir I unified two neighboring states by force, referred to in modern historiography as the “Principality of Nitra” and the “Principality of Moravia”. The Slavic state existed in Central Europe from the 9th century to the early 10th century.

835-1500 Medieval British history for this period is covered by timeref.com.

833 Jul 20, Ansegis (Ansegius, 63), French abbot of Fontenelle, author, died.
(MC, 7/20/02)

834 Oct 31, This evening became All Hallow’s Eve with the establishment of Nov 1 as Feast of All Saints by Pope Gregory IV.
(PTA, 1980, p.204)(SFC, 10/31/01, p.C2)

834 Nov 1, This day was declared to be All Saints’ Day by the Catholic Church. [see 835CE]
(SFC, 10/31/01, p.C2)

834 In southeastern Norway’s Vestfold County a 65-foot vessel was buried in an enormous mound as the grave ship for a rich and powerful Viking woman. In 1904 the mound surrendered the Oseberg Viking longboat.
(AP, 9/11/07)

835 Nov 1, After the spread of Christianity through the west, the Roman Catholic Church in 835 A.D. made November 1 a church holiday to honor all the saints. This celebration was called All Saint’s Day or All Hallows and the day before it–October 31–was called All Hallow’s Eve (later Halloween). Pope Gregory extended the Feast of All Saints on Nov 1 to France and Germany. [see 834CE]
(PTA, 1980, p.204)(HNPD, 10/31/99)

836 Caliph al-Mutasim built a new capital at Samarra to replace Baghdad as the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate. It was abandoned by Caliph al-Mutamid in 892.
(SFC, 2/23/06, p.A15)

837 Apr 13, Best view of Halley’s Comet in 2000 years.
(MC, 4/13/02)

838 Jan 7, Babak Khorramdin, formally known as “Papak” meaning “Young Father,” was executed. He was one of the main revolutionary leaders of the Iranian Khorram-Dinan (“Those of the joyous religion”), which was a local freedom movement fighting the Abbasid Caliphate. During his execution, the Caliph’s henchmen first cut off his legs and hands. Legend says that Babak bravely rinsed his face with the drained blood pouring out of his cuts, thus depriving the Caliph and the rest of the Abbasid army from seeing his pale face, a result of the heavy loss of blood. He was then gibbeted alive whilst sewn into a cow’s skin with the horns at ear level to gradually crush his head as it dried out.

839 Charles III the Fat, sometimes called Charles II of France, was born. He was the son of Louis the German and grandson of Charlemagne. Charles III the Fat was a Frankish king and emperor. His fall in 887 marked the final disintegration of the empire of Charlemagne. He was the youngest son of Louis the German and was crowned emperor by Pope John VIII in 881 and became king of all the East Franks in 882, succeeding his brother Louis the Younger. Charles III the Fat died on January 13, 888.
(HNQ, 8/30/99)

839 The Stone of Scone was first believed to be used in the coronation of a Scottish king at the village of Scone in southeast Scotland.
(SFC, 11/16/96, p.A11)

839 The first official mention of Andorra was recorded in the records of the cathedral at Seu d’Urgell in Spain.
(Hem., 3/97, p.74)

840 Mar 14, Eginhard (69), French nobleman, biographer (Vita Karoli Magni), died.
(MC, 3/14/02)

840 Jun 6, Agobard, archbishop of Lyon (anti-Semite), died.
(MC, 6/6/02)

840 Vikings settled in Ireland.
(SFEC, 8/1/99, p.T8)

841 Jun 25, Charles the Bald and Louis the German defeated Lothar at Fontenay.
(HN, 6/25/98)

842 Feb 19, The Medieval Iconoclastic Controversy ended as a council in Constantinople formally reinstated the veneration of icons in the churches.

842 Mar 20, Alfonso II the Chaste, king of Asturia (791-842), died. Asturias was a kingdom in NW Spain.
(MC, 3/20/02)(WUD, 1994 p.92)

842 Vikings attacked the Irish monastery at Clonmacnoise from bases in Ireland.
(SFEC, 8/1/99, p.T8)

843 Apr 19, Judith, French empress, 2nd wife of Louis de Vrome, died.
(MC, 4/19/02)

843 Jun 24, Vikings destroyed Nantes.
(MC, 6/24/02)

843 Aug 10, Treaty of Verdun: Brothers Lotharius I, Louis the German and Charles the Bare divided France.
(MC, 8/10/02)

844 In Scotland the Scotti and Picts united under Cinaed (Kenneth) Mac Ailpin. The Pict language disappeared following the union.
(AM, 7/01, p.46)

846 Nov 1, Louis II, the Stutterer, King of France (877-79), was born.
(MC, 11/1/01)

849 Alfred the Great (d.899) was said to have been born near Uffington. He became King of the West Saxons in 871. He was the 5th and youngest son of King Aethelwulf and Queen Osburga of Wessex.
(AHD, 1971, p.32)(AM, 9/01, p.42)(ON, 4/08, p.4)

c850 Outsiders found coffee in the region of Ethiopia called Kaffa, hence the name.
(SFEC, 10/6/96, Z1 p.4)(http://www.koffeekorner.com/koffeehistory.htm)

850 The Chicanna temple in the Mayan city of Calakmul was built about this time.
(SSFC, 4/25/10, p.M1)

850-930 Hucbaldus Elnonensis, was a French monk and composer, who became known for writing poetry about the hairless. He wrote “Ecloga de Calvis,” (In Praise of Bald Men) for Hatto, a bald archbishop. All 150 lines of the Latin verse begin with the letter c (calvus means bald in Latin).
(WSJ, 11/23/98, p.B1)

850-933 Harold the Fairhaired. Princess Gyda is said to have incited Harold to gather the whole of Norway under his scepter. The name Gyda was later corrupted to Gjøe, the name of Amdunsen’s Northwest Passage sloop (1903-1905).
(Ind, 4/27/02, 5A)

c850-1100 Native Indians in Chaco Canyon [New Mexico] built multistory buildings and roads. Evidence was later discovered that they designed a vast map of the yearly sun cycle and the 19-year cycle of the moon.
(WSJ, 6/16/00, p.W2)

c853 The Baltic shoreline Curonians repulsed Danish Viking attempts at subjugation. King Olaf led Swedish Vikings in retaliation and overcame the towns of Seeburg and Apuole (Apulia).
(TB-Com, 10/11/00)(www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/anskar.html#lifeans)

853 Olaf, King of Sweden, led his forces across the Baltic Sea and into western Lithuania. They attacked the castle at Apuole near the town of Skuodas on the Luba River. A truce was declared after 8 days of fighting. King Olaf took home much gold, silver and amber, 30 (Kursiu) local inhabitants and destroyed the castle.
(H of L, 1931, p.14)

855 Sep 28, The Emperor Lothar died in Gaul, and his kingdom was divided between his three sons.
(HN, 9/28/98)

855 A version of “Cinderella” came from China about this time.
(SFEC, 5/25/97, Z1 p.7)
855 Ahmad ibn Hanbal (b.780), Muslim scholar, died in Iraq. He is considered the founder of the 4th school of Sunni Islam. The four schools of Sunni Islam include: a) The Hanafi school, named after Imam Abu Hanifa, predominates in the territories formerly under the Ottoman Empire and in Muslim India and Pakistan; it relies heavily on consensus and analogical reasoning in addition to the Quran and sunna. B) The Maliki school, named after Malik ibn Anas, is dominant in upper Egypt and West Africa; developed in Medina, it emphasizes use of hadith (sayings or acts) that were current in the Prophet’s city. C) The school of Muhammad ibn Idris ash Shafii, prevailing in Indonesia, stresses reasoning by analogy. D) The fourth legal school is that of Ahmad ibn Hanbal, which is the school adhered to in Saudi Arabia.

858 Apr 17, Benedict III, Catholic Pope, died.
(PTA, 1980, p.210)

858 Apr 24, Nicholas I succeeded Benedict III as the Catholic Pope.
(HN, 4/24/98)(MC, 4/24/02)

859 Fatima al-Fihri of Tunisia founded the Qarawiyyin mosque and madrasa in Fez, Morocco. The mosque was expanded in the 10th century to become a university containing one of the world’s oldest libraries. It was incorporated into Morocco’s modern state university system in 1963.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatima_al-Fihri)(SFC, 4/20/16, p.A5)

860 Jun 18, Swedish Vikings attacked Constantinople.
(MC, 6/18/02)

860 Aug 1, Peace of Koblenz involved Charles the Bare, Louis the German & Lotharius II.
(MC, 8/1/02)

c860 Novgorod, Russia, was founded about this time.
(AM, 11/00, p.32)

861 The Khazar kings converted to Judaism. A Jewish dynasty of kings presided over the Khazar kingdom until the 960s. In 2008 Dmitry Vasilyev, a Russian professor at Astrakhan State University, said his nine-year excavation near the Caspian Sea has finally unearthed the foundations of a triangular fortress of flamed brick, along with modest yurt-shaped dwellings, and he believes these are part of what was once Itil, the Khazar capital.
(TJOK, chap. 6)(AP, 9/20/08)

866 Sep 19, Leo VI Sophos, Byzantine Emperor (886-912) and writer (Problematica), was born.
(MC, 9/19/01)

866 Nov, Danish Viking Ivar the Boneless first invaded the trading port of Eoforwic, the old Roman settlement of Eboracum. The Jorvic Viking settlement was discovered in 1976 when workers in York excavated for a new shopping center.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scandinavian_York)(SSFC, 4/13/14, p.Q5)

867 Feb 11, Theodora, the Saint, beauty queen, Byzantine Empress, died.
(MC, 2/11/02)

867 Nov 13, Pope Nicholas I (the Great) died at age 67. He served from 858-867.
(MC, 11/13/01)

867 A last surviving older brother of Alfred, became King Aethelred I of Wessex, an Anglo-Saxon kingdom in southern England.
(ON, 4/08, p.4)

867 Danes fought Saxons in the battle of Eoferwic (York).
(WSJ, 1/28/05, p.W6)

867-1057 The Byzantine Empire expanded.
(ATC, p.24)

868 A scroll of Buddhism’s “Diamond Sutra” was commissioned and dated by a man named Wang Jie as a gift to his parents. It was discovered in 1907 in one of the 450 Mogao Caves of Dunhuang in China’s northwestern Gansu Province.
(SSFC, 5/8/16, p.C143)
868 The 10th imam, Ali al-Hadi, died. His remains were placed in the Askariya shrine in Samarra (Persia-Iraq).
(AP, 2/22/06)

869 Feb 14, Cyrillus, Greek apostle of Slavs, died.
(MC, 2/14/02)

869 Jul 9, In Japan the Sanriku earthquake (Jogan quake) and associated tsunami struck the area around Sendai in the northern part of Honshu. The earthquake had an estimated magnitude of at least 8.4 on the moment magnitude scale, but may have been as high as 9.0.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/869_Sanriku_earthquake)(Econ, 8/19/17, p.70)

869 Aug 8, Lotharius II, King of Middle-France (Lotharingen) (855-869), died.
(MC, 8/8/02)

870 Aug 8, The Treaty of Mersen (Meerssen) partitioned the realm of Lothair II by his uncles Louis the German of East Francia and Charles the Bald of West Francia, the two surviving sons of Emperor Louis I the Pious.

870 Dec 31, Skirmish at Englefield. Ethelred of Wessex beat back a Danish invasion army.
(MC, 12/31/01)

870 Swede Garoar Svavarsson led the first Vikings to Iceland.
(SSFC, 8/23/15, p.N4)

871 Jan 4, Ethelred of Wessex was defeated by Danish forces at Reading.
(PCh, 1992, p.72)

871 Jan 8, Ethelred of Wessex defeated the Danish forces at Ashdown.
(PCh, 1992, p.72)

871 Mar 2, Battle at Marton (Maeretun): Ethelred van Wessex (d.871) beat the Danish invasion army. Ethelred died in April and his brother Alfred (22) took over. Alfred became Alfred the Great and ruled until 899.
(PCh, 1992, p.72)(SC, 3/2/02)

871 Apr 23, Ethelred I, king of Wessex, brother of Alfred the Great, died.
(MC, 4/23/02)

871-899 Saxon reign under Alfred the Great.
(AHD, 1971, p.32)

872 Dec 14, Adrian II (~80), Italian Pope (867-72), the last married pope, died.
(MC, 12/14/01)

872-882 Pope John VIII (b.1814). A novel by Donna Cross in 1996 is based on historical documents that indicate that he was actually female.
(WUD, 1994, p.769)(SFEC, 11/17/96, BR p.8)

874 The 11th imam, Hassan al-Askari, son of Ali al-Hadi, died. His remains were also placed in the Askariya shrine in Samarra (Persia-Iraq). Hassan al-Askari was the father of Al-Mahdi, the hidden imam. Al Mahdi, the 12th imam, disappeared in 941.
(AP, 2/22/06)(Econ, 10/29/16, p.44)

874 Vikings from Norway began to survey Iceland. The monks withdrew to Ireland. The 40,000-square-mile island situated 500 miles northwest of Scotland was first settled by Norwegians.
(NH, 6/96, p.53)(Economist, 8/25/12, p.64)

875 Aug 12, Louis II (~50), king of Italy, emperor of France, died.
(MC, 8/12/02)

c875-925 Lord Chaak ruled over the Mayan city of Uxmal in Mexico.
(AM, May/Jun 97 suppl. p.H)

876 Oct 8, Charles the Bald was defeated at the Battle of Andernach. Louis the Young beat Charles the Bare.
(HN, 10/8/98)(MC, 10/8/01)

876 Charles the Bald donated a relic, the Sancta Camisia, to the city of Chartres. The relic was believed to the childbirth tunic of the Virgin Mary.
(Hem., 10/97, p.86)

877 Oct 6, Charles II the Kale, King of France and Roman emperor (875-77), died at 54.
(MC, 10/6/01)

878 Jan, Danish forces from north of Wessex launched an unexpected attack on Wessex, ruled by King Alfred. In 1911 G.K. Chesterton authored the historical novel “The Ballad of the White Horse” set in England during this time.
(SSFC, 4/22/07, p.P10)(ON, 4/08, p.4)

878 Imam Mahdi went into hiding. Shiites went on to believe that he would return, along with Jesus, to lead Muslims in a struggle for justice.
(SFC, 1/19/08, p.A7)

879 Apr 10, Louis II, the Stutterer, King of France (877-79), died and Louis III was crowned King of France.
(MC, 4/10/02)

879 Sep 17, Charles III, [The Simple], king of France (893-923), was born.
(MC, 9/17/01)

882 Aug 25, Louis III (19), King of France (879-82), died.
(MC, 8/25/02)

883 Mar 8, Albumasar [Ahmad Aboe M Gafar al-Balkhi], Arabic astronomer, died.
(MC, 3/8/02)

884 May 17, St. Adrian III began his reign as Catholic Pope.
(MC, 5/17/02)

885 Apr 6, Methodius, Greek apostle to the Slavs, archbishop of Sirmium, died.
(MC, 4/6/02)

886 Aug 29, Basilius I, the Macedonian, Byzantine emperor (867-886), died.
(MC, 8/29/01)

886 Under Muslim Arabs the Bagratid family rose to prominence in Armenia and established a line of kings from this time to the 10th century.
(CO Enc. / Armenia)

887 Ibn Firnas (b.810), a Muslim Berber, polymath, inventor, engineer, aviator, physician, Arabic poet, and Andalusian musician, died. He is said to have jumped from a height, wings attached and covered head to toe in feathers, in a failed attempt at flying, although he survived the jump.
(AFP, 11/17/10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abbas_Ibn_Firnas)

889 Bhaktapur, Nepal, was founded under the Malla dynasty.
(SSFC, 9/21/03, p.C8)

889 Ibn Qutayba (b.828), a renowned Islamic scholar from Kufa, Iraq, died.

889-1324 The Khmer Empire‘s dominions roughly correspond to present-day Laos and Cambodia and reached its height during the Angkor period (889-1434 CE). The kingdom flourished from the 6th to 15th centuries CE and then declined with invasions from neighboring Thailand.
(HNQ, 8/7/00)

890-1170 The Medieval Warm Period extended across Asia, Europe and North America.
(SFC, 2/10/06, p.A6)

891 Feb 6, Photius, Byzantine theologist, patriarch of Constantinople, saint, died.
(MC, 2/6/02)

891 Sep 1, Norse defeated near Louvaine, France.
(MC, 9/1/02)

891-896 Formosus served as Pope following Stephen VI.
(PTA, 1980, p.224)(WSJ, 6/27/01, p.A14)

894 Japan abolished the sending of envoys to China.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)

895 The Tatev Monastery was built near the village of Tatev, Armenia. The construction on the Church of Peter and Paul was completed in 906.

896 Feb 22, Pope Formosa was crowned king Arnulf of Carinthia, French emperor.
(MC, 2/22/02)

896 Apr 4, Pope Formosus died. His body was exhumed by his successor in the Cadaver Synod. He was then put on trial for perjury, found guilty and dumped in the Tiber River.
(PTA, 1980, p.224)(WSJ, 6/27/01, p.A14)

896 The founding date of Hungary. Seven tribes of Magyars settled in the Carpathian Basin. Kingdom of Hungary was formed under Arpad by seven Magyar and three Khazar tribes.
(WSJ, 12/26/96, p.4)(SFEC, 8/8/99, p.T5)(TJOK, p. 206)(Reuters, 4/12/05)

899 Oct 26, Alfred the Great (b.849), writer and king of Wessex (871-99), died. He helped to bring about the English state, the Royal Navy and English universities. He translated Pope Gregory’s “Pastoral Care,” the universal history by Orosius, Bede’s Ecclesiastical History, and the “Consolation of Philosophy” by Boethius. Alfred also compiled England’s first code of laws, The Doom Book.
(Econ, 5/26/07, p.18)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_the_Great)(ON, 4/08, p.5)

899 Dec 8, Arnulf of Carinthia, last emperor of Austria-France, died.
(MC, 12/8/01)

c900 By this time the Fatimids broke away from the Abbasids and migrated to North Africa. They were descendants of Mohammad’s daughter, Fatima.
(ATC, p.91)

c900 The east coast of Africa was impacted by trade and Arab, Persian and Indian traders mixed with the indigenous Bantu. Many of the coastal Bantu adopted Islam and the Arabic word Swahili, meaning “people of the shore,” to describe themselves. By this time they had reached as far south as Sofala in Mozambique.
(ATC, p.142)(Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.169)

900 The Abbots Bromley Horn Dance, an Old English pagan ritual, used horns from reindeer that dated to about this time. A dozen male dancers in Staffordshire traditionally performed the dance once a year in early September.
(SFC, 9/4/10, p.A1)

c900 The Mayan city-state of Palenque [in later Mexico] was abandoned
(SFC, 5/19/96, T-10)

c900 The Mayan city-state of Copan [in later Honduras] was abandoned
(NG, 12/97, p.80)

c900 In Peru the Lambayeque people established themselves over areas previously developed by the Moche.
(NG, 7/04, p.116)

900 Benedict IV succeeded John IX as Pope.
(PTA, 1980, p.236)

c900-950 The 7-foot hanging scroll, ink-on-silk masterpiece “Riverbank” by Dong Yuan was created. It is the earliest surviving example of monumental Chinese landscape painting. The work was also thought to be a forgery by Chang Da-chien (1899-1983) through whom it passed to the New York Met.
(WSJ, 7/2/97, p.A12)(WSJ, 7/24/97, p.A16)(WSJ, 12/13/99, p.A32)

900-1000 Alsace became part of Germany in the 10th century.
(SFEC, 1/31/99, p.T4)
900-1000 Weimar is believed to date back to the 10th century.
(SSFC, 8/1/04, p.D10)

900-1000 The French village of Prelenfrey dates back to the 10th Century.
(SFC, 6/23/96, p.T8)

900-1000 The Korean rice wine Makgeolli, once known as “farmer drink”, dates back at least this time. Its popularity waned in the early 1960s when the government restricted the use of rice for making alcohol in order to combat rice shortages. In 2012 South Korea’s Baesangmyun Brewery announced that a brewery in Chicago will open to produce the drink.
(AFP, 2/5/12)

900-1000 Viking longships entered the Douro River mouth in Portugal. Their ships are believed to be the design form from which the wine carrying boats “barcos rabelos” were designed.
(SFEC, 1/12/97, p.T7)

900-1000 The Tresco Abbey was a Benedictine monastery on the Isles of Sicily off the southwest coast of England.
(Hem., 7/96, p.66)


Timeline 600CE-999CE 2

900-1000 The terminal classic period of the Maya.
(AM, May/Jun 97 suppl. p.B)

c900-1000 The Japanese discovered the wasabe root growing near mountain streams and began incorporating it into their cuisine.
(SFC, 6/3/98, Z1 p.6)

900-1000 In Thailand the site of Prasat Hin Phanom Wan was an important Khmer sanctuary in the Upper Mun River Valley of northeastern Thailand.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.G)

900-1100 A Fremont culture settlement in Horse Canyon, Utah, left extensive ruins that became known as Range Creek.
(SFC, 6/30/04, p.A2)

900-1200 The Killke people occupied the region around Cuzco, Peru, from 900 to 1200 A.D., prior to the arrival of the Incas. In 2008 Archaeologists discovered the ruins of an ancient temple, roadway and irrigation systems at Sacsayhuaman, a famed fortress overlooking Cuzco, that shed light on the pre-Inca cultures of Peru.
(AP, 3/15/08)

902 Aug 1, The Aghlabid rulers of Ifriqiyah (modern day Tunisia) captured Taormina, Sicily.
(HN, 8/1/98)

902-970 In China Tao Gu lived. He wrote “Qing yi lu,” (An Examination of Strange Accounts). He mentioned the Chinese use of cormorants for fishing.
(NH, 10/98, p.69)

903 Benedict IV, Catholic Pope, died.
(PTA, 1980, p.236)

903 Good King Wenceslaus, saint, duke of Bohemia (928-935), was born.
(WUD, 1994 p.1622)

904 Jul 31, Arabs captured Thessalonica of the Byzantine Empire.
(HN, 7/31/98)

905 Persian astronomer Al Sufi referred to the Andromeda galaxy as the “Little Cloud.”
(NH, 11/96, p.78)

907 Fall of the T’ang dynasty in China.

907 Arpad (b.~845), head of the confederation of the Hungarian tribes, died about this time. Many Hungarians refer to him as the “founder of our country.” His preeminent role in the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin has been emphasized by some later chronicles. The dynasty descending from Arpad ruled the Kingdom of Hungary until 1301.

907-1279 “The Five Dynasties and the Song Period” by Richard M. Barnhart is the first section of Wu Hung’s 1997 “The Origins of Chinese Painting.”
(WSJ, 1/2/98, p.6)

910 The French abbey at Cluny was founded.
(SFEC, 11/21/99, p.T4)

910 Rhazes, an Arab physician, wrote the 1st account of smallpox and proposed the earliest theory of immunity.
(NW, 10/14/02, p.46)

911 Sep 2, Viking monarch Oleg of Kiev, Russia, signed a treaty with the Byzantines.
(MC, 9/2/01)

911 The Carolingian period of Frankish rule ended in Germany.
(AHD, 1971, p.205)

911 A relic donated by Charles the Bald, the Sancta Camisia, was displayed above the city walls of Chartres and seemed to repel a Viking attack. The relic was believed to be the Virgin Mary’s childbirth tunic.
(Hem., 10/97, p.86)

912 Nov 23, Otto I, the Great (d.973), German king and Holy Roman emperor (962-73), was born. Otto the Great became King of Germany in 936.
(AHD, 1971, p.931)(MC, 11/23/01)

912 Egyptian singer Nehmes Bastet died about this time. In 2012 Egyptian and Swiss archaeologists reported a roughly 1,100 year-old tomb of a female singer in the Valley of the Kings. It was the only tomb of a woman not related to the ancient royal families ever found in the Valley of the Kings. The singer’s name, Nehmes Bastet, means she was believed to be protected by the feline deity Bastet. At the time of her death, Egypt was ruled by Libyan kings, but the high priests who ruled Thebes were independent.
(AP, 1/15/12)

912-961 Abd al Rahman III, Umayyad caliph in Spain, purchased Scandinavian, African and German slaves to serve in his forces. At this time Cordoba was western Europe’s largest city with a population of 200,000 people.
(ATC, p.96)

917 Aug 20, A Byzantine counter-offensive was routed by Syeon at Anchialus, Bulgaria.
(HN, 8/20/98)

917 In Italy the Castle Torre d’Orlando was built between Paciano and Panicale in Umbria.
(SFEM, 10/12/97, p.49)

918 Mar 1, Balderik became bishop of Utrecht.
(SC, 3/1/02)

918 In Ireland there was a great flood in the region of Clonmacnoise.
(SFEC, 8/1/99, p.T8)

918-1392 During Korea’s Age of Enlightenment, the period of the Goryeo Dynasty, the Buddhist aristocracy commissioned many works of art to further the Buddhist ideal.
(SFC, 10/14/03, p.D1)

919 May 12, Duke Henry of Saxon became King Henry I of Eastern Europe.
(MC, 5/12/02)

919 Pueblo Bonito, Chaco Canyon Nat’l Monument in Northern New Mexico had its ceremonial room completed. Occupancy lasted till c1130.
(K.I.-365D, p.159)

921 Nov 7, Treaty of Bonn: East France and West France recognized each other.
(MC, 11/7/01)

921 In Turkey the Armenian Akdamar church, called the Church of Surp Khach, or Holy Cross, was inaugurated. Written records say the church was near a harbor and a palace on the island on Lake Van, but only the church survived. Turkey restored the church in 2007.
(AP, 3/25/07)

922 Mar 27, Al-Hallaj al-Mughith-al-Hsayn Mansur (64), Persian mystic, was beheaded.
(MC, 3/27/02)

922 Jun 9, French republic chose Robert I as King of France.
(MC, 6/9/02)

922 Mansur al-Hallaj (b.858), a Sufi mystic, was crucified in Baghdad for pronouncing in the midst of a trance that he was the truth, i.e god.
(SFC, 4/21/04, p.A10)( http://www.uga.edu/islam/sufismearly.html#Hallaj)

923 Feb 16, Abu Dja’far Mohammed Djarir al-Tabari (83), Islamic historian, died.
(MC, 2/16/02)

924 Apr 7, Berengarius I, Emperor of Italy, was murdered.
(MC, 4/7/02)

924 Jul 17, Edward the Older, English king (899-924) and son of Alfred the Great, died. He was succeeded by his son Athelstan.
(PC, 1992, p.75)

924-940 Athelstan ruled as king of England.

925 The Croatian kingdom was established.
(WSJ, 7/14/99, p.A23)

927 May 27, Symeon, czar of Bulgaria, died.
(MC, 5/27/02)

927 Ivan Rilski (later St. John of Rila), an Orthodox Bulgarian, chose a hermit’s life in a cave in the mountains above Sofia, Bulgaria. His students built a complex nearby that grew to become the Rila Monastery.
(SSFC, 7/16/06, p.G4)

929 Sep 28, Wenceslaus I, duke of Bohemia, was murdered.

929 Eadgyth (910-946), the sister of King Athelstan and the granddaughter of Alfred the Great, was given in marriage to Otto I, the king of Saxony and the Holy Roman Emperor. She had at least two children before her death in 946 at age 36. In 2010 her remains were found in Magdeburg Cathedral in northern Germany.
(AFP, 1/20/10)(AFP, 6/17/10)

930 Jun 23, Icelanders established the Althing, an open-air national parliament and the world‘s oldest surviving parliamentary body. This was later credited as the first example of representative government.
(NH, 6/96, p.53)(DrEE, 1/4/97, p.4)(SFC, 1/1/00, p.C3)(MC, 6/23/02)

930 The Aleppo Codex was written on parchment in the Holy Land town of Tiberias by the scribe Shlomo Ben Boya’a about this time. Its completion marked the end of a centuries-long process that created final text of the Hebrew Bible.
(AP, 9/27/08)

933 Mar 15, Henry the Fowler routed the raiding Magyars at Merseburg, Germany. The Wagner opera Lohengrin is about King Henry and how he united the people of Brabant with the Saxons against the Hungarian foe.
(HN, 3/15/99)(WSJ, 7/28/99, p.A21)

935 In the Icelandic “Egils-saga” there is an account of how Thorolf and Egil harried in Curonia (along the eastern Baltic shore) about this time.
(DrEE, 11/23/96, p.3)(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

935 In southern Korea the last Shilla king surrendered his throne.
(SFEM, 6/20/99, p.6)

936 Abu al-Hasan al-Ash’ari (b.1874), Muslim theologian, died. He had become a pupil of the great Mutazalite teacher al-Jubba’i (d.915), and himself remained a Mutazalite until his fortieth year. Disciples of his school are known as Asharites. It held that complete comprehension of the unique nature and attributes of God is beyond the capacity of human reasoning and sense experience.

936-973 Otto the Great became King of Germany and later the first Holy Roman Emp.
(AHD, 1971, p.931)

936-1531 Aachen in West Germany was the coronation city for German kings over this period.
(WUD, 1994, p.1)

937 King Athelstan unified the various Saxon and Celtic kingdoms following the battle of Brunanburgh. He was the brother of Eadgyth, wife of Holy Roman Emp. Otto I, and is generally considered to have been the first King of England.
(AFP, 1/20/10)

c938 In the late 930s Khazar baliqchi Pesakh defeated the Rus. According to an anonymous letter written by a Khazarian Jew in the 940s, the Rus prince Oleg captured the Khazar-held city Tmutorokan one night. Pesakh, a prominent Khazar baliqchi (governor), learned of Oleg’s actions and conquered several Crimean cities belonging to the Byzantines and also did away with many Rus. Oleg was badly defeated, and was forced to surrender to Governor-General Pesakh. This was a major Khazar victory over the Rus.
(TJOK, pages 191-192)

938-1002 Al-Mansur (the Conqueror), Moorish leader. He was born Abu’Amir al-Ma’asiri and rose to power by wooing the caliph’s favorite concubine. He raided Christian Spain and hauled his booty back to Cordoba and built a palace called Madinat al-Zahira, the Shining City.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R4,6)

940 The stone image of Fudo Myo-o, a fierce Japanese deity of fire and thunder, was carved by a revered priest in Kyoto about 800 CE and transferred to Narita about 940.
(Hem, 8/95, p.56)

941 The 12th imam, Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Mahdi (b.1869), disappeared. He is believed by Twelver Shi‘a Muslims to be the Mahdi, an ultimate savior of humankind and the final Imam of the Twelve Imams who will emerge with Isa (Jesus Christ) in order to fulfill their mission of bringing peace and justice to the world.
(Econ, 10/29/16, p.44)

942 May 16, Saadiah Gaon, head of Talmudic Academy of Sura, died.
(MC, 5/16/02)

945 In England monks settled along the Thames riverbank at Bablock Hythe.
(SFEC, 8/20/00, p.T9)

945 The Buyids (Buwayhids) came to power in Baghdad. They were ousted by the Seljuks in 1055 under Tughril Beg.

946 May 25, Edmund the Older, king of Wessex, England, (939-46), died.
(SC, 5/25/02)

946 Eadgyth, the sister of King Athelstan and the granddaughter of Alfred the Great, died. She had been given in marriage to Otto I, the Holy Roman Emperor, in 929. She was initially buried at the Monastery of Mauritius in Magdeburg. In 1510 her remains were transferred to Magdeburg Cathedral in northern Germany, where her bones were found in 2008.
(AFP, 1/20/10)
946 Mount Paektu, a volcano straddling the border between North Korea and China, erupted with apocalyptic fire and fury in what scientists later considered one of the five largest volcanic events in human history. It ejected enough material to bury Greater London to a depth of 60 meters (200 feet), and caused temporary climate change in the region.
(http://tinyurl.com/y98xvulc)(AFP, 9/19/19)

950 Nov 22, Lotharius, King of Italy (947-50), died.
(MC, 11/22/01)

c950 The Anasazi first came to Keet Seel, Arizona.
(Hem., 5/97, p.75)
950 Guam’s latte period refers to the time when lattes were first introduced about this time and continued up to the arrival of Ferdinand Magellan in 1521. Latte stones consist of a pillar capped by a hemispherical stone capital.
(AP, 9/13/15)(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latte_stone)

951 Sep 23, Otto I, the Great, became king of Italy.
(MC, 9/23/01)

953 Apr 21, Otto I, the Great, granted Utrecht fishing rights.
(MC, 4/21/02)

954 Nov 12, Lotharius became king of France.
(MC, 11/12/01)

954 The Count of Ventimiglia ceded Seborga (in northwest Italy, twenty minutes from the Mediterranean north of Bordighera) to the monks who elected their abbot as sovereign prince.
(SFEC, 3/30/97, p.T5)

955 May 16, Alberich II, (bastard?) son of Octavianus, was elected pope.
(MC, 5/16/02)

955 Aug 10, Otto organized his nobles and defeated the invading Magyars at the Battle of Lechfeld in Germany.
(HN, 8/10/98)

955 In England King Eadwig failed to appear at his coronation feast. Dunstan, chronicler of the event, found him cavorting with a young lady and her mother.
(WSJ, 1/29/99, p.W7)

955 Sufi saint Sidi Mahmoudou died. In 2013 his tomb in Timbuktu, Mali, was destroyed by Islamist extremists.
(AP, 1/28/13)

956 Jun 16, Hugo the Great, duke of France, died.
(MC, 6/16/02)

956-1015 Vladimir I, Prince of Kiev and the first Christian grand prince of Russia (980-1015). He married the sister of the Byzantine emperor and thus brought in Orthodox Christianity to Russia.
(WUD, 1994, p.1598)(WSJ, 3/28/97, p.A16)

c938 In the late 930s Khazar baliqchi Pesakh defeated the Rus. According to an anonymous letter written by a Khazarian Jew in the 940s, the Rus prince Oleg captured the Khazar-held city Tmutorokan one night. Pesakh, a prominent Khazar baliqchi (governor), learned of Oleg’s actions and conquered several Crimean cities belonging to the Byzantines and also did away with many Rus. Oleg was badly defeated, and was forced to surrender to Governor-General Pesakh. This was a major Khazar victory over the Rus.
(TJOK, pages 191-192)

938-1002 Al-Mansur (the Conqueror), Moorish leader. He was born Abu’Amir al-Ma’asiri and rose to power by wooing the caliph’s favorite concubine. He raided Christian Spain and hauled his booty back to Cordoba and built a palace called Madinat al-Zahira, the Shining City.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R4,6)

940 The stone image of Fudo Myo-o, a fierce Japanese deity of fire and thunder, was carved by a revered priest in Kyoto about 800 CE and transferred to Narita about 940.
(Hem, 8/95, p.56)

941 The 12th imam, Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Mahdi (b.1869), disappeared. He is believed by Twelver Shi‘a Muslims to be the Mahdi, an ultimate savior of humankind and the final Imam of the Twelve Imams who will emerge with Isa (Jesus Christ) in order to fulfill their mission of bringing peace and justice to the world.
(Econ, 10/29/16, p.44)

942 May 16, Saadiah Gaon, head of Talmudic Academy of Sura, died.
(MC, 5/16/02)

945 In England monks settled along the Thames riverbank at Bablock Hythe.
(SFEC, 8/20/00, p.T9)

945 The Buyids (Buwayhids) came to power in Baghdad. They were ousted by the Seljuks in 1055 under Tughril Beg.

946 May 25, Edmund the Older, king of Wessex, England, (939-46), died.
(SC, 5/25/02)

946 Eadgyth, the sister of King Athelstan and the granddaughter of Alfred the Great, died. She had been given in marriage to Otto I, the Holy Roman Emperor, in 929. She was initially buried at the Monastery of Mauritius in Magdeburg. In 1510 her remains were transferred to Magdeburg Cathedral in northern Germany, where her bones were found in 2008.
(AFP, 1/20/10)
946 Mount Paektu, a volcano straddling the border between North Korea and China, erupted with apocalyptic fire and fury in what scientists later considered one of the five largest volcanic events in human history. It ejected enough material to bury Greater London to a depth of 60 meters (200 feet), and caused temporary climate change in the region.
(http://tinyurl.com/y98xvulc)(AFP, 9/19/19)

950 Nov 22, Lotharius, King of Italy (947-50), died.
(MC, 11/22/01)

c950 The Anasazi first came to Keet Seel, Arizona.
(Hem., 5/97, p.75)
950 Guam’s latte period refers to the time when lattes were first introduced about this time and continued up to the arrival of Ferdinand Magellan in 1521. Latte stones consist of a pillar capped by a hemispherical stone capital.
(AP, 9/13/15)(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latte_stone)

951 Sep 23, Otto I, the Great, became king of Italy.
(MC, 9/23/01)

953 Apr 21, Otto I, the Great, granted Utrecht fishing rights.
(MC, 4/21/02)

954 Nov 12, Lotharius became king of France.
(MC, 11/12/01)

954 The Count of Ventimiglia ceded Seborga (in northwest Italy, twenty minutes from the Mediterranean north of Bordighera) to the monks who elected their abbot as sovereign prince.
(SFEC, 3/30/97, p.T5)

955 May 16, Alberich II, (bastard?) son of Octavianus, was elected pope.
(MC, 5/16/02)

955 Aug 10, Otto organized his nobles and defeated the invading Magyars at the Battle of Lechfeld in Germany.
(HN, 8/10/98)

955 In England King Eadwig failed to appear at his coronation feast. Dunstan, chronicler of the event, found him cavorting with a young lady and her mother.
(WSJ, 1/29/99, p.W7)

955 Sufi saint Sidi Mahmoudou died. In 2013 his tomb in Timbuktu, Mali, was destroyed by Islamist extremists.
(AP, 1/28/13)

956 Jun 16, Hugo the Great, duke of France, died.
(MC, 6/16/02)

956-1015 Vladimir I, Prince of Kiev and the first Christian grand prince of Russia (980-1015). He married the sister of the Byzantine emperor and thus brought in Orthodox Christianity to Russia.
(WUD, 1994, p.1598)(WSJ, 3/28/97, p.A16)

c958 Harald Gormsson (d.c986), aka Harald Bluetooth or Harald Blatand, 10th-century king of Denmark, was born about this time.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harald_Bluetooth)(AM, 11/00, p.21)

958-1025 Basil II, Byzantine emperor. His empire held a monopoly on royal purple silk and he flourished by manufacturing and trading silk.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)

959 The Viking ruler Gorm the Old, the father of Harald Bluetooth, died.
(AM, 11/00, p.21)

960 Denmark’s King Harald Bluetooth was baptized.
(Econ, 6/28/03, p.55)

960 Thorvald Asvaldsson, the father of Eric the Red (950-1003), committed a murder about this time and was banished from Norway. He took his family to Iceland.

960-1127 The period of the Northern Song Dynasty. Most artistic representations of nature during this period carried auspicious meanings, e.g. bamboo signified resilience in the face of diversity, and the cicada bespoke immortality.
(NH, 7/00, p.59)(SFC, 5/14/03, p.D3)

960-1279 The Sung (Song) dynasty ruled over China. It was from this period that the Japanese tea ceremony originated; the ritual was developed for a tranquility of mind. Since this period mountainous looking rocks have been prized as objects of contemplation. Porcelain from this period is particularly beautiful.
(Hem, Dec. 94, p.64)(SFC, 6/4/96, p.E5)(WSJ, 9/27/96, p.B14)

961 Ani became the capital of Armenia. At its height it had over 100,000 inhabitants. Within a century it began falling victim to waves of conquerors including Seljuk Turks, Georgians and Mongols.
(Econ, 6/17/06, p.59)

962 Feb 2, Otto I (912-973), founder of the Holy Roman Empire, was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope John XII.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otto_I,_Holy_Roman_Emperor)(AHD, 1971, p.931)

962 Abd-Er Rahman III (891-961), Muslim governor of Spain, was succeeded by his son Al-Hakim. Rahman III is famed for his quote: “I have now reigned above fifty years in victory and peace, beloved by my subjects, dreaded by my enemies, and respected by my allies. Riches and honors, power and pleasure, have waited on my call, nor does any earthly blessing appear to be wanting for my felicity. In this situation, I have diligently numbered the days of pure and genuine happiness which have fallen to my lot: they amount to fourteen.”

962-1030 In Afghanistan the Islamic era was established with the Ghaznavid Dynasty.

962-1140 Under the Ghaznavid Dynasty Afghanistan became the center of Islamic power and civilization.

963 Mar 15, Romanus II (25), Byzantine emperor (959-63), died.
(MC, 3/15/02)

964 Jun, Holy Roman Emperor Otto I forced Pope Benedict V (d.965), who had recently succeeded John XII as Catholic Pope, to resign in favor of Leo VIII.
(PTA, 1980, p.236)(Econ, 2/16/13, p.61)

964 Arab astronomers described the Great Nebula in Andromeda, our closest galaxy.

965 Mar 1, Leo VIII, Italian (anti-)Pope (963-65), died.
(SC, 3/1/02)

965 Jul 4, Benedict V, Catholic Pope, died.
(PTA, 1980, p.236)

965 Part of Khazaria was conquered by the Kievan Rus prince Svyatoslav.
(TJOK, pp. 193-194)

967 Nov 20, Aboe al-Faradj al-Isfahani, Arabic author (Book of liederen), died.
(MC, 11/20/01)

969 Oct 28, After a prolonged siege, the Byzantines ended 300 years of Arab rule in Antioch.
(HN, 10/28/98)

967 Dec 7, Abu Sa’id ibn Aboa al-Chair, Persian mystic, was born.
(MC, 12/7/01)

969 Dec 10, Nicephorus II Phocas, Byzantine co-Emperor (963-69), was murdered.
(MC, 12/10/01)

969 Named El Qahira -“the victorious,” Cairo gained power from its position beside the Nile.
(NG, May 1985, R. Caputo, p.603)

969CE By this time the Fatimids had conquered most of North Africa and claimed Cairo as their capital. The Shiites gained control of Egypt.
(ATC, p.91)(SSFC, 2/8/04, p.M2)

969-1000 Olaf Tryggvesson, Olav I, King of Norway from 995-1000.
(WUD, 1994, p.1002)

970 In Egypt the al-Azhar madrassa was founded and became the chief center of Arabic literature and Sunni Islamic learning in the world. It was founded as mosque by the Fatimid commander Jawhar at the orders of the Caliph and Ismaili Imam Al-Muizz as he founded the city for Cairo. In 1961 al-Azhar attained university status.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Azhar_University)(Econ., 2/28/15, p.53)

971-1030 Machmud of Ghazni, ruler of Afghanistan. He made annual invasions to northern India where he pillaged temples, captured slaves, and transported his goods back by elephant. His library had a large collection of erotic manuscripts and he shared his palace with 400 poets.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)

972 John I Tzimiskes, the Byzantine Emperor at Constantinople (969-976), granted a charter for the Monastic Republic of Holy Mount Athos in Greece.
(SSFC, 10/8/06, p.H1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_I_Tzimisces)

973 Jan 19, Benedict VI was consecrated as Catholic Pope. He succeeded John XIII.
(PTA, 1980, p.236)

973 May 6, Henry II, German King (1002) and Holy Roman Emperor (1014-1024), was born.
(HN, 5/6/98)(MC, 5/6/02)

973 Otto I, the Great (b.912), German king and Holy Roman emperor (962-73), died.
(AHD, 1971, p.931)(MC, 11/23/01)

974 The army of Denmark’s King Harald Gormsson, aka Harald Bluetooth or Harald Blatand, lost to the Germans at the Danevirke.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harald_Bluetooth)(AM, 11/00, p.21)
974 Pope Benedict VI was strangled to death by a priest named Stephen under directions of anti-Pope Boniface Franco, who called himself Boniface VII.
(PTA, 1980, p.270)

975 Jul 25, Thietmar bishop of Merseburg, German chronicler, was born.
(SC, 7/25/02)

975-1038 St. Stephen of Hungary. His crown was a fusion of Greek and Latin elements.
(WSJ, 11/18/96, p.A10)

0976 Oct 1, Al-Hakam II, the caliph of Cordoba, died.
(MC, 10/1/01)

976 Nov 14, T’ai tsu, emperor of China and founder of Sung-dynasty, died.
(MC, 11/14/01)

976 The Great Mosque of Cordoba (Spain) was completed and served as a religious, social and educational center. The largest of the 70 libraries in Cordoba contained 500,000 volumes. 70,000 books a year were hand-copied to satisfy the citizen’s literary appetites.
(ATC, p.95,98)

976-1025 The reign of Basil the Bulgar-Slayer, ruler of Byzantium. [see 330CE]
(WSJ, 10/14/95, p.A-12)

977 The shrine of Imam Ali, a gold-domed mosque, was built in Najaf, Iraq, on the burial site of Imam Ali, son-in-law of the prophet Mohammed.
(SFC, 8/30/03, p.A1)

978 Mar 18, Edward the Martyr (15), King of Anglo-Saxons (975-78), was murdered.
(MC, 3/18/02)

979 Apr 14, There was a challenge to throne of King Aethelred II, the Unrede (Unready), of England (979-1016). He attempted to buy peace with from Scandinavian invaders and called for England’s 1st general tax, the Danegeld. Some 140,000 pounds of silver was paid in tribute.
(WSJ, 5/24/01, p.A20)(MC, 4/14/02)

979 The Isle of Man parliament, the Tynwald Court, was established.
(SSFC, 8/13/06, p.G5)

980-1037 Afghan scientist Avicenna (aka Ibn Sina), a Muslim philosopher-scientist, was born in Bukhara (Balkh). He wrote “The Book of Healing,” a vast philosophical and scientific encyclopedia, and “The Canon of Medicine,” an encyclopedia of the medical knowledge of his time. Both works were translated to Latin and exerted great influence on Scholastics in the West.

981 Adherents to the Jainist faith consecrated a 57-foot statue of their most important siant, Bahubali, in the town of Shravana Belgola, India.
(Sm, 3/06, p.23)

982 Eric the Red (950-1003), killed a neighbor and some other men about this time and was banished from Iceland for 3 years.
982 Eric the Red, father of Leif Ericson, landed in Greenland and spent the next 3 years exploring the area.
(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.24)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erik_the_Red)

983 Dec 7, Otto II the Red (~28), German king and emperor (973-83), died in Italy. Otto III [aged 3] took the throne after his father’s death.
(HN, 12/7/98)(MC, 12/7/01)

983 The Lutici, a federation of tribes in northeastern Germany, were first recorded by written sources in the context of the uprising of this year, by which they annihilated the rule of the Holy Roman Empire in the Billung and Northern Marches. Hostilities continued until 997.

985 Eric Thorvaldsson, aka Eric the Red, left Iceland and returned to Greenland establishing his 1st settlement there.

c985 Montpellier, France, was founded at the intersection of 3 trade and pilgrimage routes.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R22)

985-1014 The Brihadeshwarar temple was built in southeastern India’s Tamil Nadu state.
(WSJ, 10/1/04, p.A10)

985-1200 The Chola Kingdom prospered in southern India. Arts flourished and the economy prospered under expanding trade and military conquests. Ganesha, son of Shiva, was the first god invoked at the beginning of a new enterprise.
(WSJ, 10/8/99, p.W14)(WSJ, 10/8/99, p.W14)

986 Mar 2, Lotharius (44), King of France (954-86), died.
(SC, 3/2/02)

c986 Denmark’s King Harald Gormsson (b.c958), aka Harald Bluetooth or Harald Blatand, died about this time. He attributed to himself the unification of Denmark and the Christianization of the Danes. He also conquered Norway and raided Normandy. In 974 he was defeated by German emperor Otto II.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harald_Bluetooth)(AM, 11/00, p.21)
986 Greenland’s west coast was settled by Icelanders and Norwegians, through a contingent of 14 boats led by Erik the Red.
986 Bjarni Herjolfsson sailed from Norway to Iceland with cargo for his father, who had moved on to Greenland. Herjjolfsson was blown off course and reached Labrador, which he described as “worthless country.”
(NG, V184, No. 4, Oct. 1993, p.4)(WSJ, 7/6/04, p.D5)

987 May 21, Louis V, last Carolingian King of France (966-987), died. The Carolingian period of Frankish rule from the dynasty of Pepin the Short ended in France with the death of Louis V (20). [see May 22]
(PCh, 1992, p.78)(AHD, 1971, p.205)(MC, 5/21/02)

987 May 22, Louis V le Faineant (20), the Lazy, king of France (986-87), was allegedly poisoned by his mother. [see May 21]
(MC, 5/22/02)

987 Jul 3, The count of Paris, Hugh Capet (49), became king of France. Paris soon emerged as the center of French political, cultural and religious life, once again becoming the capital.
(PCh, 1992, p.78)(HNQ, 4/18/02)(MC, 7/3/02)

987 Dec 30, French King Hugh Capet crowned his son Robert the Compassionate.
(MC, 12/30/01)

988 May 6, Dirk II, West Frisian count of Holland, died.
(MC, 5/6/02)

988 May 19, Dunstanus, English archbishop of Canterbury, died.
(MC, 5/19/02)

988 Prince Vladimir of Kiev, Volodymyr the Great, accepted Byzantine Orthodoxy. This is the traditional date for the beginning of Russian Christianity. The Kievan Rus ruler was baptized in the ancient Crimean Greek city of Chersonesus before bringing Christianity to the region.
(SSFC, 6/24/01, p.A14)(AP, 8/1/15)(AP, 7/28/18)

989-1020 Ani, a medieval city-site situated in the Turkish province of Kars, beside the border with Armenia, attained the peak of its power during the long reign of King Gagik I (989-1020). It was the capital of a medieval Armenian kingdom that covered much of present day Armenia and eastern Turkey. Armenian chroniclers such as Yeghishe and Ghazar Parpetsi first mentioned Ani in the 5th century AD.

990 A set of instructions on chess, the Versus de Scachis (Poem About Chess), emerged in Switzerland about this time. The game had begun in India before the 6th century.
(Arch, 1/05, p.40)(Econ, 10/29/11, p.97)

991 Aug 11, Danes under Olaf Tryggvason killed Ealdorman Brihtnoth and defeated the Saxons at Maldon.
(HN, 8/10/98)

992 Constantinople granted Venetian goods lower tariffs than other merchandise.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)

992 Ghana captured its chief trading rival, the Berber town of Audoghast.
(Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.172)

993 The south Indian Cola Empire captured Anuradhapura (Sri Lanka).
(Arch, 7/02, p.34)

994 Nov 7, Muhammad ibn Hazm, historian, jurist, author of Islamic Spain, was born.
(MC, 11/7/01)

994-1035 Life of Canute, later King of England, Denmark and Norway.
(AHD,1971, p.198)

995 Guido d’Arezzo (d.~1049, Italian monk and musical theorist, was born. He is generally credited with developing current musical notation.
(WUD, 1994, p.629)(WSJ, 5/27/97, pB1)

995-1000 In Norway Olaf I was king.
(WUD, 1994, p.1002)

995-1027 Heydey of the Fujiwara Clan in Japan.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)

995-1030 Olaf Haraldsson, aka Saint Olaf, the patron saint of Norway. He was king from 1016-1029. He and a crew of Vikings attacked London and pulled down the London Bridge with ropes. This is remembered in the nursery rhyme “London Bridge is falling down…”
(WUD, 1994, p.1002)(SFC, 8/23/97, p.E3)

996 May 21, Otto III (16) was crowned the Roman Emperor by his cousin Pope Gregory V.
(HN, 5/21/98)(MC, 5/21/02)

996 Oct 24, Hugh Capet, king of France (987-96), died at 58.
(MC, 10/24/01)

c996 In Iran the Astan Ghods Ravazi religious foundation was started.
(WSJ, 7/11/96, p.A4)

997 The name “Austria” first appeared in a medieval manuscript.
(WSJ, 4/16/97, p.A16)

997 St. Adalbert was martyred. He brought Christianity to Bohemia.
(SFC, 4/26/97, p.A12)

997 The Polish city of Gdansk was founded. From 1920 to 1939 it was known as the Free City of Danzig.
(SSFC, 3/3/13, p.N4)

c998-1061 Bao Qingtian (Bao Zheng), Chinese judge of the Song Dynasty, had a reputation for sticking up for the common man.
(Econ, 4/23/05, p.43)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bao_Zheng)

999 Feb 18, Gregory V, [Bruno] 1st German Pope, died.
(MC, 2/18/02)

999 Turkish dynasties became the rulers of Transoxania, and area that covered much of what later became Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan.
(Econ, 7/26/03, p.46-4 )



The Thirteenth Century 1200-1299

1200 Jul 1, Sunglasses were invented in China.
(MC, 7/1/02)

c1200 In China the painting “Reading the I Ching in the Pine Shade” was made.
(NH, 9/97, p.)

c1200 Condesa de Dia was a female troubadour of this time. Her songs included “Of things I’d rather keep in silence I must sing.”
(WSJ, 5/14/97, p.A20)

1200 Bishop Albert, the head of a group of pilgrim knights, led 23 ships of armed soldiers up the Baltic to Livonian lands at the mouth of the Dauguva River.
(Ist. L.H., 1948, p.39-40)

c1200 Buttons were invented as a decoration to embellish hemlines, collars and the sides of sleeves.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R40)

1200 The Anasazi in southwest Colorado began building their cliff dwellings. Population was thriving. They were making corrugated pottery and handsomely decorated black and white pottery.
(HN, 2/11/97)

c1200 A drought hit the southwest (USA) around the Coso Mountains about this time. Shamanism and rain-making grew in importance and helped men counterbalance the importance of women engaged in food gathering when hunting declined.
(PacDis, Summer ’97, p.15)

1200 In Germany “The Nibelungenlied” (the Song of the Nibelungs) was written about this time. The epic poem of some 10,000 lines was based on tales that reached back to the 5th century destruction of the Burgundian kingdom by the Huns. In 2006 Burton Raffel wrote an English translation “Das Nibelungenlied.”
(WSJ, 10/28/06, p.P13)

1200 The Inca Empire conquered the area of Bolivia around this time and remained in control until arrival of Spaniards.
(AP, 12/17/05)
1200 The Pacajes formed part of the Aymara kingdom and developed around this time after the decline of the Tiwanacu people in the Andean highlands. In 2018 archaeologists found tombs at a Bolivian quarry containing remains from more than 500 years ago at a cemetery carved into limestone, which appeared to have been built by the Pacajes people. Their cities were conquered by the Incas toward the end of the 15th century.
(AP, 11/17/18)

1200 In 2007 Mexican archeologists discovered the ruins of an Aztec pyramid in the heart of Mexico City that dated to about this time.
(Reuters, 12/27/07)

c1200 Polynesians settled the 14 Cook Islands that included Rarotonga.
(SFEC, 1/5/97, p.T5)

c1200 The Sorbs, a Slavic people, settled in areas that later became Germany. They spoke a language similar to Czech.
(SFC, 11/8/00, p.B2)

c1200 In Tibet the Rakhor nunnery was established. In 1997 Chinese authorities ordered the nuns to leave and everything except the main assembly hall was destroyed.
(SFC, 1/29/99, p.E9)

1200s Persia introduced polo to Arabia, China and India.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1200-1250 The Longbow was developed from a Welsh bow that had been used against the English. During the numerous skirmishes with the Welsh, the English had witnessed the power of this weapon. An arrow from this weapon had a maximum range of 400 yards, could penetrate four inches of wood at closer range, and could kill an armored knight at 200 yards. The British would use it to destroy a French army at Crecy in 1346. This would be the world’s premiere weapon until the development of cannon (artillery) circa 1450.

1200-1258 Jean Buridan, a scholar whose theory of the earth was absorbed and defended by Leonardo da Vinci.
(NH, 5/97, p.59)

1200-1280 Albertus Magnus, the teacher of Thomas Aquinas. He wrote extensively on the form and behavior of the earth. “The Book of Secrets of Albertus Magnus” was edited by Michael R. Best and Frank H. Brightman in 1974. He and Aquinas created a synthesis of Aristotelian thought and Catholic theology.
(NH, 5/97, p.59)(AM, 5-6/97, p.10)(NH, 10/98, p.4)

1200-1300 Cesky Krumlov, 100 miles south of Prague, was founded about this time on the Vltava River on the main trading route between Bavaria and Italy.
(SSFC, 7/21/02, p.C5)

1200-1300 In England one farthing (a quarter penny) bought four cups of ale. The average daily wage was a penny or two.
(Econ, 2/14/15, p.74)

1200-1300 The Danes built a castle at Narva, Estonia.
(WSJ, 1/25/99, p.A1)

1200-1300 The Mont Orgueil Castle on the east coast of island of Jersey in the English Channel was built to withstand any French attack.
(Sky, 4/97, p.28)

1200-1300 In France the Abbey of Royaumont was established about this time.
(SFC, 9/8/97, p.D5)
1200-1300 In France the abbey on Mont St. Michel was established. In 1998 it was planned to remove the sand around the rocky island off the Normandy coast and re-establish its maritime character.
(SFEC, 5/10/98, p.T3)

1200-1300 In Germany the Mauseturm, Tower of Mice, was built downriver from Rudesheim on an islet on the Rhine in the 13th century. It was named after the plight of the 9th century Archbishop Hatto of Mainz.
(SFEC, 3/15/98, p.T4)
1200-1300 Burg Reichenstein, downstream from Assmannshausen on the Rhine, was the stronghold of the 13th century robber-knight Philip von Hohenfels who “robbed ladies, imprisoned the clergy, mistreated vassals and plundered merchants.”
(SFEC, 3/15/98, p.T4)
1200-1300 St. Gertrude, a German nun of this period, was an important Catholic mystic.
(WSJ, 12/26/97, p.A9)

1200-1300 In Limerick, Ireland, a 13th century castle was built overlooking the Shannon River.
(SFEC, 3/15/98, p.T11)

1200-1300 A mural at Massa Marittima, Italy, dating to this period, depicts a spidery tree with 25 penises and testicles hanging in the branches. “It’s a message from the Guelphs, telling people that if the Ghibellines are allowed power they will bring with them heresy, sexual perversion, civic strife and witchcraft.”
(Reuters, 12/7/04)
1200-1300 Rival Italian political factions and families collided in the 13th century at Montaperti, the “hill of death”.
(HN, 5/14/98)

1200-1300 Nichiren, a Japanese monk and reformer, founded a Buddhist school during this period. “When great evil occurs, great good will follow.”
(WSJ, 3/28/02, p.A20)

1200-1300 On the coast of Kenya the great palace and main mosque at Gede (Gedi) were built.
(NH, 6/97, p.41)

1200-1330 A Mayan city in Peten state (Guatemala), the “El Pajaral” site, dated to the post-classic period of this time. The ruins were found in 2000.
(SFC, 5/15/00, p.A13)

1200-1300 The Csango people of Romania’s remote eastern Carpathian mountains began settling around this time, dispatched by Hungarian rulers to defend the kingdom’s easternmost frontier.
(AP, 3/21/12)

1200-1300 Moses de Leon, a Spanish Jewish mystic, wrote the “Zohar,” in Aramaic. It was a mystical interpretation of the Torah disguised as a novel. The Zohar consists of mystical interpretations and commentaries of the Pentateuch, the first 5 books of the Old Testament. It became the major text of Jewish mysticism that came to be called the Kabbalah, as developed a few centuries later by Isaac Luria in Palestine. In 2003 a new translation was made by Daniel C. Matt, as part of a 12-volume new edition of the Kabbalah.
(WUD, 1994, p.1662)(WSJ, 5/22/98, p.W11)(SFC, 12/16/03, p.D1)

1200-1300 In Thailand the site at Prang Ku was probably one of 108 hospital sites built by the Khmer king Jayavarman VII.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.G)

c1200-1300 Sidi Bou Said was a 13th century Sufi holy man. A town 12 miles from Tunis was named after him. It was closed to non-Muslims until the 1820s.
(SSFC, 8/4/02, p.C12)

1200-1400 Timbuktu, a major trading center in the Malian Empire, reached a population of some 100,000 during this period.
(WSJ, 2/1/06, p.D12)
1200-1400 Stone birds from Great Zimbabwe were made in this period and later displayed as part of an African Art exhibit by the London Royal Academy 1995.
(WSJ, 11/16/95, p.A-18)

1200-1450 As many as 18,000 people in the iron-age center of Great Zimbabwe.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.72)

1200-1500 Bhaktapur, Nepal, rose to dominate the entire Kathmandu Valley region culturally and politically.
(SSFC, 9/21/03, p.C8)
c1200-1500 In 2005 researchers using mitochondrial DNA estimated that 3-6 individuals founded the Mlabri hunter gatherers of Northern Thailand about this time.
(Econ, 4/16/05, p.71)

1201 Jul 5, An earthquake in Syria and upper Egypt killed some 1.1 million people.

1201 Oct 9, Robert de Sorbon, founder of Sorbonne University, Paris, was born.
(MC, 10/9/01)

1201 The Germans founded the city of Riga in Livonia, now Latvia, and built a castle under the direction of Bishop Albert.
(Ist. L.H., 1948, p.39-40)

1201 Mongol leader Temujin (Genghis Khan) defeated Jamuka and an alliance of aristocratic clans that included the Tayichuid clan, which had enslaved him years earlier.
(ON, 8/12, p.8)

1202 Apr 28, King Philip II threw out John-without-Country, from France.
(MC, 4/28/02)

1202 Nov, The Fourth Crusade sacked Zara. The leaders of the Fourth Crusade agreed to sack Zara (present-day Zadar, Croatia)–a rival of Venice–as payment for transportation the Venetians supplied the crusaders. Zara, previously part of the Venetian republic, had rebelled against Venice in 1186 and since allied itself with Hungary, posing competition to Venice’s maritime trade. Unable to raise enough funds to pay to their Venetian contractors, the crusaders agreed to lay siege to the city despite letters from Pope Innocent III forbidding such an action and threatening excommunication. The fleet set sail in October of 1202, reaching Zara in Nov. Zara–the first Christian city to be assaulted by crusaders–surrendered after just two weeks. The army then wintered in the city and planned an attack on the Byzantine capital of Constantinople the following year.
(HNQ, 1/23/01)

1202 King John of England proclaimed the 1st food law, the Assize of Bread. It prohibited the adulteration of bread with ground peas.
(Econ Sp, 12/13/03, p.15)

1202 The English again attacked the Irish town and monastery at Clonmacnoise.
(SFEC, 8/1/99, p.T8)

1202 Assisi fought against Perugia in the Battle of Collestrada. St. Francis faced his first test in life as a soldier in this battle.
(SSFC, 3/25/01, BR p.6)

1202 The Hindu-Arabic numbering system was introduced to the West by Italian mathematician Fibonacci (Leonardo of Pisa). The Fibonacci series is a sequence of numbers where each new number is the sum of the previous two. Fibonacci wrote “Liber abaci” describing how algebraic methods developed in India and how they could be used in business and commerce.
(WSJ, 10/21/96, p.A18)(WSJ, 12/9/96, p.B8)(Econ, 5/15/04, p.80)(SFC, 8/25/08, p.A10)

1202 Court jesters made their debut in Europe. [see 1549]
(WSJ, 9/2/99, p.A12)

1203 The Fourth Crusade murdered 100,000 Orthodox Christians.
(WSJ, 7/16/97, p.A23)

1203 Arthur of Brittany, a political rival of King John of England, died while being held prisoner in one of John’s dungeons.
(ON, 7/04, p.1)

1203 King Sumanguru, ruler of a break-away Ghanian kingdom, overthrew the Soninke king and took over Koumbi. At about the same time a new kingdom to the east called Mali and ruled by Mandinke, was gaining power.
(ATC, p.113)

1203 Mongol leader Temujin (Genghis Khan) succeeded in assimilating the Tatars under his command. His forces defeated Toghrul, head of the Kereyid tribe, to whom he had been a vassal. Toghrul fled west to find sanctuary among the Naiman, where he was apparently slain after not being recognized.
(ON, 8/12, p.9)

1204 Apr 1, Eleanor of Aquitaine (81), wife of Louis VII and Henry II, died in Poitiers. In 1950 Amy Kelly authored “Eleanor of Aquitaine and the Four Kings.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eleanor,_Duchess_of_Aquitaine)(WSJ, 5/12/07, p.P10)

1204 Apr 9, The Venetians began their assault on Constantinople.

1204 Apr 12, The Fourth Crusade, led by Boniface of Montferrat, sacked Constantinople. Constantinople fell to a combined force of Franks and Venetians. The 4th Crusade failed to reach Palestine but sacked the Byzantine Christian capital of Constantinople.
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.)(NH, 9/96, p.22)(HN, 4/12/98)

1204 Dec 13, Maimonides (b.1135), Spanish-born Jewish scholar, died in Cairo. His books included the “Mishnah Torah,” the single most important Jewish book after the Bible and Talmud, and “Guide for the Perplexed.” In 2005 Sherwin B. Nuland authored “Maimonides.”
(www.newadvent.org/cathen/09540b.htm)(SSFC, 10/23/05, p.M1)

1204 Frankish knights established the principality of Achaia in southern Greece.
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.54)

1204 France won back Normandy but the people of the isle of Jersey chose to remain loyal to England. The Chateau Gaillard of Richard the Lionhearted was defeated and partly dismantled as punishment.
(Sky, 4/97, p.28)(AMNH, DT, 1998)

1204 Mongol leader Temujin (Genghis Khan) led his forces against the Naiman, a group of Turkic tribes dwelling on the steppe of Central Asia, and the last remaining independent steppe tribe.
(ON, 8/12, p.9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naimans)

1204 Venice won control over most of Albania, but Byzantines regained control of the southern portion and established the Despotate of Epirus.
(www, Albania, 1998)
1204 The rule of Venice over Crete dates to this year, when the Republic was awarded 3/8 of the Eastern Roman Empire for its role in supporting the Fourth Crusade.

1204-1205 Georgia’s Queen Tamara marched with her men to the rousing victory over the Turks at the Battle of Basiani where she is hailed with the cry, “Our King Tamara.”

1205 Jun 19, Pope Innocent III fired Adolf I as archbishop of Cologne.
(MC, 6/19/02)

1205 Jul 15, Pope Innocent III decreed that the Jews were doomed to perpetual servitude and subjugation due to crucifixion of Jesus.
(MC, 7/15/02)

1206 The city of Dresden, Germany, was founded.
(SFEC, 7/27/97, p.T6)

1206 Francesco di Pietro di Bernardone, later Francis of Assisi, renounced his worldly possessions.
(SFC, 10/4/99, p.A21)

71206 Mongol leader Temujin (Genghis Khan) summoned the largest kuriltai in the history of his people. He handed down a codification of his laws and reforms, the Yasa, and named his people the Great Mongol Nation. He took the title of Chinggis Khan (Genghis Khan) and over the next twenty years conquered northern China and all of Asia west to the Caucasus. The Mongols numbered about 2 million and his army about 130,000.
(ON, 8/12, p.10)(V.D.-H.K.p.169)(SFEM, 10/12/97, p.27)

1207 Sep 4, Boniface of Montferrat, leader of the 4th Crusade, was ambushed and killed by the Bulgarians.

1207 Sep 8, Sancho II, king of Portugal, was born.
(MC, 9/8/01)

1207 Sep 30, Jalal ud-din Rumi (Jelaluddin Rumi, d.1273), Persian poet and mystic was born in the area of Balkh, Afghanistan. He later fled the Mongol invasions with his family to Konya (Iconium), Anatolia. His work “Mathwani” (Spiritual Couplets) filled 6 volumes and had a great impact on Islamic civilization. He founded the Mevlevi order of Sufis, later known as the “whirling dervishes.” In 1998 a film was made about the Sufi poet’s influence on the 20th century. In 1998 Kabir Helminski edited “The Rumi Collection” with translation by Robert Bly and others. His work also included the “Shams I-Tabriz” in which he dismissed the terminology of Jew, Christian and Muslim as “false distinctions.” The poet Rumi was also known as Mowlana.
(SFC, 7/9/96, p.B5)(SFEC, 9/20/98, DB p.50)(SFEC, 10/25/98, BR p.6)(WSJ, 9/7/01, p.A14)(SSFC, 10/28/01, p.B7)(SSFC, 4/1/07, p.E3)

1207 Oct 1, Henry III, king of England (1216-72), was born.

1208 Feb 24, Francis of Assisi (26) decided to become a priest in Portiuncula, Italy.
(MC, 2/24/02)

1208 Mar 24, King John of England opposed Innocent III on his nomination for archbishop of Canterbury.
(HN, 3/24/99)

1208-1231 Tree ring data later showed that Mongolia enjoyed a string of wetter-than-usual years during this period.
(Econ, 12/8/12, p.82)

1209 King John of England was excommunicated by Pope Innocent III.
(HN, 10/19/98)
1209 England’s Cambridge University was established.
(AFP, 10/11/06)

1209 The Delhi Sultanate established Muslim rule in northern India.
(AM, 7/04, p.51)

1209 In Kinnitty, Ireland, the Kinnitty Castle was built. It was later converted to a hotel.
(WSJ, 2/27/98, p.B8)

1209 Pope Innocent III urged a crusade against the Albigensians. They were ascetic communitarians of southern France who viewed the clergy and secular rulers as corrupt. A war resulted that effectively destroyed the Provencal civilization of southern France.
(NH, 9/96, p.20)
1209 The Franciscan brotherhood received papal approval.
(SFC, 7/23/99, p.C8)

1210 Oct 18, Pope Innocent III excommunicated German emperor Otto IV.
(MC, 10/18/01)

1210 Nov 1, King John of England began imprisoning Jews.
(MC, 11/1/01)

1210 William de Braose fled Wales disguised as a beggar, to France. His wife and eldest son were captured and left to die in Corfe Castle.
(Econ, 12/20/14, p.34)(http://tinyurl.com/m5t6tvs)

1210 Francis founded the Franciscans, and demanded that his followers subsist entirely on what they can beg while preaching.

1211 In France construction began on the Reims Cathedral about this time and continued for 60 years.
(SSFC, 4/27/14, p.Q6)

1211 St. Francis reportedly landed on the Isola Maggiore, an island on Lake Trasimeno.
(SFEM, 10/12/97, p.48)

1211 In Latvia construction began on Riga’s Lutheran Cathedral.
(SSFC, 7/22/07, p.G5)

1211-1228 Vaulted halls called “La Marveille” were added to the abbey of Mont St. Michel off the coast of Normandy, France.
(WSJ, 10/7/06, p.P18)

1212 Jan 18, Queen Tamara of Georgia in Transcaucasia died after a 24-year reign during which her soldiers proclaim her “our King.”

1212 Jul 16, Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa marked the end of Muslim power in Spain.
(MC, 7/16/02)

1212 Jul 17, Moslems were crushed in the Spanish crusade.
(HN, 7/17/98)

1212 Aug 25, Children’s crusaders under Nicolas (10) reached Genoa.
(MC, 8/25/02)

1212 Jul 16, Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa marked the end of Muslim power in Spain.
(MC, 7/16/02)

1212 Jul 17, Moslems were crushed in the Spanish crusade.
(HN, 7/17/98)

1212 Aug 25, Children’s crusaders under Nicolas (10) reached Genoa.
(MC, 8/25/02)

1212 Stephen, a shepherd boy from Cloyes-sur-le-Loir, France, had a vision of Jesus and set out to deliver a letter to the King of France. He gathered 30,000 children who went to Marseilles with plans to ship to the Holy Land and conquer the Muslims with love instead of arms. They got shipped to North Africa and were sold in the Muslim slave markets.

1213 May 15, King John submitted to the Pope, offering to make England and Ireland papal fiefs. Pope Innocent III lifted the interdict of 1208. He named Stephen Langton Archbishop of Canterbury.
(HN, 5/15/99)(MC, 5/15/02)

1213 Sep 12, Simon de Montfort defeated Raymond of Toulouse and Peter II of Aragon at Muret, France.
(HN, 9/12/98)

1214 Apr 25, Louis IX, king of France (1226-1270), was born.
(HN, 4/25/02)

1214 Jul 27, At the Battle of Bouvines in France, Philip Augustus of France defeated John of England.
(HN, 7/27/98)

1214?-1294? Roger Bacon, English philosopher and scientist. He was imprisoned for alchemy in 1284.
(WUD, 1994, p.109)(HC, 1/9/98)

1215 Jan 6, King John met with disgruntled barons of northern England who demanded that taxes be lowered.
(ON, 7/04, p.1)

1215 Apr 19-26, During Easter week English barons assembled an army of some 2,000 men near London and demanded that King John address their call for tax relief.
(ON, 7/04, p.1)

1215 May 3, English barons led their forces on an attack of Northampton Castle. Loyalists to King John successfully defended the castle and the rebels returned to London.
(ON, 7/04, p.2)

1215 May 12, English barons served an ultimatum on King John (known as “Lack land”).
(MC, 5/12/02)

1215 June 15, The Magna Carta (“the Great Charter”) was adopted and sealed by King John, son of Henry II, at Runnymede, England, granting his barons more liberty. King John signed the Magna Carta, which asserted the supremacy of the law over the king, at Runnymede, England. Commercial clauses protected merchants from unjust tolls.
(CFA, ’96, p.48)(HFA, ’96, p.32)(AP, 6/15/97)(HN, 6/15/98)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1215 Aug 24, Pope Innocent III, following a request from King John, declared the Magna Carta invalid. The barons of England soon retaliated by inviting King Philip of France to come to England. Philip accepted the offer.
(ON, 7/04, p.2)(Econ, 12/20/14, p.34)

1215-1216 King John avoided rebel forces in the south but marched his army across the countryside subduing adversaries in the north, east and west. Scottish and Welsh armies raided the English borders.
(ON, 7/04, p.2)

1215-1250 Frederick II became emperor and renewed conflicts with the papacy. [see Nov 22, 1220, 1250]
(V.D.-H.K. p.111)

1215-1294 Kublai Khan founded the Yuan dynasty and reunited China for the first time since the fall of the T’angs in 907. He was the grandson of Genghis Khan and established the Yuan dynasty in China. He built a court of gilded cane at Tatu (later Beijing) that inspired Marco Polo and Coleridge. He enforced the use of paper money and had ships built to carry 1,000 men.
(V.D.-H.K.p.169)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)

1216 Jun 16, Pope Innocent III died. In 2003 John C. Moore authored “Pope Innocent III.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Innocent_III)(WSJ, 4/12/08, p.W8)

1216 Jul 11, Hendrik of Constantinople, emperor of Constantinople (1206-16), died.
(MC, 7/11/02)

1216 Oct 19, John, King of England (1199-1216) died at Newark at age 49. He signed the Magna Carta and was excommunicated in 1209. King John was succeeded by his nine-year-old son Henry. The Royal Menagerie was begun during the reign of King John.
(HN, 10/19/98)(SFEC, 10/10/99, p.T3)

1216 Oct 28, Henry III of England (9) was crowned. Regent William Marshal led him to agree to the demands made by the barons at Runnymede. Prince Louis, repudiated by the barons, returned to France.
(HN, 10/28/98)(ON, 7/04, p.2)(Econ, 12/20/14, p.35)

1217 Feb 18, Alexander Neckum de Sancto Albano (59), English encyclopedist, died.
(MC, 2/18/02)

1217 Aug 24, Eustace “the Monk”, French buccaneer, was killed in battle.
(MC, 8/24/02)

1217 Nov 6, The Charter of the Forest was sealed in England by the young King Henry III, acting under the regency of William Marshall, 1st Earl of Pembroke, as a complementary charter to the Magna Carta (1215) from which it had evolved.

1217 Nov 29, Arab traveler Ibn Jubayr (b.1145) died in Alexandria. His travel chronicle describes the pilgrimage he made to Mecca from 1183 to 1185, in the years preceding the Third Crusade.

1218 May 19, Otto IV (36), Holy Roman Emperor, died.
(PC, 1992, p.106)

1218 Aug 31, Al-Malik ab-Adil, Saphadin, Saif al-Din, brother of Saladin, died.
(MC, 8/31/01)

1218 The university at Salamanca, Spain, was founded by King Alfonso IX.
(SSFC, 6/8/03, p.C8)

1218 Simon IV de Montfort (b.1160), Norman knight and leader of the crusade against the Albigenses (1202-1204), died at the siege of Toulouse.
(WUD, 1994, p.928)

1219 Jan 16, Floods followed a storm in Northern Netherlands and thousands were killed.
(MC, 1/16/02)

1219 Nov 5, The port of Damietta (in the Nile delta of Egypt) fell to the Crusaders after a siege.
(WUD, 1994, p.365)(HN, 11/5/98)

1219 St. Francis d’Assisi journeyed to Egypt and met with the sultan to work for peace.
(SSFC, 9/29/02, p.D2)

1219-1221 Genghis Khan invaded Afghanistan. Destruction of irrigation systems by Genghis Khan turned fertile soil into permanent deserts.

1220 Apr 15, Adolf I, archbishop of Cologne, died.
(MC, 4/15/02)

1220 May 30, Alexander Nevski, Russian ruler (1252-63), was born.
(MC, 5/30/02)

1220 Nov 22, After promising to go to the aid of the Fifth Crusade within nine months, Hohenstaufen King Frederick II was crowned Holy Roman Emperor and King of Italy by Pope Honorius III.

1220 Construction began on the English Cathedral of Salisbury. It was inaugurated in 1258.
(MC, 9/20/01)(Econ, 12/20/03, p.29)
1220 Construction began on England’s York Minster Cathedral. It was completed in 1472.
(SSFC, 4/13/14, p.Q5)

1220 In France the main structure of Chartres cathedral was completed. In 2008 Philip Ball authored “Universe of Stone: A Biography of Chartres Cathedral.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cathedral_of_Chartres)(WSJ, 7/5/08, p.W9)

c1220 Genghis Khan made Karakorum his capital.
(SSFC, 3/27/05, p.F4)

1220 Klosters, Switzerland, a future ski center, has roots to this date.
(Hem, Dec. 94, p.76)

1221 Aug 6, St. Dominic, Italian founder of the Dominicans religious order, died.
(MC, 8/6/02)

1221 Sep, Rambertino di Guido Buvalelli (b.~1170/1180), a Bolognese judge, statesman, diplomat, and poet, died. He was the earliest of the podestà-troubadours of thirteenth-century Lombardy. He served at one time or other as podestà of Brescia, Milan, Parma, Mantua, Genoa, and Verona. Ten of his Occitan poems survive, but none with an accompanying melody. He is usually regarded as the first native Italian troubadour, though Cossezen and Peire de la Caravana may precede him. His reputation has secured a street named in his honor in his birthplace: the Via Buvalelli Rambertino in Bologna.

1221 Nov 23, Alfonso X (the Wise, d.1284), king of Castile & Leon (1252-84), was born. Also known as Alfonso the Wise, he served as king of Castile from 1252-1284. His manuscript “Cantigas de Santa Maria” is one of the most important of the period.
(WUD, 1994, p.36)(WSJ, 5/14/97, p.A20)(MC, 11/23/01)

1221 In France the Chateau de Bagnols castle was built. Guichard, Lord of Oingt, built the first three of its 5 round towers. It was restored in the 1990s by English publishing mogul Paul Hamlyn and his wife Helen.
(SFEM, 10/4/98, p.6)

1221 Emperor Frederick II issued a law that declared that violence could be committed against jesters without punishment.
(SFC, 12/897, p.A17)

1221 In Russia Nizhny Novgorod was founded.
(USAT, 10/9/98, p.12A)

1221 Genghis Khan razed the city of Bamiyan, Afghanistan, and exterminated its inhabitants.
(WSJ, 11/16/01, p.W12)

1221 Genghis Khan is said to have killed 1,748,000 people at Nishapur in just one hour.
(SFC, 5/25/96, p.B4)

1222 A group of professors broke free from the Univ. of Bologna, under the control of the Catholic Church, and created the Univ. of Padua, independent of Catholic constraints.
(SSFC, 3/25/07, p.G3)

1223 Jul 14, Philip II Augustus (57), King of France (1180-1223), died. Louis VIII succeeded his father.
(HN, 7/14/98)(MC, 7/14/02)

1223 Dec 25, St. Francis of Assisi assembled one of the first Nativity scenes, in Greccio, Italy.
(AP, 12/25/97)

c1224/25-1274 Thomas Aquinas born in Aquino between Rome and Naples. He was a pupil of the Benedictines in the monastery of Monte Cassino. After nine years Emperor Frederic II temporarily disbanded the monks at Cassino and Thomas went to Naples to study and joined the Dominicans. He tried to reconcile theology with the emerging economic conditions of his time.
(V.D.-H.K.p.119)(NH, 10/98, p.4)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R20)

1225 Nov 7, Engelbert I (40), the Saint, archbishop of Cologne, was murdered.
(MC, 11/7/01)

1225 Henry III came of age and reissued the Magna Carta and the Charter of the Forest (1217).
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magna_Carta)(Econ, 1/10/15, p.14)

1226 Oct 3, St. Francis of Assisi (b.1182), founder of the Franciscan order, died. He was canonized in 1228 and entombed in the St. Francis Basilica in 1230. In 1983 Olivier Messiaen premiered his opera “Saint Francis d’Assise.” In 2001 Adrian House authored “Francis of Assisi: A Revolutionary Life;” Valerie Martin authored “Salvation: Scenes From the Life of St. Francis.” In 2002 Donald Spoto authored “Reluctant Saint: The Life of Francis of Assisi.” [see Oct 4]
(AP, 10/3/97)(SFEC, 7/25/99, DB p.32)(SSFC, 3/25/01, BR p.1,6)(SSFC, 9/29/02, p.D2)(SFC, 10/3/02, p.A19)

1226 Oct 4, St. Francis of Assisi, founder of the Franciscans and one of history’s most famous nature lovers, died. [see Oct 3]
(MC, 10/4/01)

1226 Nov 8, Louis VIII (39), the Lion, King of France (1223-26), died. He was succeeded by Louis IX.
(HN, 11/6/98)(MC, 11/8/01)

1226 Following Prussian attacks on Polish lands, the Catholic Poles invited German religious-military orders to attack Prussia.
(H of L, 1931, p.25)(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1226 The last mega hurricane struck the gulf coast of Alabama. The mega hurricane seems to happen on average every 600 years.
(SFEC, 9/15/96, p.A10)

1226-1270 Era of King Louis IX. In France, the urban middle-class became a new, economic factor, and King Louis IX tried to control his vassals through his policy of increased centralization. It was the era in which the crusades were winding down, and the embassies of Franciscans and Dominicans to the courts of Mongolian princes were beginning.

1227 In Spain construction of the Gothic Cathedral in Toledo was begun.
(SFEC, 3/22/98, p.T11)

1227 Aug 18, Genghis Khan (Chinggis), Mongol conqueror, died in his sleep at his camp, during his siege of Ningxia, the capital of the rebellious Chinese kingdom of Xi Xia. Subotai was one of Genghis Khan’s ablest lieutenants, and went on to distinguish himself after the khan’s death. In Khan’s lifetime he and his warriors had conquered the majority of the civilized world, ruling an empire that stretched from Poland down to Iran in the west, and from Russia’s Arctic shores down to Vietnam in the east. Russian archaeologist Peter Kozloff uncovered the tomb of Genghis Khan in the Gobi Desert in 1927. In 2006 Zhu Yaoting, a Beijing academic, authored a biography of Genghis Khan.
(AP, 8/18/97)(HN, 10/29/98)(Econ, 12/23/06, p.61)

1227 In the Polish Kulm region there was a struggle with Prussia over land. The Poles called in the German Knights of the Cross (aka Teutonic Knights) for help in exchange for the lands of Kulm. The Knights arrived and began to fight Prussia in wars that lasted some 60 years.
(Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 41)

1227 Roman Emperor Frederick II was first excommunicated by the Catholic Pope because his growing empire threatened the independence of the papal states. [see 1239]
(AP, 5/5/06)

1227-1234 The Madrassa al Mustansirija was constructed in Baghdad by the Caliph al Mustansir. It became world epicenter of medical sciences and also taught theology, mathematics, jurisprudence, astrology and other subjects.
(WSJ, 9/20/08, p.W14)

1228 The Basilica di San Francesco was constructed in Assisi, Italy.
(WSJ, 3/25/99, p.A24)

1228 St. Francis of Assisi, founder of the Franciscan order, was canonized.
(AP, 10/3/97)

1229 Mar 18, German emperor Frederick II crowned himself king of Jerusalem.
(MC, 3/18/02)

1229 Apr 14, A scribe name John completed a religious text that overwrote a manuscript attributed to Archimedes that had been copied by a scribe in the 10th century. In 2006 scientists attempted to read the final pages of the Archimedes palimpsest, which contained text from his “Method of Mechanical Theorems.”
(Econ, 7/22/06, p.76)

1229-1241 Ugoodei, Genghis’ successor, reigned Mongolia over this period.

1230 Mindaugas began to rule over Lithuania. Mindaugas found resistance amongst some local rulers who called in German military orders for assistance. Mindaugas hosted the German magistrate who said that the only way to save Lithuania would be to convert to Catholicism and pass western territory over to the German Order.
(H of L, 1931, p.29)

1230-1253 King Wenceslas I reigned over Bohemia. His sister, St. Agnes, was canonized in 1989. Both are buried in the Convent of St. Agnes in Prague.
(SFC, 4/14/96, T-12)

1231 Guo Shoujing (d.1314), Chinese astronomer, was born. He developed water clocks with temperature compensation and escapements to provide high resolution time accuracy for astronomical observations, a “pinhole camera” to sharpen shadows cast by the sun and moon, mathematical tools for polynomial generation and interpolation, and other inventions for measurements.

1231-1322 The illustrated text of the Chinese Dharani Sutra of Great Splendor was created.
(SFC, 8/21/03, p.E2)

1232-1316 Ramon Llull proposed an artificial language that used 4 figures and 9 letters called his Ars magna. It was proposed as the perfect tool for Christian missionaries.
(Wired, 8/96, p.84)

1233 The Inquisition began and lasted into the 19th century.
(SFC, 10/30/98, p.A16)

1233 The Japanese royal family began to stain their teeth black in a fashion statement.
(WSJ, 9/2/99, p.A12)

1234 Ugoodei attacked and overcame the Chin (Juchen) dynasty of China.

1235 Jan 2, Emperor Joseph II ordered the Jews of Galicia, Austria, to adopt family names.
(MC, 1/2/02)

1235 Sep 5, Henry I, duke of Brabant, died. Brabant was a duchy later divided between Netherlands and Belgium.
(WUD, 1994 p.177)(MC, 9/5/01)

1235 Henry III received 3 leopards from Frederick II, the Holy Roman Emperor. They became part of the Royal Menagerie housed in the Tower of London.
(SFEC, 10/10/99, p.T3)

1235 In China a murder was solved when field men were told to lay down their rice sickles and flies landed on only one.
(SFEC, 9/28/97, Z1 p.2)

1235 The king of Mali, Sundiata, defeated Sumanguru at the battle of Kirina. From then on Mali replaced Ghana as the major power in West Africa. Sundiata established his capital at Niana on the upper Niger.
(ATC, p.113,118)

1235-1315 Raimon Llull, a Mallorcan Catholic Franciscan poet. He declared that his ecstatic Christian spirituality drew from the example of Sufis like Rumi.
(SFEC, 10/25/98, BR p.6)

1236 Jan 14, Henry III married Eleanor of Provence.
(HN, 1/14/99)

1236 Jun 29, Ferdinand III of Castile and Leon took Cordoba in Spain. Cordoba, Spain, fell to Christian forces. The last Islamic kingdom left in Spain is that of the Berbers in Granada.
(ATC, p.100)(HN, 6/29/98)

1236 Aug 22, The German Master Volkwin of Riga had prepared a large force of his Knights of the Sword to attack Lithuania. The Lithuanians learned of the planned attack and called for forces across the land to repulse the Germans. The Germans were lured to a marsh near the town of Siauliai and were severely beaten. Only a tenth of their forces were said to escape back to Riga.
(Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 41)(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1236 Dec 23, Philippus Cancellarius, French theologian and poet (Summa Cum Laude), died.
(MC, 12/23/01)

1236 Queen Rusudani (41), the daughter of Queen Tamara, fled Georgia as the unstoppable Mongol hordes ravished the area. She had been proclaimed “King” at the death of her brother.

1237 Feb 13, Jordanus of Saxon, 2nd father-general of Dominicans, drowned.
(MC, 2/13/02)

1237 Mar 23, Jan of Brienne, King of Jerusalem, Emperor of Constantinople, died.
(SS, 3/23/02)

1237 The Bishop of Riga sent a request to Rome that the Pope unite the German Knights of the Sword and Knights of the Cross into one order. The Pope agreed and the two orders agreed to fight under one magistrate.
(Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 41)

1237 The Knights of the Sword ended their activities in Livonia.
(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1237-1238 Batu Khan, a grandson of Genghis Khan, invaded Russia.
(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.28)

1237-1240 Lithuanians first made contact with the Mongols about this time, though for the next decade or two the Mongols did not consider Lithuanian-held territories a priority.

1237-1240 Mongols conquered Russian lands.
(DVD, Criterion, 1998)

1238 Feb 3, The Mongols took over Vladimir, Russia.
(HN, 2/3/99)

1238 Sep 28, James of Aragon retook Valencia, Spain, from the Arabs.
(HN, 9/28/98)

1238 The Knights of the Sword merged with the German Knights of the Cross.
(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1238 Mindaugas is mentioned for the 1st time. He ruled to 1263.
(H of L, 1931, p.29)(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1238-1263 The Byzantine Hagia Sophia church in Trebizond was built during the reign of Manuel I during this period. It was converted to a mosque in the 16th century.

1239 Jun 17, Edward I (Longshanks), king of England (1272-1307), was born. He became king of England following the death of his father Henry III. Edward I has been called “the English Justinian” because of his legal reforms, but is usually known as one of the foremost military men of the medieval world. His rule strengthened the authority of the crown and England’s influence over her neighbors. While successfully subduing Wales he died while attempting to conquer Scotland.
(HN, 6/17/00)(HNQ, 2/1/01)

1239 Roman Emperor Frederick II was excommunicated a 2nd time because his growing empire threatened the independence of the papal states.
(AP, 5/5/06)

1240 Apr 11, Llywelyn ab Iorwerth the Great, monarch of Wales (1194-1240), died.
(MC, 4/11/02)

1240 Nov 26, Edmund Van Abingdon, archbishop of Canterbury and Saint, died.
(MC, 11/26/01)

1240 Dec 6, Mongols under Batu Khan occupied and destroyed Kiev.
(MC, 12/6/01)

1240 A chronicle of the life of Genghis Khan and his successors: “The Secret Life of the Mongols,” was written about this time. A Chinese version was discovered by a Russian diplomat in the early 1800s. In 1982 Francis Woodman Cleaves produced a modern version.
(www.ezlink.com/~culturev/secret.html)(SSFC, 5/22/05, p.C3)

1240 Henry III ordered the Tower of London to be whitewashed.
(Hem, 9/04, p.28)

c1240-1302 Giovanni Cimabue, Italian painter and mosaicist. In 1998 a collection of his work was published with text by Luciano Bellosi. Cimabue was a teacher of Giotto. Many of his creations were damaged by a 1966 flood in the Church of Santa Croce in Florence.
(WUD, 1994, p.266)(WSJ, 12/3/98, p.W4)

1240-1630 The site of Thulamela in Kruger Nat’l. Park in northeastern South Africa had graves containing people with gold ornaments.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.71)

1241 Apr 9, In the Battle of Liegnitz, Silesia, Mongol armies defeated the Poles and Germans. In this year the Mongols defeated the Germans and invaded Poland and Hungary. The death of their leader Ughetai (Ogedei) forced them to withdraw from Europe.
(HN, 4/9/98)(TOH)

1241 Apr 11, Mongol armies defeated the Hungarian army at the Battle of Mohi. The devastating Mongol invasion killed half of Hungary’s population.

1241 May 25, 1st attack on Jewish community of Frankfort-on-the-Main, Germany.
(SC, 5/25/02)

1241 Dec, The Great Khan Ogedei died after completing the Mongol conquest of China and Korea. In April the Mongols routed the armies of Poles, Germans, and Hungarians, at Liegnitz and Mohi, within easy distance of Vienna. Only the death of Ogedei stopped their advance into Europe.

1241 A trumpeter in Krakow, Poland, was shot through the throat by an archer as he warned the city of a fast-approaching Mongol army.
(SSFC, 12/28/03, p.C6)

1242 Feb 12, Henry VII, Roman Catholic German king (1220-35), committed suicide.
(MC, 2/12/02)

1242 Apr 5, Russian troops repelled an invasion attempt by Teutonic Knights. Alexander Nevsky of Novgorod defeated Teutonic Knights
(HN, 4/5/99)(MC, 4/5/02)

1242 Jun 6, 24 wagonloads of Talmudic books were burned in Paris.
(MC, 6/6/02)

1242 In Italy the city wall of Montagnana were built.
(AMNHDT, 5/98)

1242 Batu, the grandson of Genghis Khan, established his “Golden Horde” at Sarai on the Lower Volga.

1243 Jun 26, The Seljuk Turkish army in Asia Minor was wiped out by the Mongols.
(HN, 6/26/98)

1243 A Charter granted permission for a fair at the monastery of St. Michael at Glastonbury Tor.
(Local Inscription, 2000)

1243-1254 Pope Innocent IV. He established canon law that recognized communities such as cathedral chapters and monasteries as legal individuals.
(WSJ, 12/23/99, p.A18)

1244 Aug 23, Turks expelled the crusaders under Frederick II from Jerusalem.
(HN, 8/23/98)

1244 Oct 17, The Sixth Crusade ended when an Egyptian-Khwarismian force almost annihilated the Frankish army at Gaza.
(HN, 10/17/98)

1244 The Cathars, a group of Catholic heretics, settled at Montsegur, France, in the Ariege region. They were besieged for more than a year and chose to burn at the stake rather than submit. Occitania was the ancient name for this region.
(SFEC, 12/8/96, p.T1)

1244 Sheikh Abu el Haggag, Tunisian born Sufi, died in Luxor, Egypt. His family was from Mecca and traced its lineage to Mohammed. He founded a Sufi mosque in Luxor and is buried there. An annual celebration in Luxor, called the moulid, celebrates his birthday. Egyptologists believe this event is related to the ancient Opet Festival from the 18th Dynasty.
(Arch, 7/02, p.36)

1244-1248 Mevlana Jalaluddin Rumi met Shams of Tabriz, a wandering dervish, and the two became mystical companions for 4 years until Shams disappeared. Rumi called his own writings “The Works of Shams of Tabriz.”
(SFEC, 10/25/98, BR p.6)

1245 Jul 27, Frederick II of France was deposed by a council at Lyons, which found him guilty of sacrilege.
(HN, 7/27/98)

1245 Thomas Aquinas was sent to Paris where he enrolled as a student of Albertus Magnus to study theology, philosophy, and history. In 1974 Michael R. Best and Frank H. Brightman edited “The Book of secrets of Albertus Magnus,” which contained a recipe for Greek Fire.
(V.D.-H.K.p.119)(AM, May/Jun 97 p.10)

1245 John of Plano Carpini was a Franciscan monk who set out on the instructions of Pope Innocent IV to gather intelligence. He was met by Mongol horseman and was brought to witness the enthronement of Guyuk Khan. He experienced a sudden hailstorm followed by a flash flood that killed 160 people.
(SFC, 4/14/96, T-10)(SFEM, 10/12/97, p.22)

1245 In Germany the Rheinfels castle was built by Count Diether V von Katzenelnbogen to protect the St. Goar tax collectors. It soon developed into one of the mightiest fortresses in the Middle Rhine region. His family was responsible for many of the Rhine castles.
(http://www.st-goar.de/734-1-geschichte-burg-rheinfels-1.html)(SFEC, 3/15/98, p.T5)

1245 In Flanders cottage weavers went on strike against cloth merchants.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1246 May 22, Henry Raspe was elected anti-king by the Rhenish prelates in France.
(HN, 5/22/98)

1246 The Spanish island of Mallorca was occupied by the Arabs and reconquered by the Catalans 750 years ago.
(SFC, Z-1, 4/28/96, p.6)

1247 Nov 22, Robin Hood died according to the 1400 ballad “A Lytell Geste of Robyn Hode.” The legend of Robin Hood is believed to extend into antiquity.
(MC, 11/22/01)(SFC, 2/17/04, p.A2)

1247 In London the Priory of St. Mary of Bethlehem was founded. It survived centuries of religious turmoil and eventually became an insane asylum. The word “bedlam” is a contraction of its name.
(Econ, 8/27/16, p.65)
1247 Zen monk Yishan Yining (d.1317), calligrapher and poet, was born in China.
(WSJ, 1/8/02, p.A16)

1248 May 15, Archbishop Konrad von Hochstaden laid the cornerstone for Köln (Cologne) cathedral. [see Aug 14]
(MC, 5/15/02)

1248 Aug 14, Construction of Cologne Cathedral began. [see May 15]
(MC, 8/14/02)

1248 Nov 23, Seville, France surrendered to Ferdinand III of Castile after a two-year siege.
(HN, 11/23/98)

1248 Sainte Chapelle in Paris was completed and commissioned by Louis IX to contain what was believed to be Christ’s crown of thorns.
(Hem. 1/95, p. 78)
1248 In Wales Carreg Cennen, a castle on a hilltop above Trapp, was built as a Welsh stronghold.
(SFEC, 5/10/98, p.T4)
1248 Subutai (b.~1175), an Uriankhai general and the primary military strategist of Genghis Khan and Ogedei Khan, died. He directed more than 20 campaigns in which he conquered 32 nations and won 65 pitched battles, during which he conquered or overran more territory than any other commander in history. He gained victory by means of imaginative and sophisticated strategies and routinely coordinated movements of armies that were hundreds of kilometers away from each other. He is also remembered for devising the campaign that destroyed the armies of Hungary and Poland within two days of each other, by forces over 500 kilometers apart. By any metric, he is one of the most successful commanders in history.

1249 Feb 7, The Christburg Peace Treaty forced the Prussians to recognize the rule of the Teutonic Knights. Within about 50 years the Teutonic Knights and Knights of the Cross had overcome most of Prussia and established German as the dominant culture and language. The German orders then turned to Lithuania.
(H of L, 1931, p.25)(LHC, 2/7/03)

1249 Oxford’s first college, University College, was founded by William of Durham. (The oldest part of the existing buildings dates from 1634).
(Econ, 5/21/05, p.16)(http://tinyurl.com/c6eny)

1249-1254 A civil war was fought in Lithuania. Mindaugas, the feudal ruler of Lithuania found resistance amongst some local rulers who called in German military orders for assistance. Mindaugas hosted the German magistrate who said that the only way to save Lithuania would be to convert to Catholicism and pass western territory over to the German Order.
(H of L, 1931, p.29)(TB-Com, 10/11/00)(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1250 Feb 8-1250 Feb 11, The Battle of Al Mansurah was fought between crusaders led by Louis IX, King of France, and Ayyubid forces led by Emir Fakhr-ad-Din Yussuf, Faris ad-Din Aktai and Baibars al-Bunduqdari.

1250 Apr 6, Louis IX (1214-1270), King of France, lost the Battle of Fariskur, Egypt, and was captured by Muslim forces.

1250 Apr 15, Pope Innocent III refused Jews of Cordova, Spain, permission to build a synagogue.
(MC, 4/15/02)

1250 Apr 30, King Louis IX of France was ransomed for one million dollars. The Mamluk dynasty exacted 240 tons of silver for his release.
(HN, 4/30/98)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R4)

1250 May 2, Toeransa, sultan of Egypt, was murdered.
(MC, 5/2/02)

1250 Dec 13, Frederick II (55), German Emperor (1212-1250), died.
(MC, 12/13/01)

1250 Nicolo and Mafeo Polo embarked on their own cargo ship for Constantinople.
(TMPV, P.4)(This date is questionable and is given as 1260 in other versions)

1250 China began manufacturing guns.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1250 The Anasazi in southwest Colorado fought a battle against unknown enemies. Number of kivas built greatly increased. Quality of workmanship in building decreased. People began to leave.
(HN, 2/11/97)

c1250 The Tsama Pueblo in New Mexico contained 1100 rooms and was occupied to the mid-1500s.
(AM, adv. circular, p.2)

1250 Florence, Italy, became a major center for commerce and industry.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

c1250 A supernova 650 light-years away should have been visible to observers on Earth according to scientists who analyzed evidence in 1998.
(SFC, 11/12/98, p.A12)

1250-1300 Maori ancestors arrived in New Zealand. By 2013 the country had lost 51 species of birds, 3 of frogs, 3 of lizards and one of a freshwater fish.
(Econ, 9/14/13, SR p.5)

1250-1350 The 1999 book by Lauren Arnold: “Princely Gifts and Papal Treasures: The Franciscan Mission to China and Its Influence on the Art of the West 1250-1350” covered this period.
(WSJ, 12/16/99, p.A20)

1250-1382 The Bahri Mamluks ruled Egypt.
(SSFC, 7/24/11, p.F7)

1250-1400 In the Upper Xingu region of Brazil’s Mato Grosso state thousands of people occupied 19 settlements in 2 clusters over this period according to archeological findings in 2003.
(Econ, 9/20/03, p.76)

1250-1517 The Mamelukes (aka Mamluks – Arabic for chattel), a military class initially composed of slaves, seized control of the Egyptian Sultanate and ruled until 1517.
(WUD, 1994, p.869)(Econ, 8/22/15, p.50)

1250-1540 Late postclassic period of the Maya.
(AM, May/Jun 97 suppl. p.B)

1251 The Polo brothers resided for a year in the dominions of the Western Tartar chief Berca, who dwelt in the cities of Bolgara and Assara. A war soon developed between Berca and Alau, chief of the Eastern Tartars. This war was won by Alau and the brothers were forced to travel east in order to skirt unsafe roads.
(TMPV, P.5)(This date is questionable and is given as 1261 in other versions)

1251 In Lithuania Mindaugas accepted Christianity with his wife, 2 sons, about 600 of his nobility and many of his people. An envoy was then sent to Rome to request the Pope’s formal approval for coronation which was granted. The German Order then worked closely with Mindaugas in establishing the first Bishopric in Lithuania and were in turn granted lands in western Lithuania (Zemaiciuose). Pope Innocent IV authorized Mindaugas to be crowned King.
(H of L, 1931, p.30,32)(XXIA, 7/21/99)

c1251-1254 The Polo brothers traveled to Persia and arrived at the province of Bokhara ruled by Prince Barak. They remained there for three years. (This date is questionable and is given as 1261-64 in other versions).
(TMPV, P.6)

1252 Apr 6, Peter of Verona (45), [Peter Martyr], Italian inquisitor died.
(MC, 4/6/02)

1252 The new “Round Table” jousting tournament appeared in England.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1253 Jul 6, Mindaugas was crowned as King of Lithuania.

1253 Aug, Pope Innocent IV, after much worry about the order’s insistence on absolute poverty, finally approved the rule of the 2nd Order of the Franciscans, the Poor Clares, founded by St. Clare of Assisi, the great friend of St Francis.

1253 A Franciscan friar journeyed to China to see the Great Khan.
(WSJ, 9/4/98, p.W12)

1253-1260 Ata-Malik Juvaini (b.1226) authored “The History of the World Conqueror,” an account of the life of Genghis Khan and his successors. Juvaini, in service to the Mongol governors, drew on the recollections of his father and grandfather. In 1997 J.A. Boyle published an English translation.

1254 Mar 12, Mindaugas granted Christian, Lithuania’s 1st Bishop, lands in Samogitia.
(LHC, 3/12/03)

1254-1324 Marco Polo was born in Venice.

1255 Mar 6, Pope Alexander IV permitted Mindaugas to crown his son as king of Lithuania.
(LHC, 3/6/03)

c1255 Duccio di Buoninsegna (d.1319), Sienese painter, was born.
(Econ, 1/17/04, p.75)

1255 Konigsberg (Kaliningrad) was founded on the Baltic Sea by the Bohemian King Otakar II, who came to help Teutonic Knights during their conquest of Prussia disguised as the Christianization effort called the Northern Crusades. It was annexed by Russia in 1945.
(Econ, 5/14/05, p.55)(www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Konigsberg)

c1255 The Polo brothers met an ambassador of Alau on his way to see the supreme chief of the Tartars, Kublai. The ambassador offered to take the brothers to meet the grand khan and the Polo’s accepted. (This date is questionable and is given as 1265 in other versions).
(TMPV, P.7)

1256 Thomas Aquinas received his license to teach. He became involved in the current questions of doctrine on two basic issues. He sided with the Nominalists as opposed to the Realists on the question of “universals”. The second issue was based on Aristotle’s notion of nature. Aquinas saw a distinction between spirit and nature but also a unity.

1256 Kublai-khan began his reign as the sixth grand khan, ruler of the Tartars. [see 1259]
(TMPV, p.108)

1256 France banned gambling with dice.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1257 In Nepal an earthquake destroyed almost all of the Kathmandu Valley. A Newar architect named Araniko (1245-1306) emerged during the reconstruction of palaces, temples and pagodas. He was later summoned by Kublai Khan to work in Beijing, where his work included the White Stupa of Miaoying Temple, completed in 1288.
(SSFC, 5/1/16, p.F4)(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Araniko)

1258 Feb 10, Huegu (Hulega Khan), a Mongol leader and grandson of Genghis Khan, seized Baghdad following a 4-day assault. Mongol invaders from Central Asia took over Baghdad and ended the Abbasid-Seljuk Empire. They included Uzbeks, Kazaks, Georgians and other groups. Some 200 to 800 thousand people were killed and looting lasted 17 days.
(ATC, p.91)(AP, 2/10/99)(SFC, 4/12/03, p.A1)

1258 Mar 26, Floris the Guardian, count-regent of Holland, died.
(SS, 3/26/02)

1258 Sep 20, The Cathedral of Salisbury, begun in 1220, was inaugurated.
(MC, 9/20/01)(Econ, 12/20/03, p.29)

1258 The Abbasids fled from Baghdad to Egypt following the Mongol invasion that ended the Abbasid-Seljuk Empire.
(Econ, 10/4/14, p.55)

1258 The first major incursion of Mongols from the Golden Horde under Burundai on the Lithuanian territories took place in winter of 1258. It was likely a reaction to Lithuanian incursions into Mongol-held territories. After raiding Lithuania and the Yotvingians, the next year, two tumens (20,000 men), under the leadership of Berke, attacked Poland (in what is known as the second Mongol invasion of Poland).

1258-1259 The Mongol invasion of Lithuania in the years 1258–1259 is generally seen as a Mongol victory, as Lithuanian territories have been described as “devastated” following the Mongol incursion, in what was “possibly the most horrible event of the thirteenth century” for Lithuania.

1259 Aug 11, Mongke, Mongol great-khan, grandson of Genghis Khan, died.
(MC, 8/11/02)

1259 Sep 27, Ezzeline III da Romano, gentleman of Verona, “cruel monster”, died.
(MC, 9/27/01)

1259-1282 Michael VIII Palaeologus governed over Byzantium from Constantinople. [see 330AD]
(WSJ, 11/14/95, p. A-12)

1259-1294 The great Kublai Khan, a grandson of Genghis, reigned.

1260 Mar 1, Hulagu Khan, grandson of Genghis, conquered Damascus.
(SC, 3/1/02)

1260 Sep 3, Mamelukes under Sultan Qutuz defeated Mongols and Crusaders at Ain Jalut.
(HN, 9/3/98)

1260 Sep 4, At the Battle of Montaperto in Italy, the Tuscan Ghibellines, who supported the emperor, defeated the Florentine Guelfs, who supported papal power.
(HN, 9/4/98)

1260 Oct 24, Saif ad-Din Qutuz (aka Koetoez), Turkish sultan of Egypt, was murdered.

1260 The people of western Lithuania (Zemaiciai) attacked the German Order of the Cross at a battle near Durbe Lake. This forced Mindaugas to turn against the Germans but he was not able to gain the full trust of the western Lithuanians.
(H of L, 1931, p.32)(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1260-1274 A large scale Prussian uprising took place against the Knights of the Cross.
(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1260-1294 The Mongol Empire under Kublai Khan reached its height.
(ATC, p.160)

1260-1348 Siena flourished as a univ. town and center for banking, trading, and art.
(SFEC, 6/29/97, p.T11)

1260-1368 The Yuan Dynasty ruled in China. The Yuan Dynasty was founded by Kublai Khan.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)(SFC, 6/25/98, p.A8)
1260-1368 In China musical productions known as Zaju became popular during the Yuan Dynasty. Zaju, an early form of opera, combined music, dance, song and speech into 4-act dramas with complex plots and characters.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1260-1390 Carbon-14 dating techniques in 1988 determined that the cloth of the Shroud of Turin dated to this period. E.T. Hall (d.2001 at 77) of Oxford Univ. led the testing, which was later held in question. In 1978 Walter C. McCrone (d.2002), chemical analyst, determined that the image was painted on the cloth some 1300 years after the crucifixion of Christ.
(SFEC, 2/1/98, p.A24)(SFC, 8/22/01, p.D2)(SFC, 7/29/02, p.B5)(www.tqnyc.org/NYC063363/)

1260-1555 In 2004 Diana Norman covered this period in her book: “Painting in the Late Medieval and Renaissance Siena.”
(Econ, 1/17/04, p.75)

1261 Feb 3, Samogitian fighters defeated the Livonian Knights of the Cross at Lielvarde.
(LHC, 2/3/03)

1261 May 25, Alexander IV [Rinaldo dei conti di Segni], Pope (1254-61), died.
(SC, 5/25/02)

1261 Aug 15, Constantinople fell to Michael VIII of Nicea and his army.
(HN, 8/15/98)

1261 Oct 9, Dionysius, the Justified, king of Portugal (1279-1325), was born.
(MC, 10/9/01)

1261 A great quarrel arose between king Alau, lord of the Tartars of the East, and Berca, king of the Tartars of the West based on a border dispute. A great battle was waged in which Alau was the victor.
(TMPV, pp. 336-340)

1262 Greenland formally came under the Norwegian crown.
1262 After a long and bloody conflict between the various families and clans, the Icelanders accepted the rule of the Norwegian kingdom.
(DrEE, 1/4/97, p.4)

1263 Feb 9, A Lithuania army under Treniota defeated the Livonian Knights of the Cross.
(LHC, 2/9/03)

1263 Aug 19, King James I of Aragon censored Hebrew writing.
(MC, 8/19/02)

1263 Oct 2, At Largs, King Alexander III of Scotland repelled an amphibious invasion by King Haakon IV of Norway.
(HN, 10/2/98)

1263 Nov 14, Alexander Nevski (43), Russian ruler (1252-63), died.
(MC, 11/14/01)

1263 In Lithuania King Mindaugas was assassinated along with his 2 sons by Duke Treniota.
(H of L, 1931, p.32)(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1263 In a Spanish court Rabbi Moses ben Nachman defended the legitimacy of Judaism against Pablo Christiani, a converted Jew, who argued for Christianity. The trial was set up by King James I of Aragon to please the pope. In 1982 Hyam Maccoby wrote “Judaism on Trial” and turned in into a play, “The Disputation” in 1999.
(WSJ, 3/23/99, p.A20)

1263-1264 In Lithuania Treniota served as Grand Duke.
(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1264 May 14, The Baron’s War was fought in England. King Henry III was captured by his brother in law Earl of Leicester Simon de Montfort at the Battle of Lewes in England.
(HN, 5/14/99)(PC, 1992, p.113)

1264 Aug 5, Anti-Jewish riots broke out in Arnstadt, Germany.
(MC, 8/5/02)

c1264 Vincent of Beauvais and the Speculum Maius: the compiling and adapting techniques of a thirteenth-century Dominican.

1264 Kublai Khan, grandson of Genghis Khan, moved his capital from Karakorum to what later became Beijing. Karakorum was all but abandoned and eventually destroyed by Manchurian invaders over the next century.
(SSFC, 3/27/05, p.F4)

1264 According to Marco Polo, Kublai Khan in this year sent a large body of troops to attack Japan, then known as the island of Zipangu. The two officers in charge, named Abbacatan and Vonsancin, failed to cooperate and the adventure failed.
(TMPV, P.255)

1264-1267 In Lithuania Vaisalgas (Vaiselga) served as Grand Duke.
(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1265 Jan 20, The 1st English Parliament was called into session by Earl of Leicester.
(MC, 1/20/02)

1265 Jan 23, The 1st English Parliament formally convened.
(MC, 1/23/02)

1265 May 9, Dante Alighieri, Italian poet (Divine Comedy), was born.
(WUD, 1994 p.367)(MC, 5/9/02)

1265 The coastal settlement of Caesarea (Palestine) was razed to the ground.
(Econ, 4/24/04, p.83)

1265-1308 Duns Scotus, the Franciscan “subtle doctor.” He stated that God is absolutely free, and absolute freedom means being free of reason’s necessity, as well as of all else. This was in opposition to Aquinas’ statement that what is logically necessary must necessarily be so.

1265-1321 Dante Alighieri, author of the Divine Comedy. His original surname was Durante. He died on Sept. 14.
(V.D.-H.K.p.124)(AHD, 1971, p.335)

1266 Feb 26, Charles d’Anjou, king of the two Sicilies, defeated Manfred (33), in the Battle of Benevento. Manfred, the bastard son of Emperor Frederik II, king of Sicily, was killed.
(PCh, 1992, p.114)(SC, 2/26/02)

1266 St. Thomas Aquinas penned his “Summa Theologica,” in which he attempted to reconcile theology with economic conditions. He argued that reason could operate within faith.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)(WSJ, 6/22/99, p.A22)

1266 King Kaidu of Great Turkey, a nephew of the grand khan, rebelled against the grand Kahn and numerous battles were fought. Kaidu eventually withdrew to Samarkand. Kaidu is also said to have had a very strong and valiant daughter, Aigiarm, who declared not to marry until she met a man who could conquer her by force.
(TMPV, pp. 317-323)

1267 Feb 9, Synod of Breslau ordered Jews of Silesia to wear special caps.
(MC, 2/9/02)

1267 May 10, Vienna’s Catholic church ordered all Jews to wear distinctive garb.
(MC, 5/10/02)

1267 Jul 26, The Inquisition formed in Rome under Pope Clement IV.
(MC, 7/26/02)

1267 Sep 1, Ramban (Nachmanides) arrived in Jerusalem to establish a Jewish community.
(SC, 9/1/02)

1267 Nov 26, Gozzolini Silvester, Italian hermit and Saint, died.
(MC, 11/26/01)

1267 Giotto (d.1337), Italian painter, was born about this time.
(V.D.-H.K.p.128)(WSJ, 11/113/00, p.A24)(www.mediacult.com/art/giotto/chrono.html)

1267-1269 In Lithuania Shvarno served as Grand Duke.
(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1268 Jan 21, Pope Clement IV gave permission to Poland’s King Premislus II to take over Lithuania and establish Catholicism.
(LHC, 1/18/03)

1268 Oct 19, Konradin von Hohenstaufen, duke of Zwaben, was beheaded. [see Oct 20]
(MC, 10/19/01)

1268 Oct 20, Konradijn Hohenstaufen, son of Koenraad IV, was beheaded in Naples. [see Oct 19]
(MC, 10/20/01)

1268 According to Marco Polo, Kublai Khan in this year sent a large force of infantry and cavalry to conquer the country named Ziamba, (Viet-Nam). His forces were under the leadership of general Sogatu. The king of Ziamba, Accambale, was advanced in years but resisted from his strongholds. The Tartars laid waste to the open country and then accepted to withdraw in return for a yearly tribute of elephants and sweet-scented wood.
(TMPV, P.260)

1269 Apr, The Polo brothers arrived at Acre.
(TMPV, P.10)

1269 Jun 19, King Louis IX of France decreed all Jews must wear a badge of shame.
(MC, 6/19/02)

1269 The capital of Morocco was moved north to Fez after the Almohad dynasty fell.
(SFEC, 7/25/99, p.T11)

1269 Nicolo Polo returned to Venice from Asia and his visit with Kublai Khan at Shang-tu, Coleridge’s Xanadu. He carried letters from the Khan asking that the pope provide 100 intelligent men, “acquainted with the seven arts.” Pope Clement IV had recently died and Nicolo waited for a successor.

1269 The Prince Facfur ruled the province of Manji in a peaceful and prosperous manner. He maintained at his court a thousand beautiful women, in whose society he took delight.
(TMPV, P.10)

1269-1281 In Lithuania Traidenis served as Grand Duke.
(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1269-1271 The Polo brothers waited two years in Venice for a new pope and then departed for Acre and then to Jerusalem with the young Marco Polo. The Polos continue their journey and reach Armenia. The legate of Jerusalem was elected Pope and assumed the name Gregory X.
(TMPV, P.12)

1269-1354 Huang Kung-Wang, Chinese artist. He painted the 20-foot-long hand-scroll “Dwelling in the Fu-Ch’un Mountains.” The work is part of the traveling exhibit from the National Palace Museum, Taipei in 1995.
(WSJ, 12/29/95, p.A-11)

1270 Feb 16, In the Karusa Ice war in Estonia, Lithuanian forces defeated the Livonian Knights of the Cross.
(LHC, 2/16/03)

1270 Aug 25, King Louis IX (56), King of France (1226-70), died on The Eighth Crusade, which was decimated by the Plague.
(PCh, 1992, p.114)(V.D.-H.K.p.110)(MC, 8/25/02)

1270 Oct 30, The seventh crusade was ended by the treaty of Barbary.
(HN, 10/30/98)

1270 Mongol hordes sacked Babylon and ended 1,500 years of rule over Eastern Jewry by the high Mesopotamian priest known as the Exxilarch.
(WSJ, 6/30/03, p.A1)

1271 Aug, Jacob d’Ancona, an Italian-Jewish trader, arrived at the harbor of Zaitun in southeast China, 4-years before Marco Polo arrived. He wrote a manuscript that surfaced in 1997, translated by David Selbourne, a British scholar. Jacob described printing with movable wooden type, paper money, free daily newspapers, mass-circulation booklets, use of gunpowder, the practice of foot-binding, and tea-drinking. He also noted a lot of pornography and a liberated female sexuality. He described a foreign community with some 2,000 Jews and a great number of Muslims as well as Africans and Europeans and the oncoming threat of a Mongol invasion. The book was titled “The City of Light” and covered Jacob’s travels from 1270-1273 through China, Syria, the Persian Gulf and India.
(SFEC, 9/21/97, p.A23)(SFC, 10/1/97, p.A12)

1271 Sep 17, Wenceslas II, king of Bohemia & Poland (1278-1305), was born.

1271 Nov 16, Henry III (b.1207), king of England (1216-71), died.

1271 Nicolo and Marco Polo obtained letters from the papal legate in Palestine, who was soon elected as Gregory X. The Khan’s request for 100 intelligent men could not be filled and the Polos departed Acre with two friars who soon turned back. The Polos continued on their own.

1271 The Polos were called back to Acre where the new Pope assigned two friars, Fra Nicolo da Vicenza and Fra Guielmo da Tripoli, to accompany them to visit the grand khan. They reached Armenia and heard that the soldan of Babylonia, named Bundokdari, had invaded Armenian territory. The friars feared for their lives and returned home.
(TMPV, P.12)

1271-1274 The Polos spent three and a half years traveling to the residence of the grand khan at Cle-men-fu. The grand khan was pleased with Marco Polo and employed him for the next seventeen years as a personal representative of the khan in state matters.
(TMPV, P.12)

1271-1368 “The Yuan Dynasty” by James Cahill is the 2nd section of Wu Hung’s 1997 “The Origins of Chinese Painting.” The period is marked by the emergence of the literati-amateur movement.
(WSJ, 1/2/98, p.6)

1272 Feb 24, Jacob, an Italian-Jewish trader, departed in haste from Zaitun, China. [see 1271]
(SFEC, 9/21/97, p.A23)

1272 Apr 17, Zita (Cita), Italian maid, saint, died at about age 59.
(MC, 4/17/02)

1272 Nov 21, Edward I was proclaimed King of England.

1272 Kublai-khan sent an army to the countries of Vochang and Karazan. The King of Mien and Bangala, in India, opposed the advance of the Tartars and a major battle was fought, wherein the Tartars were victorious.
(TMPV, P.192)(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)

1272 Forces of the King of Naples occupied Durrës and established the Kingdom of Arbëria, the first Albanian kingdom since the fall of Illyria.
(www, Albania, 1998)

1273 Oct 1, Rudolf of Hapsburg was elected emperor in Germany.
(HN, 10/1/98)

1273 Marco Polo crossed Afghan Turkistan.

1273 Kublai-khan assigned his general, Chin-san Bay-an, the “Hundred-eyed,” to invade the province of Manji under Prince Facfur. Facfur fled under attack and his queen was sent to Kublai-khan, who supported her in dignity.
(TMPV, P.211)

1273-1291 Rudolf I, King of Germany and emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. He founded the Hapsburg dynasty.
(WUD, 1994, p.1251)

1274 Mar 7, Thomas Aquinas (48), Italian theologian, saint, died.
(MC, 3/7/02)

1274 May 7, The Second Council of Lyons opened in France to regulate the election of the pope.
(HN, 5/7/99)

1274 Jul 11, Robert the Bruce, King of Scotland (1306-1329), was born in Turnberry, Scotland.
(HN, 7/11/01)(MC, 7/11/02)

1274 Upon Edward‘s succession to the English throne, he demanded Llywelyn ap Gruffydd pay homage to him before he recognized him as Prince of Wales.
(HNQ, 7/14/00)

1274 Thomas Aquinas was summoned before a council at Lyons to answer for his opinions. He was publicly chastised but not condemned.

1274 The first Mongol invasion of Japan. [see 1264]
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)

1274 Lal Shahbaz Qalandar (b.1177), born as Seyyed Shah Hussain Marandi in Marand (near the city of Tabriz) in Azerbaijan (then part of Iran), died. He had migrated to Sindh and settled in Sehwan and was buried there. He is also known as Shaikh Hussain Marandi. He was a Sufi in the regions that lie in the Sindh province of Pakistan.

c1274 Nadruva, Prussia, was the home of the pagan spiritual leader Krivis, who was dear to the Baltic people.
(H of L, 1931, p.25)(TB-Com, 10/11/00)(Petras Dusburgietis. Prusijos zemes kronika. Vilnius, 1985, p. 87)

1274-1277 The Knights of the Cross overcame the Prussian towns of Nadruva and Skalva.
(Petras Dusburgietis. Prusijos zemes kronika (Chronicle of the Prussian Lands). Vilnius, 1985, p. 189-196)

1275 May 23, King Edward I of England ordered a cessation to the persecution of French Jews.
(MC, 5/23/02)

1275 In England there was an earthquake at Glastonbury.
(Local Inscription, 2000)

1275-1292 Marco Polo left Italy for China. He lived there during the reign of Kubla Khan and learned about pasta, sherbet, and paper currency. During this time Marco Polo visited Hangzhou, called Kinsay in his writings, and described it as the finest and noblest city in the world.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)(SSFC, 5/7/17, p.F4)

1275-1325 The Henderson Site in New Mexico, USA, was occupied by about a 100 people in a village with about 50 large rooms. The Indians occupying the site were in between the Plains hunters and the Pueblo farmers and showed evidence of both cultures. They grew corn and regularly ate dog. After the corn harvest they abandoned their village each year to hunt bison. The site is being excavated by a team from the Univ. of Mich.
(MT, 12/94, p.2-3)

1276 Nov, Edward decided to force Llywelyn ap Gruffydd into submission in November of 1276. Edward was aided by Llywelyn‘s brother Daffydd ap Gruffydd and Prince Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn of Powys—both of whom Llywelyn had expelled for plotting his assassination.
(HNQ, 7/14/00)

1276 A 25-year drought began in the Four Corner region.
(HN, 2/11/97)(AM, 9/01, p.44)

1276-1299 Tree growth rings revealed that another drought occurred in the southwest US. This period corresponded with the abandonment of Anasazi dwelling sites in Arizona.
(Hem., 5/97, p.79)

1277 King Edward of England invaded Wales. Edward was aided by Llywelyn ap Gruffydd’s brother Daffydd ap Gruffydd and Prince Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn of Powys—both of whom Llywelyn had expelled for plotting his assassination.
(HN, 2/17/99)(HNQ, 7/14/00)

c1277 Invaders from central Asia conquered China.
(ATC, p.73)

1278 May 10, Jews of England were imprisoned on charges of coining. [see Nov 17]
(MC, 5/10/02)

1278 Nov 17, In England 680 Jews were arrested for counterfeiting coins. 293 were hanged. [see May 10]
(MC, 11/17/01)

1278 Work resumed on the Leaning Tower of Pisa, whose tilt had shifted from north to south. By 1995 it was 5.5 degrees off plumb.
(SSFC, 10/19/03, p.C3)

1278 Nestorian Christians under the governor, Mar-sachis, appointed by the grand-khan for three years, built three Nestorian Churches in the city of Chan-ghian-fu, in the province of Manji.
(TMPV, P.220)

1278 The co-principality of Andorra was created after long-running ownership disputes between the Bishops of Seu and the Counts of Foix. They agreed to recognize each other as co-princes of Andorra.
(Hem., 3/97, p.74)

1278 In Wales Carreg Cennen, a castle on a hilltop above Trapp, fell to English hands.
(SFEC, 5/10/98, p.T4)

1278-1477 In 2004 Tim Hyman covered this period in his book: “Sienese Painting: “The Art of a City-Republic.”
(Econ, 1/17/04, p.75)

1279 Mar 5, Lithuanians overcame Livonian forces at Aizkraukle.
(LHC, 3/5/03)

1279 In Germany the castle across the Rhine from Assmannshausen was first mentioned. It was restored by architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel in the 19th century and named Rheinstein.
(SFEC, 3/15/98, p.T4)

1279-1368 The Yuan, or Mongol, dynasty in China (1279-1368) was established by the great Kublai Khan (reigned 1259-94), a grandson of Genghis.

1280 Nov 15, Albertus Magnus (87), German leader and bishop Regensburg, died.
(MC, 11/15/01)

1280 By this time the Anasazi Indian culture of the American southwest, 15 to 20 thousand people, disappeared from the Four Corners region. All the Anasazi were gone from Mesa Verde. They probably moved south and broke up into present-day Pueblo tribes. Anasazi means enemy ancestors in Navajo. In 2017 DNA evidence revealed that the cliff-dwelling people had raised turkeys and migrated with them to the Rio Grande valley of northern New Mexico during a devastating drought.
(SFC, 5/19/96, T-1)(HN, 2/11/97)(AM, 9/01, p.44)(SFC, 3/17/17, p.A8)

1280 Liu Guandao, court painter, depicted the Mongol ruler Kubilai Khan hunting on a sandy, windswept landscape.
(SFEC, 10/6/96, DB p.37)

1280 Marco Polo visited the country of Ziamba (Viet-Nam). He noted that the king had 326 children, and that it was the custom for all young women to be proved by the king before being given in marriage. Marco noted the bounty of elephants, lignum-aloes, and black ebony.
(TMPV, P.261)

1280 St. Julien-le-Pauvre was built in Paris. It became a barn during the French revolution and is now a Greek Orthodox church.
(SFC, 9/1/96, T8)

1280 German merchants formed the Hanseatic League to facilitate trade.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)
1280 In Germany a spinning wheel invented in China was demonstrated in Speyer.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1280 About this time someone near Pisa, Italy, riveted 2 small magnifying lenses to form the 1st optical device that could be worn on the bridge of the nose.
(WSJ, 4/6/06, p.A12)(www.antiquespectacles.com)

1280 In the Netherlands Muiden Castle, 10 miles east of Amsterdam, dates to this time.
(SFEC, 1/31/99, p.T13)

1280-1354 Wu Chen, Chinese painter and master of calligraphy. He also mastered the play of void and presence at the heart of Chinese ink painting.
(SFC, 10/14/96, p.B3)

1281 Aug 14, During the second Mongol attempt to conquer Japan, Kublai Khan’s invading fleet disappeared in typhoon off of Japan. A Mongol army of 45,000 from Korea had joined an armada with 120,000 men from southern China landing at Hakozaki Bay. The typhoon destroyed their fleet leaving them to death or slavery.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)(EWH, 4th ed., p.369)(MC, 8/14/02)

1281 Osman I came to power at the age of 23 and began a steady campaign against the Byzantines until his death in 1324. He managed to capture many Byzantine fortresses, most notably Bursa, consolidating Ottoman power in the region. Generally regarded as the founder of the Ottoman Turkish state, Osman I (also known as Osman Gazi) led ongoing campaigns against the Byzantines in the 13th and early 14th centuries AD. Part of the migration of Turkic tribes into Anatolia, Osman was the son of Ertugrul, who had established a principality in present-day Sögüt, Turkey.
(HNQ, 2/19/01)

1281-1285 In Lithuania Daumantas served as Grand Duke.
(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1282 Mar 30, Furious inhabitants of Palermo attacked French occupation force in the “Sicilian Vespers.” The Mafia appeared in Sicily to revolt against French rule after a drunken soldier attacked a young woman on her wedding day.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(MC, 3/30/02)

1282 Mar 31, The great massacre of the French in Sicily, “The Sicilian Vespers,” came to an end. [see Aug 31,1303]
(HN, 3/31/99)

1282 Apr 28, Villagers in Palermo led a revolt against French rule in Sicily.
(HN, 4/28/98)

1282 Dec 11, Llywelyn ap Gruffydd (b.~1223), the last prince of an independent Wales, died after he was lured into a trap and killed at the Battle of Orewin Bridge by forces under Edward I.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Llywelyn_the_Last)(Econ, 11/24/12, p.63)

1282 Andronicus II Papaeologus became ruler over Byzantium. [see 330AD]
(WSJ, 11/14/95, p. A-12)

1283 In Germany the Marksburg Castle was built by the Katzenelbogans to defend the silver and lead mines of Braubach.
(SFEC, 3/15/98, p.T5)

1283-1289 Conwy Castle was built by Edward I during his conquest of Wales. It was constructed as part of a wider project to create the walled town of Conwy.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conwy_Castle)(SSFC, 1/27/13, p.N6)

1284 Apr 25, Edward II, king of England (1307-1327), was born.

1284 Jun 26, The Pied Piper lured away 130 children of Hamelin (Hameln, Germany). Robert Browning used this event for his poem “The Pied Piper of Hamelin” (1842).
(MC, 6/26/02)

1284 In England the eldest son of Edward I became the Prince of Wales.
(SFC, 7/23/97, p.A10)

1285 Mar 24, Lithuanian Grand Duke Daumantas (1281-1285) died.
(LHC, 3/24/03)

1285 May 10, Philip IV (Fair) succeeded Philip III as King of Spain.
(HN, 5/10/99)

1285 Oct 5, Philippe III, the Stout, King of France (1270-85), died.
(MC, 10/5/01)

1285 Oct 12, 180 Jews refused baptism in Munich, Germany, and were set on fire.
(MC, 10/12/01)

1286 Nov 22, Erik V Klipping (b.1249), king of Denmark, was murdered.

1286 Emperor Rudolph I abrogated the political freedom of Jews and imposed on them special taxes. Rabbi Meir Ben Baruch (aka Maharam), head of the Jewish community in Rothenburg, tried to lead group of Jews to Palestine but was arrested and confined in an Alsatian fortress. He refused to be freed for ransom and died in prison. The Jews of Rothenburg were then re-expelled to a ghetto beyond the city walls.
(NH, 9/96, p.24)

1286 Tartar Chief Nayan, kinsman of Kublai, attempted to gain independence from the grand-khan, and a war ensued.
(TMPV, P.108)

1286 Arghun, son of Abaga – lord of the east, engaged and defeated the army of Kaidu under Kaidu’s brother, Barac, in the plain of the Arbor Secco by the river Ion. Abaga died shortly after and Arghun was force to fight his uncle, the Acomat Soldan, who claimed succession. Arghun was initially defeated and captured, but escaped with the help of the Tartar baron Boga. They gathered forces and slew the melik Soldan, who was in charge of Acomat’s army. Later Acomat was captured and slain.
(TMPV, pp.325-334)

1287 Dec 14, The Zuider Zee seawall collapsed with the loss of 50,000 lives.
(MC, 12/14/01)

1287 China’s government issued IOUs with a face value of a fixed number of silver coins.
(Econ., 4/25/15, p.70)
1287 The forces of Kublai Khan overran Burma. The royal city of Bagan was abandoned under threat from Kublai Khan in the 13th century. The brick temple of Ananda Pahto is in Bagan. More than 4,400 pagodas and 3,000 other religious structures of bricks and stones were built in Bagan, Myanmar’s former capital, during a 243-year period from the 11th to 13th centuries, the result of extraordinary Buddhist fervor.
(SFEC, 10/22/00, p.T9)(DC, 10/10/98)(AP, 12/1/03)

1288 Feb 29, Scotland made it legal for women to propose to men. The Scottish Parliament passed a Leap Year Act whereby women could propose to men. The tradition had begun in 5th century Ireland.
(SFEC, 6/8/97, Z1 p.6)(SFC, 2/29/00, p.A1)

1288 Apr 24, Jews of Yroyes France were accused of ritual murder.
(MC, 4/24/02)

1288 Sep 29, Maud de Brabant (b.1224) died in Belgium.

1288 Kublai Khan was described by Marco Polo as being 85 years old and having reigned for 42 years. This would put his rule to begin in 1246.
(TMPV, P.108)

1288 Marco Polo related that the Christian King of Abascia (or Abyssinia) in Middle India decided to make a pilgrimage to Jerusalem but was dissuaded by his advisors. In his place he sent a bishop, who upon returning through Aden was picked up by the soldan of Aden and urged to become a Mohametan. The bishop refused and was forcefully circumcised. This later led to a war in which the Abyssinian king took the city of Aden and gave it up to pillage.
(TMPV, P.255)

1288 In Sweden a charter recognized the sale of a stake in the Stora Kopparberg copper mine to Bishop Petrus of Vasteras for his parish. In the 1970’s Stora sold its mining operations to focus on forest products and power. In 1998 it merged to become Stora Enso, a paper-packaging and timber firm.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(Econ, 12/18/04, p.105)

1289 Apr 29, Qala’un, the Sultan of Egypt, captured Tripoli.
(HN, 4/29/98)

1289 Oct 4, Louis X, the Stubborn, king of France (1314-16), was born.
(MC, 10/4/01)

1289 Eyeglasses were first recorded in Florence by a man named di Popozo.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R21)

1290 Jul 12, Jews were expelled from England by order of King Edward I.
(MC, 7/12/02)

1290 Aug 16, Charles of Valois married Margaret of Anjou.
(MC, 8/16/02)

1290 Oct 9, Last of 16,000 English Jews, expelled by King Edward I, left. The country was on the verge of bankruptcy. The debt to Jewish bankers was written off and all Jews were expelled from England. The Medicis and other northern Italian bankers were invited as a replacement.
(SFEC, 6/22/97, BR p.3)(MC, 10/9/01)

1290 William of Ockham (d.1349), English Franciscan scholastic philosopher, was born. He became known for the maxim called Occam’s Razor (Ockham’s razor): “Entia non sunt multiplicanda praeter necessitatem.” (Entries should not be multiplied unnecessarily). A modern version of this principle of logic might be: “The simpler, the better.” [see 1349]
(V.D.-H.K.p.123)(WUD, 1994 p.996)(AP, 2/4/99)

1290 The Ottoman Empire began.
(SSFC, 10/14/01, p.A3)

c1290-1361 Philippe de Vitry, French music theorist, composer and poet.
(WUD, 1994, p.1598)(SFC, 2/15/99, p.E7)

1291 Feb 8, Afonso IV, King of Portugal (1325-57), was born.
(MC, 2/8/02)

1291 Mar 5, Sa’ad al’Da’ulah, Jewish grand vizier of Persia, was assassinated.
(MC, 3/5/02)

1291 May 10, Scottish nobles grudgingly recognized the authority of English king Edward I.
(MC, 5/10/02)

1291 May 18, Acre, the last major stronghold of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, fell to the hands of Al-Ashraf Khalil and his forces from Egypt and Syria after a siege of 43 days. It had been in the hands of the Franks for 100 years. Egyptian Mamelukes (Mamluks) occupied Akko (Acre). The crusaders were driven out of Palestine. Khalil, al-Ashraf Salah ad-Din, the Mamluk King, conquered Akko and put an end to the Crusader’s rule in the Holy Land.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Acre_%281291%29)(Arch, 7/02, p.19)

1291 Aug 1, The Everlasting League formed and became the basis of Swiss Confederation. The people of the 3 small cantons (Uri, Schwyz and Unterwalden) formed a co-operative pact called the Bundesbrief following the death of Habsburg Emp. Rudolf I.
(Econ, 2/14/04, Survey p.6)

1291 The Catholic Franciscan order arrived in Bosnia.
(SFC, 4/15/97, p.A10)

1291 A law made by the Doge ordered that all glass furnaces be moved from Venice to Murano.

1291-1295 In Lithuania Butvydas served as Grand Duke.
(TB-Com, 10/11/00)
1291-1340 In Sweden a Gothic-style cathedral was built in the heart of Strangnas.
(AP, 8/1/18)

1292 Dec 9, Sa’di, great Persian poet (Orchard, Rose Garden), died.
(MC, 12/9/01)

1292 The Polos began their return journey to Europe. They accompanied a Mongol princess who was to marry Arghun Khan, ruler of Persia. The Polos arrived at the island of Java and then sailed for eighteen months in the Indian Seas to reach king Arghun. They learned that Arghun’s kingdom was being administered by Ki-akato, and that the Mongol princess should be delivered to Kasan, son of Arghun, then on the borders of Persia at the arbor secco.
(V.D.-H.K.p.171)(TMPV, P.12)

c1292 A “No Loitering” sign was engraved on rock at an ancient cemetery near Mill River, Mass., in the Phoenician language called Iberian Punic some 200 years before Columbus made his 1492 trip.
(SFC, 10/17/98, p.E5)

1293 The Polos arrived in Persia and found that Arghun Khan had died. His son Mahmud Ghazan now ruled Persia and married the princess. The Polos soon reached Trebizond on the southern coast of the Black Sea and were welcomed by a band of robbers who stripped them of most of their riches. Years later (1298) Marco Polo published in Venice “Il Milione,” The Travels of Marco Polo.
(V.D.-H.K.p.171)(WSJ, 9/4/98, p.W12)

1294 Feb 12, Kublai Khan, the conqueror of Asia, died at the age of 80.
(HN, 2/12/99)

1294 May 3, Jan I, duke of Brabant, Limburg, poet, died.
(MC, 5/3/02)

1294 Jun 30, Jews were expelled from Bern, Switzerland.
(MC, 6/30/02)

1294 Jul 5, Pietro di Murrone, a pious hermit, was elected as Pope Celestine V. He was so besieged by the political, social and religious challenges of the position that just five months later, on December 13, he became the first pope to resign, for which he was imprisoned by his successor, Boniface VIII. He died in the castle of Fumone, May 19, 1296.
(SFEC, 10/22/00, p.A20)(www.newadvent.org/cathen/03479b.htm)

1294 Historical records first mentioned the German town of Atterwasch. German plans to eliminate nuclear power by 2022 led to xxpansion of lignite coal mining in the region and called for the removal of Atterwasch and two nearby towns by 2025.
(SSFC, 11/30/14, p.A22)

1294 When Arghun died by probable poisoning after six years of rule, he was succeeded by his uncle, Ki-akato, who was able to seize power because the son of Arghun, Kasan, was far away. After two years Ki-akato was poisoned and his uncle, Baidu, a Christian, seized power. Kasan then assembled an army and marched against Baidu. Kasan was victorious and gained control over the Eastern Tartars.
(TMPV, pp. 334-336)

1294 The Great Geysir was discovered in Iceland and gave rise to the community named Geysir. Geyser became the generic name for all water spouts.
(SSFC, 7/17/05, p.D6)

1294 The Polos received news of the death of Kublai, the grand khan.
(TMPV, P.19)
1294 In Bologna two-thirds of the citizens were listed as guild members or their relatives.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1295 Marco Polo narrated his travels to master Rustigielo, a citizen of Pisa, from a prison in Genoa.
(TMPV, P.4)

1295 Jacobellus Barovier, founder of a glass-making family, was born. His sons, Antonio and Bartolomeo in 1348 registered as “fioliare” (glassmakers) in Murano, across the lagoon from Venice, Italy. The Barovier firm merged with the Murano-based Toso firm in the 1930s.
(www.henokiens.com/index_barovier_gb.php)(www.artglas.org/html/body_barovier.html)(Econ, 11/24/07, p.73)

1295 Vytenis began to rule over Lithuania. In response to German castle construction along the shores of the Nemunas River, Vytenis began constructing castles of wood in addition to those at: Junigeda, Bisena, Kolainis, Medvegalis, and Putenikis. He also reorganized the army and ruled to 1316.
(H of L, 1931, p.32)(Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 41)(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1295 Trieste became a Free Imperial City.

1296 Apr 27, England’s King Edward I defeated the Scots at the Battle of Dunbar. He deposed King John and exiled him to France.
(HN, 4/27/99)

1296 May 19, Pietro di Murrone, former Pope Celestine V, died in the castle of Fumone, where he was imprisoned by his successor, Boniface VIII.
(SFEC, 10/22/00, p.A20)(www.newadvent.org/cathen/03479b.htm)

1296 Aug 10, John the Blind, King of Bohemia, Count of Luxembourg, was born.
(MC, 8/10/02)

1296 England’s King Edward I invaded Scotland but his army was defeated by Scotsman William Wallace. After a series of battles England regains some control over Scotland.
(Reuters, 2/16/12)
1296 King Edward I of England stole the 458-pound Stone at Scone from Scotland. It was returned to Scotland in 1996.
(SFC, 11/16/96, p.A11)

1297 Jan 7, Francois Grimaldi (Francois the Crafty) of Genoa disguised himself as a monk and appeared at the fortress on the Rock of Monaco. Once inside he called his reinforcements and seized the place.
(SFC, 1/8/97, p.C1)(Econ, 12/24/05, p.84)

1297 Sep 11, Scots under William Wallace “Braveheart” defeated the English army at Stirling Bridge, Scotland. The 1995 epic film Braveheart dramatized the life of 13th-century Scot William Wallace. While many Scots and others praised the film for reviving the legend of the Scottish hero, just as many people criticized the film for its numerous historical inaccuracies. For instance, the Battle of Stirling Bridge is an excellent example of Wallace’s military genius and what led him to being knighted in the film and real life. However, in the film, the battle takes place on an open field. (Reportedly, when a local asked actor/director Mel Gibson why the battle was being filmed with such an obvious discrepancy, Gibson explained that the bridge got in the way. The local responded, “Aye. That’s what the English found!”) In addition, one of the film’s most intriguing twists is pure Hollywood invention. A calendar puts the lie to the tale of Wallace’s affair with Princess Isabella, wife of Prince Edward II, and his fathering of her child. Isabella and Edward II married in 1307, two years after Wallace’s execution. Her son, Edward III, was born in the years that followed.
(WSJ, 9/9/97, p.A1)(HN, 9/11/98)(HNQ, 3/19/01)
1297 Sep 11, Hugh de Cressingham, English treasurer, died in battle.
(MC, 9/11/01)

1297 Sep 12, The town of Olivenza (Olivença) came under Portuguese sovereignty with the Treaty of Alcanices. In 1801 it was ceded to Spain under the Treaty of Badajoz. In the 1815 Vienna convention Spain agreed to return it to Portugal, but this never happened.
(Econ, 8/31/13, p.14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olivenza)

c1297 In Hawaii a temple was built near the Kilauea Volcano that is believed to have been used for human sacrifice. The Waha’ula Heiau temple near Volcanoes National Park was one of the first temples built on the islands, supposedly by a foreigner, who brought brutal religious rituals to the islands.
(SFC, 8/12/97, p.A3)(SFEC, 9/7/97, p.T8)

1297 The people of Riga rose against the Teutonic Knights. The local Bishop asked Vytenis to help and the Knights were pushed back. This opened a northern trade route for Vytenis for weapons and supplies.
(Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 50)

1298 Mar 30, Duke Vytenis joined with Riga and its archbishop against the Livonian order.
(LHC, 3/30/03)

1298 Jun 24, Rindfleish Persecutions: Jews of Ifhauben, Austria, were massacred.
(MC, 6/24/02)

1298 Jul 2, An army under Albert of Austria defeated and killed Adolf of Nassua near Worms, Germany.
(HN, 7/2/98)

1298 Jul 22, King Edward I combined bowmen and cavalry to defeat William Wallace’s Scots at Falkirk.
(HN, 7/22/98)

1298 Jul 23, Jews were massacred at Wurzburg, Germany.
(MC, 7/23/02)

1298 Oct 19, Rindfleish: 140 Jews of Heilbron Germany were murdered.
(MC, 10/19/01)

1298 Tamerlane plundered Delhi, India.
(SFEC, 5/21/00, p.T8)

1298 The “Travels of Marco Polo” was published.
(WSJ, 9/4/98, p.W12)

1299 The Count of Holland gained control of the County of Zeeland, which had been under contention between Holland and Flanders.



Timeline of The Fourteenth Century 1300-1399

1300 Jan 1, A Jubilee Year, the symbolic moment for Dante’s Divine Comedy. It marked the end of the Middle Ages and the beginning of the Renaissance. Pope Boniface VIII had issued a Papal Bull that declared a Rome Holy Year, “Giubileo.” The event was such a success that papal gendarmes had to execute several dozen people to bring the crowds under control. Pope Bonifacius VIII introduced Jubilee indulgences.
(V.D.-H.K.p.123)(WSJ, 4/2/97, p.A12)(WSJ, 1/13/00, p.A1)

c1300 The 18-acre Hatalacva Pueblo in Arizona contains the rare Tuzigoot Phase Southern Sinagua pueblo of this time.
(AM, adv. circular, p.2)

c1300 The Panum Crater at Mono Lake, Ca., erupted about this time.
(SFEC, 5/31/98, p.T4)

1300 The Arapaho and Cheyenne Indian Nations settled the Colorado area about this time.
(Time, 1990s Almanac CD)

c1300 Women’s corsets were first developed about this time. See the discussion by Marilyn Yalom in her 1997 book: “History of the Breast.”
(SFEC, 2/9/97, z1 p.3)

c1300 The Mississippian people, the largest pre-Columbian culture north of Mexico, built the earthen city of Cahokia about this time. The site, discovered in southwestern Illinois, probably served as a religious center and may have had a population of up to 80,000. The Mississippians arose around 800 AD and remained a powerful influence until about the time of the first European explorers. The loose-knit theocracy held sway over much of present-day Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Missouri, Ohio and, not surprisingly, Mississippi. They also had settlements extending sporadically into the upper Midwest and across the western plains. The largest of the earthen mounds at Cahokia, called Monks Mound, is 700 feet wide, 100 feet tall and 1000 feet long–representing a colossal public works program and a government stable enough to order the construction.
(HNQ, 1/29/01)

1300 A drought pervaded the southwest of North America.
(Sm, 3/06, p.74)

1300 Florence was established as the banker of Europe, and its coin, the florin, became the first international currency. Its citizens sought … a splendor of art and architecture belonging to all the people that would make their city the envy of people everywhere… The Medici family was most prominent here.

1300 In southern Germany a scribe identified as Menahem made about this time what came to be called the Birds’ Head Haggadah, the world’s oldest illustrated Passover manuscript.
(SFC, 4/22/16, p.A5)
1300 A Jewish merchant ransomed the body of Rabbi Meir, imprisoned in 1284, and buried him in Worms.
(NH, 9/96, p.24)

1300 The Oude Kerk church in Amsterdam dates to this time.
(SSFC, 1/7/01, p.T9)

c1300 In Tibet the Jonang Buddhist monastery was established. In 1997 Chinese authorities closed down the 700-year old monastery and sent the monks home after they refused to denounce the Dalai Lama.
(SFC, 1/29/99, p.E9)

1300s England recruited Flemish weavers with promises of “good beer, good food, good bed and good bedfellow.”
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1300 Paris, with its population between 200,000 and 300,000, was at this time the largest city in the world.
(HNQ, 4/18/02)

c1300s In Scotland the Dunrobin Castle in the northern Highlands dates top the early 1300s.
(SFEM, 1/31/99, p.6)

1300-1307 The Gladzor Gospels, Armenian illuminated manuscripts whose images are the work of five artists, T’oros Taronets being the only one whose name is known. These gospels are a defining document of the medieval Armenian church’s doctrinal independence.
(SF Chronicle, 5/12/1994, p. E-5)

1300-1358 Jean Buridan, Parisian theologian, attempted to resolve the problem with Aristotle’s law of motion with the idea of impetus, i.e. that a moving body does not need to be continuously pushed to stay in motion due to its impetus provided by a violent motion upon it.

1300-1377 Guillaume de Machaut, French poet and composer.
(WUD, 1994, p.629)(SFC, 2/15/99, p.E7)

1300-1400 In Cameroon the kingdom of Foumban began in the 14th century.
(WSJ, 9/23/06, p.A1)

1300-1400 Odoric of Pordenone spent 3 years in China in the 14th century.
(NH, 10/98, p.69)
1300-1400 The Romance of the Three Kingdoms, attributed to Luo Guanzhong, was written about this time. The historical novel was set in the turbulent years towards the end of the Han dynasty and the Three Kingdoms period in Chinese history, starting in 169 AD and ending with the reunification of the land in 280.
1300-1400 In China Kublai Khan made Beijing the imperial capital in the 14th century.
(AMNHDT, 5/98)

1300-1400 In Colombia the people of San Agustin, pressed by aggressive invaders, were forced to leave their lands and take refuge in the Amazon and Orinoco regions about this time. They left behind some 500 stone statues carved in accordance to their mythology.

1300-1400 In Egypt the nose of the Sphinx was lost in the 14th century.
(SFC, 5/26/98, p.A8)

1300-1400 In the 14th century “The Dunmow Flitch” prize was awarded in Dunmow, Essex, England, to any couple who could come after a year of marriage and truthfully swear that they never quarreled and did not regret the marriage and would do it over again.
(SFC, 12/26/96, p.C16)

1300-1400 In Europe the Brethren of the Free Spirit (aka Beghards) flaunted both moral law and church doctrine because they believed that their exalted station as saved Christians raised them above the ranks of ordinary mortals. The heresy was termed Antinomianism.
(WSJ, 1/28/98, p.A19)

1300-1400 The Kebra Negast, a 14th cent. Ethiopian text, claims that the Queen of Sheba came from Ethiopia to see Solomon and that he tricked her into sleeping with him and bearing him a son.
(WSJ, 5/2/97, p.A6)

1300-1400 The “Chronicle of the Morea” is a 14th century history of southern Greece.
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.58)

1300-1400 A family in Deruta, Italy, began producing majolica pottery. In 2008 the Grazia majolica factory was the 13th oldest family business in the world.
(SFC, 3/5/08, p.G5)

1300-1400 In Portugal a spiritual retreat for monks was built in Redondo. It later became the Hotel Convento de Sao Paolo.
(SFEC, 4/26/98, p.T6)
1300-1400 In Russia the Danilov Monastery was built 3 miles south of the Kremlin by Prince Daniel, founder of Moscow’s 14th century dynasty.
(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.36)

1300-1400 Vodka is believed to have originated in the 14th century in the grain-growing region that now embraces Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, and western Russia. It also has a long tradition in Scandinavia. The first written record of vodka in Poland dates from 1405 in the Sandomierz Court Registry.
(WSJ, 2/10/06, p.A14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vodka)

1300-1400 In Romania the Sihastra Monastery was founded in the 14th century.
(SFC, 12/7/98, p.A25)

1300-1400 Krusevac, Serbia, was the capital of an empire that included Yugoslavia, Albania and Greece.
(SFEC, 4/25/99, p.A28)

c1300-1400 In the early 14th century the Gottscheers settled in the Carniola region of what later became Slovenia. The Germanic people were sent there to till the land and pay taxes to the Carinthian counts of Ortenburg and to serve as a forward guard for the Holy Roman Empire.
(SFC, 6/16/99, p.A12)

1300-1600 Tombs with decorated pillars called phallic pillars by the locals are widespread among the Oromo of Somalia and Kenya, where they symbolize manhood and indicate interred men.
(NH, 6/97, p.45)

1300-1700 In Thailand kilns at Intrakil date from the Lanna kingdom of this time.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.G)

1300-c1700 The period of the Renaissance. The 1998 book “The Scholar in His Study: Ownership and Experience in Renaissance Italy” by Dora Thornton covered this period. In 1970 Prof. Charles Trinkaus authored the 2-volume work “In Our Image and Likeness: Humanity and Divinity in Italian Humanist Thought.” In 1985 Claude Palisca (d.2001) authored “Humanism in Italian Renaissance Musical Thought.”
(SFEC, 2/15/98, BR p.8)(SFC, 9/27/99, p.A26)(SFC, 1/23/01, p.C2)

1300-1850 Historical records and scientific data on oxygen isotope ratios of Viking teeth indicate a period of cooling temperatures called a Little Ice Age of Northern Europe.
(LSA, Spring 1995, p.32)

1301 Feb 7, Edward of Caernarion (later Edward II) became the 1st prince of Wales.
(MC, 2/7/02)

1301 Jul 4, Battle at Breukelen: Holland vs. Lichtenberg.

1302 Jan 27, Dante became a Florentine political exile.
(MC, 1/27/02)

1302 Mar 11, Romeo and Juliet were married on this day, according to Shakespeare.
(HN, 3/11/98)(MC, 3/11/02)

1302 May 18, The weaver Peter de Coningk led a massacre of the Flemish oligarchs at the French garrison (Brugse Metten).
(HN, 5/18/99)(SC, 5/18/02)

1302 Jul 11, An army of French knights, led by the Count of Artois, was routed by Flemish pikemen.
(HN, 7/11/98)

1303 May 20, France returned Gascony to England’s Edward I.
(HN, 5/20/98)(PC, 1992 ed, p121)

1303 Aug 31, The War of Vespers in Sicily ended with an agreement between Charles of Valois, who invaded the country, and Frederick, the ruler of Sicily.
(HN, 8/31/98)

1303 Sep 8, Anagni: French king Philip IV captured Pope Boniface VIII.
(MC, 9/8/01)

1303 In Egypt the Pharos Lighthouse at Alexandria was toppled by an earthquake.
(SFEC, 4/5/98, Par p.20)

1303 Enrico Scrovegni’s Padova (Padua) Chapel, begun in 1300, was completed. Giotto began painting a fresco cycle there with scenes from the Old and New Testaments. The decorations were completed in 1305.
(SFC,11/18/97, p.E7)(http://tinyurl.com/ylnhxa)

1303 The Baltic Sea froze over. The event is described by Barbara Tuchman in her book “A Distant Mirror.”
(NOHY, 3/90, p.127)

1303 Filippo di Amedeo de Peruzzi, Florentine banker, died. He had established bank branches in Naples, Paris and London and underwrote business ventures across Europe. The family went bankrupt when Edward III of England defaulted on his debts after losing the Hundred Years War.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)

1304 Jul 20, Francisco Petrarch (d.1374), Italian poet and scholar, founder of Renaissance Humanism, was born in Arezzo. He was educated at Avignon and saw himself as a Florentine, Italian, and man of the world. He was a poet and autodidact who never stopped studying until his death.
(V.D.-H.K.p.131)(HN, 7/20/98)

1304 The Hotel Pilgrim Haus was founded in Soest, Germany.
(SFC, 4/14/06, p.D1)

1305 Apr 2, French Queen Jeanne de Navarre (b.1273) died. In 1919 a “Book of Hours” prayer book, that was made for her, sold for a record price at Sotheby’s.
(http://tinyurl.com/zw23x5r)(Econ, 9/17/16, p.78)

1305 Aug 23, Scottish patriot William Wallace was hanged, drawn, beheaded, and quartered in London.
(HN, 8/23/98)(SFEC, 4/11/99, Z1 p.8)

1305 The House of Taxis operated a courier messenger service for rich European clients.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1305 Giotto (1267-1337) finished a cycle of frescoes, telling the story of Jesus and Mary, inside Enrico Scrovegni’s new chapel in Padua.
(SFC, 11/17/01, p.D4)(WSJ, 11/18/06, p.P16)

1306 Mar 25, Robert the Bruce (1274-1329) was crowned king of Scotland as the successor to King John.
(HN, 7/11/01)(ON, 2/08, p.6)

1306 Jul 22, King Phillip the Fair ordered the expulsion of Jews from France. They returned to Montpellier in 1319, having been recalled by King Sancho, who protected them in 1320 against the fury of the Pastoureaux.

1306 Aug 8, King Wenceslas of Poland was murdered.
(HN, 8/8/98)

1306 Pierre Dubois, a counselor for the Duke of Burgundy, called for a European federation.
(Econ, 1/3/04, p.39)

1306 English forces defeated Scottish forces under Robert Bruce at Methven near Perth. Bruce escaped to Rathlin Island.
(ON, 2/08, p.6)

1306-1307 The Baltic Sea froze over again. The event is described by Barbara Tuchman in her book “A Distant Mirror.”
(NOHY, 3/90, p.127)

1307 May 10, Forces under Robert Bruce of Scotland defeated the English at Loudoun Hill. Over the next few years Bruce gained control over much of the Scottish countryside.
(ON, 2/08, p.6)

1307 Jul 7, Edward I (b.1239), King (Longshanks) of England (1272-1307), died.

1307 Oct 13, The medieval order of the Knights Templar was suppressed by King Philip IV of France. Baphomet, a deity that the Knights Templar were accused of worshipping, is an Old French corruption of the name Muhammad. Subsequently it was incorporated into disparate occult and mystical traditions. Since 1856, the name Baphomet has been associated with a “Sabbatic Goat” image drawn by Eliphas Levi which contains binary elements representing the “sum total of the universe”.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baphomet)(HN, 10/13/98)

1307 Nov 18, William Tell shot an apple off his son’s head.
(MC, 11/18/01)

1307 Edward II ascended the English throne and had his former tutor, Piers Gaston, brought back to England and made him the Earl of Cornwall.

1307 Mansa Musa (d.1337), Mali’s greatest ruler, succeeded to the throne. He commissioned grand mosques.
(ATC, p.119)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R4,6)

1307 Poland tried to gain back the Kulm territory but in their struggle with the Teutonic Knights they lost Pomerania and their access to the Baltic.
(Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 69)

1308 Feb 25, Edward II was crowned King of England.
(AP, 2/25/07)

1308 May 1, King Albert [of Austria] was murdered by his nephew John, because he refused his share of the Habsburg lands.
(HN, 5/1/99)

1308 Nov 8, John Duns Scotus (42), Scottish-born theologian and philosopher, died in Germany. Scotus and his adherents came under attack by critics in the 16th century, giving rise to the term “dunce.”
(AP, 11/8/08)(www.catholic-forum.com/saints/saintj55.htm)

1308 Princess Isabella (12) married England’s King Edward II (23). In 2005 Alison Weir authored “Isabella: She-Wolf of France, Queen of England.
(Econ, 9/10/05, p.81)

1308 The “Parchment of Chinon” contained the decision by Pope Clement V to save the Templars and their order. The document was misplaced for centuries in the archives and found again by researchers in 2001. In 2007 it was published as part of the Vatican’s secret archive documents about the trial of the Knights Templar.
(AP, 10/12/07)

c1308-1385 Wang Meng, Chinese artist, his work included “Temple at Mount Taibai.”
(WSJ, 1/2/98, p.6)

1308-1708 The Gonzagas ruled over Mantua, Italy.
(WSJ, 10/10/02, p.D10)

1309 Apr 30, Kazimierz III de Great, King of Poland (1333-70), was born.
(MC, 4/30/02)

1309-1377 “Babylonian Captivity” during which the popes left Rome and took up residence at Avignon under the wing of the king of France.

1310 May 12, Fifty-four Knights Templar were burned at the stake as heretics in France. They had been established during the Crusades to protect pilgrims traveling to the Holy Land, but came into increasing conflict with Rome until Pope Clement V officially dissolved them in 1312 at the Council of Vienna.
(SC, Internet, 5/12/97)

1310 May 20, Shoes began to be made for both right and left feet.
(MC, 5/20/02)

1310 English forces under Edward II crossed into Scotland to regain control of the territory.
(ON, 2/08, p.6)

1310 In Korea a hanging silk scroll was painted with an image of Avalokiteshvara.
(SFC, 10/14/03, p.D1)

1311 Oct 16, The general Council of Vienne opened just south of Lyons. During the 2-year council Pope Clement V made the belief in the right to usury heresy and abolished all secular legislation which allowed it.
(Econ, 1/7/12, p.60)(www.dailycatholic.org/history/15ecume1.htm)

1312 Jun 19, Piers Gaveston, earl of Cornwall, was beheaded.
(MC, 6/19/02)

1312 Nov 13, Edward III, King of England (1327-77), was born. He later raped the countess of Salisbury.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_III_of_England)(WUD, 1994 p.454)(HN, 11/13/98)

1312 The Knights Templar were suppressed by Pope Clement at the Council of Vienna. Pressured by King Philip of France, Pope Clement reversed his 1308 decision and suppressed the order.
(AHD, 1971, p.724)(SC, Internet, 5/12/97)(AP, 10/12/07)

1312 Scots under Robert Bruce attacked Perth, held by the English, and gained control of the city and castle.
(ON, 2/08, p.6)

1313-1375 Giovanni Boccaccio, Florentine writer born in Paris. He learned classical Latin and studied classical Greek under Leonzio Pilato, who had spent some time in Byzantium where Greek works were still available. He traveled with Petrarch around southern Europe looking for ancient books and discovered a number of Cicero’s letters. Boccaccio wrote all of his major works in Italian, including IL Filostroto (the source of Chaucer’s Troilus and Criseyde) and the Decameron.

1313-1905 The four ancient Confucian texts, Ssu Shu, or “Four Books,” were used as subject matter for official Chinese civil service exams in China. The volumes reputedly contain direct quotations from Confucius.
(HNPD, 6/27/99)

1314 Mar 18, In France Jacques de Molay (b.1244), Grand Master of the Templars, was burned at the stake along with his aides. Surviving monks fled, with some absorbed by other orders.
(AP, 10/12/07)(www.templarhistory.com/demolay.html)

1314 Apr 20, Clement V, [Bertrand Got], pope (1305-14) who moved papacy to Avignon, died.
(MC, 4/20/02)

1314 Jun 24, King Robert I (Robert the Bruce) of Scotland with 6,000 men and 500 horses routed English King Edward II with his army of 20,000 at Bannockburn. Bruce secured Scotland’s independence from England and ruled until his death in 1329. A film “The Bruce” was made in 1995 on a $500,000 budget.
(AP, 6/24/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Bannockburn)(ON, 2/08, p.7)

1314 Nov 29, Philippe IV, the Handsome, King of France (1285-1314), died.
(MC, 11/29/01)

1314 England banned football (soccer) for being too violent.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1315 Nov 15, Swiss soldiers ambushed and slaughtered invading Austrians in the Battle of Morgarten. The Bundesbrief prevailed over a Habsburg army. Voluntary agreements among the cantons led to the formation of the Willensnation, a nation created by acts of free will by a diverse people.
(HN, 11/15/98)(Econ, 2/14/04, p.6)

1315 In France Parisian bakers were found guilty of mixing flour with animal droppings during the Great Famine.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)
1315 Louis X, Philip’s brother and successor, allowed Jews back into France for financial considerations. Jews were often expelled because of pressure from the Church, economic or political considerations, only to be readmitted at a later date.
1315 Italian immigrants in France began the Western silk industry.
(SFC, 3/11/00, p.B4)

1315 The Church of the Holy Virgin was built in Musutiste, Kosovo. In 1999 returning Albanians blew up the church in retaliation for the Serb destruction of their mosque.
(SFC, 9/7/99, p.A12)

1315 Scotland assaulted the English border city of Carlisle during the First War of Scottish Independence. Robert the Bruce was driven off with heavy casualties finally giving up when the siege tower got stuck.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Carlisle_%281315%29)(Econ., 4/11/15, p.52)

1315-1316 England experienced a great famine brought on by too much water.
(K.I.-365D, p.154)

1316 Mar 2, Robert II the Steward, King of Scotland (1371-90), was born.
(SC, 3/2/02)

1316 May 14, Charles IV (d.1378), later King of Bohemia and Holy Roman Emperor, was born in the House of Luxembourg.

1316 Jun 4, Louis X (26), King of France (1314-16), died.
(MC, 6/4/02)

1316 Nov 15, Jean I became king of France, and died 4 days later.
(MC, 11/15/01)

1316 In Lithuania Grand Duke Vytenis died at Skirsnemune while destroying castles built by the Knights of the Cross. Gediminas, brother of Vytenis, took over rule. He wrote a letter to the Pope that requested an end to attacks by the German orders. The Pope responded in accord but the Germans continued their pressure.
(H of L, 1931, p.33,34)

1316-1341 In Lithuania Grand Duke Gediminas pushed back the German orders and extended his territory to the east into Russia. He invited foreign crafts, trades people and engineers. Under his rule, Vilnius became the capital with 2 new castles and the southern and eastern border of Lithuania was extended to include Smolensk, Kiev and Minsk. His rule did not interfere with local languages, religious beliefs or rights. Gediminas wed one daughter to the Prince of Moscow, another to the son of the Polish King and a third to the Prince of Mozur.
(Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 52)

1316-1390 Albert of Saxony (aka Albertuccio or little Al), German Scholastic philosopher and physicist.
(NH, 5/97, p.59)

1317 Feb 3, Pope John XXII, under guidance from Gnesen Archbishop Borislav, offered Catholicism to Lithuania.
(LHC, 2/3/03)

1317 Apr 20, Agnes van Montepulciano, Italian mystic, saint, died.
(MC, 4/20/02)

1319 Apr 26, Jean II, the Good, king of France (1350-64), was born.
(MC, 4/26/02)

1319 May 8, Haakon V, King of Norway (1299-1319), died.
(MC, 5/8/02)

1319 Ani, capital of Armenia, was devastated by an earthquake.
(Econ, 6/17/06, p.59)

1320 Apr 6, Scotland declared its independence in the Declaration of Arbroath. In a letter to the Pope they said: “As long as only one hundred of us remain alive we will never on any conditions be brought under English rule.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Declaration_of_Arbroath)(Econ, 7/12/14, p.50)

1320 Oct 12, Michael IX Paleologi, emperor of Byzantine (1295-1320), died.
(MC, 10/12/01)

1321 Sep 14, Dante Alighieri, author of the “Divine Comedy,” died of malaria just hours after finishing writing “Paradiso.” The poem was completed in Italian rather than Latin. It helped make Italian the dominant linguistic force in European literature for the next few centuries. In 2006 Barbara Reynolds authored “Dante: The Poet, the Political Thinker, the Man.”
(www.newadvent.org/cathen/04628a.htm)(WSJ, 3/26/99, p.W2)(Econ, 12/2/06, p.84)

1322 Mar 23, In York, England, Roger de Clifford was hanged and left hanging in a cage outside a tower (Clifford’s Tower) for a year and a day. He had been involved in a rebellion against King Edward II’s favorite Huge Lord de Despencer, and ultimately against the King himself.
(http://tinyurl.com/qamdvyl)(SSFC, 4/13/14, p.Q5)

1322 Jun 24, Jews were expelled from France for a 3rd time.
(MC, 6/24/02)

1322 Arabian writers recorded ideas about artificial insemination.
(SFC, 3/21/98, p.E3)

1322 The Baltic froze over and a cold spell pervaded Europe.
(K.I.-365D, p.154)

1322 Zhao Mengfu (b.1254), Chinese calligrapher, died. His work included a hand scroll of “The Sutra on the Lotus of the Sublime Dharma.” Chao Meng-fu was a prince and descendant of the Song Dynasty’s imperial family, and a Chinese scholar, painter and calligrapher during the Yuan Dynasty.
(SFC, 11/10/12, p.F1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zhao_Mengfu)

1323 Oct 16, Amadeus V the Great, count of Flanders and Savoy, died at 74.
(MC, 10/16/01)

1324 Jan 9, Venetian traveler, merchant and writer Marco Polo (b.1254) summoned a priest-notary to his home in Venice and recorded his last will in Latin on a sheepskin. Polo left money to Church institutions in Venice, forgave outstanding debts, and freed his indentured servant, a Tatar he had named Peter. Polo left nearly everything else to his wife and three daughters.
(Reuters, 4/17/18)

1324 Feb 10, The pope officially chastised the Knights of the Cross for ill treatment of Catholics and for pushing pagans away from Christianity.
(LHC, 2/10/03)

1324 Feb 26, Dino Compagni, Italian silk seller, poet, chronicler, died.
(SC, 2/26/02)

1324 Mar 5, David II Bruce, king of Scotland (1331-71), was born.
(MC, 3/5/02)

1324-1325 Mansa Musa (Kankan Moussa), king of Mali, made the 3,500 mile pilgrimage to Mecca with gold valued at $115 million in 1999 prices. He traveled with a very large retinue that included 80 camels and 500 slaves. An Arab chronicler said he was surrounded by over 10,000 of his subjects.
(ATC, p.119)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)(SSFC, 4/11/04, p.D6)

1325 The Aztecs founded Tenochtitlan, later known as Mexico City, about this time.

1325 Ibn Battuta (20), a Muslim, left his home in Tangier to journey to Mecca. He traveled in Arabia, Asia, Africa, and Spain and recorded many exciting adventures. His travels lasted some 29 years were described in his book “The Rihla.” In 1986 Ross E. Dunn authored “The Adventures of Ibn Battuta” based on The Rihla.
(ATC, p.13)(SSFC, 11/13/05, p.F3)

1325-1382 Nicholos of Oresme, Parisian theologian agreed with Jean Buridan concerning the problem of Aristotelian motion and its resolution: i.e. that a moving body does not need to be continuously pushed to stay in motion due to its impetus provided by a violent motion upon it.

1326 Mar 5, Louis I (the Great), King of Hungary (1342-1382) and Poland (1370-1382), was born.
(HN, 3/5/98)(MC, 3/5/02)

1326 Osman I (1299-1326) captured Bursa in north-western Anatolia after a 10 year siege. Osman I (also known as Osman Gazi) is generally regarded as the founder of the Ottoman Turkish state.
(WUD, 1994 p.1018)(Ot, 1993, p.5)

1326 Richard de Bas, a paper manufacturer, was founded in Ambert d’Auvergne, France.
(SFC, 4/14/06, p.D1)

1327 Jan 7, Edward II of England was deposed. [see Jan 20, Feb 1]
(HN, 1/7/99)

1327 Jan 20, Edward II of England was deposed by his eldest son, Edward III. [see Jan 7, Feb 1]
(HN, 1/20/99)

1327 Jan 25, King Edward III inherited the British throne. [see Jan 7,20]
(MC, 1/25/02)

1327 Feb 1, Edward III was crowned King of England. [see Jan 7,20]
(HN, 2/1/99)

1327 Apr 6, Petrarch met Laura de Sade in a church at Avignon, and was inspired for the rest of his life. He wrote his finest poems about her beauty and loveliness… and about his later recognition that he had loved her wrongly, placing her person ahead of her spirit. This event has been taken to mark the beginning of the Renaissance
(V.D.-H.K.p.131)(MC, 4/6/02)

1327 Sep 21, Edward II of England died. He was believed murdered by order of his wife, Queen Isabella, and Baron Robert Mortimer.

1327 In Germany the Pfalzgrafenstein castle was built on the Rhine near the village of Bacharach.
(SFEC, 3/15/98, p.T5)

1328 Feb 1, Charles IV, the Handsome, King of France (1322-28), died.
(MC, 2/1/02)

1328 May 26, William of Ockham was forced to flee from Avignon by Pope John XXII.
(HN, 5/26/98)

1328 May 27, French king Philip VI Valois was crowned.
(MC, 5/27/02)

1328 Sep 26, Taqi ad-Din Ahmad ibn Taymiyyah (b.1263), a Sunni Islamic scholar born in Harran, located in what is now Turkey, died. He lived in Damascus during the troubled times of the Mongol invasions. As a member of the school founded by Ibn Hanbal, he sought the return of Islam to its sources: the Qur’an and the Sunnah. He had adopted the notion of takfir, denouncing as apostates Muslims whom he deemed wayward, a crime punishable by death.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ibn_Taymiyyah)(Econ, 7/14/07, p.30)(Econ, 7/25/15, p.69) (http://tinyurl.com/pfxhrq3)

1328 In Italy a monastery and church of St. Francis was built on the Isola Maggiore on Lake Trasimeno. In the 19th century it was converted into a castle by a Marquis for his wife Isabella.
(SFEM, 10/12/97, p.48)

1328 Moscow became the seat of the Russian Orthodox metropolitanate. Peter the Metropolitan moved from the capital Vladimir to Moscow.
(DVD, Criterion, 1998)(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.37)

1328-1384 John Wycliffe, English theologian and biblical translator. He was posthumously declared a heretic and his body was exhumed for burning in 1428.
(WSJ, 4/4/01, p.A18)

1329 Jun 7, Robert Bruce (b.1274), King of Scotland (1306-1329), died.

1329 In Korea a foundry was used to print books with metal type.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1330 Mar 23, Riga surrendered to the Livonian Order.
(LHC, 3/23/03)

1330 Jun 15, Edward the Black Prince, the eldest son of Edward III and Prince of Wales (1343-1376), was born. He was the first Duke created in England, the Duke of Cornwall.
(HN, 6/15/99)(MC, 6/15/02)

1330 Aug 25, Anti-Pope Nicolaas V overthrew himself.
(MC, 8/25/02)

c1330 In Japan retired Emp. Go-Fushimi authored a plea to the god of the Kamo shrine for help in gaining the thrown for his son, Prince Tokihito. Tokihito got to reign after a short delay when Go-Daigo refused to step down. Two years later Go-Daigo got the thrown back.
(SFC,12/15/97, p.E3)

1331 Ibn Battuta, Arab traveler and scholar, visited Kilwa. He described Kilwa as “one of the most beautiful and well-constructed towns in the world.”
(ATC, p.143)

1331 Na Prous Boneta was burned at the stake as a female heretic one hundred years before Joan of Arc.
(WSJ, 1/23/96, p.A-12)

1331 Bernard Gui, Inquisitor in Toulouse, died. He authored “Practica Inquisitionis Heretice Pravitatis” (Conduct of the Inquisition into Heretical Wickedness), a manual for Inquisitors in which he listed heretics including Cathars, Waldensians, Beghards, Jews and witches.
(WSJ, 1/18/08, p.W10)(www.languedoc-france.info/121207_guicathars.htm)

1332 Feb 13, Andronicus II Palaeologus, Byzantine emperor (1282-1328), monk, died.
(MC, 2/13/02)

1332 May 27, Ibn Khaldun (d.1406), Berber historian, was born in Tunis. He was also a social scientist and political activist and developed theories on economics and politics. He authored the “Muqaddimah” (introduction to history), that gave an in-depth analysis of the cyclical nature of the rise, maturation and decline of political regimes and economies. “Only tribes held together by a group feeling can survive in a desert.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ibn_Khaldun)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R20)(Econ, 1/28/12, p.68)

1332 Aug 12, Battle of Dupplin Moor; Scottish dynastic battle.
(SC, 8/12/02)

1332 Mansa Musa, King of Mali, died. His successors were not able to protect Mali’s vast territory and Berber nomads began attacking caravan routes in the desert and threatened to take Timbuktu. People from the southern rain forests attacked the southern boundary and to the west the Sohghai of the middle Niger River began to revolt.
(ATC, p.120)

1332-1370 Descendants of earlier Ghorid rulers reasserted control over Afghanistan.

1332 Mansa Musa, King of Mali, died. His successors were not able to protect Mali’s vast territory and Berber nomads began attacking caravan routes in the desert and threatened to take Timbuktu. People from the southern rain forests attacked the southern boundary and to the west the Sohghai of the middle Niger River began to revolt.
(ATC, p.120)

1332-1370 Descendants of earlier Ghorid rulers reasserted control over Afghanistan.

1333 Mar 2, Wladyslaw IV, the Short One, Great, duke, king of Poland, died.
(SC, 3/2/02)

1333 Nov 4, In Florence, Italy, the Arno River flooded causing some 3,000 deaths.
(Econ, 11/1/08, p.97)

1333 The Kamakura Shogunate of Japan fell.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)

1333 The Black Death erupted in China.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R54)

1333-1573 The Ashikaga (or Muromachi) Period of Japan.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)

1334 Aug 30, Pedro, the Cruel, King of Castilia & Leon, was born.
(MC, 8/30/01)

1334 Emperor Godaigo of Japan temporarily regained power.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)

1334 Heinrich II of Hesse (Germany) commissioned an illuminated manuscript called The Willehalm Codex.
(SSFC, 5/2/04, p.M2)

1335 Charles I of Hungary-Croatia, Casimir III of Poland and John of Bohemia met in Visegrad, Hungary, and agreed to create new commercial routes to bypass the staple port Vienna and obtain easier access to other European markets.

1335 In Macedonia the Orthodox church of St. Atanasie and the Holy Virgin in Lesok was begun. A monastery was added that played a role in Christian resistance to the Ottoman Empire.
(SFC, 8/22/01, p.A10)

1336 Feb 25, The Knights of the Cross sieged the Pilenai Castle in Samogitia. The defenders burned all their goods and committed suicide.
(LHC, 2/25/03)

1336-1405 Timur (aka Timur Lang or Timur Lenk or Tamerlane because of a lame leg) was a Tartar conqueror of a vast empire from southern Russia to Mongolia and southward to India, Persia, and Mesopotamia. After his death the empire fell apart. Prince Timur is a national hero of Uzbekistan.
(V.D.-H.K.p.169)(WUD, 1994, p.1451)(WSJ, 7/3/97, p.A4)

1337 Jan 8, Giotto (b.c.1267), Italian artist, died. His frescoes showed a new realism and vitality. Art historians later held that the Renaissance dawned in Florence with Giotto’s paintings. He cracked the formal stylization of Byzantine painting and reinvented the ancient art of creating depth on a flat surface. In 2000 art historians found evidence that Pietro Cavallini re-introduced depth in his paintings in Rome around 1190.
(www.mediacult.com/art/giotto/chrono.html)(V.D.-H.K.p.128)(WSJ, 11/113/00, p.A24)

1337 Jan 21, Charles V, the Wise, king of France (1364-80), was born.
(MC, 1/21/02)

1337 Edward III’s claim to the French throne sparked the Hundred year’s War between England and France.
(Econ, 8/24/13, p.75)

1337-1453 The Hundred Years War was a series of wars between England and France in which England lost all possessions in France except Calais.
(WUD, 1994, p.693)

1338 The founding of the Ashikaga Shogunate in Japan.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)

1340 Jun 24, The English fleet defeated the French fleet at Sluys, off the Flemish coast.
(HN, 6/24/98)

1340 Nov 28, In the Battle of Salado, Spain, the last Moor invasion was driven back.
(MC, 11/28/01)

1340 Nov 30, John, Duke de Berry, captain of Paris and art collector, was born.
(MC, 11/30/01)

1340 Double-entry bookkeeping was invented in Italy about this time. [see 1458]
(WSJ, 11/10/99, p.A20)

1340 A drought that lasted 1-2 centuries as measured from tree rings in the Sierra Nevada was centered on this time. It coincides with a Medieval warm period when Vikings navigated the waters surrounding Greenland. An earlier drought centered at 1126AD.
(NH, 9/96, p.38)

c1340-1400 Geoffrey Chaucer, English poet. [see 1343]
(WUD, 1994, p.250)(WSJ, 9/18/00, p.A36)

1341 Apr 8, Francesco Petrarch was crowned poet laureate on the Capitol in Rome. He had arranged two invitations to be crowned, one in Paris and the other in Rome (1340-1341). He chose Rome.
(V.D.-H.K.p.131)(MC, 4/8/02)

1341 Jun 19, Juliana van Falconieri, Italian saint, Swedish tenor, died.
(MC, 6/19/02)

1341 German Knights of the Cross negotiated acquisition of Tallinn from Denmark and took over all of Estonia.
(Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 61)

1341-1345 In Lithuania Jaunutis served as Grand Duke.
(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1342 Sep 26, John I, ruler of Poland, died.
(MC, 9/26/01)

1342 In China a tombstone in Yangchou marked the death of an Italian girl named Katerina.
(SFEC, 9/21/97, p.A23)

1343 The Peruzzi Bank, Europe’s biggest, collapsed following risky loans to English kings.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

c1343-1400 Geoffrey Chaucer, English poet. [see 1340]
(WUD, 1994, p.250)(WSJ, 9/18/00, p.A36)

1345 Mar 20, A conjunction of Saturn, Jupiter and Mars was thought to be the “cause of plague epidemic.”
(MC, 3/20/02)

1345 Jul 17, Jacob Van Artevelde, [Manner Man], Flemish broker, was lynched.
(MC, 7/17/02)

1345 Oct 31, Ferdinand I, the wise one, king of Portugal (built navy), was born.
(MC, 10/31/01)

1345 The Frisian victory over the Dutch on the beach at Warns was their last before the Dutch took over.
(WSJ, 5/13/98, p.A20)

1345 The Kramerbrucke merchant bridge was built over the Gera River at Erfurt, Thuringia, Germ.
(Hem., Nov.’95, p.114)

1345 A Florentine wool worker was hanged for holding a public meeting to organize colleagues.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1345-1377 In Lithuania Algirdas served as Grand Duke.
(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1346 Apr 16, King Stefanus IX of Serbia proclaimed himself czar of Greece.
(MC, 4/16/02)

1346 May, Edward III of England called for a fleet of 1000 ships and an army of 10,000 knights and soldiers to assemble at Portsmouth for an attack on his distant cousin, Philip VI of France.
(ON, 9/00, p.1)

1346 Jul 12, Edward III landed his army on the Normandy beaches unopposed.
(ON, 9/00, p.1)

1346 Jul 18, Edward III divided his army into 3 groups and began a march on Paris.
(ON, 9/00, p.2)

1346 Aug 16, Philip VI offered Edward III sovereignty over Aquitaine in return for peace. Edward rejected the offer and learned that Philip had raised an army of 36,000 that included 15,000 Genoese crossbowmen. Edward marched toward Flanders in order to meet with allies.
(ON, 9/00, p.2)

1346 Aug 25, Edward III of England defeated Philip VI’s army at the Battle of Crecy in France. The English overcame the French at the Battle of Crecy. The longbow proved instrumental in the victory as French knights on horseback outnumbered the British 3 to 1. At the end of the battle 1,542 French lords and knights were killed along with 20,000 soldiers. The English lost 2 knights and 80 men. [see Aug 26]
(WSJ, 8/3/98, p.A12)(HN, 8/25/98)

1346 Aug 26, During the Hundred Years War, King Edward III’s 9,000-man English army annihilated a French force of 27,000 under King Philip VI at the Battle of Crecy in Normandy. The battle is regarded as one of the most decisive in history. [see Aug 25]
(PC, 1992, p.128)(WSJ, 11/4/04, p.D10)

1346 Sep 3, Edward III of England began the siege of Calais, along the coast of France.
(HN, 9/3/98)

1346 Sep 28, Edward III and Philip VI signed a temporary truce. Their hostilities marked the beginning of the Hundred Years War, which only ended in 1453.
(ON, 9/00, p.2)

1346 Oct 17, English forces defeated the Scots under David II during the Battle of Neville’s Cross, Scotland.
(HN, 10/17/98)

1346 Nov 26, Charles of Luxembourg was crowned German king. He succeeded his father John of Luxemburg as King of Bohemia and Count of Luxembourg.
(PC, 1992 ed, p.128)

1347 May 20, Cola di Rienzo took the title of tribune in Rome.
(HN, 5/20/98)

1347 Aug 3, Six burghers of the surrounded French city of Calais surrendered to Edward III of England in hopes of relieving the siege.
(HN, 8/3/98)

1347 Aug 4, English troops conquered Ft. Calais. After an 11 month siege, French Calais fell to England’s King Edward III. English rule lasted for more than two centuries.
(WSJ, 11/6/95, p. A-1)(MC, 8/4/02)

1347 Oct, Sailors from Genoa arrived in Messina, Sicily. Plague had broken out earlier among the troops of the Kipchak Khan, who was besieging the Black Sea port of Kaffa. He catapulted dead bodies over the city walls. When Italian trading vessels in the harbor returned to Genoa, the carried the plague to Europe. The plague, an infectious fever caused by the bacillus Yersinia pestis, appears in several varieties: bubonic (which involves swelling of the lymph glands), pneumonic (which involves the lungs) and septicemia (which involves severe infection in the bloodstream).
(SFEM, 10/12/97, p.31)(HNQ, 1/20/01)(SSFC, 3/6/05, p.B4)

1347 Nov 20, Roman tribune Cola di Rienzi defeated nobles. Stefano Colonna, Roman senator, died in battle (SPQR).
(MC, 11/20/01)

1347 Dec 3, Pope Clemens VI declared Roman tribune, Cola di Rienzi, a heretic.
(MC, 12/3/01)

1347 Charles IV (1316-1378) of the House of Luxembourg was crowned King of Bohemia.
(WSJ, 10/19/05, p.D17)

1347-1350 The Black Death: A Genoese trading post in the Crimea was besieged by an army of Kipchaks from Hungary and Mongols from the East. The latter brought with them a new form of plague, Yersinia pestis. Infected dead bodies were catapulted into the Genoese town. One Genoese ship managed to escape and brought the disease to Messina, Sicily. The disease quickly became an epidemic. It moved over the next few years to northern Italy, North Africa, France, Spain, Austria, Hungary, Switzerland, Germany, the Low countries, England, Scandinavia and the Baltic. There were lesser outbreaks in many cities for the next twenty years. An estimated 25 million died in Europe and economic depression followed. In 2005 John Kelly authored “The Great Mortality: An Intimate History of the Black Death, the Most Devastating Plague of All Time.”
(NG, 5/88, p.678)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(SSFC, 3/6/05, p.B1)(SFC, 10/13/11, p.A6)
1347-1350 British limited records later suggested up to 50,000 victims were buried in less than three years in the Farringdon cemetery as the bubonic plague ravaged London.
(Reuters, 3/15/13)

1347-1354 John VI Cantacuzenus ruled over Byzantium. He then abdicated and became and monk and went on to deal with Rome over the unification of Christendom. [see 330 AD]
(WSJ, 11/14/95, p. A-12)

1348 Feb 2, The Knights of the Cross defeated a Lithuanian army at Streva.
(LHC, 2/2/03)

1348 Apr 6, Laura, the arch love of Petrarch died of the plague. Boccaccio retired from plague-stricken Florence, and in a country residence began to write the Decameron.

1348 Apr 7, Prague Univ., the 1st in central Europe, was started by Charles IV.
(MC, 4/7/02)

1348 Apr 23, King Edward III of England established the Order of the Garter, the first English order of knighthood.
(AP, 4/23/97)(HN, 4/23/99)(www.royal.gov.uk/output/page490.asp)

1348 Jun 9, Ambrogio Lorenzetti (b.1290), Italian painter of the Sienese school, died. His work included the 3 murals titled “War,” “Peace” and “Good Government,” in the Chamber of Peace of Siena’s town hall.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ambrogio_Lorenzetti)(WSJ, 12/1/07, p.W14)(Econ, 7/10/10, p.80)

1348 Sep 21, Jews in Zurich Switzerland were accused of poisoning wells.
(MC, 9/21/01)

1348 Nov 15, Rudolph of Oron, a bailiff in Lausanne, wrote a letter to the Strasbourg authorities in which he declared that certain Jews of Lausanne confessed to poisoning all the drinking wells in the Rhine Valley that somehow selectively killed only Christians.

1348 In Istanbul Genoese merchants rebuilt an old wooden lighthouse that dated from the 6th century. The Galata Tower was rebuilt in stone.
(Econ, 4/7/12, p.81)
1348 The Black Plague struck England and wiped out a third of the population.
(Econ 6/17/17, p.67)
1348 The Black Plague struck the Mediterranean Basin.
(SSFC, 11/13/05, p.F3)
1348 Accused of being a cause of the plague, the Jews in France were dragged from their houses and burned. Pogroms occurred throughout Europe. When the plague subsided, few Jews were left in Germany or the Low Countries.
(NG, 5/88, p.681)
1348 Plague arrived at Montpellier, France, in the spring and killed an estimated two-thirds of the 50,000 inhabitants.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R22)
1348 The population of Siena, Italy, dropped from 97,000 to 45,000 in a few months due to the Black Plague. Bernardo Tolomei, nearly blind founder of the Benedictine Congregation of Santa Maria di Monte Oliveto in the 1340s, died along with 82 of his monks after leaving the safety of his monastery to tend to plague victims in Siena. In 2009 the Vatican declared him a saint.
(SSFC, 3/6/05, p.B1)(AP, 4/26/09)

1348 The population of Siena, Italy, dropped from 97,000 to 45,000 in a few months due to the Black Plague. Bernardo Tolomei, nearly blind founder of the Benedictine Congregation of Santa Maria di Monte Oliveto in the 1340s, died along with 82 of his monks after leaving the safety of his monastery to tend to plague victims in Siena. In 2009 the Vatican declared him a saint.
(SSFC, 3/6/05, p.B1)(AP, 4/26/09)
1348 Ambrogio Lorenzetti (b.1290), Sienese painter, died. His work included the 3 murals titled “War,” “Peace” and “Good Government,” in the Chamber of Peace of Siena’s town hall.
(WSJ, 12/1/07, p.W14)

1349 Jan 9, In Basel, Switzerland, 700 Jews were burned alive in their houses.
(MC, 1/9/02)

1349 Feb 13, Jews were expelled from Burgsdorf, Switzerland.
(MC, 2/13/02)

1349 Feb 14, 2,000 Jews were burned at the stake in Strasbourg, Germany.
(HN, 2/14/98)

1349 Feb 22, Jews were expelled from Zurich, Switzerland.
(HN, 2/22/98)

1349 Mar 21, Some 3,000 Jews were killed in Black Death riots in Efurt, Germany.
(MC, 3/21/02)

1349 Apr 30, Jewish community at Radolszell, Germany, was exterminated.
(MC, 4/30/02)

1349 May 28, 60 Jews were murdered in Breslau, Silesia.
(MC, 5/28/02)

1349 Aug 24, Some 6,000 Jews, blamed for the Bubonic Plague, were killed in Mainz.
(MC, 8/24/02)
1349 Aug 24, Jews of Cologne Germany set themselves on fire to avoid baptism.
(MC, 8/24/02)

1349 Sep 10, The Jews who survived a massacre in Constance, Germany, were burned to death.
(MC, 9/10/01)

1349 Nov 1, Duke of Brabant ordered the execution of all Jews in Brussels. He accused them of poisoning the wells.
(MC, 11/1/01)

1349 Nov 29, Jews of Augsburg, Germany, were massacred.
(MC, 11/29/01)

1349 Dec 5, 500 Jews of Nuremberg were massacred during Black Death riots.
(MC, 12/5/01)

1349 In Belgium a church was built in Geel to honor St. Dymphna (Dimpna). According to Christian tradition she was the daughter of a 7th century pagan Irish king and his Christian wife who fled to Geel, Belgium following the death of her mother. Her father found her in Geel and struck off her head when she refused to return home and rebuffed his incestuous desires.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dymphna)(Econ, 7/11/15, SR p.3)

1349 Nearly all the Jews of Worms were murdered on false accusations that they brought on the plague by poisoning the wells.
(NH, 9/96, p.24)

1349 William of Ockham (b.1290), English Franciscan scholastic philosopher, died. He proclaimed that the only real things are singular entities like an apple or man, and that universals have no existence whatever; they are mere names. The divine and nature each has its own validity, but the one is vastly more important that the other, with the one determining salvation, and the other the mere comfort of the body during its life. [see 1290]
(V.D.-H.K.p.123)(WUD, 1994 p.996)(AP, 2/4/99)

1349 L’Aquila in central Italy was devastated by an earthquake.
(Econ, 10/27/12, p.80)

1349-1830 The eldest son of the king of France was referred to as the dauphine, as an honor to the Dauphine province after its cession to France.
(WUD, 1994, p.369)

1350 Mar 27, Alfonso XI of Castile (38) died of the black death while besieging Gibraltar.
(HN, 3/27/99)(PCh, 1992, p.130)

1350 Aug 22, Philips VI, of Valois, King of France (1328-50), died.
(MC, 8/22/02)
1350 Aug 22, John II, also known as John the Good, succeeded Philip VI as king of France.
(HN, 8/22/98)

1350 Sargis Pitsak, Armenian artist, produced illuminated manuscripts of the bible. Color picture “Souls Ascending the Heavenly Ladder to Christ,” featured in:
( SF Chronicle, 5/12/1994, p. E-1)

1350 The Fremont Indians, who had lived in Utah’s Range Creek Canyon since about 200, disappeared from the archeological record.
(WSJ, 1/31/06, p.B6)(Sm, 3/06, p.74)

c1350 At Powers Fort, Missouri, there was a Mississippian cultural-civic-ceremonial center consisting of a small village and four mounds.
(AM, Vol. 48, No. 3)

1350 Maori ancestors arrived at New Zealand on seven legendary canoes from Hawaii, the mother-island of the east Polynesians.
(NG, Aug., 1974, C. McCarry, p.196)

1350 Boccaccio met Petrarch in Florence.

1350 The leaning tower of Pisa was constructed. [see 1173]
(SFC, 8/13/98, p.C5)

1350 In Northumberland, England, Langley Castle was built with 7-foot thick walls on a wooded estate.
(WSJ, 2/27/98, p.B8)

1351 The east African Kingdom of Dongala became hemmed in by Muslim states such as Kordofan and Darfur and was forced to surrender to Egypt its territory north of the third cataract. Axum was harried by the Muslims of Funj and the people retreated into the mountains and developed into the isolated Christian kingdom of Ethiopia.
(Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.170)

1351 In England the Statute of Treasons was passed under which anyone who violated the wife of the heir to the throne was guilty of high treason.
(WSJ, 5/23/96, p.A-10)

1351-1767 The Ayutthaya Kingdom, a Siamese kingdom, existed during this period. The port city of Ayutthaya (Thailand) was one of the capitals of the kingdom until the Burmese invaded, sacked the city and left it in ruins. The capital was then moved to Bangkok. Prior to this Phananchoeng was the capital.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ayutthaya_Kingdom)(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.G)(WSJ, 4/21/05, p.D7)

1352 May 5, Ruprecht, Roman catholic German king, was born.
(MC, 5/5/02)

1352 Dec 18, Etienne Aubert was elected as Pope Innocentius VI.
(MC, 12/18/01)

1352 The Black Death by this year had killed 25 million people in Europe alone.
(NG, 5/88, p.678)

1352 Ibn Battuta decided to cross the Sahara Desert. The journey took two months to complete the 1,200 miles.
(ATC, p.112)

1352 The gothic Cathedral of Our Lady was begun in Antwerp, Belgium. It was completed in the 16th century.
(Hem., 7/95, p.27)

1353 King Fangum is believed to have established the Kingdom of Lan Xang (Million Elephants), the forerunner of the modern Laos state that was abolished during the communist revolution of 1975.
(AP, 1/6/03)

1353 In Laos Luang Prabang was founded. It was the royal capital of the kingdom of Laos and a center of Laotian Buddhism and court arts.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.E)

1353 Ibn Battuta spent a few months in Mali and left a full description of his experiences.
(Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.170)

1354-1720 Catalan conquerors ruled over Sardinia.
(SFEC, 1/30/00, p.T5)

1355 May 7, 1,200 Jews of Toledo, Spain, were killed by Count Henry of Trastamara.
(MC, 5/7/02)

1355 Nov 1, During the Hundred Years’ War (1337-1457) an English invasion army under Black Prince Edward (25) landed at Calais.
(DoW, 1999, p.213)(PC, 1992 ed, p.131)

1355 Dec 20, Stephen Urosh IV of Serbia died while marching to attack Constantinople.
(HN, 12/20/98)

1355 Charles IV, King of Bohemia, was crowned King of the Holy Roman Empire.
(WSJ, 10/19/05, p.D17)

1356 Sep 19, In a landmark battle of the Hundred Years’ War, English Prince Edward, the Black Prince, defeated the French at Poitiers. Jean de Clermont, French marshal, died in battle.
(HN, 9/19/98)(Econ, 8/24/13, p.76)

1356 Algirdas of Lithuania acquired Bryansk through inheritance and gave it to his son, Dmitry the Elder. Until the end of the century, the town was contested between Jogaila, Vytautas, Svitrigaila, and Yury of Smolensk.

1357 Apr 22, Johan I, King of Portugal (1383-1433), was born.
(MC, 4/22/02)

1357 May 28, Afonso IV (66), King of Portugal (1325-57), died.
(MC, 5/28/02)

1357 The 1999 novel “Timeline” by Michael Crichton catapults its characters to Medieval France and the 20th year of the Hundred Years War.
(WSJ, 11/19/99, p.W6)
1357 In Switzerland Konrad Mueller killed Heinrich Stucki. To atone Mueller promised to always pay to keep an eternal lamp lit. In 2013 a court in Glarus canton ruled that the current farm owner no longer has to pay $76 each year for oil and candles because Swiss mortgage reforms in the mid-19th century made the practice invalid.
(SFC, 1/9/13, p.A2)

1358 Jun 10, French Boer leader Guillaume Cale was captured.
(MC, 6/10/02)

1359 Jeanne de Clisson (b.1300), also known as Jeanne de Belleville and the Lioness of Brittany, died. She was a Breton former noblewoman who became a privateer to avenge her husband after he was executed for treason by the French king. She plied the English Channel and targeted French ships, often slaughtering the crew, leaving few alive.

c1359-c1460 Owain Glyndwr (Owen Glendower) of Wales, leader of a bloody revolt against Henry IV in 1400. The event was marked by a comet.
(SFEC, 6/22/97, p.D2)

1360 Mar 15, French invasion army landed on English south coast and conquered Winchel.
(MC, 3/15/02)

1360 Jul 25, Jews were expelled from Breslau, Silesia.
(SC, 7/25/02)

1360 Oct 25, Louis, founder of house of Anjou, was born.
(MC, 10/25/01)

1360 The vaulting of York Minster cathedral was completed in northern England. The first recorded church on the site was a wooden structure built hurriedly in 627 to provide a place to baptize Edwin, King of Northumbria.

1360 In Spain Francesc Castello was beheaded in front of his own bank following bankruptcy.

1360s The Flagellants of Thuringia engage in self mortification and refused to work.

1360-1754 Hanseatic traders brought prosperity to Bergen, Norway.
(SSFC, 6/5/05, p.F7)

1361 Feb 26, Wenceslas of Bohemia, Holy Roman Catholic German emperor (1378-1400), was born.
(SC, 2/26/02)

1361 Mar 21, Grand duke Kestutis was captured by the Knights of the Cross.
(LHC, 3/21/03)

1361 England enacted its first Corn Laws. They barred the export of corn in order to keep local grain supplies cheap.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)

1361 The Ottomans under Orhan crossed into Europe and captured Adrianople (Edirne), the 2nd major city of Byzantium. Murat I (Orhan) moved the Ottoman capital to Edirne in 1366.
(Ot, 1993, p.5)(http://www.osmanli700.gen.tr/english/sultans.html)

1361-1363 Plague broke out again in Europe.
(HN, 1/20/01)

1362-1363 A 202-pound stone with runic inscriptions, found in 1888 by Olaf and Edward Ohman, Swedish immigrant farmers in Kensington, Minn., seemed to describe how a party of Vikings had returned there after an exploratory survey, and found ten men left behind “red with blood and dead.” Ever since the discovery, scholars have debated the stone’s authenticity.
(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.25)(HNQ, 6/4/01)

1363 In Italy a portrait of St. Ambrose was believed to have been created by Giusto de’ Menabuoi. In 2018 it was stolen from the National Pinacoteca of Bologna. The thief was soon identified and three stolen paintings were recovered.
(AP, 5/4/18)

1364 May 20, Sir Henry Percy (d.1403), [Harry Hotspur], British soldier, politician, and rebel leader, was born.
(WUD, 1994, p.1069)(MC, 5/20/02)

1364 King Charles V (1337-1381) began his rule of France.
(HNQ, 7/14/01)(WUD, 1994 p.249)

1364 In Cracow, Poland, the Jagiellonian University was founded. [see 1400]

1365 The University of Vienna was founded by Duke Rudolph IV.
(StuAus, April ’95, p.2,17)

1365 A tax document lists the feudal property of Niccolo Acciaiuoli, head of a Florentine banking family. It included the castle of Agios Vasilios overlooking the road from Corinth to Argos in southern Greece. The territory had reverted to the Florentine family when the Franks defaulted on loans.
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.55)

1365 Basel, Switzerland, was wrecked by an earthquake.
(AP, 8/4/07)

1366 Oct 12, King Frederick III of Sicily forbade decorations on synagogues.
(MC, 10/12/01)

1366 Wang Meng painted “Dwelling in the Qingbian Mountains.”
(SFC, 4/4/98, p.C1)

1366 The Den Hoorn brewery was founded in Leuven (Belgium). In 1717 Sebastian Artois brought his name to the brewery.
(Econ, 12/17/11, p.124)

1366 Records indicate that cheese was weighed in Alkmaar [Netherlands] at this time.
(SFEC, 6/7/98, p.T10)

1367 Jan 6, Richard II, son of Edward the Black Prince, was born in Bordeaux. He served as king of England from 1377-1399.
(HN, 1/6/99)(MC, 1/6/02)

1367 Apr 3, Birth of Henry Bolingbroke, aka Henry of Lancaster and later Henry IV, King of England (1399-1413) in Lincolnshire.
(MWH, 1994)

1367 Apr 3, John of Gaunt and Edward the Black Prince won the Battle of Najara, in Spain.
(HN, 4/3/99)

1367-1383 Don Rodrigo Anes de Araújo lived during the reign of King Ferdinand I of Portugal. Araújo built a Castle and named it Araújo which can be found in all the ancient Galician maps. Araújo or Araujo or Arauxo is a Galician and Portuguese surname. The surname Araújo is of toponymic origin derived from a place in the Province of Ourense which is part of the Autonomous Community of Galicia in North Western Spain next to the Portuguese border where a Crusader Knight of French Noble descent, Don Rodrigo Anes, was rewarded with reconquered Iberian lands during the Reconquista.

1368 Feb 3, Charles VI, King of France (1380-1422), was born.
(MC, 2/3/02)

1368 Feb 14-1368 Feb 15, Sigismund (d.1437), son of Charles IV, was born in Nuremberg, Germany. He served as Holy Roman Emperor from 1433-1437.

1368 Tamerlane lost control of China as the Mings took over local power. The Ming dynasty overthrew Mongol rule and slammed shut the Jade Gate to caravan traffic to Central Asia.
(V.D.-H.K.p.172)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

c1368-1600 For several centuries after 1368 the Mongols were confined to their original homeland in the steppes, their energies mostly absorbed by internal rivalries.

1368-1644 The period of the Ming Dynasty in China. Classical Chinese furniture refers to furniture made during the Ming and early Ching (1644-1912). During the Ming Dynasty the Great Wall of China was extended and renovated with watch towers and canons.
(AAM, 3/96, p.9)(WSJ, 9/19/96, p.A18)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Wall_of_China)
1368-1644 “The Ming Dynasty” by Yang Xin is the 3rd section of Wu Hung’s 1997 “The Origins of Chinese Painting.” The period is marked by the emergence of the literati-amateur movement.
(WSJ, 1/2/98, p.6)
1368-1644 China extended its hegemony over the Ryukyu Islands legitimating 3 kings in exchange for submission to the Ming emperor.
(NW, 9/10/01, p.48)

1369 Mar 23, Pedro the Cruel, King and tyrant of Castile and Leon, was murdered. Enrique, the illegitimate son of Alfonso XI of Castile, killed his half brother Pedro I in the Castilian civil war and became King Enrique I “the Bastard” of Castile.
(SS, 3/23/02)(Reuters, 12/23/06)

1369 Hongwu, the first Ming emperor, established an imperial kiln at Jungdezhen in south-central China. It became a famous porcelain center.
(SFEC, 10/6/96, DB p.37)

1369 The goldsmith firm of Torrini Firenze was founded in Florence, Italy.
(SFC, 4/14/06, p.D1)

1369-1371 Plague broke out again in Europe.
(HN, 1/20/01)

1369-1405 Timur (aka Timur Lang or Timur Lenk or Tamerlane, so-named because of a lame leg) ruled from Samarkand.
(WUD, 1994, p.1451)

1369-1424 Muzio Sforza, father of Francesco, Italian condotierre (leader of a private band of mercenary soldiers).
(WUD, 1994, p.1308)

1370 Apr 11, Frederick I the Warlike, elector of Saxony, was born.
(HN, 4/11/98)

1370 Apr 22, The first stone of the Bastille was laid by order of King Charles V (1364-1380). The original design of the Bastille was merely a fortified gate, but it was later turned into a fortress by Charles VI. It began to be used as a prison in the 17th century. Following the storming of the Bastille on July 14, 1789, it was demolished.
(HNQ, 7/14/01)

1370 May 22, Jews were expelled (massacred) from Brussels, Belgium.
(MC, 5/22/02)

1370 Nov 5, Kazimierz III (“The Great”), king of Poland (1333-70), died at 61.
(MC, 11/5/01)

1370 Andrei Rublev, Russian icon painter, was born about this time.
(DVD, Criterion, 1998)

1370 Spain’s Prince Sancho de Castile (7) died. Spaniards for a long time believed Prince his uncle poisoned him to become king. In 2006 studies of the boy’s mummified body showed the boy died of natural causes.
(Reuters, 12/23/06)

1370-1404 Timour-i-Lang (Tamerlane) ruled over Afghanistan. Afghan resistance was active.

1371 Feb 22, David II Bruce (46), king of Scotland (1331-1371), died.
(MC, 2/22/02)

1371 May 28, John, the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy, warrior, was born in Burgundy, France.
(MC, 5/28/02)

1371 Dec 4, Reinald III (38), (“The Fat,”) duke of Gelre (1343-61), died.
(MC, 12/4/01)

1371 The queen of France sent the Queen of England several dolls dressed in the latest French fashion. The outfits were copied by English dressmakers and costumed dolls from France went wherever French ships sailed. They were called mannequins.
(SFC, 6/28/97, p.E3)

1371 Ubaid Zakani, Persian writer, died. His work included “Mush va Gorbeh” (Mouse and Cat), a match for Rabelais when it comes to mocking religion.
(WSJ, 2/8/06, p.A16)(www.britannica.com/eb/article-13737)

1371-1435 Cheng Ho, eunuch admiral of the Ming dynasty, explored the Indian Ocean.

1372 Sep 21, Frederik I van Hohenzollern, monarch of Brandenburg (1417-40), was born.
(MC, 9/21/01)

1372 The 1st Ryukyuan emissaries reached Nanjing and presented tribute to the Ming emperor.
(NW, 9/10/01, p.56)

1373 Jul 23, Birgitta of Sweden, Swedish saint, died.
(MC, 7/23/02)

1373 Boccaccio began a course of public readings of the divine Comedy in the church of Santo Stefano in Florence. He accompanied the readings with commentaries, explaining to his largely illiterate audience of common people the meaning and relevance of what Dante had written. He encountered raging attacks of the learned against his program of bringing Dante to the attention and understanding of the common people.

1374-1375 Plague broke out again in Europe.
(HN, 1/20/01)

1373-1415 Jan Huss, Czech populist reformer. He challenged Church doctrine.
(WSJ, 4/4/01, p.A18)

1374 Jul 18, Francesco Petrarch (69), Italian poet (Italia Mia), died.
(SSFC, 7/25/04, p.E3)

1375 Dec 21, Giovanni Boccaccio, Italian poet (Vita di Dante), died at his home in Certaldo.
(V.D.-H.K.p.133)(MC, 12/21/01)

1375-1412 Queen Margaret I (b.1353) ruled over Denmark. In 1388 her rule extended over Norway and in 1389 extended to include Sweden.

1376 Apr 28, English parliament demanded the supervision on royal outlay.
(MC, 4/28/02)

1376 Jun 8, Edward (b.1330), the “Black Prince” of Wales, son of King Edward III of England and Queen Philippa of Hainault, died at Westminster Palace, Middlesex.

1376 Jul 22, The rats were piped out of Hamelin, Germany.
(HFA, ’96, p.34)

1377 Feb 3, There was a mass execution of population of Cesena, Italy.
(MC, 2/3/02)

1377 Jun 21, Edward III (b.1312), King of England (1322-1377), died. Richard II, who was still a child, succeeded his father. In 1966 H.J. Hewitt authored “The Organization of War Under Edward III.” In 1978 Richard Barber authored “Edward, Prince of Wales and Aquitaine.” In 1980 Michael Prestwich authored “The Three Edwards: War and State in England 1272-1377.” Lines of his 3rd and 4th sons, houses Lancaster and York engaged in the Wars of the Roses. In 2006 Ian Mortimer authored “The Perfect King: The Life of Edward III, Father of the English Nation.”
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)(ON, 9/00, p.2)(AM, 7/01, p.69)(HN, 6/21/98)(Econ, 4/15/06, p.84)

c1377-1446 Filippo Brunelleschi, Italian architect. He designed the dome of the Florence Cathedral.
(WUD, 1994, p.190)(WSJ, 6/6/96, p.A12)

1378 Mar 27, Gregory XI, [Pierre R the Beaufort], last French Pope (1370-78), died.
(MC, 3/27/02)

1378 Aug 9, Cardinals declared pope Urbanus VI lawless (anti-Christian, devil).
(MC, 8/9/02)

1378 Sep 20, The election of Robert of Geneva as anti-pope by discontented cardinals created a great schism in the Catholic church.
(HN, 9/20/98)

1378 Nov 29, Charles IV (b.1316), King of Bohemia and Holy Roman Emperor, died.

1378 Dec 18, Charles V denounced the treachery of John IV of Brittany and confiscated his duchy.
(HN, 12/18/98)

1378 Dec 31, Callistus III, [Alfonso the Borgia], Pope (1455-58), was born.
(MC, 12/31/01)

1378 Wenceslaus IV (1361-1419), son of Charles IV, became King of Bohemia following the death of his father. He served as Holy Roman Emperor until 1400, when he was deposed in favor of Rupert III.

1378 Wool workers in Florence revolted after being hit with production quotas.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R27)

1378 The last bishop on Greenland died. No replacement was sent.
(AM, 7/00, p.66)

1378-1417 The Great Western Schism split the Roman Catholic Church and involved 2 anti-popes at its height.
(CU, 6/87)

1379-1390 Khwaja Shams ud-Din Hafiz (b.c1310-1326), Persian poet, died.
(SSFC, 10/23/05, p.E3)(www.thesongsofhafiz.com/)

1380 Feb 11, Gianfrancesco Poggio Bracciolini, Italian humanist, was born.
(MC, 2/11/02)

1380 Jul 24, Giovanni da Capistrano, Italian monk, was born. He liberated Belgrade from the Turks and was later canonized a saint as San Juan de Capistrano. His name was applied to the southern California mission, best known for its annual convocation of swallows.
(MC, 7/24/02)

1380 Sep 8, Bernardinus of Siena, Italian saint, was born.
(MC, 9/8/01)
1380 Sep 8, Prince Dmitrii of Moscow defeated the Mongols at Kulikovo Field. This marked the beginning of the decline of Mongol control over Russian lands.
(DVD, Criterion, 1998)(http://fanaticus.org/dba/battles/Kulikovo/index.html)

1380 Nov 14, King Charles VI of France was crowned at age 12.
(MC, 11/14/01)

1380 Nov 16, French King Charles VI declared no taxes forever.
(MC, 11/16/01)

1380 In England Henry Of Lancaster at 13 married Mary de Bohun, daughter and co-heiress of Humphrey, the last Earl of Hereford.
(MWH, 1994)

1380 In France the rule of King Charles V (1337-1381) ended.
(HNQ, 7/14/01)(WUD, 1994 p.249)

1380 Iceland fell under Danish control.
(HNQ, 4/28/00)

c1380-1471 Thomas a Kempis, German monk and author: “Would to God that we might spend a single day really well.” “Verily, when the day of judgment comes, we shall not be asked what we have read, but what we have done.”
(AP, 1/28/98)(AP, 7/28/00)

1381 May 30, English peasant uprising began in Essex.
(MC, 5/30/02)

1381 Jun 14, The Peasant’s Revolt, led by Wat Tyler, climaxed when rebels marched on Jordan, plundered, burned and captured the Tower of London and killed the Archbishop of Canterbury. The revolt was a response to a statute intended to hold down wages during a labor shortage. The peasant demands also included access to privately owned land.
(HN, 6/14/98)(SFC, 6/20/99, p.A7)

1381 Jun 15, The English peasant revolt was crushed in London and Wat Tyler, the rebel leader, was beheaded.
(HN, 6/15/98)(MC, 6/15/02)

1381 When the peasant’s revolt subsided England’s King Richard II (14) reneged on his promises to the peasants, rounded up the surviving ringleaders and had them executed.
(Econ, 11/26/05, p.96)

1382 Mar 1, French Maillotin rose up against taxes.
(SC, 3/1/02)

1382 Mar 15, Conservative “Popolo Grasso” regained power in Florence, Italy.
(MC, 3/15/02)

1382 May 5, In the Battle of Beverhoutsveld, Belgium, the population beat a drunken army.
(MC, 5/5/02)

1382 Sep 10, Louis I, the Great, King of Hungary and Poland, died. Mary (1372-1395), daughter of Louis I, became queen of Hungary.
(PC, 1992 ed, p.135)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_of_Hungary)

1382 Nov 27, The French nobility, led by Olivier de Clisson, crushed the Flemish rebels at Flanders.
(HN, 11/27/98)

1382 John Wycliffe’s heresy hearing was interrupted by an earthquake that toppled the tower of Canterbury Cathedral.
(WSJ, 12/31/04, p.W6)
1382 The Bahri Mamluks, rulers of Egypt, were succeeded by the Burji dynasty, another group of Mamluks.
1382 Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406) arrived in Cairo following a turbulent political career in Tunis. He is best known for his Muqaddimah (known as Prolegomenon in English), which was discovered, evaluated and fully appreciated first by 19th century European scholarship.
(SSFC, 7/24/11, p.F7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ibn_Khaldun)
1382 In Romania Brasov Saxons built a castle at Bran, Transylvania.
(SSFC, 10/23/11, p.H6)

1383 Sep 4, Amadeus VIII, duke of Savoye, and the last antipope (Felix V (1439-48), was born.
(MC, 9/4/01)

1383 Ferdinand I (b.1345), king of Portugal (1367-1383), died.

c1383-c1436 Masolino, Italian artist. He worked with Masaccio on “Saints Jerome and John the Baptist,” part of an altarpiece for Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome.
(WSJ, 9/27/01, p.A16)

1384 Jan 30, Vytautas handed over Samogitia to the Knights of the Cross and promised to serve as a vassal to the order following receipt of Trakai.
(LHC, 1/30/03)

1384 Sep 2, Louis I, duke of Anjou and king of Naples (Battle of Poitiers), died.
(MC, 9/2/01)

1384 Oct 16, The Polish princess Hedwig was crowned King Jadwiga (d.1399) at age 10. She was crowned as king to make it clear that she was a ruler, not a consort.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jadwiga_of_Poland)(SFC, 6/9/97, p.A10)(SSFC, 10/2/11, p.N4)

1384 Dec 31, John Wycliffe, English religious reformer and bible translator, died.
(MC, 12/31/01)

1385 Jan 18, A Lithuanian delegation under Skirgaila arrived in Cracow to ask for the hand of Jadvyga on behalf of Jogaila.
(LHC, 1/18/03)

1385 Apr 12, Willem van Oostervant wed Margaretha (10), Philip the Stout’s daughter (Flanders).
(MC, 4/12/02)

1385 Aug 14, Jogaila and his brothers signed a treaty with Poland at Krievos Castle. Here he agreed to convert to Christianity and to seek the conversion of all of Lithuania and that then Lithuania and Poland would unite. The treaty also included an agreement to free all captive Catholics and to help Poland regain all the land it had lost to the German Knights. Vytautas urged Jogaila to go to Poland and leave Lithuania to be ruled by himself.
(H of L, 1931, p.48)(Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 68)
1385 Aug 14, Portuguese defeated Castilians at Aljubarrota and gained independence. John of Portugal defeated John of Castile.
(PCh, 1992, p.136)(HN, 8/15/98)(MC, 8/14/02)

1385 The Albanian ruler of Durrës invited Ottoman forces to intervene against a rival.
(www, Albania, 1998)

1385 In Italy Giovanni di Pietro Antinori branched from his family’s lucrative silk and wool business to join the Florentine wine makers guild. By 2008 the family business had vineyards in Hungary, Chile and California’s Napa Valley.
(SFC, 4/14/06, p.D1)(WSJ, 4/5/08, p.A6)

1386 Feb 2, Jogaila was elected King of Poland.
(LHC, 2/2/03)

1386 Feb 15, Duke Philip the Stout formed the Council of Flanders.
(MC, 2/15/02)
1386 Feb 15, Christianity was introduced to Lithuania when Grand Duke Jogaila and Vytautas underwent a token Baptism at the cathedral in Cracow. Jogaila had married Queen Jadvyga (12) and was crowned King in Poland. Together they began to rule from Cracow over Lithuania and Poland. Jogaila submitted to restrictions that no major decisions could be made without the authorization of the Polish nobility.
(Dr, 7/96, V1#1, p.5)(Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 69)(DrEE, 11/9/96, p.6)

1386 Mar 4, Jogaila was crowned King of Poland.
(LHC, 3/4/03)

1386 The Duomo Cathedral was begun in Milan. The Milanese boast that it took 500 years to build.
(SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T11)

1386 The Univ. of Heidelberg, the oldest in Germany, was founded.
(SFEC, 9/26/99, p.T8)

1386 The counts of Habsburg tried to reach their goals by military force but were again defeated by Swiss forces at the battle of Sempach.

1386 Sigismund (1368-1437), son of Charles IV, became King of Hungary by his marriage to Queen Mary of Hungary (1372-1395).

1386 The Earl of Suffolk, Michael de la Pole, was the first person to be impeached along modern lines of procedure.
(WSJ, 1/25/99, p.A19)

1387 Feb 17, Jogaila founded the archdiocese of Vilnius and provided land for the Bishop’s headquarters.
(LHC, 2/17/03)

1387 Feb 22, Jogaila issued a proclamation for all Lithuanians to accept Catholicism.
(LHC, 2/22/03)

1387 Mar 22, Jogaila gave Vilnius the rights of Magdeburg. Vilnius became the 1st self-governed Lithuanian city.
(LHC, 3/22/03)

1387 Jul 22, French Ackerman (c57), Ghent rebel, leader of Reisers, was murdered.
(MC, 7/22/02)

1387 Aug 9, Henry V, British king famous for his victory at Agincourt, France, was born. [see Aug 29]
(HN, 8/9/98)

1387 Aug 29, Henry V, king of England (1413-22) / France (1416-19), was born. [see Aug 9]
(MC, 8/29/01)

1387 The Italian painter Fra Angelico (d.1455), Giovanni da Fiesole, was born about this time. His work included the “Annunciation.” The 1997 book “Fra Angelico” by John T. Spike was hailed as the art book of the year.
(WUD, 1994, p.57)(SFEC,12/797, Par p.6)

1387 Henry of Lancaster supported his uncle Thomas, Duke of Gloucester, in an attack on the government of Richard II.
(MWH, 1994)

1387-1388 Henry of Lancaster was a participant in the “Merciless” Parliament.
(MWH, 1994)

1387-1455 Fra Angelico, Giovanni da Fiesole, Italian painter. His work included the “Annunciation.” The 1997 book “Fra Angelico” by John T. Spike was hailed as the art book of the year.
(WUD, 1994, p.57)(SFEC,12/797, Par p.6)

1387-1456 Janos Hunyadi, Hungarian soldier and national hero. He was the father of Matthias Corvinus.
(WUD, 1994, p.693,1672)

1388 Mar 12, Pope Urban VI authorized Poznan’s Bishop Dobrogost to establish a Vilnius archdiocese.
(LHC, 3/12/03)

1388 The counts of Habsburg tried to reach their goals by military force but were again defeated by Swiss forces at the battle of Naefels.

1389 Jan 10, Jogaila authorized the Bishops of Vilnius to build churches and urged believers to donate 10% for their upkeep.
(LHC, 1/10/03)

1389 Mar 31, Everhard Tserclaes, sheriff of Brussels, was murdered.
(MC, 3/31/02)

1389 Jun 15, Ottoman Turks crushed Serbia in the Battle of Kosovo. The Serbs were defeated by the invading Turkish Ottoman army at the Battle of Kosovo Polje, the “Field of Blackbirds.” In the battle, the Serb prince Lazar was captured by the Turks and beheaded. The Battle of Kosovo, in which the Serbs chose death rather than surrender, remains a permanent symbol in the Serbian national consciousness. Lazar’s bones were placed in the monastery at Gracanica in Kosovo. Albanians joined a Serbian-led Balkan army that was defeated by Ottoman forces at the Battle of Kosova. [see Jun 28]
(SFC, 12/29/96, BR p.7)(SFC, 3/3/98, p.A8)(WSJ, 5/5/98, p.A20)(HN, 6/15/98)(HNQ, 3/25/99)(WSJ, 3/25/99, p.A17)(www, Albania, 1998)

1389 Jun 28, The Serbs were defeated in the Battle of Kosovo at the Field of the Blackbirds. Sultan Murad, the Ottoman leader was killed in the battlefield by the wounded son-in-law of King Lazar. Serbs say that Albanians aided the Turkish invaders. Historical evidence shows that both forces were multinational and that Serbs and Albanian fought on both sides. [see Jun 15] In 1999 Ismail Kadare, Albanian author, wrote “Elegy for Kosovo,” in which he retells the story of the battle. Bosnian King Tvrtko and other Balkan princes along with Albanians fought under the command of Serbian Prince Lazar.
(WSJ, 5/7/99, p.A1,18)(SFEC, 7/23/00, BR p.7)

1389 Serbs, defeated by the Ottoman Turks, moved from Kosovo to the Krajina region of Croatia.
(WSJ, 4/22/99, A12)

1389 A French bishop advised the Pope that the Shroud of Turin, that had materialized in the village of Lirey a generation earlier, was a fraud.
(WSJ, 4/10/98, p.W6)

1389 Henry of Lancaster rejoined King Richard II.
(MWH, 1994)

1389-1402 Bayezid I (1360-1403) ruled as the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. He was the son of Murad I and Gulcicek Hatun.
1389-1464 Cosimo de Medici, Florentine merchant banker. The Medici family served as the world-wide tithe and tax collector for the Catholic Church.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1390 Jul 1, A French and Genovese armada sailed out against Barbary pirates.
(MC, 7/1/02)

1390 Nov 22, Hungarian nobleman Miklos Toldi (b.~1320) died. He was remembered as a legendary strong hero in Hungarian folklore who protects women and children. Poet János Arany based his famous Toldi trilogy on his legend.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mikl%C3%B3s_Toldi)(Econ, 9/19/15, p.48)

c1390 Jacques de Baerze made his statuette “Corpus Christi.” It was key work in the transition from medieval art to realism.
(WSJ, 4/9/99, p.W16)

1390 English king Henry IV spent a full year supporting the unsuccessful siege of Vilnius by Teutonic Knights with his 300 fellow knights. During this campaign Henry Bolingbroke also bought captured Lithuanian princes and then apparently took them back to England. King Henry’s second expedition to Lithuania in 1392 illustrates the financial benefits to the Order of these guest crusaders. His small army consisted of over 100 men, including longbow archers and six minstrels, at a total cost to the Lancastrian purse of £4,360. Much of this sum benefited the local economy through the purchase of silverware and the hiring of boats and equipment. Despite the efforts of Bolingbroke and his English crusaders, two years of attacks on Vilnius proved fruitless.

1390 Plague broke out again in Europe.
(HN, 1/20/01)

1391 Mar 15, A Jew-hating monk in Seville, Spain, stirred up a mob to attack Jews.
(MC, 3/15/02)

1391 Jun 4, A mob led by Ferrand Martinez surrounded and set fire to the Jewish quarter of Seville, Spain. The surviving Jews were sold into slavery.
(MC, 6/4/02)

1391 Aug 5, Castilian sailors in Barcelona, Spain set fire to a Jewish ghetto, killing 100 people and setting off four days of violence against the Jews.
(HN, 8/5/98)

1391 Aug 24, Jews of Palma Majorca, Spain, were massacred.
(MC, 8/24/02)

1391 Oct 30, Eduard, [Dom Duarte], King of Portugal (1433-38) and author, was born.
(MC, 10/30/01)

1391 China’s Bureau of Imperial Supplies produced 2-foot by 3-foot sheets of toilet paper for use by the emperor.
(WSJ, 9/10/03, p.B1)

1391 Ottoman Caliph Bayezid I sent boats to rescue Jews as they were being expelled from Spain.
(Econ, 12/19/15, p.67)

1391 Saint Bridget (1303-1373), Sweden’s first saint, was canonized. She was the founder of the Bridgettines nuns and monks after the death of her husband of twenty years.

1391-1425 Manuel II Palaeologus ruled the Byzantine empire.
(Econ, 9/23/06, p.59)

c1392 Sir Jean Froissart authored “The Chronicles of England, France and Scotland.”
(ON, 4/00, p.6)

1392 The University at Erfurt on the Gera River was founded. Erfurt is the capital of the state of Thuringia and Martin Luther later studied there.
(Hem., Nov.’95, p.114)

1392 The Chosun Dynasty was established. In 2005 Yi Ku (73), the son of Korea’s last crown prince, died alone of a heart attack in Japan. He was the last member of the Chosun dynasty that ruled Korea from 1392 until 1910.
(SFC, 5/9/01, p.C18)(AP, 7/24/05)

1392-1910 The Choson Dynasty ruled over Korea. [the article is about pojagi, Korean wrapping cloth]
(Hem., Oct. ’95, p.72)(WSJ, 8/13/96, p.A9)

1393 Henry of Lancaster returned to England as a hero.
(MWH, 1994)

1394 Mar 4, Prince Henry the Navigator (d.1460), Portuguese explorer and sponsor of Portuguese voyages of discovery, was born. [see 1420]
(HN, 3/4/98)(WSJ, 1/28/00, p.A18)

1394 Sep 17, In France King Charles VI decreed as an irrevocable law and statute that thenceforth no Jew should dwell in his domains. The decree was not immediately enforced, a respite being granted to the Jews in order that they might sell their property and pay their debts.

1394 Nov 3, Jews were expelled from France by Charles VI. The order, signed on Yom Kippur, was enforced on November 3. Jews continued to live in Lyons and papal possessions such as Pugnon. [see Sep 17, 1394]

1394 Mary de Bohun, wife of Henry of Lancaster, died. She and Henry had 4 sons and 2 daughters.
(MWH, 1994)

1394 Tamerlane conquered all of Afghanistan.
(WSJ, 11/16/01, p.W12)

1394 Seoul, Korea, was founded. The city celebrated its 600th anniversary in 1994.
(MC, 11/29/01)

1395 Tamerlane burnt Astrakhan to the ground. Astrakhan is situated in the Volga Delta, a fertile area that formerly contained the capitals of Khazaria and the Golden Horde. Astrakhan itself was first mentioned by travelers in the early 13th century as Xacitarxan.

1395 In Russia the ikon of Our Lady of Vladimir was brought to Moscow and placed in the Kremlin’s Assumption Cathedral for protection against the Mongol invaders under Tamerlane. A monastery, know as Stretenskii, was built on the spot where the Muscovites met the delegation from Vladimir.
(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.38)

1395-1455 Pisanello, an artist who painted with scrupulous realism.
(SFEC, 2/21/99, BR p.8)

1395-1456 Jacques Coeur, financial adviser to Charles VII of France. He ran a variety of businesses and sold luxury goods. He bankrolled Charles’ war in 1449 with nearly a ton of gold. His gothic mansion at Bourges had the family motto etched in stone: “To valiant hearts nothing is impossible.”
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)

1396 Apr 30, Crusaders and the Earl of Nevers departed from Dijon.
(MC, 4/30/02)

1396 Jul 31, Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, Brabant, Limburg, count, was born.
(MC, 7/31/02)

1396 Sep 25, A Christian crusade, led jointly by John the Fearless of Nevers and King Sigismund of Hungary, ended in disaster at the hands of Sultan Bajezid I’s Ottoman army at Nicopolis.
(HN, 9/25/98)(PCh, 1992, p.137)

1396 Sep 26, Sultan Bajezid I beheaded several hundred crusaders.
(MC, 9/26/01)

c1396 The tabla, a 600-year-old invention, was evolved from Arabian drums to accompany a fusion of Islamic Qawali singing and Dhrupad music composed for Sanskrit couplets usually recited in temples.
(SFC, 5/19/96,Mag, p.25)

c1396 The kirana style of Hindustani music began.
(SFC, 6/18/96, p.A17)

1397 Jan 13, John of Gaunt married Katherine Rouet.
(HN, 1/13/99)

1397 Jun 17, The Union of Kalmar united Denmark, Sweden, and Norway under one monarch. The alliance grew out of the dynastic ties of the Scandinavian countries of Denmark, Norway and Sweden in response to rising German influence in the Baltic. The Kalmar Union is a historiographical term meaning a series of personal unions (1397–1523) that united the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway (with Iceland, Greenland, the Faroe Islands and, prior to their annexation by Scotland in 1471, Shetland and Orkney), and Sweden (including Finland) under a single monarch.

1397 Jan 26, Vytautas signed a treaty with the Knights of the Cross but Samogitia was not included.
(LHC, 1/26/03)

1397 Aug 16, Albrecht II von Habsburg, king of Bohemia, Hungary and Germany, was born.
(MC, 8/16/02)

1397 In England Henry of Lancaster was made Duke of Hereford and then banished from the realm for a presumed conspiracy to murder the Duke of Gloucester.
(MWH, 1994)

1397 Spaten’s roots date back to this time. The company name comes from Munich brewing family Spaeth, which bought a 225 year-old brewery in 1622 ran the firm for seven generations.

1397-1475 Paolo Uccello, Italian painter. He painted battle scenes whose tilting spears put linear perspective to dazzling use.
(WUD, 1994, p.1534)(WSJ, 6/6/96, p.A12)

1398 In South Korea a wooden structure at the top of the Namdaemun gate formed part of a wall that encircled the Seoul. The two-tiered wooden structure was renovated in the 1960s, when it was declared South Korea’s top national treasure. In 2008 a fire destroyed the 610-year-old structure.
(AP, 2/11/08)

1399 Aug 12, The Battle of the Vorskla River (Ukraine) was a great battle in the medieval history of Eastern Europe. It was fought between the Tatars, under Edigu and Temur Qutlugh, and the armies of Tokhtamysh and Grand Duke Vytautas of Lithuania. The battle ended in a decisive Tatar victory.

1399 Aug 19, King Richard II of England surrendered to his cousin Henry Bolingbroke (Henry IV). Henry of Lancaster returned to England to claim his inherited lands. He marched with an army into Briston and captured Richard II and claimed the throne. [see Sep 29]
(MC, 8/19/02)(PC, 1992, p.138)

1399 Sep 29, Richard II (1367-1400) of England signed his “Cession and Renunciation.” His cousin, Henry of Lancaster, declared himself king under the name Henry IV. Richard had earlier introduced the lace handkerchief, triple-taxed the citizenry and stole the estates of his relatives. [see Sep 30, Oct 13]
(HN, 9/29/98)(SFEC, 10/29/00, Z1 p.2)

1399 Sep 30, British Parliament accepted Richard II’s “Cession and Renunciation.” [see Sep 29]
(HN, 9/30/98)

1399 Oct 13, Henry IV of England was crowned.
(HN, 10/13/98)

1399 Oct, Richard II was imprisoned at Pontefract Castle, where he died 4 months later. [See Feb 14,1400]
(MWH, 1994)(HN, 10/13/98)

1399 Dec 17, Tamerlane’s Mongols destroyed the army of Mahmud Tughluk, Sultan of Delhi, at Panipat.
(HN, 12/17/98)

1399 Guillame Dufay (d.1474), composer, was born.
(WSJ, 1/2/02, p.A15)

1399 Chersonesos in the southern Crimean peninsula, the Byzantine world’s largest trading outpost, was sacked by the Mongols.
(SFC,12/19/97, p.F6)

c1399 In Poland Queen Hedwig died in childbirth at age 25.
(SFC, 6/9/97, p.A10)

1399-1413 The reign of Henry IV of England (1367-1413). He was the first king of the House of Lancaster. During his reign insurrections occurred under Owen Glendower (c1359-c1460) with followers in Wales and the Percy Family in Northumberland (1403).
(WUD, 1994, p.1671)



The Fifteenth Century 1400-1449

1400 Feb 14, Richard II (33), deposed king of England (1377-99), was murdered in Pontefract Castle in Yorkshire.
(HN, 2/14/99)(MC, 2/14/02)

1400 Oct 25, Geoffrey Chaucer, author (Canterbury Tales), died in London.
(AP, 10/25/97)(WSJ, 9/18/00, p.A36)

c1400 “The Edifying Book of Erotic Chess,” in effect a manual of seduction, was published.
(Econ, 7/10/04, p.76)

c1400 The first gold balls were made of stitched leather which was soaked and filled with feathers.
(SFEC, 6/14/98, p.A12)

c1400 The Ahwahneechee, a Southern Sierra Miwok band, first began to inhabit Yosemite in California.
(SFEC, 5/18/97, Z1 p.4)

c1400 In Washington state the 6 yard deep Electron Mudflow came down from Mount Rainier where the town of Orting was later established.
(SFEC, 7/12/98, p.A22)

1400 From about this time Dubai became a major crossing point on int’l. trading routes in silk, pearls, spices and gold.
(WSJ, 6/20/06, p.C12)

1400 Plague broke out again in Europe.
(HN, 1/20/01)

c1400 Johann Gutenberg (Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg d.1468), was born in Mainz. He was the inventor of movable, metal type, a stamping mold for casting type, the alloy of lead, tin, and antimony for the cast letters, the printing press itself, and a printing ink with an oil base. The first books were printed around 1450 on rag paper.
(V.D.-H.K.p.153-154)(SFC, 2/15/97, p.D1)(WSJ, 9/14/00, p.A24)

1400 By the 14th century the population Ghent (Belgium) was about 65,000. North of the Alps only Paris was larger.
(SSFC, 12/11/16, p.G8)

1400 The Malaysian city of Malacca was founded and it was soon used by Zheng He, a Chinese Muslim from the Ming court, as a base for his treasure ships.
(Econ, 11/15/14, SR p.5)

1400 Mali (Africa) was under attack from all four sides and gradually weakened in power.
(ATC, p.120)

1400 In Cracow, Poland, the Jagiellonian University was re-founded with funds and a permanent income by the royal couple. [see 1364]
(WSJ, 7/13/00, p.A24)(PG-Comm)

c1400 The Toraja people came to Sulawesi (later part of Indonesia) by boat from a island to the southwest and settled on the banks of the Sa’dan River.
(SFEC, 6/11/00, p.T8)

c1400 In Wales Owain Glyndwr (Owen Glendower c1359-c1460) led the warriors of Gwynned in a bloody revolt against Henry IV. The event was marked by a comet.
(SFEC, 6/22/97, p.D2)

c1400 Stone buildings were erected at Zimbabwe in central Africa and continued to be enlarged until about 1830.
(Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.169)

1400s Kongo’s king, the Mani-Kongo, ruled six provinces and about two million people. The capital of the Kongo was Mbanza, built on a fertile plateau 100 miles east of the coast and 50 miles south of the Congo River in southwest Africa.
(ATC, p.150)

c1400-1425 Yong Le, the 3rd Ming emperor, created a permanent imperial residence in Beijing. Work was done by some 200,000 laborers and in time became the 8,886-room complex called the “Forbidden City.”
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R36)

1400-1450 http://www.donsweb.com/History/Timeline/12–1400-1450ad.htm

1400-1464 Roger Van Der Weyden, Flemish painter.
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1624)

c1400-1471 Sir Thomas Malory, English author. His work included “Le Morte Darthur.”
(WUD, 1994, p.868)

c1400-1474 Guillaume Dufay [Du Fay], Flemish composer. His work included the “Ecclesie militantis,” which has four texts going simultaneously.
(WUD, 1994, p.440)(WSJ, 7/29/97, p.A12)

1400-1500 The 15th cent Urbino Bible was produced.
(WSJ, 7/12/96, p.A9)

1400-1500 In China a Shang Xi 15th cent. painting portrayed “The Xuande Emperor on an Outing.”
(WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)

1400-1500 Europeans began producing ethereal sounds from wine glasses containing liquids.
(SFEC,12/28/97, DB p.17)

1400-1500 In 2005 Tim Parks authored “Medici Money: Banking, Metaphysics, and Art in Fifteenth Century Florence.”
(Econ, 4/23/05, p.81)

c1400-1500 The 15th century German “Housebook” was produced. It taught the rules and etiquette of jousting, and contained remedies, cooking recipes, information on love and horoscopes.
(SFEC, 1/10/99, p.T3)
c1400-1500 In Germany Cardinal Nikolaus Cusanus, philosopher, founded a religious and charitable institution complete with vineyard at Kues, across from Bernkastel on the Mosel River.
(SFEC, 4/30/00, p.T8)

1400-1500 The Vietnamese from the north pushed the Chams south and opened the port of Hoi An to foreign traders.
(SFEC, 4/26/98, p.T4)
1400-1500 Porcelain from this period was recovered from a sunken ship in the South China Sea in 1999. 10% of the 150,000 pieces were kept by the Vietnamese government and the rest was scheduled for auction on eBay.
(WSJ, 6/22/00, p.W10)

1400-1500 The city of Bagerhat was founded in southern Bangladesh by Ulugh Khan-i-Jahan as a Muslim colony.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.B)

1400-1500 In the Philippines Vigan historic town on Luzon was established by Chinese traders by this time.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.F)

1400-1500 Giovanni Spinetti of Venice built the first small piano called the spinet.
(SFEC, 4/20/97, Z1 p.5)

1400-1600 Researchers in 1997 announced that sometime in this period the Sauvignon Franc grape crossed with Sauvignon Blanc grape to produce the Cabernet Sauvignon grape.
(SFC, 6/4/97, Z1 p.4)
1400-1600 Hoi An, Vietnam, flourished at the end of the 2nd Cham (Vijaya) Empire of this time. It attracted Japanese, then Portuguese, Dutch and Chinese merchants.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.H)

1400-1850 This was a frigid period in Europe and came to be called the Little Ice Age.
(NG, 7/04, p.28)

1401 Jan 9, In Marienburg some 80 Lithuanian barons were baptized to Catholicism.
(LHC, 1/9/03)

1401 Jan 18, In Lithuania Vytautas and the country’s dukes submitted documents to Poland that Vytautas would rule Lithuania as a vassal to Poland and return the country to Poland upon his death.
(LHC, 1/18/03)

1401 Feb 19, William Sawtree, 1st English religious martyr, was burned in London.
(MC, 2/19/02)

1401 Mar 13, The 1st Samogitian uprising supported by Vytautas took place against the German knights.
(LHC, 3/13/03)

1401 Jun, Amir Timur, aka Tamerlane, invaded Baghdad. After the capture of the city, 20,000 of its citizens were massacred.

1401 In England King Henry IV passed the medieval statute De Heretico Comburendo.
(MWH, 1994)

1401 In Florence Filippo Brunelleschi and Lorenzo Ghiberti entered a competition to create a set of new bronze doors for the baptistery of the cathedral.
(Econ, 3/30/13, p.83)

1401 A Giro Bank was established in Barcelona, making it Europe’s first bank. At this time Barcelona was the capital of the Aragon Kingdom.
(Econ, 1/10/09, p.74)

1401-1428 Tomasso di Giovanni, Italian artist, also known as Masaccio. His only know documented work is the Pisa altarpiece of 1426.
(WSJ, 9/27/01, p.A16)

1402 Mar 2, In Marienburg Svitrigaila crossed over to the Knights of the Cross and promised to uphold the Salyn treaty that was broken by Vytautas.
(LHC, 3/1/03)

1402 Jul 20, In the Battle of Angora the Mongols, led by Tamerlane “the Terrible,” defeated the Ottoman Turks and captured Sultan Bayezid I. The Turks eventually regained control of the city and it remained a part of the Ottoman Empire for the next five centuries. Around 2,000 BCE the site of the present day city was a Hittite village known as Ancyra. It was conquered in 333 BC by Macedonians led by Alexander the Great. Because of its central Anatolian Plateau location on the Ankara River, it became an important commercial center. Angora’s name was changed to Ankara in 1930.
(HN, 7/20/98)(Ot, 1993, p.6)(HNQ, 4/15/02)

1402 Sep 3, Gian Galeazzo Visconti, duke and tyrant of Milan (1395-1402), died at 51.
(MC, 9/3/01)

1402 The English Bedlam institution, a former monastery whose named derived from Bethlehem, began to house the poor and incurably mad. From 1728-1853 it was presided over by a family of doctors all descended from James Monro. On 2003 Jonathan Andrews and Andrew Scull published their 2-volume study: “Undertaker of the Mind” and “Customers and patrons of the mad-Trade,” based on Monro’s Case Book.
(WSJ, 1/29/03, p.D10)

1402 In Scotland the Duke of Rothesay, son of King Robert III and heir apparent, died under mysterious circumstances while in the custody of Robert Stewart, the 1st Duke of Albany. Stewart had built Duane Castle at the end of the 14th century.
(SSFC, 11/23/03, p.C6)

1403 Feb 22, Charles VII, King of France (1422-1461), was born.
(HN, 2/22/98)(MC, 2/22/02)

1403 Jul 21, Henry IV defeated the Percys in the Battle of Shrewsbury in England. Henry IV fought down an insurrection from Henry Percy, the Earl of Northumberland and Ralph Neville, the Earl of Westmorland, the same men who had helped him overthrow Richard II. Henry Percy (39), [Harry Hotspur] was killed in the battle.
(WUD, 1994, p.1671)(MWH, 1994)(HN, 7/21/98)

1403 Gjergj Kastrioti (d.1468) was born. He became the Albanian leader known as Skanderbeg.
(www, Albania, 1998)(HNQ, 10/5/98)

1403-1413 The Ottoman Empire fell into 11 years of civil war between the 4 sons of Beyazid.

1403?-1482 Giovanni di Paolo, painter. He painted “Expulsion from Paradise.”
(AAP, 1964)

1404 Feb 9, Constantine XI Dragases, last Byzantine Emperor, was born.
(MC, 2/9/02)

1404 Feb 18, Leon Battista Alberti (d.1472), Italian humanist, architect (Della Pittura), was born in Genoa, the illegitimate son of a Florentine merchant.
(WSJ, 11/30/00, p.A20)(MC, 2/18/02)

1404 Sep 27, William of Wykeham, chancellor and Bishop of Winchester, died.
(MC, 9/27/01)

1404 In Wales Owain Glyndwr convened a parliament in Macchynlleth.
(SFEC, 6/22/97, p.D2)

1404-1423 China controlled the price of tea and was able to increase its stock of horses from 20,000 to 1,600,000.
(WSJ, 8/15/00, p.A24)

1405 Feb 14, Timur, aka Tamerlane (b.1336), crippled Mongol monarch, died in Kazakhstan. In 2004 Justin Marozzi authored “Tamerlane: Sword of Islam, Conqueror of the World.”
(V.D.-H.K.p.172)(http://au.encarta.msn.com)(Econ, 8/28/04, p.76)

1405 Andrei Rublev, Russian icon painter, painted the iconostasis of the Cathedral of the Gospel with Theophan the Greek; this was the 1st work executed in the classical Russian style, distinguished from the Byzantine by its great height and width and organization of multiple, varied icons along axes.
(DVD, Criterion, 1998)

1405 Admiral Zheng He, a Muslim eunuch, led a Ming dynasty fleet with 28,000 men through Southeast Asia to India and on to Africa and the Middle East.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R51)(WSJ, 11/18/06, p.P11)

1406 Apr 4, Robert III, King of Scotland (1390-1406), died.
(MC, 4/4/02)

1406 Nov 30, Pope Gregory XII, born Angelo Correr or Corraro, succeeded Pope Innocent VII.
(AP, 2/11/13)( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Gregory_XII)

1406 In Beijing the Palace of Heavenly Purity, later renamed the People’s Cultural Palace, was built.
(SFC,12/22/97, p.E7)

1406 The Signoria of Florence decreed that the city’s 12 guilds had 10 years to fulfill their obligations to decorate an exterior niche of the Orsanmichele guild center.
(WSJ, 12/22/05, p.D8)

1407 Oct 26, Mobs attacked the Jewish community of Cracow.
(MC, 10/26/01)

1408 Feb 14, Vytautas gave self-rule status to Kaunas, which was 1st mentioned in the summer of 1361.
(LHC, 2/14/03)

1408 Feb 19, Henry IV led a victory in the Battle of Brabham Moor that marked the end of domestic threats. The revolt of Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland, against King Henry IV, ended with his defeat and death at Bramham Moor.
(MWH, 1994)(HN, 2/19/98)

1408 Sep 22, Johannes VII Palaeologus, Byzantine Emperor (1376-77, 90/1404-8), died.
(MC, 9/22/01)

1408 A law was enacted making it illegal to translate any part of the scriptures into English. It was declared a capital offense to possess an English Bible.
(WSJ, 12/22/94, A-20)(WSJ, 4/4/01, p.A18)

1408 A marriage at the Hvalsey Church in the East Settlement was the last record of the Norse in Greenland.
(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.25)(AM, 7/00, p.66)

1409 Jan 9, Rene’ d’Anjou (d.1480) was born the son and 3rd child of Duke Louis II of Anjou and Yolande of Aragon at Angers in the Maine-and-Loire region of western France. King René, poet and wine lover, demonstrated how all our leaders ought to be.
(http://www.guice.org/reneharr.html)(WSJ, 2/13/04, p.A12)

1410 May 18, Ruprecht, Roman Catholics German king, died.
(SC, 5/18/02)

1410 Jul 15, Lithuanian-Polish forces defeated the Teutonic Knights at the Battle of Tannenberg, Prussia, thereby halting the Knights’ eastward expansion along the Baltic and hastening their decline. Vytautas and Jogaila with hired mercenaries from Belarus along with Tartars and Czechs defeated the Teutonic Knights between Grunvald (Zalgiriai) and Tannenberg southeast of Malburg. Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen and many of his nobles were killed. The war officially ended with the Treaty of Thorn in which the Knights gave up Zemaitija to Vytautas.
(COE)(H of L, 1931, p.52)(DrEE, 11/9/96, p.6)

1410 Andrei Rublev, Russian icon painter, painted the icon “The Old Testament Trinity,” which showed Abraham’s 3 angels. This is the only work known to be entirely his own.
(DVD, Criterion, 1998)

c1410 The French “Book of the Chase” depicted hunting dogs and snares.
(SFEM, 4/6/97, p.16)

1411 Feb 1, Lithuania, Poland and the Knights of the Cross signed the Torun Peace Treaty. Samogitia was returned to Lithuania. The Teutonic Knights had regrouped and gone to battle against Vytautas and Jogaila. Peace was signed at Torun and western Lithuania was returned, but not Klaipeda (Memel).
(Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 71)(LHC, 1/31/03)

1411-1437 Sigismund became the Holy Roman Emperor. [see 1433]
(WUD, 1994, p.1325)

1412 Jan 6, According to tradition, French heroine Joan of Arc was born Jeanette d’Arc, in the French village of Domrémy. When she was 12 years old, she began hearing what she believed were voices of saints, sending her messages from God. When she was 17, the voices told her to leave her village and save Orléans. Joan convinced the dauphin that she could lead French troops in resistance against their English invaders, and she was given a force of several hundred men to command, whom she led to victory at Orléans in 1429. Wearing her white enameled armor suit, she continued to fight against the English. Joan was captured by Burgundians and then burned at the stake by the English on May 30, 1431, for the offenses of witchcraft, heresy and wearing male clothing. The Roman Catholic Church recognized Joan of Arc as a saint in 1920.
(CFA, ’96,Vol 179, p.38)(AP, 1/6/98)(HNPD, 1/6/99)

1413 Mar 20, Henry IV (b.1367), King of England (1399-1413), died in the house of the Abbot of Westminster. He was succeeded by Henry V (b.1387).
(AP, 3/20/97)(www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/henry_iv_king.shtml)

1413 Iceland used dried fish for money.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1414 Feb 19, Thomas Arundel, archbishop of Canterbury, chancellor of England, died.
(MC, 2/19/02)

1414 Nov 16, A council of bishops opened in Constance Germany under Emp. Sigismund. When the council of Constance opened, Christians owed obedience to three different popes: Gregory XII of the Roman party, Benedict XIII of the Avignon party, and John XXIII, who had been elected after the death of Alexander V. John XXIII and Benedict XIII were deposed by the council, and Gregory XII voluntarily resigned. Then Martin V was elected pope on 11 November 1417 and he was regarded as the legitimate pontiff by the church as a whole.
(www.ewtn.com/library/COUNCILS/CONSTANC.HTM)(WUD, 1994 p.313)

1415 Jun 13, Henry the Navigator, the prince of Portugal, embarked on an expedition to Africa. This marked the beginning of Portuguese dominance of West Africa.
(HN, 6/13/98)

1415 Jul 4, Pope Gregory XII (1326-1417), born Angelo Correr or Corraro, stepped down in a deal to end the Great Western Schism among competing papal claimants.
(AP, 2/11/13)( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Gregory_XII)

1415 Jul 6, Jan Huss, Bohemian (Czech) religious reformer, was burned as a heretic at the stake at Constance, Germany. He had spoken out against Church corruption.
(NH, 9/96, p.23)(HN, 7/6/98)

1415 Aug 13, King Henry V of England took his army across the English Channel and laid siege on Port Harfleur.
(ON, 6/08, p.9)

1415 Sep 21, Frederick III, German Emperor (1440-1493), was born in Innsbruck Austria.
(MC, 9/21/01)

1415 Oct 25, An English army under Henry V defeated the French at Agincourt, France. The French had out numbered Henry’s troops, but Welsh longbows turned the tide of the battle. The French force was under the command of the constable Charles I d’Albret. Charles I d’Albret, son of Arnaud-Amanieu d’Albret, came from a line of nobles who were often celebrated warriors. His ancestors had fought in the First Crusade (1096-99) and his father had fought in the Hundred Years War himself–first for the English before joining the side of France. Charles’ own exploits in the ongoing conflict came to an end at the Battle of Agincourt. The decisive victory for the outnumbered English saw the death of not only Charles, but a dozen other high-ranking nobles as well. But Charles’ fate did not end the Albrets as his descendants went on to become kings of Navarre, and later, France. In 2005 Juliet Barker authored “Agincourt: The King, the Campaign, and the Battle.”
(MH, 12/96)(HN, 10/25/98)(Econ, 10/22/05, p.88)(ON, 6/08, p.10)
1415 Oct 25, Edward (b.1373), duke of York, died at the Battle of Agincourt.

1416 Feb 6, A Samogitian complaint against the Knights of the Cross was read at the Catholic Church Council at Constance.
(LHC, 2/6/03)

1416 Apr 2, Ferdinand I (52) the Justified, king of Aragon and Sicily, died.
(MC, 4/2/02)

1416 May 7, Monk Nicolaas Serrurier was arrested for heresy at Tournay.
(MC, 5/7/02)

1416 May 30, Jerome of Prague was burned as a heretic by the Church.
(HN, 5/30/98)

1416 Jun 15, St. Francesco de Paolo, was born.
(HT, 6/15/00)
1416 Jun 15, Joannes Argyropoulos, Greek scholar, was born.
(HT, 6/15/00)

1416 Nanni di Banco, guild member of the Masters of Stone and Wood, installed his “Four Crowned Martyr Saints” at the Orsanmichele guild center in Florence.
(WSJ, 12/22/05, p.D8)

1416 The Drepung Loseling Monastery was founded in Lhasa, Tibet, as a center for Buddhist teaching. It was the home for early Dalai Lamas and a place where multiphonic singing was nurtured.
(SFC, 10/10/96, p.E1)

1416-1469 Piero de Medici, son of Cosimo de Medici.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1417 Feb 23, Pietro Barbo, later Pope Paul II (1464-1471), was born in Venice.
(PTA, 1980, p.418)

1417 Nov 11, Martin V was elected pope and was regarded as the legitimate pontiff by the church as a whole.

1417 Donatello used central point perspective in his scene of St. George fighting the dragon.
(Econ, 3/30/13, p.83)

1417 Bibliophile Poggio Bracciolini stumbled on a work by Roman poet Lucretius in a monastery in southern Germany. Lucretius (~99BC-~55BC) had authored “On the Nature of Things” (De Rerum Natura), which laid out in 7,400 lines of Latin verse the radical philosophy of the Greek philosopher Epicurus (341BC-270BC). The work had disappeared in the Middle Ages and lay largely forgotten until Bracciolini found it. In 2011 Stephen Greenblatt authored “The Swerve: How the World Became Modern.”
(SSFC, 12/18/11, p.F7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucretius)

1418 Feb 25, At the Constance church synod the Orthodox Metropolitan of Kiev and Lithuania, Gregory Camblak, proposed a union between the Orthodox and Catholic church.
(LHC, 2/25/03)

1418 In China a book was published about this time titled “The Marvelous Visions of the Star Raft.” It documented some of the exploits of Admiral Zheng He, who roamed the oceans from 1405-1435.
(Econ, 1/14/06, p.80)
1418 In 2006 Liu Gang, a Beijing lawyer and amateur map collector, unveiled a map that proclaimed to be a 1763 copy of an older Chinese map dating to 1418. The map showed the world in 2 hemispheres, but its authenticity was questioned.
(SSFC, 1/22/06, p.A9)(Econ, 1/14/06, p.80)

1418 In Florence Brunelleschi and Ghiberti submitted plans for the dome of the Cathedral of St. Mary of the Flower. The cathedral had been under construction for 125 years and was designed to be capped by the largest dome since the golden age of ancient Rome.
(ON, 9/00, p.6)

1418 The Gawhar Shad Mosque in Meshed, Iran was completed by the wife of Shah Rukh.
(NG, Sept 1939, Baroness Ravensdale, p.353)

1418 The Church Council at Constance, Germany, begun in 1414, ended.
(WUD, 1994 p.313)

1418 In Spain an agreement with the city council of Madrid set a fee of 50 maravedis – medieval copper coins – per 1,000 sheep brought through the central Sol square and Gran Via street. In 1994 sheep farmers began parading their livestock through the city, along a route that once cut through undeveloped countryside on their way to winter grazing pastures in southern Spain.
(Reuters, 10/21/18)

1419 Jul 30, Anti-Catholic Hussites, followers of executed reformer Jan Hus, stormed the town hall in Prague and threw 3 Catholic consuls and 7 citizens out the window. This episode has been called “The Defenestration in Prague.” The out-the-window gentlemen all landed safely in a manure pile.
(NH, 9/96, p.23)(MC, 7/30/02)

1419 Aug 16, Wenceslas (b.1361), son of Charles IV and King of Germany, died. He served as King Wenceslas IV of Bohemia (1363) and King of the Romans (1376).
1419 Aug 16, Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, became king of Bohemia following the death of Wenceslaus IV, but was ejected by the Hussites due to the execution of Jan Huss.

1419 Sep 10, John the Fearless (48), Burgundy and French warrior, was murdered at Montereau, France, by supporters of the dauphine.
(HN, 9/10/98)(MC, 9/10/01)

1419 Dec 11, Heretic Nicolaas Serrurier was exiled from Florence.
(MC, 12/11/01)

1419 The marble Fonte Gaia in Siena was sculpted by Jacopo della Quercia.
(WSJ, 4/29/03, D5)

1419 An English army under Henry V captured the duchy of Normandy.
(ON, 6/08, p.11)

1419 Prince Henry (d.1460), as governor of Portugal’s southernmost province, attracted shipbuilders, cartographers and other nautical experts. His patronage was instrumental in stimulating European exploration in the first half of the 15th century.
(HN, 6/21/01)

1420 Mar 1, Pope Martinus I called for a crusade against the Hussieten (Bohemia).
(SC, 3/1/02)

1420 May 21, King Charles VI of France signed the Treaty of Troyes. It recognized all the territorial gains of King Henry V, gave Henry the daughter of Charles, Catherine of Valois, in marriage, and acknowledged Henry as the legitimate heir to the French throne.
(ON, 6/08, p.11)

1420 Jul 14, Jan Zizka (1360?-1424) led the Taborites in Battle at Vitkov Zizka’s hill (Prague). The Taborites beat forces under Sigismund, the pro-Catholic King of Hungary and Bohemia. This was part of the Hussite Wars (1419-1436).

1420 Jul, The Hussites agreed on the Four Articles of Prague, which were promulgated in the Latin, Czech, and German languages. In summery they stated: 1) Freedom to preach the Word of God. 2) Celebration of the Lord’s Supper in both kinds (bread and wine to priests and laity alike). 3) No profane power for the clergy. And 4) The same law for laity and priests.

1420 Dec 1, Henry V, King of England and de facto ruler of France, entered Paris.

1420 Siennese artist Giovanni di Paolo painted a tiny gold-ground triptych.
(SFEC, 1/11/98, p.D7)

1420 The main character of Janacek’s opera “The Excursions of Mr. Broucek” was cast into a setting of religious wars from this time and forced to fight with the Hussite fanatics in Prague.
(WSJ, 6/13/96, p.A12)

c1420 Francesco di Antonio, Florentine artist, painted “St. John the Baptist” and “St. Anthony Abbot.” The panels later made their way to St. Philip’s in the Hills parish in Tucson, Ariz.
(WSJ, 8/9/96, p.A8)

1420 Brewers in Bavaria about this time discovered a way to brew beer in the winter beginning the lager revolution.
(Econ, 8/27/11, p.71)

1420 In Greece the Bayezid Mosque was completed in the town of Didymoticho close to the Greek-Turkish border. In 2017 a fire ripped through the Ottoman mosque causing extensive damage.
(Reuters, 3/22/17)

1420 Prince Henry the Navigator (b.1394) gathered cartographers, navigators and shipbuilders in a fortress in Sagres, Portugal, to invent navigation technology to reach India, China and the Americas. He later sailed south of the Canary Islands to the great eastward curve of West Africa at Sierra Leone. The search for Prester John as an ally against the Muslims helped inspire his explorations. Henry began dispatching expeditions from the nearby port of Lagos. Although dubbed “Henry the Navigator” by English writers, he never embarked on the voyages of exploration he himself sponsored. Nevertheless, the prince helped advance European cartography and the accuracy of navigation tools as well as spurring maritime commerce.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)(HN, 3/4/98)(WSJ, 1/28/00, p.A18)(HNQ, 6/21/01)

1420 Portuguese sailors and soldiers begin fighting the natives of the Canary Islands, 800 miles southwest of the southern tip of Portugal.

1420 Scotland’s Duke of Albany died. The governorship of Scotland and Doune Castle passed to his son, Murdoch.
(SSFC, 11/23/03, p.C6)

1420-1433 Time of the Hussite wars in Bohemia.
(WUD, 1994, p.1671)

1420-1480 The Portuguese explored the west coast of Africa along the Gold Coast, so named because here could be found plenty of gold to buy pepper.

1420-1492 Piero della Francesca, painter, born in Borgo Sansepolcro, but trained in Florence. In Urbino under the patronage of Federico da Montefeltro, he produced some of his best works including the “Flagellation,” the “Resurrection” and “St. Apollonia.” His paintings incorporated the new aspect of perspective and earthly matters dominate over religious feeling.
(V.D.-H.K.p.130)(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.563)

1420-1500 The Paston Letters comprise 1,000 documents involving an English family over this period. The collection is held by the Univ. of Michigan and is being made electronically available under the Humanities Text Initiative (HTI) program that was begun in 1989.
(MT, 6/96, p.8,9)

1421 Mar, Admiral Zheng He of the Ming dynasty embarked on a voyage that took him to the east coast of Africa. In 2002 an amateur historian proposed that he continued his voyage around the world. [see 1431]
(SSFC, 3/17/02, p.A3)

1421 May 11, Jews were expelled from Styria, Austria.
(MC, 5/11/02)

1421 May 23, Jews of Austria were imprisoned and expelled.
(MC, 5/23/02)

1421 May 26, Mohammed I, Ottoman sultan (1413-21), died.
(MC, 5/26/02)

1421 Nov 18-1421 Nov 19, In the St. Elizabeth flood the Southern sea flooded 72 villages killing some 10,000 in Netherlands.

1421 Dec 6, Henry VI, the youngest king of England, was born. He acceded the thrown at 269 days of age.
(HN, 12/6/02)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_VI_of_England)

1421 In Florence the first recorded patent was granted for a barge with hoisting gear used to transport marble.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1421 In Vienna a medieval synagogue burned with its Jewish occupants. Its remains were found in 1996 in the Judenplaz during preparation work for the installation of a new statue for the Holocaust Memorial project.
(WSJ, 11/7/96, p.A18)

1422 Mar 30, Ketsugan, a Zen teacher, performed exorcisms to free the Aizoji temple.
(MC, 3/30/02)

1422 Aug 13, William Caxton (d.1491), 1st English printer, was born.
(http://en.thinkexist.com/birthday/August_13/)(WSJ, 5/12/05, p.D8)

1422 Aug 31, Henry V (b.1387), King of England (1413-22) and France (1416-19), died.

1422 Sep 6, Sultan Murat II ended a vain siege of Constantinople.
(HN, 9/6/98)

1422 Oct 21, Charles VI, King of France (1380-1422), died at 54.
(MC, 10/21/01)

1422-1482 Federico da Montefeltro, a distinguished warrior and scholar, commissioned 2 intarsia studiolas (1478-1483). A history of Federico and his studiola is in the 6/6/96 issue of “The Bulletin,” the NY Met museum’s newsletter for members
(WSJ, 6/6/96, p.A12)

1423 Mar 30, Lithuania and Poland reached an agreement at Kezmark with Emperor Sigismund, who agreed to recall Sigismund Kaributa from Poland.
(LHC, 3/30/03)

1423 May 23, Benedict XIII, [Pedro the Luna], Spanish Pope (1394-1423), died. He had been elected by the Avignon cardinals during the Great Western Schism.
(MC, 5/23/02)(PTA, 1980, p.402)

1423 Ghiberti’s sculpture of St. Matthew was installed at the Orsanmichele guild center in Florence.
(WSJ, 12/22/05, p.D8)

1423 Dick Whittington (b.1354), four times Lord Mayor of London, a Member of Parliament and a sheriff of London, died and gave all his money to charity.
(Reuters, 11/26/11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Whittington)

1424 Oct 11, Jan Zizka (b.c1370), Czech army leader (Hussite), died of plague.

1424 Dec 6, Don Alfonso V of Aragon granted Barcelona the right to exclude Jews.
(MC, 12/6/01)

1424 Masolino sculpted his Pieta.
(WSJ, 1/20/02, p.D8)

1424 A Portuguese navigation chart showed a land called Antilia in the vicinity of the West Indies.
(SFEC, 5/28/00, Z1 p.2)

1424 James I (1394-1437) returned from exile and was crowned King of Scotland.

1425 Feb 27, Moscow’s Grand Duke Vasilii died and his brother-in-law, Vytautas, became guardian of his son, Vasilii, and daughter, Sophia.
(LHC, 2/27/03)

1425 Jul 21, Manuel Palaeologus, Byzantine Emperor (1391-1425), writer, died. He ended his days after signing a humiliating peace with the Ottoman Turks.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manuel_II_Palaeologus)(Econ, 9/23/06, p.59)

1425 Aug 25, Countess Jacoba of Bavaria escaped from jail.
(chblue.com, 8/25/01)

1425 Donatello created his hollow bronze statue of St. Louis of Toulouse.
(Econ, 3/30/13, p.83)

1425 Robert Campin painted the altarpiece “The Merode Triptych.”
(WSJ, 1/14/00, p.W12)

1425 Dame Juliana Berner described fly fishing in her “Treatyse of Fysshynge Wyth an Angle.” [see 1496]
(SFEM, 11/7/99, p.6)

1426 Sep 18, Hubert [Huybrecht] van Eyck, painter, died.
(MC, 9/18/01)

1426 Hubert van Eyck (1385-1426) began work on “The Adoration of the Mystic Lamb,” later known as the Ghent Altarpiece. The 12-panel work was completed in 1432 by his younger brother Jan van Eyck. It was the first major oil painting in history.
(SSFC, 2/16/14, p.E6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ghent_Altarpiece)

1426 Vietnam provided a defeated Chinese army with boats and horses to carry home its soldiers.
(NG, May, 04, p.94)

1427 May 10, Jews were expelled from Berne, Switzerland.
(MC, 5/10/02)

1427 Gentile De Fabriano (b.~1378), Italian painter, died about this time. His work included “The Adoration of the Kings” (1423).
(WSJ, 12/19/08, p.W9A)( http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/06421a.htm)

1428 Feb 5, King Alfonso V ordered Sicily’s Jews to convert to Catholicism.
(MC, 2/5/02)

1428 Dec 22, Richard Neville Warwick, 2nd earl of Salisbury, was born.
(MC, 12/22/01)

1428 Fra Angelico (c.1387-1455), Italian painter and Dominican friar, created his “Madonna of Humility.”
(Econ, 12/17/11, p.148)
1428 John Wycliffe (1328-1384), English theologian and biblical translator, was posthumously declared a heretic and his body was exhumed for burning.
(WSJ, 4/4/01, p.A18)

1428-1430 Andrei Rublev, Russian icon painter, took part in painting the frescoes of the Andronikov Monastery’s Church of the Savior.
(DVD, Criterion, 1998)

1429 Jan 9, The conference at Luck began (Jan 9-29). Vytautas hosted a grand Congress at Luck ostensibly to unite the region against threats from the Turks to the south. Emperor Sigismund of Hungary agreed to the formation of the Kingdom of Lithuania and dispatched a crown from Hungary.
(DrEE, 11/9/96, p.6)(LHC, 1/9/03)

1429 Jan 10, Order of Golden Fleece was established in Austria-Hungary & Spain.
(MC, 1/10/02)

1429 Jan 23, At the Congress of Luck Emp. Sigismund of Luxembourg offered to crown Vytautas as King of Lithuania.
(LHC, 1/23/03)

1429 Apr 29, Joan of Arc led French troops to victory over the English at Orleans during the Hundred Years’ War. Legend has it that King Charles VII of France had a suit of armor made for Joan at a cost of 100 war horses. In 1996 a suit of armor was found and proposed to be Joan’s armor.
(ATC, p.107)(SFC, 6/19/96, p.A10)(AP, 4/29/98)(HN, 4/29/98)

1429 May 7, English siege of Orleans was broken by Joan of Arc.
(HN, 5/7/98)

1429 May 8, French troops under Joan of Arc rescued Orleans.
(MC, 5/8/02)

1429 May 9, Joan of Arc defeated the besieging English at Orleans.
(HN, 5/9/98)

1429 Jul 16, Joan of Arc led French army in the Battle of Orleans. [see May 9]
(MC, 7/16/02)

1429 Jul 17, The dauphin, son of Charles VI, was crowned as king of France.
(PCh, 1992, p.144)(MC, 7/17/02)

1429 Aug 26, Joan of Arc makes a triumphant entry into Paris.
(HN, 8/26/99)

1429 Nov 6, Coronation of Henry VI, King of England.
(HN, 11/6/98)

1429 Dec 21, Jacquemart de Blaharies, Tournay “heretic”, was burned to death.
(MC, 12/21/01)

1429 The beginning of coal mining in the Saarland (Germany) dates to this time.
(Econ, 3/1/08, p.71)

1429 Two monks reportedly went fishing in Russia’s northern Solovetsky Islands and soon established a year-round settlement usually referred to as Solovki.
(Econ, 12/18/04, p.83)

1429 The kingdom of Ryukyu was unified under the court at Shuri (later part of Naha, Okinawa).
(NH, 9/01, p.56)

1430 Jan 29, Andrei Rublev, Russian icon painter, died and was buried in the Andronikov Monastery. In 1966 the Russian film “Andrei Rublev” was made by Andrei Tarkovsky.
(DVD, Criterion, 1998)

1430 May 5, Jews were expelled from Speyer, Germany.
(MC, 5/5/02)

1430 May 23, Joan of Arc was captured by the Burgundians, who sold her to the English.
(AP, 5/23/97)(HN, 5/23/98)

1430 Jul 14, Joan of Arc, taken prisoner by the Burgundians in May, was handed over to Pierre Cauchon, the bishop of Beauvais.
(HN, 7/14/98)

1430 Oct 3, Jews were expelled from Eger, Bohemia.
(MC, 10/3/01)

1430 Oct 27, Vytautas the Great (b.1350), the ruler of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (1392–1430) which chiefly encompassed the Lithuanians and Ruthenians, died. He had been preparing for coronation but Polish forces interrupted the arrival of his crown to Trakus. He began to ride to Vilnius but fell from his horse and was returned to Trakus where he died at the age of 80. He was also the Prince of Hrodna (1370–1382) and the Prince of Lutsk (1387–1389), postulated king of Hussites.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vytautas)(H of L, 1931, p.58)

1430-1432 In Lithuania Svitrigaila served as Grand Duke.
(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1430s Jan van Eyck painted 2 works titled “St. Francis Receiving the Stigmata.” For a time he was considered the inventor of oil painting, but later lost that distinction. He is still regarded as the inventor of a type of landscape painting with figures in realistic scale that influenced the entire Northern school of painting. Only 9 signed and dated works survive. In 2001 painter David Hockney and physicist Charles Falco alleged that Eyck and other artists of this period began using optical devices to project pictures and produce detailed tracings.
(WSJ, 5/7/98, p.A21)(SFC, 1/5/01, p.C9)

1430 Hans Memling (d.1494), painter of the Flemish school, was born in Seligenstadt, Germany.
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.894)

1430?-1498? Cosimo Tura, Italian painter. He painted “Renaissance Nobleman.”
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1525)

1430-1516 Giovanni Bellini, Venetian painter son of Jacopo. He painted “Portrait of the Doge Loredano.”
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.136)

1431 Jan 1, Rodrigo Borgia Lanzol (d.1503), member of the Borgia family, was born in Xativa, Spain. His mother was the sister of Pope Calixtus III. He was elected Pope Alexander VI in 1492 and amassed a fortune by pocketing church funds. His reign helped inspire the Protestant reformation. He fathered numerous children including Lucrezia Borgia. Machiavelli based “The Prince” on him.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)(PTA, 1980, 424)

1431 Feb 21, The interrogation of Joan of Arc (1412-1431) began France.
(Sm, 2/06, p.38)

1431 Mar 3, Bishop Gabriele Condulmer (1383-1447) was elected as Pope Eugene IV (1431-1447).
(WUD, 1994 p.491)(PTA, 1980, p.410)(SC, 3/3/02)

1431 May 30, Joan of Arc (19), condemned as a heretic [as a witch], was burned at the stake in Rouen, France. A silent movie of her life was made in 1927 by Carl Theodor Dreyer.
(CFA, ’96, p.46)(WSJ, 1/23/96, p.A-12)(AP, 5/30/97)(HN, 5/30/98)

1431 Dec 16, Henry VI of England was crowned King of France.
(HN, 12/16/98)

1431 Andrea Mantegna (d.1506), Italian painter and engraver, was born.
(WUD, 1994, p.1534)(WSJ, 6/6/96, p.A12)(SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T11)

1431 Admiral Cheng Ho of the Ming dynasty led a fleet of 52 ships with nearly 30,000 men to the east coast of Africa. Shortly thereafter the Mings halted all voyages and begin to foster an attitude of antiforeign conservatism.

1431 Thai armies invaded and plundered the Khmer civilization at Angkor Thom in Cambodia. The court moved south of the great lake Tonle Sap and later to Phnom Penh.
(SFEC, 7/26/98, p.T6)

1431 Cosimo de Medici was arrested for seeking to elevate himself higher than others. With bribes he reduced his sentence from execution to banishment. His absence led to a financial crises in Florence and he was quickly invited back.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1431-1463? Francois Villon, French poet. The 1938 film “If I Were King” starred Ronald Colman and Basil Rathbone and was directed by Preston Sturges. It was about the French poet and revolutionary Francois Villon.
(WUD, 1994, p.1593)(SFEC, 8/2/98, DB p.49)

1431-1476 In Romania Vlad Tepes, aka Vlad the Impaler, the son of Vlad Dracul (Vlad the Dragon), was a 15th century gruesome Wallachian nobleman. Dracula means son of the dragon. He punished disobedient subjects and “unchaste” women by impaling them on sharpened logs, often dining amid the victims as they died. The family name changed to Kretzulesco and grew in stature with members upgraded to princes and princesses.
(WSJ, 10/30/97, p.A20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vlad_the_Impaler)

1432 Jan 15, Afonso V “the African”, king of Portugal (1438-1481), was born.
(MC, 1/15/02)

1432 Zeeland became part of the Low Countries possession of Phillip the Good (1396-1467) of Burgundy.

1432-1440 In Lithuania Zygimantas Kestutaitis served as Grand Duke.
(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1433 Apr 14, Liduina van Schiedam (53), Dutch mystic (Christ’s Bride), saint, died.
(MC, 4/14/02)

1433 May 31, Sigismund was crowned emperor of Rome.
(HN, 5/31/98)

1434 Mar 1, Jacoba of Bavaria married Frank van Borselen.
(SC, 3/1/02)

1434 May 30, The Battle of Lipany virtually ended the Hussite Wars. Prokopius leader of Taborites, died in battle.

1434 Nov 24, The Thames River froze.
(MC, 11/24/01)

1434 Jan van Eyck painted “the Arnolfini Marriage.” It is now at the London National Gallery.
(Cont, 12/97, p.60)(SFEC, 2/1/98, p.T8)

1434 The imperial kiln at Jungdezhen in south-central China produced 250,000 porcelain pieces.
(SFEC, 10/6/96, DB p.37)

1434 Nomadic Tuaregs seized Timbuktu, Mali, from invaders.
(AP, 4/1/12)

1434 Gil Eannes, Portuguese explorer, made the first successful rounding of Cape Bojador, off Western Sahara, in a lug-rigged boat.

1435 Sep 21, Treaty of Atrecht. Philippe le Bon of Burgundy and French king Charles II signed a treaty at Arras. Phillipe broke with the English and recognized Charles as France’s only king.
(MC, 9/21/01)(PCh, 1992, p.145)

1435 Oct 20, Andrea Della Robbia, sculptor, nephew of Luca, was born in Florence.
(MC, 10/20/01)

1435 In Sweden the main building of the Uppsala Cathedral was completed. Spires were added in the 19th century.
(SSFC, 7/26/15, p.M16)

1436 Jun 6, Regiomontanus (Johannes Muller), prepared astronomical tables, was born.
(MC, 6/6/02)

1436 The 350-foot high dome of Santa Maria del Fiore, the cathedral of Florence, by Filippo Brunelleschi was completed. The cathedral was consecrated by the Pope following 140 years of construction. In 2000 Ross King authored “Brunelleschi’s Dome: How a Renaissance Genius Reinvented Architecture.”
(Hem., 10/97, p.130)(SSFC, 12/24/00, BR p.12)

1436 Emperor Sigismund (1368-1437) was accepted as king of Bohemia.
(WUD, 1994, p.1672)(WUD, 1994, p.1325)

1436 Johannes Gutenburg of Germany invented the printing press with movable type.
(SFC, 7/26/04, p.F4)

1437 Sep 18, Farmers revolted in Transylvania.
(MC, 9/18/01)

1437 Dec 9, Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, died. Major Czech factions had accepted Sigismund as king of Bohemia prior to his death.

1438 Oct 20, Jacopo di Piero della Quercia (64), Italian sculptor, died.
(MC, 10/20/01)

1438 Jan van Eyck (1385-1440) painted his “Portrait of Cardinal Niccols Albergati.”
(SFC, 1/5/01, p.C9)

1438 Filippo Lippi created the painting “Woman with a Man at a Window.”
(WSJ, 12/14/01, p.W20)

1438 The Incas established an imperial state in the Andes (Peru) and Cusco was rebuilt. They went on to build over 25,000 miles of roads.
(SFC, 3/19/02, p.A2)(NG, Feb, 04, p.72)

1438 The shipbuilding firm of Camuffo was founded in Portogruaro, Italy.
(SFC, 4/14/06, p.D1)

1439 Jul 16, Kissing was banned in England in order to stop germs from spreading.
(MC, 7/16/02)

1439 Oct 21, Traversari Ambrosius (53), Italian humanist and leader, died.
(MC, 10/21/01)

1439 Oct 27, Albrecht II von Habsburg (42), king of Bohemia, Hungary and Germany, died.
(MC, 10/27/01)

1439-1440 Donatello (1386-1466), Florentine artist, completed his bronze statue of David about this time. It was commissioned by Cosimo de Medici.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R53)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_%28Donatello%29)

1439 Byzantium formally submitted to Rome. [see 330AD]
(WSJ, 11/14/95, p. A-12)

1439-1448 Felix V served as the last antipope. He was born as Amadeus VIII, duke of Savoye in 1383.
(MC, 9/4/01)

1440 Jan 22, Ivan III (the Great), grand prince of Russia, czar from 1462-1505, was born. He conquered Lithuania.
(HN, 1/22/99)(MC, 1/22/02)

1440 Feb 22, Ladislaus V Posthumus, King of Hungary and Bohemia, was born.
(MC, 2/22/02)

1440 Jun 29, Florentine troops fought the Milanese in the Battle of Anghiari. After the battle of Anghieri, Andrea del Castagno (1421-1457), a Medici protege, painted effigies of the hanged rebels.

1440 Oct 26, Gilles de Rais, French marshal, depraved killer of 140 children, was hanged over slow fire. A brilliant young French knight, he was believed to have cracked over the torture and death of his true love, Jeanne d’Arc, the Maid of Orleans (d.1431).
(MC, 10/26/01)

1440 Dec 22, Bluebeard, pirate, was executed.
(MC, 12/22/01)

c1440 The Book of Hours of Catherine of Cleves was made.
(SFC, 2/15/97, p.D1)

c1440 Lief Eriksson drew a map of America about this time. The “Vinland Map” was introduced in 1965 by Yale University as being the 1st known map of America, drawn about 1440 by Norse explorer Lief Eriksson.
(MC, 10/10/01)

1440 Eton, the top British public school, was established by Henry VI.
(Hem, 4/96, p.68)

1440-1492 In Lithuania Casimir served as Grand Duke.
(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1440-1870 This period is covered in the 1997 book by Hugh Thomas: “The Slave Trade, The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440-1870.”
(SFEC,11/16/97, BR p.4)(WSJ, 2/26/02, p.A22)

1441 Jun, Jan/Johannes van Eyck (b.1395), Flemish painter (Lamb Gods), died in Brugge.

1441 Portuguese kidnapped several noble-born Africans, who in turn offered African slaves to the captors as ransom. In 1998 John Reader published “Africa: A Biography of a Continent.”
(SFEC, 6/28/98, BR p.12)

1442 Apr 28, Edward, the son of Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York, was born in Rouen, France. He was crowned as Edward IV in 1461 and became the first king of the House of York (1471-1483). In a 2004 television documentary, records were found in the Rouen Cathedral archives which revealed that, from 14 July to 21 August 1441, the crucial five-week period in which Edward must have been conceived, Edward’s supposed father was away on campaign at Pontoise, several days’ march from Rouen (where Cecily of York was based), and that prayers were being offered for his safety. This was taken to suggest that the Duke of York could not have been available to father Edward.

1442 Jun 12, Alfonso V of Aragon was crowned King of Naples.
(HN, 6/12/98)

1442 The Pazzi Chapel in Florence was begun. Its design was suspected to be by Michelozzo di Bortalommeo, a follower of Brunelleschi.
(SFC, 1/2/97, p.C3)
1442 Al-Maqrizi (b.1364), Egyptian historian, died. His work included a history of Cairo. Maqrizi had begun a large work called the Muqaffa, an encyclopedia of Egyptian biography in alphabetic order. Another Egyptian historian, al-Sakhawi, believed this would require eighty volumes to complete, but only sixteen were written.
(SSFC, 7/24/11, p.F7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Maqrizi)

1443 May 9, Niccolo d’Albergati, Italian cardinal, died.
(MC, 5/9/02)

1443 Jun 5, Ferdinand, Portuguese saint, slave to Fez, died.
(MC, 6/5/02)

1443 Dec 5, Giuliano della Rovere, later Pope Julius II (1443-1513), was born in Liguria.

1443 After losing a battle near Nis, Skenderbeg with a group of Albanian warriors defected from the Ottoman army and return to Kruja. Albanian resistance to Turkish rule was organized under the leadership of Skander Beg in Kruja. He was able to keep Albania independent for more than 20 years. A baronial museum in his honor was later was designed by the daughter of Enver Hoxha.
(CO, Grolier’s Amer. Acad. Enc./ Albania)(WSJ, 4/14/98, p.A21)(www, Albania, 1998)

1444 May 20, Bernardinus van Siena (63), Italian saint, died.
(MC, 5/20/02)

1444 Aug 26, In the Battle of St. Jakob an der Birs, fought near Basel in Switzerland, a Swiss force of some 1,600 soldiers stopped some 30,000 French mercenaries on their way to relieve a siege of Zurich.

1444 Nov 10, During the Hungarian-Turkish War (1444-1456), Sultan Murad II beat the Crusaders in the Battle at Varna on the Black Sea.
(DoW, 1999, p.217)

1444 Murad II, Ottoman ruler, abdicated and Mehmet II (13) briefly succeeded him until 1446.
(Ot, 1993, p.7)
1444 The Albanian people organized a league of Albanian princes in this year under George Kastrioti, also known as Skanderbeg. As leader of this Christian league he effectively repulsed 13 Turkish invasions from 1444 to 1466, making him a hero in the Western world.
(HNQ, 10/5/98)(www, Albania, 1998)
1444 Cossacks were first mentioned in Russian history.
(SFC,10/28/97, p.A8)
1444 Slaves from Africa were first carried to Portugal. Europe’s first modern-era slave market was established in Portugal. Lancarote de Freitas returned to Lagos, Portugal, with his small fleet of six ships and 235 Berbers, kidnapped from a region of West Africa (Mauritania).
(WSJ, 12/1/97, p.A20)(SSFC, 2/19/17, p.F6)(SFC, 10/31/18, p.E1)

1445 Giovanni di Paolo, Italian painter in Siena, painted “The Creation,” and the Expulsion of Adam and Eve from Paradise. In this painting Paolo depicted the universe as a set of nesting concentric spheres.
(NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.244)

1445 The Council of Florence ended. It established the date for the Great Schism between the Eastern and Western (Orthodox and Catholic) churches as July, 1054. An official date was needed so that talks could begin on reunion.
(WSJ, 7/16/97, p.A23)

1445-1510 Sandro Botticelli, Italian painter, was born in Florence as Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi. His work included “The Birth of Venus” “Madonna of the Eucharist” (c1472-1475) and “Portrait of a Man with a Medal.” His work “Venus and Mars” is at the London National Gallery. He belongs to the era of the Quattro cento, when artists were still struggling to break free of the rigid outlines of the Middle Ages. His solution was the use of curved lines. Vasari later claimed that Botticelli was a follower of Savonarola, the religious zealot.
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.173)(WSJ, 2/5/97, p.A16)(SFEC, 2/1/98, p.T8)

1446 Apr 16, Filippo Brunelleschi (69), architect, sculptor and goldsmith, died and was buried in the Cathedral of St. Mary of the Flower in Florence. In the 1490s Antonio di Tuccio Manetti authored “The Life of Brunelleschi.” In 1974 Isabelle Hyman authored “Brunelleschi in Perspective.”
(ON, 9/00, p.8)(MC, 4/16/02)

1446 Oct 9, The Korean alphabet known as hangul, created under the aegis of King Sejong, was first published. This day was later made a national holiday.
(AP, 10/9/07)(Econ, 10/10/15, p.40)

1446 In Scotland Sir William St. Clair, a grand master in the Knights Templar, founded the Rosslyn Chapel. It was built in the shape of a cross in the Pentland Hills outside Edinburgh. It became famous as part of the Dan Brown’s 2003 thriller “The Da Vinci Code.”
(SFC, 5/25/06, p.E2)

1446 Mehmet II, Ottoman ruler, was deposed and Murad II was recalled to the throne.
(Ot, 1993, p.7)

1446-1521 A Gothic choir with buttresses and pinnacles was added to the abbey Mont St. Michel off the coast of Normandy, France. It replaced one that had collapsed.
(WSJ, 10/7/06, p.P18)

1446-1523 The Italian painter Perugino, born as Pietro di Cristoforo di Vannucci, was a student of Pierro della Francesca and Andrea Verrochio. He won a papal commission for frescoes on the sidewalls of the Sistine Chapel along with Botticelli and Ghirlandaio. His work included the late weird allegory “The Combat Between Love and Chastity.”
(WSJ, 1/6/98, p.16)

1446-1524 Il Perugino (Pietro Vannucci), painter, worked in Umbria and died of the plague. His work includes: “The Baptism,” “Mary in Glory,” “Adoration of the Magi,” Martyrdom of St. Sebastian,” ” Madonna and Child,” and “The Virgin in Glory.”
(WUD, 1994, p.1076)(SFEM, 10/12/97, p.49)

1447 The winged altarpiece of Stephensdom in Vienna, Austria was completed.
(Hem., Dec. ’95, p.67)

1448 Oct 31, Johannes VIII Palaeologus (b.1390), Emperor of Byzantium, died.

1448 In China hyperinflation hit and paper money lost 97% of its value. China soon abandoned paper money.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1448 The Portuguese established the first European trading post in Africa.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1449 Jan 1, Lorenzo de Medici (d.1492), later know as Lorenzo the Magnificent, was born in Florence.

1449 Albanians, under Skenderbeg, routed the Ottoman forces under Sultan Murat II.
(www, Albania, 1998)

1449 Ashikaga Yoshimasa (14) inherited the office of Shogun, the chief military and civic leader of feudal Japanese society. His leadership focused on the arts and depleted the national treasury which led to social and political anarchy.
(ON, 7/01, p.3)

1449 Rodrigo Borgia Lanzol (b.1431), father of Cesare and Lucretia, arrived in Rome from Spain and Italianized his name from Borja to Borgia. His rise in the church was helped a great deal when his uncle became Pope Calixtus III.
(HN, 8/10/98)(PTA, p.424)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R4)(MC, 8/11/02)

1449 The giant Scottish bombard known as Mons Meg was built. It was retired from active service in 1680, after splitting her barrel while firing a ceremonial shot. She can still be seen in Edinburgh castle.
(HNQ, 6/20/02)



The Fifteenth Century 1450-1475

1450 May 8, Jack Cade’s Rebellion-Kentishmen revolted against King Henry VI.
(HN, 5/8/98)

1450 Jul 12, Jack Cade was slain in a revolt against British King Henry VI.
(MC, 7/12/02)

1450 Oct 5, Jews were expelled from Lower Bavaria by order of Ludwig IX.
(MC, 10/5/01)

1450 Oct 23, Juan de Capistrano (70), Italian saint, died.
(MC, 10/23/01)

1450 Johannes Gutenberg began printing a bible with movable type in Mainz. He perfected interchangeable type that could be cast in large quantities and invented a new type of press.
(NG, March 1990, p. 117)(WSJ, 10/31/96, p.A21)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)
1450 Johannes Gutenberg was able to convince financier Johann Fust to loan him 800 guilders, a considerable sum. Gutenberg’s experiments with printing were financed in large part by Fust, who later won a suit against Gutenberg to recoup his investment. Fust invested another 800 guilders in 1452, securing a partnership in Gutenberg’s business. By 1455, impatient for results or perhaps simply due to estrangement from Gutenberg, Fust sued and won a settlement of just over 2,000 guilders: the sum of the two loans plus interest. Fust also gained control of Gutenberg’s movable type and some of his printing equipment. Gutenberg was able to continue some printing and eventually was granted a pension by the archbishop of Mainz in 1465.
(HNQ, 1/12/01)

c1450 In the mid 1400s Berbers took over the trade and learning centers of Timbuktu and Walata.
(ATC, p.120)

1450 In Mexico City an Aztec cornerstone ceremony took place about this time intended to dedicate a new layer of building. In 2005 archeologists found a child found at the Templo Mayor ruins who was apparently killed as part of a ceremony dedicated to the war god Huitzilopochtli.
(AP, 7/23/05)

c1450 The Portuguese brought slaves to the uninhabited Cape Verde Island.
(SFC, 8/5/98, p.A8)

c1450 Legend has it that in the mid-15th century Vietnam, King Le Loi defeated Chinese invaders with a magic sword given to him by the gods. After the victory, the king was said to be boating on the lake when a giant golden turtle rose to the surface and grabbed the sword in its mouth before plunging deep into the water to return it to its divine owners. The lake was later renamed “Ho Hoan Kiem,” which means “Lake of the Returned Sword.”
(AP, 11/3/03)

c1450 The chiefs of Zimbabwe’s gold producing provinces declared independence from Great Zimbabwe. A northern group led by King Mwene Mutapa conquered neighboring kingdoms and a new empire called Monomutapa was formed.
(ATC, p.148)

1450-1455 Dieric Bouts painted “The Annunciation.” The Getty Museum later acquired it for $7 million, but its authenticity was controversial.
(WSJ, 4/9/99, p.W16)

1450-1460 The German Master E.S. made his drawing “Girl With a Ring.”
(WSJ, 12/8/99, p.A20)

1450-1500 Bartolomeu Dias, Portuguese explorer. He discovered the Cape of Good Hope.
(WUD, 1994, p.399)

c1450-1500 Nyatsimba, Mwene Matapa or Monomotapa (Lord of the Plundered People or Ravager of the Lands), Chief of the Zimbabwe Empire. He conquered the middle Zambezi Valley and built stone citadels at Great Zimbabwe. He was known to have a corps of over 100 female bodyguards.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

c1450-1516 Hieronymus Bosch, painter was born. Hieronymous van Aken was born in the small Dutch Brabant city of ‘s-Hertogenbosch in Flanders.
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.172)(WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A12)(WSJ, 10/11/01, p.A19)

1450-1532 The period of the Inca Empire. Inca mummies were later found on Mt. Ampato in 1995 and 1997. In 1998 archeologist found 6 frozen mummies sacrificed to Inca gods near the crater of the 19,100 foot El Misti volcano, 465 miles southeast of Lima, Peru.
(SFEM, 4/13/97, p.16)(SFC,12/13/97, p.A14)(SFC, 10/3/98, p.C1)

1450-1650AD The Venetians occupied the capital city Crete, Iraklion. The forests of Crete provided the Venetians with cedars and firs for their fleets.
(SFEC, 8/17/97, p.T10)

1450-1890 The period of the Little Ice Age. Temperatures over this period were a few degrees lower than during the 1900s.
(SFC, 11/29/02, p.J6)

1451 Feb 3, Murad II, Ottoman sultan (1421-51), died of apoplexy. Mehmet II (19) became Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. He ruled until 1481.
(ON, 10/00, p.10)(Ot, 1993, p.7)(MC, 2/3/02)

1451 Mar 9, Amerigo Vespucci (d.1512), Italian navigator, was born in Florence.

1451 Apr 22, Isabella I of Castile, Queen of Spain (1479-1504), patron of Christopher Columbus, was born in Madrigal, Spain.
(HN, 4/22/98)(AP, 4/22/01)(MC, 4/22/02)

1451 Jun 28, An eclipse occurred that allegedly prevented the outbreak of war between the Mohawk and the Seneca Indians.
(SCTS, p.6)

1451 Sep 21, Cardinal Nicholas of Cusa ordered the Jews of Holland to wear a badge.
(MC, 9/21/01)

1451 An Afghan named Buhlul invaded Delhi, and seized the throne. He founded the Lodi dynasty.

1451 In France Jacques Coeur was charged with poisoning Agnes Sorel, mistress to King Charles VII. Sorel had died in childbirth. Charles confiscated Coeur’s property and put him in jail. Coeur escaped and fled to Rome. He died several years later fighting the Turks.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)

1451 The Univ. of Glasgow was built. It was the 4th oldest university in the English speaking world.
(SSFC, 3/10/13, p.H4)

1451 The Vatican Library was founded.
(WSJ, 3/2/00, p.W10)

1451-1506 Christopher Columbus, was born in Genoa. He was probably the child of Spanish-Jewish parents exiled by the Inquisition.

1451 March 9, The birthday of Amerigo Vespucci (d.1512). He was the Italian navigator after whom America was named. He explored the New World coastline after Columbus.
(CFA, ’96,Vol 179, p.42)(AHD, p.1425)

1452 Mar 10, Ferdinand II, the Catholic King of Aragon (1479-1516) and Sicily (1468-1516), was born. He bankrolled Columbus and expelled Jews.
(WUD, 1994 p.524)(MC, 3/10/02)

1452 Apr 15, Leonardo da Vinci (d.1519), Italian painter, sculptor, scientist and visionary, was born in Vinci near Florence. He apprenticed to the painters Verrocchio and Antonio Pollaiuolo and was accepted to the Florentine painters’ guild at twenty. Only seventeen surviving paintings can be attributed to him. These include: “The Last Supper” in Milan, the “Mona Lisa” and “The Virgin and Child with St. Anne” in the Louvre. He tried to express his immense knowledge of the world by simply looking at things. The secret he said was “saper vedere,” to know how to see. His final “Visions of the End of the World” was a sketchbook in which he tried to depict his sense of the forces of nature, which in his imagination he conceived of as possessing a unity that no one had ever seen before. His use of a smoky atmosphere (sfumato) helped create an impression of lifelikeness.
(V.D.-H.K.p.137)(WSJ, 2/5/97, p.A16)(HN, 4/15/98)

1452 Jul 27, Ludovico Sforza [il Sforza del Destino), Italian duke of Milan (1494-1500), was born.
(MC, 7/27/02)

1452 Sep 21, Girolamo Savonarola (d.1498), was born in Ferrara. He became a Dominican monk, reformer, dictator of Florence (1494-98) and martyr. He was best known for his bonfires of the vanities in which corrupt books and images were set alight.
(Hem.,4/97,p.53)(WUD, 1994, p.1272,1672)(WSJ, 7/10/98, p.W11)(MC, 9/21/01)

1452 Oct 2, King Richard III, of England (1483-85), was born.
(MC, 10/2/01)

1452 The first pawn lender was founded in Perugia (Italy) by Franciscan monks to combat usury.
(Econ, 5/27/06, p.73)

1452 Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II began construction of a new fortress called Rumeli Hisar on the Constantinople side of the Bosporus. He engaged Urban, a Hungarian engineer, to build a large canon and put him in charge of the canon foundries at Adrianople.
(SFC, 9/1/96, BR p.8)(ON, 10/00, p.10)

1452-1510 Liu Jin, a court eunuch of the Ming dynasty in China. He abused his office to amass a great fortune and was executed for treason.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1453 Apr 6, Ottoman forces under Mehmet II opened fire on Constantinople.
(ON, 10/00, p.11)

1453 Apr 22-1453 Apr 23, The Ottomans hauled 76 warships out of the water and dragged them on wood rails to bypass the Greek blockade of the Constantinople harbor.
(ON, 10/00, p.12)(Ot, 1993, p.13)

1453 May 29, Constantinople fell to Muhammad II, ending the Byzantine Empire. The fall of the eastern Roman Empire, Byzantium, to the Ottoman Turks was led by Mehmed II. Emperor Constantine XI Dragases (49), the 95th ruler to sit on the throne of Constantine, was killed. The city of Constantinople fell from Christian rule and was renamed Istanbul. The Hagia Sophia was turned into a mosque. Spice prices soared in Europe. Nicolo Barbaro wrote his “Diary of the Siege of Constantinople.” Manuel Chrysophes, court musician to Constantine XI, wrote a threnody for the fall of Constantinople. In 2005 Roger Crowley authored “1453 The Holy War for Constantinople and the Clash of Islam and the West.”
(NH, 9/96, p.22)(Sky, 4/97, p.53)(SFC, 7/27/98, p.A8)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)(ON, 10/00, p.12)(Ot, 1993, p.6)(WSJ, 1/2/02, p.A15)(SSFC, 8/14/05, p.F4)
1453 May 29, French banker Jacques Coeurs had his possessions confiscated.
(SC, 5/29/02)

1453 Jul 4, 41 Jewish martyrs were burned at stake at Breslau, Poland.

1453 Jul 17, France defeated England at the 1st Battle at Castillon, France, ending the 100 Years’ War. [see Oct 19]
(HN, 7/17/98)

1453 Oct 19, In the 2nd Battle at Castillon: France beat England, ending the hundred year war. [see Jul 17]
(MC, 10/19/01)

1453 Piero della Francesca (1415/1420-1492) began work on the “Legenda della Vera Croce” (The Legend of the True Cross) at the church of San Francesco in Arezzo. He was commissioned by the Bacci family of Arezzo to complete the work begun by Bicci de Lorenzo.
(WSJ, 6/02/97, p.A20)(WSJ, 2/2/08, p.W14)

1453 In England Henry VI, of the house of Lancaster, suffered a nervous breakdown and Richard, the Duke of York, was named protector.
(AM, 7/01, p.69)

1453 In Rome Agrippa’s Aqua Virgo was resuscitated as the Acqua Vergine Antica.
(SFEC, 7/2/00, p.T4)

1454 Feb 17, At a grand feast, Philip the Good of Burgundy took the “vow of the pheasant,” by which he swore to fight the Turks.
(HN, 2/17/99)

1454 Mar 6, Casimir proclaimed the attachment of Prussia to Polish rule. This began a 13-year war over Prussia (1454-1466).

1454 Apr 9, The city states of Venice, Milan and Florence signed a peace agreement at Lodi, Italy.
(HN, 4/9/99)

1454 Aug 22, Jews were expelled from Brunn Moravia by order of King Ladislaus.
(MC, 8/22/02)

1455 Feb 23, Johannes Gutenberg (Johan Gensfleisch, c1400-1468) printed his 1st book, the Bible. Gutenberg printed Latin Bibles of which 11 were still extant in 1987. [see 1450]
(SFC, 2/15/97, p.D1)(MC, 2/23/02)

1455 Mar 18, Fra Angelico, Italian monk and Renaissance painter born around 1387 as Guido di Pietro, died. Fra Angelico gained a reputation as a painter under that name before joining the Dominicans in the 1420s. However, much of the influence found in his work is thought to come from Dominican teachings. He stayed at Dominican monasteries in Florence for most of his life doing a variety of religious painting until being called to Rome in 1445 by Pope Eugene IV, where he completed several chapel frescoes. Returning to Florence in the early 1450s, he died on a return visit to Rome in 1455 and is entombed at the church of Santa Maria della Minerva. In 1984 Fra Angelico was beatified by Pope John Paul II.

1455 Apr 8, Alfonso de Borgia was elected as Pope Callistus III.
(MC, 4/8/02)

1455 May 3, Jews fled Spain.
(MC, 5/3/02)

1455 May 22, King Henry VI was taken prisoner by the Yorkists at the Battle of St. Albans, the 1st battle in the 30-year War of the Roses. The army of the Duke of York met the army of Queen Margaret at the Battle of St. Alban’s. The 2nd Duke of Somerset was killed as Yorkists briefly took possession of King Henry VI.
(MH, 12/96)(HN, 5/22/99)(MC, 5/22/02)

1455 Aug 2, Johan Cicero, elector of Brandenburg (1486-99), was born.
(MC, 8/2/02)

1455 Dec 1, Lorenzo Ghiberti (77), Italian sculptor, died.
(MC, 12/1/01)

1455 The young Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II mobilized his army to march on Belgrade–and from there, possibly move on to the European heartland.
(HN, 6/15/98)

1455 Some Portuguese had come to The Gambia following the expeditions promoted by Prince Henry. They had introduced groundnuts, tie main cash crop of today, cotton, and some tropical fruits from Brazil. Their number, however, was never large and they were soon absorbed by intermarriage.

1455-1485 The War of the Roses. During the war Margaret of Anjou, wife of the feeble-minded King Henry VI, was head of the House of Lancaster whose heraldic badge was a red rose. She struggled against the House of York, whose badge was a white rose, for the control of the government.
(MH, 12/96)

1456 Mar 1, Wladyslaw Jagiello, king of Bohemia (1471-1516), Hungary (1490-1516), was born.
(SC, 3/1/02)

1456 Jul 7, Joan of Arc was acquitted, even though she had already been burnt at the stake on May 30, 1431.
(MC, 7/7/02)

1456 Jul 14, Hungarians defeated the Ottomans at the Battle of Belgrade, in present-day Yugoslavia. The 1456 Siege of Belgrade decided the fate of Christendom.
(HN, 7/14/98)

1456 Jul 22, At the Battle at Nandorfehervar (Belgrade), the Hungarian army under prince Janos Hunyadi beat sultan Murad II. The siege of Belgrade had fallen into stalemate when a spontaneous fight broke out between a rabble of Crusaders, led by the Benedictine monk John of Capistrano, and the city’s Ottoman besiegers. The melee soon escalated into a major battle, during which the Hungarian commander, Janos Hunyadi, led a sudden assault that overran the Turkish camp, ultimately compelling the wounded Sultan Mehmet II to lift the siege and retreat.
(MC, 7/22/02)(PC, 1992, p.150)(HNPD, 7/23/98)

1456 Aug 11, Janos Hunyadi (69), Hungarian Prince and general strategist died of plague at about age 49.
(PC, 1992, p.150)(MC, 8/11/02)

1456 Nov 25, Jacques Coeur, French merchant and banker, died in battle.
(MC, 11/25/01)

1456 Dec 5, Earthquake struck Naples and 35,000 died.
(MC, 12/5/01)

1456 Pope Calixtus III appointed his nephew Rodrigo Borgia Lanzol, later Pope Alexander VI, a cardinal.
(PTA, 1980, p.424)

1456 A comet in the sky caused the Pope to issue a catchall edict to his followers to pray for deliverance from “The Devil, the Turk, and the Comet.”
(SFC, 3/28/97, p.A12)

1456-1496 Ercole de’ Roberti, Italian artist. He was the predecessor to Dosso Dossi at the Ferrara court.
(SFC, 4/27/99, p.C1)

c1456-1856 Gypsies living in the principalities that today makeup Romania lived as slaves. [as stated in a work by Isabel Fonseca titled: “Bury Me Standing: The Gypsies and Their Journey.”
(WSJ, 10/19/95, A-18)

1457 Jan 28, Henry Tudor (later Henry VII), 1st Tudor king of England (1485-1509), was born in Pembroke Castle, Wales.

1457 Nov 23, Ladislaus V (17), posthumous king of Hungary and Bohemia, died.
(MC, 11/23/01)

1457 Aug 14, Gutenberg’s financier Johann Fust and calligrapher Peter Schoffer published the 2nd printed book. This is the oldest known exactly dated printed book.
(HN, 8/14/00)(MC, 8/14/02)

1457 Koshamain, an Ainu chieftain on the island of Hokkaido, led a rebellion against Japanese encroachment, but it was put down by Nobuhiro Takeda.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)

1457 Pattani, later southern Thailand, was declared an Islamic kingdom.
(AP, 9/23/05)

1457 King James II of Scotland (James of the Fiery Face) banned “Futeball” on the grounds that it threatened national defense by drawing young men away from archery practice. He banned “Golfe” for the same reason. “Nocht usit and utterlie cryit doun.”
(SFC, 8/10/96, p.E4)(Hem., 1/97, p.47)

1458 Jan 24, Matthias Corvinus (1440-1490), the son of John Hunyadi, was elected king of Hungary. Under his rule Hungary was the most important state in central Europe. For his fighting force he ordered every 20 houses to provide one horse soldier. “Husz” is 20 in Hungarian and so the light cavalryman became know as a Hussar. His illuminated breviary is held by the Vatican library.
(WUD, 1994, p.1672)(Sky, 9/97, p.26)(HN, 1/24/99)

1458 Mar 2, Hussite George van Podiebrad was chosen king of Bohemia.
(SC, 3/2/02)

1458 Jun 27, Alfonso V of Aragon died. Ferdinand I succeeded to the throne of Naples, but Pope Calixtus III declared the line of Aragon extinct and the kingdom a fief of the church.

1458 Filippino Lippi, painter, was born. His father was the Carmelite friar Fra Filippo and his mother was a nun. His work includes the drawing “Kneeling Male Saint,” and the color painting “Male Saint Holding the Body of the Dead Christ.” One of his students was Raffaellino del Garbo.
(WSJ, 12/3/97, p.A20)

1458 Benedetto Cotrugli published the first known work on double-entry bookkeeping. It was invented in Italy around 1340.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R55)(WSJ, 11/10/99, p.A20)

1459 Mar 2, Adrian VI [Adriaan F Boeyens], Netherlands, Pope (1522-23), was born.
(SC, 3/2/02)

1459 Mar 3, Ausias March, Catalan poet, died.
(SC, 3/3/02)

1459 May 2, Pierozzi Antoninus, Italian archbishop of Florence, saint, died.
(MC, 5/2/02)

1459 May 12, Sun City, India, was founded by Rao Jodhpur.
(MC, 5/12/02)

1459 Oct, The Lancastrians defeated the Yorkists at Ludford.
(AM, 7/01, p.69)

1459 Vlad Tepes used Turkish prisoners to haul stones brick and mortar for his Poienari Citadel in Romania’s Transylvania region. Much of it fell down the mountain during a landslide in 1888.
(SSFC, 10/23/11, p.H6)
1459 The Serbs fell under Turkish rule and all of Serbia became the property of the sultan and all Serbs became bond-slaves to the land. Serbian national identity survived with the restoration in 1557 of the Serbian patriarchate at Pec.
(HNQ, 3/25/99)

1459-1519 Maximilian I. Holy Roman Emperor from 1493-1519.
(WUD, 1994, p.886)

1459-1525 Jakob Fugger II, German banker. He minted his own money and maintained banks in every European capital. He held a contract for managing the Pope’s money and collected cash for the remission of sins. He bankrolled the election of Charles V.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1459-1912 The Ottoman Empire ruled over the Kosova region of Serbia.
(SFC, 3/3/98, p.A8)

1460 Apr 4, University of Basle, Switzerland, formed.
(MC, 4/4/02)

1460 Apr 8, Ponce de Leon was born in Spain. He searched for fountain of youth and found Florida.
(MC, 4/8/02)

1460 May 9, In the Netherlands the courtyard Episcopal palace at Atrecht had witch burnings.
(MC, 5/9/02)

1460 Jun, English Yorkist earls returned and met Henry VI’s Lancastrian army at Northampton. Herny was captured and taken to London to serve as a figurehead.
(AM, 7/01, p.69)

1460 Jul 10, Wars of Roses: Richard of York defeated King Henry VI at Northampton.
(MC, 7/10/02)

1460 Sep, The Duke of York returned to England from Ireland. The nobility would not allow his usurption of the crown but agreed to pass it to him on Henry’s demise.
(AM, 7/01, p.69)

1460 Nov 13, Prince Henry the Navigator (b.1394), Portuguese prince and patron of explorers, died.

1460 Dec 30, Richard Plantagenet (b.1411), English Duke of York, was killed by Lancastrians at the Battle of Wakefield. Queen Margaret hung his head from Micklegate Bar, one of the original entries to the city of York.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_of_York,_3rd_Duke_of_York)(Econ, 12/18/10, p.111)(SSFC, 4/13/14, p.Q4)

1460 The Ottomans conquered southern Greece.
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.56)

1460s Benozzo Gozzoli, a pupil of Fra Angelico, painted a portrait of Christ titled “The Holy Face.”
(SFEC, 8/8/99, p.D7)

1460 Rogier van der Weyden painted his “Portrait of a Lady.”
(WSJ, 12/14/01, p.W20)

1460-1464 Rogier van der Weyden painted “The Lamentation Over the Body of the Dead Christ.”
(SFEC, 12/26/99, p.C17)

1460-1470 Machu Pichu was built under the Inca King Pachacuti in the Peruvian Andes. It was occupied for about 50 years before 180 Spanish conquistadors wiped out a 40,000-man Inca army. In 2003 a nearby complex of structures called Llactapata (high city) was discovered.
(SFC, 11/8/03, p.A2)

1460?-1526? Pedro Alvarez Cabral, Portuguese navigator, discovered and claimed Brazil for Portugal on April 22, 1500.
(AHD, p.185)(HFA, ’96, p.28)

1460-1550 Jack Eddy, solar physicist, examined tree ring data in the 1970s and found a dearth of solar activity during this period.
(NG, 7/04, p.28)

1461 Feb 2-3, The English houses of York and Lancaster battled at Mortimer’s Cross, the Battle of the Three Suns. In the War of the Roses Edward of York defeated the Welsh Lancastrians in the 2nd battle of St Alban’s.
(MH, 12/96)(AM, 7/01, p.69)(MC, 2/2/02)

1461 Feb 17, The Houses of York and Lancaster battled again at St. Alban’s. Queen Margaret defeated the Earl of Warwick and freed Henry VI.
(MH, 12/96)(AM, 7/01, p.69)

1461 Mar 4, Henry VI was deposed and the Duke of York was proclaimed King as Edward IV. He tried to settle once and for all the dynastic struggle between York and Lancaster. At the Battle at Towton Duke Edward of York beat English queen Margaretha.
(HN, 3/4/99)(SC, 3/4/02)

1461 Mar 14, In Edward, son of the Duke of York, claimed the crown and was proclaimed King Edward IV in Westminster Abbey.
(MH, 12/96)

1461 Mar 29, Edward IV secured his claim to the English thrown in defeating Henry VI’s Lancastrians at the battle of Towdon (Towton). Some 50,000 fought and an estimated 28,000 were killed.
(HN, 3/29/99)(AM, 7/01, p.69)(AM, 7/01, p.68)

1461 Jun 28, Edward IV was crowned king of England.

1461 Aug 10, Alfonso ed Espina, bishop of Osma, urged an Inquisition in Spain.
(MC, 8/10/02)

1461 The Pope’s godson discovered a source of alum, used in dyes. This led to a booming business for the Catholic Church.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)
1461 L’Aquila in central Italy was again devastated by an earthquake.
(Econ, 10/27/12, p.80)
1461 Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II conquered Trabzon, a Greek port on the Black Sea. Trabzon had formed the basis of several states in its long history and was the capital city of the Empire of Trebizond between 1204 and 1461.

1462 Jun 27, Louis XII, King of France (1498-1515), was born.
(HN, 6/27/02)

1462-1464 Piero della Francesca, Italian artist, painted “The Resurrection” about this time.
(WSJ, 12/17/05, p.P14)

1462-1524 Vasco da Gama, Portuguese explorer.

1463 Jan 5, French poet Francois Villon was banished from Paris.
(MC, 1/5/02)

1463 Oct 29, Alessandro Achillini, Italian physician and philosopher, was born.
(MC, 10/29/01)

1463 The Venetians regained southern Greece for a short period.
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.56)

1463 The Ottomans conquered Bosnia.

1463-1494 Pico della Mirandola, born in the duchy of Ferrara and died in Florence. He studied Aristotelian philosophy at Padua, and canon law at Bologna. He learned Hebrew, Aramaic and Arabic before he was twenty. He became acquainted with the Hebrew Kabbala and was the first to use cabalistic doctrine to support Christian theology.

1464 May 15, The English Houses of York and Lancaster battled at Hexham. Among the Lancastrians the 3rd Duke of Somerset was killed.
(MH, 12/96)

1464 Jun 19, French King Louis XI formed a postal service.
(MC, 6/19/02)

1464 Aug 1, Piero de Medici (1416-1469) succeeded his father, Cosimo, as ruler of Florence. He was nicknamed Il Gottoso (the Gouty One) and squandered the family fortune.
(HN, 8/1/98)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1464 Mino da Fiesole sculpted the altar for Rome’s Santa Maria Maggiore.
(WSJ, 10/22/96, p.A20)
1464 Desiderio da Settignano (b.~1439), Renaissance sculptor, died in Florence.
(WSJ, 9/11/07, p.D6)

1464 Sonni Ali became the first king of the Songhai Empire, located in west Africa (later Mali) and the 15th ruler of the Sonni dynasty. Under the guidance of Sunni Ali, the Songhai began to conquer their neighbors and expand their kingdom. Goa became the capital of the Songhai empire. When Sunni Ali died rule was passed to his son, a non-Muslim.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sonni_Ali)(ATC, p.121)

1464-1471 Pope Paul II, Pietro Barbo, succeeded Pius II. He was responsible for a Papal Bull that established a 25-year interval between Holy Years.
(PTA, 1980, p.418)(SFC, 12/24/99, p.A15)

1465 Feb 11, Elizabeth of York, consort of King Henry VII, was born in London.
(MC, 2/11/02)

1465 The Nevill Feast at Cawood Castle in Yorkshire, England. 2,500 people were entertained. The guests ate over several days, 113 oxen, sic wild bulls, 1,000 sheep, 2,000 each of geese, pigs, and chickens, 12 porpoises, and 4,000 cold venison pasties. Such a feast would show how many fighting men a family could muster.
(N.G., Nov. 1985, M. Girouard, p.74)

1465 King Henry VI was captured and imprisoned in the Tower of London.
(MH, 12/96)

1465-1487 In China during the Chenghua reign blended enamels over a blue underglaze decoration reached a classic stage of development. Lady Wan, consort of the emperor, was intimately associated with porcelains and their design.
(SFEC, 10/6/96, DB p.37)

1466 Mar 8, Francesco Sforza (64), Italian condottiere (“Il Sforza del Destino”), duke of Milan, died.
(MC, 3/8/02)

1466 Oct 19, The peace of Torun ended the 13-year War of the Cities (1454-1466), between the Teutonic knights and their own disaffected subjects in Prussia. The Peace of Thorn (Torún) ended the war between the Teutonic knights (a German military and religious order) and their subjects in Prussia, led by King Casimir IV (1427-1492) of Poland. Poland was given Pomerelia and West Prussia, and the knights retained East Prussia, with a new capital at Königsberg (Kaliningrad). The knights, formerly strictly a German order, were forced to accept Poles as members and their grand master became a vassal of the Polish king.
(HN, 10/19/98)(http://reference.allrefer.com/encyclopedia/T/TeutonKn.html)

1466 Oct 26, Desiderius Erasmus (d.1536), scholar and author (In Praise of Folly), was born in Rotterdam. He was of illegitimate birth, but became a priest and a monk. He excelled in philology, the study of ancient languages, namely Latin and Greek and worked on a new translation of the New Testament. The more he studied it, the more he came to doubt the accuracy of the Vulgate, St. Jerome’s translation into Latin, dating from around 400. “In Praise of Folly” is his most famous work… In it Erasmus had the freedom to discourse, in the ironic style of Lucian (the Greek author whose works he translated), concerning all the foolishness and misguided pompousness of the world.
(V.D.-H.K.p.159-160)(MC, 10/26/01)

1466 Nov 30, Andrea Doria, Genoese statesman and admiral, was born.
(MC, 11/30/01)

1466-1520 Montezuma II, Aztec emperor. He amassed great wealth through taxation in Mexico and Central America. He used his wealth to build his capital at Tenochtitlan.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1466?-1530 Quentin Massys, Flemish painter. He painted “The Moneylender and His Wife.”
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.882)

1466-1772 Danzig (Gdansk) was occupied by German religious-knights.
(Voruta #27-28, Jul 1996, p.10)

1467 May, In Japan the 11-year Onin War began in Kyoto. In 1967 H. Paul Valery authored “The Onin War.”
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)(ON, 7/01, p.5)

1467 Jun 15, Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, died.
(HT, 6/15/00)

1468 Feb 3, Johannes Gutenberg (Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg b.c1400), German inventor of movable type, died.
(SFC, 2/15/97, p.D1)(WSJ, 9/14/00, p.A24)

1468 Feb 29, Pope Paul III was born.
(SFC, 2/29/00, p.A1)

1468 Dec 3, Lorenzo the Magnificent and his brother Giuliano succeeded their father, Piero de Medici, as rulers of Florence, Italy.
(HN, 12/3/98)

1468 Juan Reixach created his panel of St. Vincent Ferrer in the Hispano-Flemish style.
(WSJ, 3/2/05, p.D9)

1468 Skanderbeg of Albania died and the Turks absorbed Albania into the Ottoman Empire. Over the next five centuries most Albanians converted to Islam.
(CO, Grolier’s / Albania)(www, Albania, 1998)

c1468 The area around Bosnia was occupied by the Turks in the late 15th cent.
(SFC, 4/15/97, p.A10)

1469 Apr 15, The guru Nanak (d.1539), 1st guru of Sikhs, was born to Hindu parents in Lahore. Nanak assimilated tenets of pantheistic Hinduism and monotheistic Islam and founded Sikhism in the Punjab. He refused to accept the caste system and the supremacy of the Brahmanical priests and forbade magic, idolatry and pilgrimages. Brahma is the Hindu god of creation. Turbaned followers would sport the main of the lion, Singha or Sikh. The sacred Sikh book, Granth Sahib, was compiled by the 5th guru, Arjun, in 1605.
(WUD, 1994, p.1326)(Hem., 3/97, p.28)(SFEM, 9/19/99, p.74)(SFC, 9/22/99, p.E1)(WSJ, 10/12/01, p.W17)(MC, 4/15/02)

1469 May 3, Nicolo Machiavelli (d.1527), political advisor and author, was born. He was a historian and author of “The Prince.” He saw in Cesare Borgia, the bastard son of Pope Alexander VI, the prospect of an Italy free of foreign control. “Men are more apt to be mistaken in their generalizations than in their particular observations.”
(V.D.-H.K.p.109)(AP, 11/15/98)(HN, 5/3/99)

1469 May 19, Giovanni della Robbia, Italian sculptor, was born.
(MC, 5/19/02)

1469 May 31, Manuel I, king of Portugal (1495-1521), was born.
(HN, 5/31/98)

1469 Oct 18, Crown prince Fernando of Aragon (1452-1516) formally married princess Isabella (1451-1504) of Castile.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isabella_I_of_Castile)(Econ, 11/24/12, p.25)

1469 Dec 3, Piero de’ Medici (53), ruler of Florence, died.
(MC, 12/3/01)

1469 Fra Filippo Lippi, a Carmelite friar and painter and father of Filippino Lippi, died. Sandro Botticelli was one of his students.
(WSJ, 12/3/97, p.A20)

1469-1472 The islands of Sao Tome and Principe were discovered by Portuguese navigators and settled by 1500.
(AP, 7/18/03)

1469 Apr 15, The guru Nanak (d.1539), 1st guru of Sikhs, was born to Hindu parents in Lahore. Nanak assimilated tenets of pantheistic Hinduism and monotheistic Islam and founded Sikhism in the Punjab. He refused to accept the caste system and the supremacy of the Brahmanical priests and forbade magic, idolatry and pilgrimages. Brahma is the Hindu god of creation. Turbaned followers would sport the main of the lion, Singha or Sikh. The sacred Sikh book, Granth Sahib, was compiled by the 5th guru, Arjun, in 1605.
(WUD, 1994, p.1326)(Hem., 3/97, p.28)(SFEM, 9/19/99, p.74)(SFC, 9/22/99, p.E1)(WSJ, 10/12/01, p.W17)

1470 Mar 2, In England at Lose Coat Field, canon under Edward IV turned a group of Lincolnshire rebels into a panicked mob.
(MH, 12/96)

1470 Jun 30, Charles VIII, King of France (1483-98), invaded Italy, was born. One of his feet had 6 toes which prompted his wearing broad, square tip shoes.
(HN, 6/30/98)(SFC, 3/13/99, p.E6)

1470 Oct 9, Henry VI of England was restored to the throne.
(HN, 10/9/98)

1470 Nov 1, Edward V, King of England, was born. [see Nov 3]
(HN, 11/1/98)

1470 Nov 3, Edward V, King of England (Apr 9-Jun 25 1483), was born. [see Nov 1]
(MC, 11/3/01)

1470 The earliest documented work by Botticelli was made. “Fortitude” was an allegory portraying a woman who embodies the virtue of inner strength.
(SFC, 6/20/97, p.A9)

1470 The first book printed in France was an ornate ninth-century transcript produced for the grandson of Charlemagne. It is held by the Bibliotheque Nationale de France.
(WSJ, 9/26/95, p.A-20)

1470 In Portugal Princess Juana popularized the farthingale, a wide-hipped skit stiffened by whale bone.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R40)

c1470 The Quechua-speaking Incas came to dominate what is now Bolivia a mere 75 years before the Spaniards arrived.
(NH, 11/96, p.37)

1470-1650 The period of the second of four waves of rising prices over the last 800 years as described by David Hackett Fisher in his 1996 book: “The Great Wave: Price Revolutions and the Rhythm of History.”
(WSJ, 12/19/96, p.A16)

1471 Mar 22, George van Podiebrad, king of Bohemia (1458-71), died.
(MC, 3/22/02)

1471 Mar, Edward IV returned to England.
(MH, 12/96)

1471 Apr 11, King Edward IV of England captured London from Henry VI in the War of the Roses.
(MC, 4/11/02)

1471 Apr 14, On Easter Sunday Edward IV led an army of mercenaries and Yorkists at the Battle of Barnet and defeated the Lancastrians under the Earl of Warwick. Richard Neville Warwick (42), 2nd earl of Salisbury, was killed in battle. Margaret of Anjou returned from France. With her son, the Prince of Wales, she planned to join with Jasper Tudor, a Welsh ally, and attack Edward west of London.
(MH, 12/96)(HN, 4/14/00)

1471 May 4, The Yorkists defeated the Lancastrians in the Battle of Tewkesbury between the English House of Lancaster and House of York. King Edward IV routed the forces of ex-queen Margaret. The Lancastrian forces were led by Edmund Beaufort, 4th Duke of Somerset. Edward, the 17-year-old prince of Wales, was killed at the battle of Tewkesbury.
(MH, 12/96)(HN, 5/4/99)(www.britainexpress.com/History/battles/tewkesbury.htm)

1471 May 6, The 4th Duke of Somerset and other Lancastrian nobles were beheaded at the Tewkesbury marketplace after trial presided over by the Duke of Gloucester, Constable of England.
(MH, 12/96)

1471 May 21, Henry VI, king of England (1422-61, 70-71) and France (1431-71), was killed in the tower of London and Edward IV took the throne.
(HN, 5/21/98)

1471 Jul 25, Thomas A. Kempis (91), [Thomas Hammerken von Kempen], German writer, monk, died. His popular “Imitation of Christ” went through 99 editions by the end of the century.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)(Internet)

1471 Jul 26, Pope Paul II died.
(PTA, 1980, p.418)

1471 Aug 7, Francesco Della Rovere succeeded Paul II as Pope Sixtus IV.
(PTA, 1980, p.420)

1471 Nicolo Perotti (1430-1480), Italian humanist scholar, complained: “Now that anyone is free to print whatever they wish, they often disregard that which is best and instead write, merely for the sake of entertainment, what would best be forgotten, or better still, be erased from all books.”
(http://tinyurl.com/lehgso2)(Econ, 10/11/14, p.55)

1471 In Pec, Kosovo, the Qarshise Mosque was built. It was destroyed by Serbs in 1999.
(SFC, 9/7/99, p.A12)

1471-1474 A particular Spanish, copper-based coin called a blanca was issued.
(NH, 10/96, p.24)

1471-1528 Albrecht Durer, German artist. He is particularly known for his woodcuts for book illustrations.
(SFEC, 2/9/97, DB p.6)(WSJ, 11/7/00, p.A24)

1472 Mar 28, Fra Bartolommeo (d.1517), Florentine Renaissance painter, was born.

1472 Apr 15, Leon Battista Alberti (b.1404), Italian humanist, architect (Philodoxis), died. He wrote the 1st Italian grammar, the 1st theory of painting as an art, and the treatise “On the Art of Building.” In 1970 Joan Gadol authored a biography. In 2000 Anthony Grafton authored the biography “Leon Battista Alberti.”
(WSJ, 11/30/00, p.A20)(MC, 4/15/02)

1472 Hans Memling painted “The Virgin and Child With St. Anthony Abbot and Donor.”
(SFC, 10/18/05, p.D2)

1472 In Siena the Monte dei Paschi began taking deposits and making loans. By some accounts this was the oldest existing bank in 1999. Clerical groups had already established “monti di pieta” (mounds of money for charity). In Siena the original capital came from taxes.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R48)(Econ, 11/3/07, p.101)

1472 The Orkney Islands were part of Norway until this year.
(SFEC, 3/23/97, p.T3)

1472-1553 Lucas Cranach the Elder, German painter and graphic artist. He painted “Cardinal Albrecht as St. Jerome.”
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.339)

1473 Feb 19, The astronomer Copernicus (1473-1543) was born in Torun, Poland. He promulgated the theory that the earth and the planets move around the sun.
(WUB, 1994, p. 322)(HN, 2/19/98)(AP, 2/19/98)

1473 Aug 5, Leonardo da Vinci (21) made his detailed drawing “Landscape drawing for Santa Maria Della Nave.” This was later recognized as his earliest known drawing.
(SFC, 8/5/16, p.A2)

1473 Aug, The Battle of Otlukbeli was fought near Erzincan (southern Turkey). Uzun Hassan’s army of light cavalry was routed by Mehmed II’s Ottoman forces. Uzun Hassan, head of the Turkmen Aq Qoyunlu dynasty, survived, but his son Zeynel Bey was killed in battle. In commemoration, the Mausoleum of Zeynel Bey was erected in Hasankeyf in about 1474 on the orders of either Uzun Hassan, or Zeynel’s elder brother, Khalil.

1473 Lorenzo de Medici, Italian banker and poet, wrote: “It is hard to live in Florence if you do not control the state.”
(WSJ, 1/19/04, p.A12)

1473 The game of golf was played in Scotland at the Old course at St. Andrews.
(SFC, 6/25/95, p.T-7)

1473-1474 The book “Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye” was translated and printed from the French by William Caxton. A copy sold in 1998 for $1.2 million.
(SFC, 7/9/98, p.A12)

1474 Mar 21, Angela Merici, Italian monastery founder, saint, was born.
(MC, 3/21/02)

1474 May 9, Peter van Hagenbach, Elzasser knight, land guardian, was beheaded.
(MC, 5/9/02)

1474 Sep 8, Ludovico Ariosto, Italy, poet (Orlando Furioso), was born.
(MC, 9/8/01)

1474 Nov 27, Guillaume Dufay (b.1399), French-Flemish composer, died. His work included “Ecclesiae militantis,” a 5-part motet on Pope Eugenius IV’s short-lived supremacy over the Eastern Orthodox Church.
(WSJ, 1/2/02, p.A15)(MC, 11/27/01)

1474 Dec 12, Isabella crowned herself queen of Castilia & Aragon.
(MC, 12/12/01)

1474 Bartolome de Las Casas (d.1566), “Apostle to the Indians,” was born in Seville, Spain.

c1474 Ercole de’ Roberti, Italian artist, painted “St. Jerome in the Wilderness.”
(SFC, 4/27/99, p.C1)

1474 Venice introduced the 1st modern patent law.
(Econ, 10/22/05, Survey p.5)

c1474-1478 Leonardo da Vinci created his portrait “Ginevra de Benci.”
(WSJ, 12/14/01, p.W20)

1474-1515 Mariotto Albertinelli, painter. He painted “The Visitation.”
(AAP, 1964)

1474-1556 Bartolome de Las Casas, a Dominican priest, made a copy of the original log of Columbus’ voyage from a copy given to Columbus before his 2nd voyage. It is the only surviving copy.
(NH, 10/96, p.23)

1475 Mar 6, Michelangelo Buonarroti (d.1564), painter, sculptor and architect, was born. His early mentor was Bertoldo di Giovanni, a pupil of Donatello. His work included “The Creation of Adam” and the “Pieta Rondanini.” He at one time proposed to sculpt the 5,000 foot Monte Sagro in Carrara into the statue of a giant.
(WUB, 1994, p. 904)(WSJ, 2/29/96, p.A-14)(AAP, 1964)(SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T11)(SFEC,10/19/97, p.T4)(HN, 3/6/98)

1475 Cesare Borgia, illegitimate son of Rodrigo Borgia Lanzol, later Pope Alexander VI (1492-1503), was born. He was made a church cardinal before his 20th birthday.
(SFC, 3/16/02, p.A3)

c1475 Andrea del Verrochio created his sculpture “Sleeping Youth.”
(WSJ, 1/29/02, p.A18)

c1475 Dieric Bouts, Flemish painter, created his painting “Virgin and Child.”
(SFEC, 12/19/99, DB p.42)

1475 Pope Sixtus IV celebrated the Holy Year by building the Sistine Chapel and the Sixtus Bridge over the Tiber River.
(SFC, 12/24/99, p.A15)

1475-1476 Petrus Christus (b. c1415), Netherlandish painter, died in Brugge.

1475 In China’s Yunnan province the old Jihong Bridge over the Lancang River was reinforced with 18 iron chains over the 280-foot chasm.
(SFEC, 10/6/96, T5)

1475 British fishermen lost access to fishing grounds off Iceland due to a war in Europe. The cod catch did not go down and it is presumed that they had discovered the cod-rich waters off Newfoundland, whose discovery was later attributed to John Cabot.
(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.23)

1475 The Olavinlinna castle was founded by the governor of Viipuri on the border between Sweden-Finland and Russia.
(SFEC, 4/11/99, p.T4)

1475-1495 An 11-piece set of tapestries were created with scenes from the Trojan War. They included “The Death of Troilus, Achilles and Paris.” They were later housed at the Museo Catedralicio, Zamora, Spain.
(WSJ, 4/11/02, p.AD7)

1475-1509 Italian architects invited by Ivan III built the Kremlin Cathedrals of the Assumption and the Archangel.
(DVD, Criterion, 1998)



The Fifteenth Century 1476-1499

1476 Apr 26, Simonetta Vespucci (b.~1453), nicknamed la bella Simonetta, died. She was an Italian Renaissance noblewoman from Genoa, the wife of Marco Vespucci of Florence. She also is alleged to have been the mistress of Giuliano de’ Medici, Lorenzo the Magnificent’s younger brother. She was renowned for being the greatest beauty of her age – certainly of the city of Florence.

1476 Aug 4, Jacob van Armagnac-Pardiac, French duke of Nemours, was beheaded.
(MC, 8/4/02)

1476 Aug 13, Christopher Columbus swam ashore to Portugal from a burning ship. He believed that Cathay, i.e. China, lay about 3,900 miles west of the Canary Islands.

1476 Dec 24, Some 400 Burgundy soldiers froze to death during the siege of Nancy.
(MC, 12/24/01)

1476 Dec 26, Galeazzo Maria Sforza (Il Sforza del Destino), duke of Milan, was murdered.
(MC, 12/26/01)

1476 In Burma (later Myanmar) a 270-ton bell, believed to be one of the largest ever cast, was made on the order of King Dhammazedi and donated to the revered Shwedagon pagoda. In the early 1600s, it was stolen by Portuguese despot Philip de Brito, but his rickety vessel sank where the Yangon and Bago rivers meet the Pazundaung creek.
(AP, 8/14/14)

1476 The Swiss overcame Burgundy’s Charles the Bold at the Battle of Murten.
(SSFC, 5/26/02, p.C5)

1476/1477 The first edition of Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales (1387-1400) was printed by William Caxton. A copy of the red, leather-bound edition sold at auction in 1998 for $7.5 million. In 1905 the Caxton Club in Chicago published the leaf book “William Caxton” by E. Gordon Duff. Each book contained one of 148 leaves from a Caxton 1st edition of the Canterbury Tales.
(SFC, 7/9/98, p.A12)(WSJ, 5/12/05, p.D8)

1476-1507 Cesare Borgia, Italian cardinal, military leader and politician.
(WUD, 1994, p.171)

1477 Jan 5, Swiss troops defeated the forces under Charles the Bold of Burgundy at the Battle of Nancy.
(HN, 1/5/99)

1477 Nov 18, William Claxton published the first dated book printed in England. “Dictes & Sayengis of the Phylosophers,” by Earl Rivers. It was a translation from the French. [see 1473/1474]
(HN, 11/18/99)

1477 Future Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, a member of the Habsburg family of Austria, married Mary of Burgundy, heiress of all the Netherlands. Maximilian had given Mary a diamond engagement ring, a practice that soon spread. In 1996 Andrew Wheatcroft wrote a history of the Habsburgs: “The Habsburgs.”
(WSJ, 1/19/96, p.A-12)(SFEM, 6/28/98, p.6)(SFC, 5/28/08, p.G2)

1477 The Seventeen Provinces, a personal union of states in the Low Countries in the 16th century, became the property of the Habsburgs. They roughly covered the current Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, a good part of the North of France (Artois, Nord) and a small part of Germany.

1477 Joao II (John II) served as king of Portugal for a short time when his father retired to a monastery. He succeeded his father as king in 1481.

1477-1576 Titian (Titziano Vecellio), Italian painter. He painted “Venus and Adonis and Allegory” with subjects Alfonso d’Este and Laura Diante.
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1488)

1478 Feb 7, Sir Thomas Moore (d.1535), English humanist, statesman and writer, was born in London. He was best friend of Erasmus, and called by Erasmus: “a man for all seasons.” He studied law and rose to the post of lord chancellor after the fall of Cardinal Wolsey. More would not accept Henry VIII’s divorce from Catherine of Aragon nor his subsequent marriage to Anne Boleyn. The king had charges of treason filed and More was beheaded on July 6, 1535. He was canonized in 1935. The 1966 film “A man for All Seasons” was based on his life. He is famous for “Utopia.”
(V.D.-H.K.p.160)(CU, 6/87)(WUD, 1994, p.931)(HN, 2/7/99)

1478 Feb 18, George, the Duke of Clarence, who had opposed his brother Edward IV, was murdered in the Tower of London. George underwent forced drowning in a wine barrel (“A butt of Malmsey”).
(HN, 2/18/99)(MC, 2/18/02)

1478 Apr 26, Pazzi conspirators attacked Lorenzo de’Medici but killed Giuliano de’Medici (~24), Medeheerser of Florence.
(HN, 4/26/98)(MC, 4/26/02)

1478 Sandro Botticelli (1445-1510) painted “La Primavera” about this time.
(WSJ, 4/14/07, p.P11)

c1478 Giorgione (d.1510), Italian painter, was born.
(T&L, 10/80, p. 58)(WSJ, 12/4/97, p.A20)

1478 Ten years after the death of Skanderbeg, his citadel at Kruje was finally taken by the Ottoman Turks and Albania fell into obscurity during several centuries of Turkish rule.
(HNQ, 10/5/98)(www, Albania, 1998)

1478 In Japan the Onin War ended after rival warlords died of natural causes. Shogun Yoshimasa disinherited his brother and abdicated in favor of his son.
(ON, 7/01, p.5)

1478 Russia’s Ivan the Great destabilized territory under the control of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania much of which later became Ukraine. The policy was designed to encourage people living along the frontier to seek Muscovy’s protection.
(Econ, 9/20/14, p.16)

1478 The Swiss began annexing the southern approaches to the strategic and lucrative St. Gothard Pass over the Alps.
(SFEC, 6/14/98, p.T4)

1478-1483 The Gubbio Studiola was constructed in the shop of the Florentine woodworker Giuliano da Maiana. The wood inlay art of intarsia was used whereby the carving was done by knife rather than with saws. It was purchased by the NY Metropolitan in 1939.
(WSJ, 6/6/96, p.A12)

1478-1529 Baldassare Castiglione, Italian diplomat and author. He wrote the “Book of the Courtier,” in which the term sprezzatura was coined. It described the art of making the difficult seem effortless.
(WUD, 1994, p.230)(WSJ, 8/22/97, p.A12)

1478?-1533? Jan Gossaert (Mabuse), Flemish painter. He painted “St Luke Drawing the Virgin Mary.”
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.858)

1479 Mar 26, Vasili III, great prince of Moscow (1505-33), son of Ivan III, was born.
(SS, 3/26/02)

1479 Sep 4, After four years of war, Spain agreed to allow a Portuguese monopoly of trade along Africa’s west coast and Portugal acknowledged Spain’s rights in the Canary Islands.
(HN, 9/4/98)

1479 Nov 6, Johanna, the Insane, Queen of Castilia (1504-20), was born.
(MC, 11/6/01)

1479 Shkodra fell to the Ottoman Turks. Subsequently, many Albanians fled to southern Italy, Greece, Egypt, and elsewhere; many remaining were forced to convert to Islam.
(www, Albania, 1998)

1479 Gentile Bellini (1429-1507), Italian artist, was selected by the Venetian Republic to work at the court of the Ottoman sultan, Mehmed II, in Istanbul.
(WSJ, 12/20/05, p.D8)

1479 In Bosnia the Turks erected a mosque in the center of Banja Luka. It was leveled by the Serbs in 1993.
(WSJ, 8/26/98, p.A1)

1479 Venice signed a peace treaty with Ottoman Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror (1432-1481) ending 16 years of war.
(WSJ, 3/16/06, p.D8)(www.fsmitha.com/h3/h13zt.htm)

1479 Jorge Manrique (b.1440), Spanish military hero and poet, died.
(SSFC, 9/3/06, p.M3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jorge_Manrique)

1480 Feb 13, Hieronymus Alexander, [Girolamo Aleandro], Italian diplomat, cardinal, was born.
(MC, 2/13/02)

1480 Apr 18, Lucretia Borgia (d.1519), murderess, was born. Lucrezia Borgia, Duchess of Ferrara, was the daughter of Pope Alexander VI, and the sister and political pawn of Cesare Borgia. She was also considered a patroness of the arts.
(HN, 4/18/98)(WUD, 1994, p.171)

1480 Giovanni Bellini painted “St. Francis in the Desert.”
(WSJ, 1/14/00, p.W12)

1480 Sandro Botticelli painted “The Birth of Venus.”
(WSJ, 2/5/97, p.A16)

1480 Bartolomeo Saachi de Platina had a cookbook printed titled: “De honesta voluptate et valetudine.” In 1997 it was valued at $37,000.
(SFC, 2/19/96, zz-1 p.2)

1480 In Hamburg a pioneering labor market appeared for hiring day workers.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1480 In Italy 813 people were slain in Otranto for defying demands by Turkish invaders to renounce Christianity. In 2013 the “Martyrs of Otranto” were canonized as saints by Pope Francis.
(AP, 5/12/13)

1480 The Spanish Inquisition was introduced by Ferdinand and Isabella to enable the crown to control the inquiries into whether or not converted Jews were really secret “Judaizers” who kept their original faith. “The Spanish Inquisition,” a history of the Inquisition was written by Henry Kamen and a new edition was published in 1998.
(WSJ, 4/16/98, p.A1)

1480-1520 In France the fortress at Bonaguil in the Quercy province was built by a baron as a bulwark against his vassals.
(SFEC, 7/11/99, p.T4)

1480-1521 Ferdinand Magellan, Portuguese navigator. He was assigned the task of finding a route to the Spice Islands.

1480-1533 A huge Inca cemetery was active in Lima at this time. It was uncovered in 2002 with some 2,200 mummies.
(SFC, 4/18/02, p.A4)

1480-1538 Albrecht Altdorfer, German painter. He painted “Martyrdom of St. Florian.” He also painted a depiction of Alexander’s 333BC defeat of Darius at Issus.
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.43)(WSJ, 5/15/98, p.W11)

1480-1557 Lorenzo Lotto, Italian painter, celebrated as a realist and a man of religious fervor.
(WSJ, 1/15/98, p.A17)

1481 Mar 2, Franz von Sickingen, German knight, was born.
(SC, 3/2/02)

1481 Aug 29, Joao II (John II) became king of Portugal.

1481 Aug 30, Two Latvian monarchs were executed for conspiracy to murder Polish king Kazimierz IV.
(MC, 8/30/01)

1481 Sandro Botticelli painted “The Annunciation.”
(SFC, 10/7/03, p.D8)

1481 Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II died at age 60. Kritovoulos authored “History of Mehmet the Conqueror” in the 15th century.
(ON, 10/00, p.12)

1481-1512 Beyazid II followed Mehmed II in the Ottoman House of Osman.
(Ot, 1993, xvii)

1481-1530 In Spain the first burnings of 8 people occurred as a result of the Inquisition trials. Over this period some 2000 people were burned.
(WSJ, 4/16/98, p.A20)

1482 Sep 1, Krim-Tataren plundered Kiev.
(MC, 9/1/02)

1482 The border town of Berwick-upon-Tweed ended up in English hands after changing hands 13 times in wars between England and the Scots.
(WSJ, 7/8/08, p.A14)

1482 A Milanese Duke commissioned Leonardo da Vinci to make an equine statue that would have been the largest in the world. A clay cast was made over 16 years but the appropriated bronze was used for cannons and the clay cast was destroyed when the Duke’s castle fell to French invaders.
(Hem., 12/96, p.19)
1482 Luca della Robbia (b.1400), Italian artist, died. Luca developed the art of enameled relief sculpture. Andrea della Robbia (1435-1525), his nephew and student, continued the work.
(SFC, 11/23/05, p.G2)

1482 In Ghana Elmina Castle was built by Portuguese traders. It later became a slave holding castle.
(SFEC, 11/22/98, p.T10)

1482 Captain Diogo Cao sailed south along the African coast and became the first Portuguese sailor to reach the equator. He4 landed at the mouth of the Zaire (Congo) River. He left four servants and took four Africans hostage back to his king, John, in Portugal. This was the first European encounter with the vast kingdom of the Kongo.
(ATC, p.149)(ON, 11/07, p.1)

1482 The Ginkaku Temple, also known as the Silver Pavilion was built in Kyoto, Japan. The Shogun who built it died before its completion and it remains without silver.
(Hem., 2/96, p.58)

1483 Feb 14, Zahir al-Din Mohammed Babur Shah, prince, founder Mughal dynasty in India (1526-30), was born.
(MC, 2/14/02)

1483 Apr 6, Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio, d.1520), Dutch painter (Sistine Madonna), was born to an unremarkable painter in the Duchy of Urbino. He went on to paint famous works in the Vatican. After an apprenticeship in Perugia, he went to Florence, having heard of the work da Vinci and Michelangelo were doing. His last 12 years were spent on numerous commissions in Rome. He died on his 37th birthday, his funeral mass being celebrated in the Vatican. .
(HN, 4/6/98)(HNQ, 11/17/00)

1483 Apr 9, Edward IV (b.1442), King of England (1461-70, 71-83) died. His young sons, Edward and Richard, were left in the protection of their uncle Richard, Duke of Gloucester. He housed them in the Tower of London where they were probably murdered on his orders.

1483 Jun 25, Edward V, king of England (Apr 9-Jun 25, 1483), was murdered.
(MC, 6/25/02)

1483 Jun 26, Richard III, Duke of Gloucester, usurped himself to the English throne.
(HN, 6/26/98)(MC, 6/26/02)

1483 Jul 6, England’s King Richard III was crowned.
(AP, 7/6/97)

1483 Aug 9, Pope Sixtus IV celebrated the first mass in the Sistine Chapel, which was named in his honor.
(HN, 8/9/98)

1483 Oct 17, The Reverend Dr. Tomas de Torquemada, OP, was appointed inquisitor-general of Spain.
(MC, 10/17/01)

1483 Nov 2, Henry Stafford (b.1454), earl of Buckingham and constable of England, was beheaded at Salisbury for his rebellion against King Richard III (1452-1485).
(DoW, 1999, p.71)

1483 Nov 10, Martin Luther, leader of the Protestant Reformation, was born in Eisleben, Germany. He was a monk in the Catholic Church until 1517, when he founded the Lutheran Church. He died in 1546.
(V.D.-H.K.p.163)(Voruta #27-28, Jul 1996, p.10)(SFC, 7/21/97, p.A11)(AP, 11/10/97)

1483 Dec 24, Leaders of the English rebels swore fealty to Henry Tudor in the Cathedral of Rennes in Brittany.
(ON, 12/06, p.1)

1483 Felice della Rovere (d.1536), illegitimate daughter of Pope Julius II (r.1503-1513), was born about this time. Her mother was a member of the Normanni, an illustrious Roman family long in decline. In 2005 Caroline P. Murphy authored “The Pope’s Daughter: The Extraordinary Life of Felice della Rovere.”

1483 Felice della Rovere (d.1536), illegitimate daughter of Pope Julius II (r.1503-1513), was born about this time. Her mother was a member of the Normanni, an illustrious Roman family long in decline. In 2005 Caroline P. Murphy authored “The Pope’s Daughter: The Extraordinary Life of Felice della Rovere.”

1483 When King Vladislav restored Catholic dominion, a dissident band of Hussites threw the Catholic mayor [Prague?] out of the window.
(NH, 9/96, p.24)

1483-1505 Trithemius, author and monk, served as the abbot of a Benedictine monastery. His work included “De Laude Scriptorium” (In Praise of Scribes).
(SSFC, 2/22/04, p.M6)

1484 Mar 4, Casimir (Kazimierz), the son of Lithuania’s Grand Duke Casimir, died in Grodno at age 25. In 1602 he was declared a saint and protector of Lithuania. St. Casimir was born Oct 3, 1458, in Cracow.
(LHC, 3/4/03)

1484 Aug 12, Pope Sixtus IV died. His rule was marked by nepotism and he was involved in a conspiracy to overthrow the Medici in Florence.
(PTA, 1980, p.420)

1484 Aug 29, Cardinal Cibo was crowned as Pope Innocent VIII.

1484 Dec 5, Pope Innocent VIII issued a bull deploring the spread of witchcraft and heresy in Germany. He ordered that all cats belonging to witches scheduled to be burned, be also burned. Kraemer and Sprenger, two Dominican friars, had induced Pope Innocent VIII to issue a bull authorizing them to extirpate witchcraft in Germany. [see 1486]
(SFEC, 1/5/97, Z1 p.2)(HN, 12/5/98)(HNQ, 10/31/99)

1484 Bartolomeo di Giovanni Corradini, Italian painter who joined the Dominican order as Fra Carnevale, died.
(Econ, 12/11/04, p.82)

1484-1768 The Nepalese city-states of Kathmandu, Patan and Bhaktapur, were each ruled by its own Malla king after the Malla dynasty divided up the Kathmandu Valley.
(SSFC, 9/21/03, p.C8)

1485 Aug 1, Henry (VII) Tudor’s army set sail from Harfleur to Wales.
(ON, 12/06, p.1)

1485 Aug 7, Henry (VII) Tudor’s army landed in Milford Haven, South-Wales.
(ON, 12/06, p.1)

1485 Aug 22, Henry Tudor defeated Richard III (32) at Bosworth. England’s King Richard III (1483-1485), the last of the Plantagenet kings, was killed in the Battle of Bosworth. This victory established the Tudor dynasty in England and ended the War of the Roses. 12 miles west of Leicester, the forces of Richard III met the forces under Henry Tudor (later to become Henry VII). Henry Tudor had returned from French exile on August 7 at Milford Haven and assembled forces including two Yorkist defectors, Thomas Stanley and his brother Sir William. These allies, plus the defection of Henry Percy, the 4th earl of Northumberland helped decide the outcome of the battle. Richard, whose forces had taken position on Ambien Hill, died fighting in an attempt to get at Henry Tudor himself. On Feb 4, 2013, scientists announced that they had identified his skeleton, which was found in a car park in 2012.
(AP, 8/22/97)(HN, 8/22/98)(HNQ, 8/22/00)(Reuters, 2/4/13)

1485 Sep 3, Henry Tudor entered London following his Aug 22 victory at Bosworth.
(ON, 12/06, p.4)

1485 Oct 30, Henry Tudor (1457-1509) of England was crowned as Henry VII. This followed his defeat of King Richard III at Bosworth Field on Aug 22.
(HN, 10/30/98)(DoW, 1999, p.66)

1485 Dec 16, Katherine of Argon, first wife of Henry VIII, was born.
(HN, 12/16/98)

1485 Sandro Botticelli (1445-1510) painted “Venus and Mars” about this time.
(WSJ, 6/16/07, p.P16)

1485 William Caxton, the first printer in Britain, published “Le Morte Darthur” by Sir Thomas Mallory (c1400-1471).
(WUD, 1994, p.868)(SFC, 2/15/97, p.D1)

1485 The medical encyclopedia “Gart der Gesundheit” described the female mandrake, thought to stop bleeding, and to scream when pulled by its roots.
(WSJ, 7/7/98, p.A14)

1485 Yeoman Warders, all men, began patrolling the parapets and passages of the Tower of London. They became known colloquially as Beefeaters because of the rations of meat they were given during medieval times. In 2007 the 1st woman joined their ranks.
(AP, 1/3/07)

1485 Diogo Cao, Portuguese explorer, sailed south beyond Cape Palmas, beyond Cape St. Catherine, until he reached Cape Cross (Namibia) at 22’ south latitude. His expedition returned to Portugal in 1486.
(V.D.-H.K.p.124)(ATC, p.149)(ON, 11/07, p.1)

1485-1545 Jean Clouet, French painter. He painted “Francis I, King of France.”
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.280)

1485-1547 Hernando Cortes, Spanish conqueror of Mexico. He is credited with naming California after an island in “Sergas de Esplandian,” a popular romance in the early 1500s.
(HFA, ’96, p.65)

1485-1603 The Tudor family ruled over England.
(WUD, 1994, p.1523)

1486 Jan 18, King Henry VII (1457-1509) married Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV. This ended the Wars of the Roses.
(HN, 1/18/99)(ON, 12/06, p.4)

1486 Feb 12, In Toledo, Spain, some 750 lapsed Christians were paraded through the streets of Toledo from the Church of San Pedro Martir to the cathedral in order to be reconciled to the Christian faith. In the Auto Da Fe at Toledo the Jews were forced to recant, fined 1/5 of their property and permanently forbidden to wear decent clothes or hold office.
(SSFC, 11/13/05, p.M3)(www.jewishhistory.org.il/1480.htm)

1486 Mar 4, Jogaila was crowned king of Poland.
(LC, 1998, p.12)

1486 May 1, Christopher Columbus convinced Queen Isabella to fund expedition to the West Indies.
(HN, 5/1/98)

1486 Jul 14, Andrea del Sarto (d.1531), aka Vanucchi or di Francesco, Italian Renaissance artist (Recollets), was born. He represented what Vasari called the terza maniera, the third or modern manner of painting.
(WUD, 1994, p.55)(WSJ, 10/29/96, p.A21)(MC, 7/14/02)

1486 Sep 14, Heinrich Agrippa von Nettesheim (d.1535), German occultist, alchemist, royal astrologer, was born in Cologne.

1486 Pico Mirandola challenged the scholars of all of Europe that he would defend a list of nine hundred thesis drawn from various Greek, Latin, Hebrew, and Arabic authors. His list came to the attention of the Vatican, which found thirteen of the theses heretical. Pico was stunned and issued an immediate recantation but was imprisoned for a short time anyway. Later in Florence he wrote “On the Dignity of Man,” where he implied that man is the spiritual center of the universe, or that perhaps he is one focus and God the other.

1486 Heinrich Kraemer and Johann Sprenger, Dominican friars, published Malleus melefircarum (The Witches’ Hammer), which became the authoritative encyclopedia of demonology throughout Christendom. The authority of their work, which was a synthesis of folk beliefs that had until then been manifested in local outbursts of witch finding, lasted through the European witch craze of the next three centuries. [see 1486, Dec 5]
(HNQ, 10/31/99)

1486 King Joao II of Portugal chose Bartolomeu Dias (~1450-1500 to attempt to find a route to India around Africa. Diaz departed with 3 ships in the fall of 1487.
(ON, 11/07, p.2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bartolomeu_Dias)

1487 Jun 16, Battle at Stoke: Henry VII beat John de la Pole & Lord Lovell.
(MC, 6/16/02)

1487 Aug, Bartolomeu Dias, Portuguese explorer, set out from Lisbon in August, and sailed south to the Cape Verde Islands and past Cape Cross. Storms forced him out to sea and when the winds moderated he continued east but found nothing. He turned north and then sighted land.

1487 Sep 10, Julius III, Italian counter-Reformation Pope (1550-1555), was born. He was also a poet and promoted the Jesuits.
(WUD, 1994, p.773)(HN, 9/10/98)(MC, 9/10/01)

1487 Hans Memling (c.1440-1494), Flemish painter, painted the diptych “Virgin and Child” and “Maarten van Nieuwenhove” (1463-1500), who was his patron.
(SFC, 10/18/05, p.D2)(SFC, 12/23/06, p.E12)

1487 Heinrich Kramer and Jacob Sprenger, Dominican inquisitors, authored “Malleus Maleficarum” (The Hammer of Witches), which spoke of supernatural horrors that witches performed and provided advice on identifying them. In 2006 Christopher Mackay provided a critical translation in English.
(WSJ, 1/19/08, p.W8)

1487 Lorenzo the Magnificent ordered a giraffe from Africa and a cardinal’s hat for his 13-year-old son from Pope Innocent VIII. In return for the hat Lorenzo promised the hand of his eldest daughter for the Pope’s illegitimate son along with a nice loan. The giraffe was procured from Sultan Qaitbay, the Ottoman ruler of Egypt. Pope Innocent promised to get Queen Anne of France to hand over Djem, the exiled brother of Qaitbay, for use as a pawn. Lorenzo promised to give the giraffe to Anne. In 2006 the story was covered by Marina Belozerskaya in her book “The Medici Giraffe.”
(WSJ, 8/19/06, p.P9)

1488 Jan, Bartolomeu Dias, Portuguese explorer, rounded Africa’s southern cape and put to shore to take on food and water. There he found a group of smaller and lighter-skinned Africans, commonly known as the San, who chased his men back with arrows.
(Econ 7/22/17, p.66)

1488 Feb 3, Bartolomeu Dias, Portuguese explorer, sighted the coast of Africa sailing north and made landing at Mossel Bay (South Africa) and realized that they had rounded the continent. He saw the southern tip on his return journey in May and named it Cabo Tormentoso (Cape of Storms). He continued north to the Great Fish River near present day Port Elizabeth, and then returned home in December. King Jaoa changed the cape’s name to Cape of Good Hope to encourage future explorers.
(V.D.-H.K.p.173)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bartolomeu_Dias)(ON, 11/07, p.2)

1488 Jun 11, James III, king of Scotland, died in the battle of Sauchieburn, Scotland.
(SC, 6/11/02)(PC, 1992, p.157)

1488 Oct 7, Andrea del Verrocchio, sculptor, painter, goldsmith, died at 52.
(MC, 10/7/01)

1489 Feb 14, Henry VII and Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I ally to assist the Bretons in the Treaty of Dordrecht.

1489 Apr 6, Hans Waldmann, Swiss military, mayor (Zurich), was beheaded.
(MC, 4/6/02)

1489 Jul 2, Thomas Cranmer, first Protestant archbishop of Canterbury (1533-1556), was born.
(HN, 7/2/01)

1489 Giuliano da Sangallo made his wooden model of the Strozzi palace in Florence.
(Econ, 3/30/13, p.83)

1489 A sculpture St. George and the Dragon, created by Bernt Notke, was unveiled in Stockholm, Sweden. He composed the dragon entirely of elk horns.
(SSFC, 8/19/07, p.G4)

1489-1490 The plague ravaged the Netherlands.
(WSJ, 10/12/98, p.A17)

1490 Mar 23, 1st dated edition of Maimonides “Mishna Torah” was published.
(SS, 3/23/02)

1490 Apr 6, Matthias Corvinus (b.1443), king of Hungary and Croatia (1458-1590), died. He has assembled one of Europe’s finest libraries, 2nd in size only to that in the Vatican. When Hungary later fell to the Turks the library was lost. In 2008 Marcus Tanner authored “The Raven King: Matthias Corvinus and the Fate of His Lost Library.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matthias_Corvinus_of_Hungary)(Econ, 7/19/08, p.93)

1490 Francois Rabelais (d.1553), French physician, satirist and humorist, was born. [see 1494]
(WUD, 1994, p.1183)(V.D.-H.K.p.143)(SSFC, 2/10/02, p.G5)

1490 Leonardo da Vinci painted “Lady with an Ermine” about this time. It featured Cecilia Gallerani (1473-1536), the favorite mistress of Lodovico Sforza, the Duke of Milan.
(Econ, 10/29/11, IL p.27)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lady_with_an_Ermine)

1490 In Venice the Aldine Press opened and went on to publish the first pocket editions of poetry and Greek classics.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1490 A version of the legal handbook “Statham’s Abridgement” was printed. A copy later became part of the collection of the SF law library and was stolen by a city bookbinder. The text is classed as part of the “incunabula,” or books printed in the first 50 years after the introduction of movable type by Gutenberg in 1450.
(SFC, 5/15/97, p.A26)

1490 Anne of Brittany married by proxy the recently widowed Maximilian of Hapsburg who had inherited Burgundy and Flanders from his first wife. Brittany was under siege by France and Maximilian failed to send troops in its defense. Anne had her marriage annulled and married the French Dauphin who had been engaged to marry Margaret of Austria, the daughter of Maximilian and Mary of Burgundy. Anne’s portrait was later painted by Jan Mostaert
(WSJ, 7/30/97, p.A13)

1490 Christopher Columbus was permitted to make his proposal to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain. He asked to be made a noble with eternal title in the family, and to receive 10% commission on all transactions from his found domain. He was initially turned down and left for France and England, but was then called back and his requests were met.

1490 Linz became the capital of the province of Upper Austria.
(StuAus, April ’95, p.39)

1490 Ashikaga Yoshimasa (55), former Shogun of Japan (1449-1478), died.
(ON, 7/01, p.5)

1490 The Portuguese king sent teachers and missionaries to Mani-Kongo in southwest Africa. Mani-Kongo converted to Christianity and later his son became king with the Christian name of Affonso I.
(ATC, p.152)

1490-1491 Chinese, Japanese, and Korean astronomers reported a bright comet for 48 nights during the mid-winter weeks of these 2 years. An Italian astronomer again saw its sunlit debris in 1825 and it became known as the Quadrantid meteor shower. It was later cataloged as 2003EH_1. In 2003 it was related to a star explosion over 500 million earlier.
(SFC, 12/31/03, p.A2)

c1490s Muslims of the Songhai Empire in West Africa supported Askia Muhammad, who overthrew Sunni Ali’s son, and declared Islam the state religion. Songhai grew and expanded to become the greatest trade empire of West Africa.
(ATC, p.121)

c1490s Civil wars weakened Monomutapa in East Africa and by the 1500s the empire was split in two.
(ATC, p.148)

c1490s The Medici went bankrupt.
(Wired, 8/96, p.118)

1490-1495 Tullio Lombardi created his sculpture “Adam.”
(WSJ, 5/18/00, p.A24)

1490-1500 Hieronymus Bosch, Dutch artist, painted “Christ Mocked (The Crowning With Thorns).”
(WSJ, 6/19/00, p.A42)

1490-1700 This period was covered in 2003 by Diarmaid MacCulloch in the book “Reformation: Europe’s House Divided 1490-1700.”
(Econ, 12/13/03, p.82)

1491 Jun 28, Henry VIII, King of England (1509-1547) and founder of the Church of England, was born at Greenwich. He later divorced four times. An inventory of his wealth in 1547 estimated his wealth at £300,000 and his military equipment at another £300,000.
(CFA, ’96, p.48)(AP, 6/28/99)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1491 Nov 15, 6 Jews and 5 Conversos (Jews who pretend to be Catholic converts) were accused of killing Christians in La Guardia, Spain.
(MC, 11/15/01)

1491 Dec 24, Ignatius Loyola (d.1556), Spanish soldier and ecclesiastic, was born. He founded the Society of Jesus, i.e. the Jesuits, wrote Spiritual Exercises, and introduced a new flexibility that enabled a worldwide ministry.
(CFA, ’96, p.60)(CU, 6/87)

1491 Perkin Warbeck appeared in Ireland and claimed to be the missing Duke of York, thought by many to have been murdered by Richard III. After winning support in France and Scotland, Warbeck’s fortunes turned and he was captured and executed in 1497.
(HNQ, 4/17/02)

1491 William Caxton (b.1422), 1st English printer (Histories of Troy), died.
(http://tinyurl.com/cj5dn)(WSJ, 5/12/05, p.D8)

1491 Pietro Roccabonella, doctor of medicine and lecturer at the Univ. of Padua, died.
(SFEC, 2/15/98, BR p.8)

1491 In Russia the Spasskaya Tower was built in Moscow. It was designed by Italian architect Pietro Antonio Solairi, who was hired by Ivan III. In 1935 the Soviet government installed a red star instead of a two-headed eagle atop the 233-foot Red Square tower.
(SFC, 11/7/15, p.A2)

1492 Jan 2, Boabdil, the leader of the last Arab stronghold in Spain surrendered to Spanish forces loyal to King Ferdinand II and Queen Isabella I. Sultan Muhammad XI surrendered, ending Muslin rule in Spain. The combined Catholic forces of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile drove out the last of the Berbers from Spain. The Moors were expelled. King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella took the town of Grenada, the last Moslem kingdom in Spain. The event became marked by an annual festival that began around 1516.
(ATC, p.73,100)(AP, 1/2/98)(SFEC, 3/22/98, p.T11)(HN, 1/2/99)(WSJ, 1/2/02, p.A6)(SSFC, 1/27/02, p.C20)

1492 Jan 23, “Pentateuch,” a Jewish holy book, was first printed.
(MC, 1/23/02)

1492 Mar 30, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella signed a decree expelling all Jews from Spain. Jews numbered about 80,000 and it was estimated that about half chose to convert. [see Mar 31]
(HN, 3/30/98)(WSJ, 4/16/98, p.A20)

1492 Mar 31, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain issued an edict expelling Jews from Spanish soil, except those willing to convert to Christianity. In 2002 Claudia Roden authored “The Ornament of the World,” a collection of stories of Sephardic Jews in Spain from 750 to 1492. [see Mar 30]
(AP, 3/30/97)(WSJ, 4/26/02, p.W12)

1492 Apr 8, Lorenzo I de’ Medici (“il Magnifico”), ruler of Florence (1469-92), died.
(MC, 4/8/02)

1492 Apr 17, A contract was signed by Christopher Columbus and a representative of Spain’s King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, giving Columbus a commission to seek a westward ocean passage to find the Indies [to Asia].
(AP, 4/17/97)(HN, 4/17/98)

1492 Apr 30, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella granted Christopher Columbus specific privileges and prerogatives regarding the discovery and conquest of islands and a continent in the (western) ocean.
(DAH, 1946, p.1)

1492 May 15, Cheese and Bread rebellion: German mercenaries killed 232 Alkmaarse.
(MC, 5/15/02)

1492 Jun 16, Jan Coppenhole, Flemish rebel leader, was beheaded.
(MC, 6/16/02)

1492 Aug 2, Jews were expelled from Spain by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella. [see Mar 31]
(MC, 8/2/02)

1492 Aug 3, Christopher Columbus, set sail from the port of Palos, in southern Spain and headed for Cipangu, i.e. Japan. The voyage took him to the present-day Americas. His squadron consisted of three small ships, the Santa Maria, the Pinta, and the Nina. The 2nd ship was owned by Cristóbal Quintero, and was named Pinta. The 3rd ship was owned by Juan Niño, and was named the Santa Clara, but became known by its nickname, the Nina.
(http://tinyurl.com/774v3)(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.23)(SFEC, 8/8/99, Z1 p.8)

1492 Aug 11, Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia Lanzol (61), father of Cesare and Lucretia, became Pope Alexander VI (d.1503). He siphoned off untold riches from Church funds. Borgia arrived in Rome from Spain in 1449 and Italianized his name from Borja to Borgia. His rise in the church was helped a great deal when his uncle became Pope Calixtus III.
(HN, 8/10/98)(PTA, p.424)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R4)(MC, 8/11/02)

1492 Sep 6, Columbus’ fleet sailed from Gomera, Canary islands.

1492 Sep 25, Crew members aboard one of Christopher Columbus’ ships, the Pinta, shouted that they could see land, but it turned out to be a false sighting.
(AP, 9/25/99)

1492 Oct 7, Columbus changed course to the southwest. As a result he missed Florida.

1492 Oct 11, Rodrigo de Triana, a sailor on the Pinta, sighted land (the Bahamas) on the horizon.

1492 Oct 12, (Old Style calendar; Oct. 21 New Style), Christopher Columbus sited land, an island of the Bahamas which he named San Salvador, but which was called Guanahani by the local Taino people. Seeking to establish profitable Asian trade routes by sailing west, Columbus seriously underestimated the size of the Earth–never dreaming that two great continents blocked his path to the east. Even after four voyages to America, Columbus believed until the end of his life in 1506 that he had discovered an isolated corner of Asia.
(NH, 10/96, p.22)(AP, 10/12/97)(HNPD, 10/12/98)(http://tinyurl.com/774v3)
1492 Oct 12, Pierro della Francesca (b.1415), Tuscany-born artist, died in Florence. He was later called the Father of the Renaissance. His work included “Virgin and Child Enthroned with Four Angels.”
(Econ, 2/16/13, p.82)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piero_della_Francesca)

1492 Oct 16, Columbus’ fleet anchored at “Fernandina” (Long Island, Bahamas).

1492 Oct 17, Columbus sighted the isle of San Salvador (Watling Island, Bahamas).

1492 Oct 19, Columbus sighted “Isabela” (Fortune Island, Bahamas).

1492 Oct 21, Columbus landed on San Salvador Island (Bahamas-Watling Island).

1492 Oct 26, Columbus’ fleet anchored on Ragged Island Range, Bahamas.
(MC, 10/26/01)
1492 Oct 26, Lead pencils were 1st used.
(MC, 10/26/01)

1492 Oct 28, Christopher Columbus discovered Cuba and claimed it for Spain.

1492 Nov 5, Christopher Columbus learned of maize (corn) from the Indians of Cuba.
(MC, 11/5/01)

1492 Nov 7, A meteorite landed in Ensisheim, Germany. Emperor Maximilian visited Ensisheim 15 days after the fall and ordered that the Ensisheim meteorite be preserved in the local church. A piece of the stone was put up for auction in 2007.
(www.meteorite.fr/en/basics/history.htm)(Econ, 10/27/07, p.96)

1492 Nov 15, Christopher Columbus noted the 1st recorded reference to tobacco.
(MC, 11/15/01)

1492 Nov 21, Pinta under Martin Pinzon separated from Columbus’ fleet.
(MC, 11/21/01)

1492 Dec 5, Columbus discovered Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic).

1492 Dec 24-1492 Dec 25, The Santa Maria under Columbus ran aground on a reef off Espanola on Christmas eve, and sank the next day. With the remains of the Santa Maria, Columbus built a fort and called it La Navidad. About two dozen crew members were left behind.
(http://tinyurl.com/dfzzk)(SFC, 10/6/14, p.A2)

1492 Dec 31, 100,000 Jews were expelled from Sicily.
(MC, 12/31/01)

c1492 Andrea Montegna, Italian painter, created his “Descent Into Limbo,” a depiction of Christ descending into limbo to liberate the souls of the righteous. In 2003 the work sold for $28 million.
(SFC, 1/24/03, p.D2)

c1492 Research in 2003 indicated that the Kuikuro people in the Amazon basin had a “complex and sophisticated” civilization with a population of many thousands prior to 1492.
(AP, 9/19/03)

1492 Leonardo da Vinci drew a flying machine.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)
1492 Piero della Francesca (b.1415/1420), Italian artist, died. His work included “The Virgin and child with Saints, angels and Federigo da Montefeltro” (1472-1474).
(WSJ, 2/2/08, p.W14)

1492 Jews began arriving in Morocco after their expulsion from Spain.
(SFEC, 7/25/99, p.T11)

c1492 In Portugal about this time King Manuel I, bedazzled by the Moorish tiles at the Alhambra in Spain, brought home enough to decorate his palace in Sintra.
(SFEC, 4/26/98, p.T6)

1492 Sephardic Jews were welcomed by the Ottoman Empire after their expulsion from Spain.
(SFEC, 3/28/99, p.T4)

1492-1870 Some 11 million African people were brought to the New World as slaves during this period.
(SFEC, 11/16/97, BR p.4)

1493 Jan 2, Columbus departed La Navidad, Hispaniola, and sailed eastward along the coast.

1493 Jan 4, Ivan III, Grand Duke of Moscow, announced the 1st war with Lithuania. In fact the war had begun in 1487.
(LHC, 1/4/03)

1493 Jan 6, Columbus encountered the Pinta along the north coast of Hispaniola.

1493 Jan 9, Christopher Columbus 1st sighted manatees.
(MC, 1/9/02)

1493 Jan 12, This was the last day for all Jews to leave Sicily.
(MC, 1/12/02)

1493 Jan 16, Columbus aboard the Nina departed Hispaniola along with the Pinta to return to Spain.

1493 Feb, Christopher Columbus penned a letter to Spain’s monarchs, four months after discovering the New World, describing what he had found and laying the groundwork for his request to fund another voyage. A Latin copy was printed in Rome by Stephan Plannack in 1493, and found its way into the Vatican Library. This was later stolen by book thief Marino Massimo De Caro and sold in 2014 to American collector David Parsons for $875,000. In 2018 it was returned to the Vatican.
(Reuters, 6/14/18)

1493 Mar 15, Christopher Columbus returned to Spain, concluding his first voyage to the Western Hemisphere.
(AP, 3/15/97)(HN, 3/15/98)

1493 Apr 15, Columbus met with King Ferdinand and Isabella in Barcelona.
(MC, 4/15/02)

1493 May 1, Phillippus Paracelsus (d.1541), physician and alchemist, was born in Switzerland. He was christened as Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim.
(HN, 5/1/98)(NH, 6/00, p.30,34)(MC, 5/1/02)

1493 May 3-1493 May 4, Pope Alexander VI issued 3 papal bulls that divided the discoveries of Columbus between Spain and Portugal. By the Bulls of May 3 and 4 he drew an imaginary line one hundred leagues west of the Cape Verde Islands. The May 4 Bull, “Inter Caetera,” was amended in Sep. granting Spain the right to hold lands to the “western regions and to India.”
(DAH, 1946, p.2)(www.kwabs.com/bull_of_1493.html)

1493 Aug 19, Maximilian succeeded his father Frederick III as Holy Roman Emperor. Frederick III of Innsbruck (77), German Emperor (1440-1493), died.
(HN, 8/19/98)(MC, 8/19/02)

1493 Sep 25, Christopher Columbus set sail from Cadiz, Spain, with a flotilla of 17 ships on his 2nd voyage to the Western Hemisphere. He was accompanied by 13 clerics; Alvarez Chanca, a physician who left valuable accounts of the voyage; Juan Ponce de Leon; Juan de la Cosa, a cartographer; and Columbus’s younger brother Bartholomew.
(AP, 9/25/97)(AM, 7/97, p.58)

1493 Oct 13, Christopher Columbus left the Canary Islands with 16 ships and over 1000 men on his 2nd voyage to the New World.

1493 Nov 3, Christopher Columbus discovered the Caribbee Isles (Dominica) during his second expedition. He and his crew of 1,500 built the town of La Isabela on the northern coast of the Dominican Republic. It was abandoned within 5 years due in part to poor relations with the Taino Indians. This area was part of the chiefdom of Higuey.
(AM, 7/97, p.54,60)(http://www1.minn.net/~keithp/v2.htm)

1493 Nov 4, Christopher Columbus discovered Guadeloupe during his second expedition.
(HN, 11/4/98)

1493 Nov 10, Christopher Columbus discovered Antigua during his second expedition.
(HN, 11/10/98)

1493 Nov 11, The island of St. Martin was sighted and named by Columbus, though the explorer never landed there. The Dutch and French agreed to divide control of the island in 1648, but often clashed over where the border should be until a final pact in 1817.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Martin)(AP, 9/18/10)

1493 Nov 12, Christopher Columbus discovered the island of Redonda during his second expedition. It was about 34 miles WSW of Antigua.

1493 Nov 13, Columbus sighted Saba, North Leeward Islands (Netherland Antilles).

1493 Nov 19, Christopher Columbus discovered Puerto Rico on his 2nd voyage. Juan Ponce de Leon was a member of Columbus’ crew.
(HT, 4/97, p.28)(MC, 11/19/01)

1493 Nov 22, Christopher Columbus arrived at Hispaniola.
(AM, 7/97, p.54,60)(http://www1.minn.net/~keithp/v2.htm)

1493 Nov 28, Christopher Columbus arrived La Navidad, Hispaniola. He found the fort burned and his men from the 1st voyage dead. According to the account of Guacanagari, the local chief who had befriended Columbus on the first voyage, the men at Navidad had fallen to arguing among themselves over women and gold.

1493 Dec 8, Christopher Columbus and his crew of 1,500 built the town of La Isabela on the northern coast of the Dominican Republic. It was abandoned within 5 years due in part to poor relations with the Taino Indians. This area was part of the chiefdom of Higuey.
(AM, 7/97, p.54,60)(http://www1.minn.net/~keithp/v2.htm)

1493 The 600-page “World Chronicle” by physician Hartmann Schedel (1440-1513) was first published in Nuremburg. One copy is held at the Library of the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna, Austria. Anton Koberger, a Nuremberg publisher, published 2,500 copies of the “Nuremberg Chronicle” by Hartmann Schedel. It included woodcuts by Michael Wohlgemuth and Wilhelm Pleyenwurff.
(www.newadvent.org/cathen/13525a.htm)(StuAus, April ’95, p.49)(SFC, 3/1/02, p.D18)

1493 Columbus landed a small herd of swine on the island of Cuba.
(ON, 4/01, p.4)
1493 Columbus named Montserrat after the monastery near Barcelona. He did not bother to land on the island.
(NH, Jul, p.20)
1493 Columbus sailed into St. Croix’s Salt River Bay.
(NG, Jan, 1968, C. Mitchell, p. 73)
1493 Columbus discovered a group of islands, now called the Virgin Islands, that he christened Las Once Mil Virgenes, in memory of St. Ursula and her 11,000 martyr virgins who were slaughtered by the Huns at Cologne in the 5th century.
(SFEC, 2/15/98, p.T8)
1493 Rodrigo de Jerez, a sailor under Christopher Columbus, became the first person to bring tobacco to Europe. In November 1492, Jerez and Luis de Torres first observed natives smoking. The Spanish Inquisition imprisoned him for his “sinful and infernal” habits.
(Econ, 3/30/13, p.38)( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rodrigo_de_Jerez)

1493 Pavia’s pawn bank was founded. It was later absorbed by Italy’s Banca Regionale Europea.
(Econ, 5/27/06, p.73)

1493 In Russia after a major fire in Moscow, Ivan III forbade the construction of wooden buildings in the old city.
(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.33)

1493-1519 Maximilian I (1459-1519), Holy Roman Emperor over this period.
(WUD, 1994, p.886)

1494 Jan 6, The 1st Roman Catholic Mass in the New World marked the official establishment of La Isabela.
(AM, 7/97, p.58)

1494 Jan 25, Ferdinand I (b.1423), cruel king of Naples, died. He was also called Don Ferrante and was the natural son of Alfonso V of Aragon.
(MC, 1/25/02)(Wikipedia)

1494 Jan, In the Dominican Republic there was a failed rebellion against Columbus. The revolt was organized by Bernal de Pisa, the royal accountant, who was unhappy with the poor return of gold. Pisa was jailed and several others were hanged.
(AM, 7/97, p.57,59)

1494 Feb 2, Columbus began the practice using Indians as slaves.
(HN, 2/2/01)

1494 Feb 20, Johan Friis, chancellor (Denmark, helped formed Lutheranism), was born.
(MC, 2/20/02)

1494 Apr 20, John Agricola, [Schneider], German theologian, prime minister, was born.
(MC, 4/20/02)

1494 Apr 24, Columbus departed Isabela, Hispaniola, with 3 ships in an effort to reach China, which he believed was nearby.

1494 Apr 30, Christopher Columbus arrived at Cuba on his 2nd voyage to the Americas.

1494 May 5, During his second voyage to the Western Hemisphere, Christopher Columbus first sighted Jamaica and commented on the daily rains. Columbus landed on the island of Jamaica, which he names Santa Gloria.
(NOHY, 3/90, p.183)(AP, 5/5/97)(HN, 5/5/98)

1494 May 13, Columbus found the natives on Jamaica hostile and left for Cuba.

1494 May 25, Jacopo Pontormo (d.1557), Italian painter (Sepulture of Christ), was born. He represented what Vasari called the terza maniera, the third or modern manner of painting.
(WUD, 1994, p.1118)(WSJ, 10/29/96, p.A21)(SC, 5/25/02)

1494 Jun 7, Spain and Portugal divided the new lands they had discovered between themselves. King Joao II signed the Treaty of Tordesillas in which he conceded to Spain a monopoly on Columbus’ western route in exchange for a Portuguese monopoly on the eastern route.
(HN, 6/7/98)(ON, 11/07, p.2)(www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1028.html)

1494 Aug 11, Hans Memling (b.1435), German-born master of Flemish painting, died in Brugge.

1494 Aug 20, Columbus returned to Hispaniola. He had confirmed that Jamaica was an island and failed to find a mainland.

1494 Sep 12, Francois I of Valois-Angoulome, king of France (1515-47), was born.
(MC, 9/12/01)

1494 Nov 5, Hans Sachs, cobbler, poet, composer, was born in Nuremberg. He was also the prototype for Wagner’s “Die Meistersinger.”
(MC, 11/5/01)

1494 Nov 6, Suleiman I (d.1566), the Great, Ottoman sultan (1520-66), was born. Suleiman the Magnificent, ruler of the Ottoman Empire, was reported to have a harem of 2,000 women.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)(MC, 11/6/01)

1494 Nov 8, Uprising against Piero de’ Medici in Florence, Italy.
(MC, 11/8/01)

1494 Nov 17, Charles VIII (1470-1498) of France entered Florence, Italy. The First Italian War pitted Charles VIII of France, who had initial Milanese aid, against the Holy Roman Empire, Spain, and an alliance of Italian powers led by Pope Alexander VI.
(Econ, 12/17/11, p.147)(http://tinyurl.com/6px6fbp)

1494 Lodovico il Moro, the duke of Milan, commissioned Leonardo da Vinci to paint “The Last Supper” (Cenacolo).
(WSJ, 6/2/99, p.A24)
1494 Luca Pacioli’s textbook “Summa de arithmetica, geometria, proportioni et proportionalità,” was published in Venice and used as a textbook for schools of Northern Italy. It was notable for including the first published description of the method of bookkeeping that Venetian merchants used during the Italian Renaissance, known as the double-entry accounting system.
c1494 Father Ramon Pane wrote an account of the Taino religion at the request of Christopher Columbus.
(AM, 7/97, p.61)
1494 Carol Verardi in Basel published an illustrated report of the first expedition to the new world by Christopher Columbus.
(HNPD, 10/12/98)
1494 The earliest report of Scots making whiskey was made. [see 1495]
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)
1494 Piero Medici, son of Lorenzo and head of the Medici family, fled Florence in the face of a French invasion. Savonarola took the opportunity to lead Florence in restoring a representative government.
(WSJ, 7/10/98, p.W11)(Econ, 4/23/05, p.82)
1494 In Italy humanist philosopher Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and writer Angelo Ambrogini, better known as Poliziano, both died. In 2007 their bodies were exhumed from Florence’s St. Mark’s Basilica. The men were thought to be lovers. Both Pico and Poliziano tutored Lorenzo de Medici’s son Giovanni, who as Pope Leo X helped make Rome a cultural center of Renaissance Europe.
(AP, 7/27/07)

1494-1547 In France the time of King Francois I. The stench along the Seine drove him from the Hotel des Tournelles. Cesspools and the guild that emptied them, the Maitres Fy-Fy, developed at this time.
(Hem., 3/97, p.132)

1494-1553 Francois Rabelais, French satirist: “If you wish to avoid seeing a fool you must first break your mirror.” [see 1490, 1553]
(AP, 2/23/98)

1494-1576 Hans Sachs, German Meistersinger. He authored stories, songs, poems and dramatic works. He later became the central figure in Wagner’s Meistersinger.
(WUD, 1994 p.1258)(WSJ, 10/2/01, p.A17)

1495 Jan 28, Pope Alexander VI gave his son Cesare Borgia as hostage to Charles VIII of France.
(MC, 1/28/02)

1495 Feb 5, The 1st Lithuanian Russian war ended with the signing of a peace treaty in Moscow.
(LHC, 2/5/03)

1495 Mar 8, Juan de Dios, Portuguese-Spanish saint, founder (Brothers of Mercy), was born.
(MC, 3/8/02)

1495 Jun 1, The first written record of Scotch Whiskey appeared in the Exchequer Rolls of Scotland. Friar John Cor was the distiller. The later J&B brand stood for Justerini and Brooks. [see 1494]
(DTnet, 6/1/97)(SFEC, 12/28/97, Z1 p.2)

1495 Oct 25, Portugal’s King Joao II died without leaving male issue. He was succeeded by his brother-in-law Manuel I.

1495 Nov 27, Scottish king James IV received Perkin Warbeck (21), a pretender to the English throne. James gave Warbeck, a Walloon, Lady Catherine Gordon in marriage.
(MC, 11/27/01)(PCh, 1992, p.160)

1495 Leonardo da Vinci sketched a design of a parachute.
(SFEC, 9/8/96, zone 1 p.6)
1495 Italian artist Andrea Mantegna painted an “Adoration of the Magi” about this time in which one of the three kings is seen offering the Christ child a cup filled with gold coins. The blue and white, Ming-style cup in the painting was the first time that a Ming work of art appeared in a European painting.
(Econ, 9/13/14, p.92)

1495 The Taino Indians on Hispaniola staged an organized attack on the Spaniards, but it was easily crushed.
(AM, 7/97, p.59)

1495 In Korea King Yonsan-gun succeeded King Songjong. His reign was noted for his unscrupulous suppression of the literati. In 2005 the South Korean film industry produced “The King and the Clown.” It was based on the 15th century monarch and a troupe of entertainers invited to his court.
(www.asianinfo.org/asianinfo/korea/history/early_choson_period.htm)(Econ, 2/18/06, p.44)

c1495 The 500-year-old body of a young Inca girl was found frozen near the summit of Mt. Ampato, Peru, by American archeologist Johan Reinhard in 1995. The girl was killed by a crushing blow to the head probably in a ritual sacrifice.
(SFC, 5/22/96, p.A8)

1495-1498 Leonardo da Vinci worked on “The Last Supper” in Milan under commission for Duke Ludovico Sforza. The 15 by 28 foot work was undergoing a 20 year restoration in 1998 by Dr. Pinin Brambilla Barcilon.
(SFEC, 4/12/98, Par p.4)

1496 Mar 5, English king Henry VII hired John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto) to explore.
(MC, 3/5/02)

1496 Mar 9, Jews were expelled from Carinthia, Austria.
(MC, 3/9/02)

1496 Mar 10, Christopher Columbus concluded his 2nd visit to the Western Hemisphere as he left Isabela, with 2 ships for Spain. He returned to Spain to ask for more support for his colony on Hispaniola.
(AM, 7/97, p.59)(http://www1.minn.net/~keithp/v2.htm)

1496 Mar 12, Jews were expelled from Syria.
(HN, 3/12/98)

1496 cApr, Bartolome Columbus moved the colony to a new settlement on the south coast, named Isabela La Nueva. It was established on the east bank of the Ozama River. Columbus established Santo Domingo in what is now the Dominican Republic.
(SFC, 5/17/96, p.A-14)(AM, 7/97, p.59)(SFEC, 2/14/99, p.T10)

1496 Oct 20, Spain’s Juana of Castile (1479-1555) married Philip the Handsome, the Duke of Burgundy, in Lier (later a part of Belgium). Philip’s parents were Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor and his first wife, Duchess Mary of Burgundy. Juana had sailed from Spain with 15,000 men to the Habsburg Netherlands. Between 1498 and 1507, she gave birth to six children: two emperors and four queens.
(Econ, 4/13/13, p.55)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joanna_of_Castile)

1496 Dec 5, Jews were expelled from Portugal by order of King Manuel I.
(MC, 12/5/01)

1496 The “Treatyse of Fyshynge wyth an Angle” by Dame Juliana Berner was published. It was the first book on fishing ever written. [see 1425]
(WSJ, 7/29/96, p.A11)

1496 In Germany a Benedictine abbey in Altomuenster, a town on the end of the subway line from Munich, began housing the Bridgettine Order, a female religious order founded by Saint Bridget in Sweden in the 14th century. It was ordered closed in 2015 after the number of nuns fell below the three needed to train novices. In 2018 Catholic authorities in Bavaria said the Vatican has granted their request to close the abbey.
(AP, 12/24/17)(AP, 4/12/18)

1496 Banca del Monte was founded in Milan. It was later absorbed by Italy’s Banca Regionale Europea.
(Econ, 5/27/06, p.73)

1496 Juan de Flandes painted “Christ Calming the Storm,” a commission by Spain’s Queen Isabel.
(WSJ, 12/16/04, p.D8)
1496 La Laguna was founded on the island of Tenerife by Alonso Fernandez de Lugo, who conquered the Canary Islands for Spain. It served as Tenerife’s 1st. capital.
(SSFC, 4/16/06, p.F7)

1496 A Polish edict, pushed by Krakow’s gentile bakers, banned Jews from selling bagels within the city limits.

1496-1497 Michelangelo sculpted “Bacchus,” considered his first masterpiece.
(WSJ, 2/29/96, p.A-14)

1496-1498 Albrecht Durer made his woodcut “The Four Avenging Angels” from the Apocalypse.
(LSA, fall/96, p.23)

c1496-1544 Clement Marot, early vernacular French writer.

1497 Jan 6, Jews were expelled from Graz, Syria. [see Mar 12, 1496]
(MC, 1/6/02)

1497 Feb 7, Followers of the priest Girolamo Savonarola collected and publicly burned thousands of objects in Florence, Italy, on the Shrove Tuesday festival. Tom Wolfe’s 1997 novel, “The Bonfire of the Vanities,” makes reference to the original event, but is not a retelling of the story.

1497 Feb 16, Philip Melanchthon, German Protestant reformer (Augsburgse Confessie), was born.
(MC, 2/16/02)

1497 Mar 9, Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543), Polish astronomer, made the 1st recorded astronomical observation.
(WUD, 1994 p.322)(MC, 3/9/02)

1497 May 2, John Cabot departed for North America. [see Jun 24]
(MC, 5/2/02)

1497 May 10, Italian navigator Amerigo Vespucci left for his 1st voyage to New World.
(MC, 5/10/02)

1497 May 13, Pope Alexander VI excommunicated Girolamo Savonarola for heresy. In Florence the Dominican monk Girolamo Savonarola (1452-1498) had led the Feb 7 burning of musical instruments, books and priceless works of art. He preached against corruption in the Church and civil government.
(Hem., 4/97, p.53)(WUD, 1994, p.1672)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Girolamo_Savonarola)

1497 Jun 24, Italian explorer John Cabot (1450-1498?), (aka Giovanni Caboto), on a voyage for England, landed in North America on what is now Newfoundland or the northern Cape Breton Island in Canada. He claimed the new land for King Henry VII. He documented the abundance of fish off the Grand Banks from Cape Cod to Labrador.
(NH, 5/96, p.59)(WUD, 1994, p.206)(AP, 6/24/97)(HN, 6/24/98)

1497 Jul 8, Vasco da Gama, Portuguese explorer, departed on a trip to India. He sailed from Lisbon enroute to Calicut, India. His journey took him around South Africa and opened the Far East to European trade and colonial expansion.
(V.D.-H.K.p.143)(WUD, 1994, p.1672)(www.indhistory.com/vasco-da-gama.html)

1497 Jul 22, Francesco Botticini (c52), Italian painter, died.
(MC, 7/22/02)

1497 Jul 26, “Edward IV’s son” Perkin Warbeck’s army landed in Cork.
(MC, 7/26/02)

1497 Aug 6, John Cabot returned to England after his first successful journey to the Labrador coast.
(HN, 8/6/98)

1497 Aug 10, John Cabot told King Henry VII of his trip to “Asia.”
(MC, 8/10/02)

1497 Sep 7, Sailor Perkin Warbeck became [briefly] England’s King Richard I. Warbeck had invaded Cornwall after failing to find support in Ireland. He was soon forced to surrender and was imprisoned in the Tower of London.
(MC, 9/7/01)(PCh, 1992, p.161)

1497 Sep, Henry VII defeated the Cornishmen at Blackheath. An insurrection in Cornwall had developed over taxes to support English defenses against Scottish invasion forces.
(PCh, 1992, p.161)

1497 Nov 18, Vasco da Gama reached the Cape of Good Hope.
(MC, 11/18/01)

1497 Nov 22, Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama rounded the Cape of Good Hope.
(MC, 11/22/01)

1497 Hans Holbein the Younger (d.1543), painter, was born in Augsburg, Bavaria.
(WSJ, 12/30/06, p.P10)(www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/holbein/)

1497 Sandro Botticelli painted “The Calumny.” It showed King Midas with donkey ears.
(SFC, 10/7/03, p.D8)

1497 Portuguese Jews were forced to convert to Christianity and were known as “New Christians,” though many continued to practice their original faith in secret.
(WSJ, 6/8/98, p.A21)

1497 In Scotland the Declaration of Education Act required children to go to school.
(SFEC, 12/27/98, Z1 p.8)

1498 Mar 2, Vasco da Gama’s fleet visited Mozambique Island.
(SC, 3/2/02)

1498 Apr 7, A crowd stormed Savonarola’s convent of San Marco in Florence, Italy.
(MC, 4/7/02)
1498 Apr 7, Vasco da Gama, Portuguese explorer, arrived at Mombasa, Kenya, where the Arabs repelled him. He sailed on to Malindi and came to terms with the local sultan, who supplied a pilot that knew the route to Calicut (Kozhikode), the most important commercial port in Southwest India at the time.
(Econ, 9/30/06, p.58)(www.kenyalogy.com/eng/info/histo4.html)

1498 Apr 8, Charles VIII (27), King of France (1483-98), died while preparing a new expedition to invade Italy. He was succeeded by his Valois cousin the Duc d’Orleans (36), who reigned until 1515 as Louis XII.
(PC, 1992 ed, p.161)

1498 May 20, Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama arrived at Calicut (Kozhikkode) in Kerala, India.

1498 May 23, The body of Girolamo Savonarola (45), moral scourge of Florence (1494-98), was burned along with 2 Dominican companions. An enraged crowd burned the previously hanged body of Savonarola at the same spot where he had ordered cultural works burned the year before. In 2006 Lauro Martines authored “Fire in the City,” an account of Savonarola’s life.
(WUD, 1994, p.1672)(www.historyguide.org/intellect/savonarola.html)(WSJ, 5/19/06, p.W6)

1498 May 30, Columbus departed Spain with 6 ships for his 3rd trip to America. He took 30 women along on his third trip to the New World.

1498 May, John Cabot began his 2nd transatlantic voyage. Richard Ameryk (1445-1503), a wealthy Welsh merchant, was the chief investor in Cabot’s second transatlantic voyage. Five ships set sail for Newfoundland, but en route one ship was forced to return after being damaged in a storm. The rest were never heard from again. A theory, not widely held, suggests the Americas are named after his surname.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Cabot)(Econ, 9/22/07, p.23)
1498 May, Vasco da Gama reached Calicut, the chief Indian trading port, at 11? north latitude. He was not welcomed by the Muslim traders who saw him as a Christian and competitor. He returned to Lisbon swearing revenge.

1498 Jun 21, Jews were expelled from Nuremberg, Bavaria, by Emperor Maximillian.
(MC, 6/21/02)

1498 Jun 26, Toothbrush was invented. In China the first toothbrushes with hog bristles began to show up. Hog bristle brushes remained the best until the invention of nylon.
(SFC, 6/6/98, p.E3)(MC, 6/26/02)

1498 Jul 31, During his third voyage to the Western Hemisphere, Christopher Columbus arrived at an island he named Trinidad because of its 3 hills.
(AP, 7/31/98)(http://www1.minn.net/~keithp/v3.htm)

1498 Aug 4-1498 Aug 12, Christopher Columbus explored the Gulf of Paria (Venezuela) between Trinidad and South America.

1498 Aug 14, Columbus landed at the mouth of the Orinoco River in Venezuela.
(MC, 8/14/02)

1498 Aug 16, Christopher Columbus reached the island of Margarita (Venezuela).

1498 Aug 17, French King Louis XII made Cesare Borgia (1475-1507) the Duke of Valentinois. Borgia resigned his position as cardinal, which had been bestowed on him at age 18 by his father, Pope Alexander VI.
(Econ, 8/16/08, p.16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cesare_Borgia)

1498 Sep 16, Tomas de Torquemada (b.1420) died in Avila, Spain. He was a Spanish Dominican friar and the first Grand Inquisitor in Spain’s movement to restore Christianity among its populace in the late 15th century. He was one of the chief supporters of the Alhambra Decree, which expelled the Jews from Spain in 1492.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tom%C3%A1s_de_Torquemada)(AP, 9/16/06)

1498 Albrecht Durer made his woodcut titled “The Bath House.”
(WSJ, 10/29/99, p.W1)

1498 Emperor Maximilian I relocated his court from Innsbruck to Vienna and brought along the court musicians. He also decided to include boy singers which gave rise to The Vienna Boys School and Choir. In 1918 the Austrian government took control of the court musicians, but not the boys choir, which became a private institution. The boys choir began to give public concerts in 1926. In 2007 the choir accepted its first African-born member, Jens Ibsen (12) of Daly City, Ca.
(SFC, 12/8/07, p.A8)

1498 The Shore Porters’ Society was founded as a semi-public body controlled by the town of Aberdeen, Scotland.
(Econ, 12/18/04, p.104)

1498 Niccolo Machiavelli began working as a diplomat for the city-state of Florence. His employment ended in 1512 when he was dismissed by Giuliano de Medici.
(ON, 11/04, p.3)

1498 Columbus sailed by Grenada and named the island Concepcion.

1498 The first pawnshop reportedly opened in Nuremberg, Germany.
(SFEC, 2/22/98, Z1 p.8)

1499 Mar 31, Pius IV (Gianangelo de’ Medici), Italian lawyer, pope (1559-65), was born.
(MC, 3/31/02)

1499 Aug 25, Battle at Sapienza: An Ottoman fleet beat Venetians.
(chblue.com, 8/25/01)

1499 Sep 10, The French marched on Milan.
(Hem., 12/96, p.19)

1499 Nov 12, Perkin Warbeck, Flemish sailor, was hanged for conspiring to escape from the tower of London with the imprisoned earl of Warwick. [see Nov 23]
(PCh, 1992, p.162)

1499 Nov 23, Perkin Warbeck, Flemish sailor, was hanged. [see Nov 12]
(MC, 11/23/01)(AP, 11/23/02)

1499 Nov 28, Edward Plantagenet, 18th Count of Warwick, was beheaded.
(MC, 11/28/01)

1499 Michelangelo completed his “Pieta” for the Vatican. The marble was from Carrara.
(www.abcgallery.com/)(WSJ, 8/1/05, p.D10)

1499 The Spanish play “Celestine” was published.
(WSJ, 11/19/98, p.A21)
1499 Alonso de Ojeda, a Columbus Spanish lieutenant, and Amerigo Vespucci landed at Curacao.
(SSFC, 10/9/11, p.C3)(http://www.curacao-travelguide.com/history/)

1499 Anne of Brittany initiated the white wedding gown.
(SFEM, 6/28/98, p.7)

1499 Portuguese briefly explored and claimed Greenland, naming it Terra do Lavrador (later applied to Labrador in Canada).



Timeline The Sixteenth Century: 1500-1524

1500 Jan 26, Spanish explorer Vicente Yanez Pinzon reached the northeastern coast of Brazil during a voyage under his command. Pinzon had commanded the Nina during Christopher Columbus’s first expedition to the New World.
(MC, 1/26/02)

1500 Feb 24, Charles V, king of Spain (1516-1556), was born in Ghent, Belgium. He was the last Holy Roman Emperor to be crowned by the Pope.
(HN, 2/24/99)(SFEC, 11/21/99, p.T10)(MC, 2/24/02)

1500 Mar 9, Pedro Cabral (~1460-1520), Portuguese navigator, departed to India. He left Lisbon with 13 ships headed for India and was blown off course.
(www.newadvent.org/cathen/03128a.htm)(WUD, 1994 p.206)(SFC, 4/20/00, p.A14)

1500 Apr 8, Battle at Novara: King Louis XII beat duke Ludovico Sforza (Il Sforza del Destino).
(MC, 4/8/02)

1500 Apr 10, France captured duke Ludovico Sforza (“Il Sforza del Destino”) of Milan.
(MC, 4/10/02)

1500 Apr 11, Michael T. Marullus, Greeks poet, drowned.
(MC, 4/11/02)

1500 Apr 22, Pedro Alvares Cabral (c1460-c1526), Portuguese explorer, discovered Brazil and claimed it for Portugal. He anchored for 10 days in a bay he called “Porto Seguro” and continued on to India. [see Apr 23]
(WUD,1994, p.206)(AHD, p.185)(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)(HN, 4/22/98)(SFC, 4/20/00, p.A14)

1500 Apr 23, Pedro Cabal landed at Terra da Vera Cruz and claimed Brazil for Portugal. The native population was later estimated to have been from 1 to 11 million people. [see Apr 22]
(AP, 4/23/98)(SFC, 7/6/98, p.A10)(www.newadvent.org/cathen/03128a.htm)

1500 May 29, Bartholomeu Diaz de Narvaez (Novaez), Portuguese sea explorer, drowned.
(SC, 5/29/02)

1500 Aug 10, Diego Diaz discovered Madagascar.
(MC, 8/10/02)

1500 Oct, Governor De Bobadilla of Santo Domingo captured Christopher Columbus and returned him in shackles to Spain. Columbus, during his third sojourn to the new world, engaged in a dispute with the ambassador plenipotentiary to Santo Domingo, Hispaniola (later shared by Haiti and the Dominican Republic). Columbus was later released and forgiven by the Queen.
(V.D.-H.K.p.143)(SFEC, 3/15/98, Z1 p.8)(http://www1.minn.net/~keithp/v2.htm)

1500 Nov 1, Benvunuto Cellini (d.1571), Italian goldsmith and sculptor, was born. His 1545 autobiography greatly influenced the Renaissance.
(HN, 11/1/00)(WSJ, 2/14/00, p.A20)

1500 Pietro Torrigiani created his sculpture “Virgin and Child.”
(WSJ, 1/29/02, p.A18)

1500 Albrecht Durer (1471-1528) of Nuremburg painted a self-portrait later described as the most gorgeous portrait ever painted.
(WSJ, 3/15/08, p.W16)

1500 Giovanni Bellini painted “The Pieta” and “Portrait of a Young Man.”
(SFEC, 12/26/99, p.C17)

1500 Herri met de Bles, Flemish oil painter, created “Landscape With Burning City.”
(WSJ, 9/8/00, p.W8)

1500 Sandro Botticelli, Italian painter, painted his “Mystic Nativity,” but he was out of key with public taste. His reputation was only restored in the 19th century. He also did the circular painting “Adoration of the Christ Child.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)(WSJ, 12/30/97, p.A8)

1500 Desiderius Erasmus, Dutch humanist scholar, published his “Adagia.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1500 During the first half century of printing 1450-1500, the majority of printed books were renderings of Greek and Latin works, previously available only in manuscripts… From this point on, published works in the national languages… were in the majority.

1500 Antwerp Cathedral was completed after 148 years of construction.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1500 Pope Alexander VI proclaimed a Year of Jubilee with a call for a crusade against the Turks.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1500 Aldus Manutius, Italian printer, founded the Venice Academy for the study of Greek classics and he invented Italic type.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1500 Valencia University was founded.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1500 The Diet of Augsburg established a Council of Regency to administer the Holy Roman Empire.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1500 King Louis XII of France captured Milan in the Italian Wars.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1500 Haast’s eagle, which lived in the mountains of New Zealand, became extinct about this time, most likely due to habitat destruction and the extinction of its prey species at the hands of early Polynesian settlers. Researchers in 2009 determined that the 40 pound bird was a predator and not a mere scavenger as many had thought.
(AP, 9/11/09)

1500 The Vatican established a permanent nunciature (diplomatic service) in Venice.
(Econ, 7/21/07, p.59)

1500 Nueva Cadiz was established on Isla de Cubagua off the coast of Venezuela after Columbus discovered rich pearl oyster beds nearby.
(SSFC, 2/19/06, p.F8)

1500 Geologists in 2009 said an earthquake of magnitude 6.5-7, dated to about this time, tore a deep gash into a 35-mile fault segment along the Wasatch front of Utah state.
(SFC, 9/25/09, p.A8)

1500 The population of the world at about 400 million was distributed as follows:
China, Japan, and Korea 130 million
Europe and Russia 100 million
India subcontinent 70 million
Southeast Asia and Indonesia 40 million
Central and western Asia 25 million
Africa 20 million
The Americas 15 million

c1500 In northern Argentina 3 Inca children were sacrificed. In 1999 a team of archeologists discovered their frozen mummies on Mount Llullaillaco.
(SFC, 4/7/99, p.A11)

c1500 At the end of the 15th century Azerbaijan became the power base of a native dynasty, the Safavids. They established an empire that dominated Iran in the 16th and 17th centuries..
(CO, Grolier’s Amer. Acad. Enc./ Azerbaijan)

c1500 Lake Cauhilla in southern California, the predecessor to the Salton Sea, measured 50 by 100 miles and began evaporating.
(SFC, 11/30/98, p.A22)

1500 Monasteries in England by this time owned a quarter of all English land. Glastonbury Abbey was the most powerful and wealthy.
(SSFC, 10/29/17, p.F3)

1500s The Aztecs played ollamalitzli. The game placed a rubber ball through a stone ring and the loser was often beheaded.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1500s The Navajo began settling on Hopi land. They have farmed in the southwest since this time.
(SFC, 7/15/96, p.A1)(SFC, 1/3/97, p.A26)

1500s Europe began to restrict the practice of medicine to qualified doctors.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1500s Holland and Saxony began to protect the rights of inventors to their creations.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1500s Juan de Bermudez of Spain first reported on the island of Bermuda.
(SFC, 5/2/98, p.E4)

1500s The popularity of surströmming, a Swedish fermented herring with a noxious stench, surged in the early 1500s and again in the early 1700s.
(WSJ, 8/13/02, p.A1)

1500s Monomutapa (Zimbabwe) was split in two with the northern half remaining Monomutapa, and a southern half under the rival dynasty of Changamire.
(ATC, p.148)

1500s Portugal settled the island of Sao Tome, 250 miles off the coast of Kongo. Most of the settlers were criminals deported from Portugal. Sugar began to be grown on Sao Tome and slaves were purchased from King Affonso. The Portuguese and Africans did not see slavery the same way. To the Portuguese the slaves were beasts of burden and worked so hard that many died. They then bought more.
(ATC, p.152)

1500-1600 “Hsi Yu Chi” was a 16th century Chinese novel based on the account of a 7th century monk, Tripitaka, who traveled to India for 16 years for Buddhist scriptures.
(SFC, 12/7/96, p.D1)

1500-1600 “The Boke of Hawkynge and Huntynge and Fysshynge” was produced. A copy sold for $88,000 in 2000.
(SFC, 6/2/00, p.A21)

c1500-1600 George Pencz, 16th century German artist. His work included “Holy Trinity, Seat of Mercy.”
(SFC, 9/29/01, p.B1)
1500-1600 Weimar became the capital of the duchy of Saxe-Weimar.
(SSFC, 8/1/04, p.D10)

1500-1600 Yi Am, 16th cent. Korean artist. The artist’s work included: “Puppies, Birds and Blossoms.”
(WSJ, 8/10/98, p.A12)

c1500-1600 The 16th century French text “The Rules of Civility” was published.
(SFC, 7/4/02, p.D1)

1500-1600 The first Russian book printed was the 15th century “Apostle.”
(SFC, 12/27/96, p.C16)

1500-1600 The Kalmyk people, descendants from the Golden Horde of Genghis Khan, settled in the lowlands between the Volga and Don rivers with their livestock.
(SFC, 9/24/97, p.A12)

c1500-1600 In Honduras the Lenca Indian chieftain Lempira withdrew to the high mountains to lead resistance against the Spaniards. According to legend he plunged to his death from a rocky outcrop near the summit of the highest peak. The Indians developed the Quezungal method of farming, where crops were planted under trees that kept hillsides from eroding.
(SFC, 11/18/98, p.A14)

c1500-1600 Giulio Cesare Aranzi, Italian anatomist, name the hippocampus formation of the brain because of its resemblance to Hippocampus, the seahorse.
(NH, 9/97, p.56)

c1500-1600 The Predjama Castle was built at the mouth of a huge cave at Postojna, Slovenia. It was later used by the highway robber Erasmus Luegger.
(SSFC, 8/18/02, p.C7)

c1500-1600 A Muslim pilgrim stole coffee beans from Yemen and raised them in India. Yemen was the first great coffee exporter and in order to protect its trade had decreed that no living plant could leave the country.
(WSJ, 6/4/99, p.W9)

1500-1650 Period of late Renaissance.

c1500-1800 In Nepal the Malla dynasty created an architectural frenzy in Patan between the 16th and 18th centuries.
(WSJ, 1/22/98, p.A17)

1500-1800 Ottoman Turk rule extended over Libya.
(SSFC, 6/27/04, p.D12)

c1500s-1800s Millions of Africans were torn from their homelands, herded into ships and sold in the New World for more than 300 years. Perhaps the cruelest part of the Atlantic slave trade was the weeks-long sea crossing, or the so-called Middle Passage–that leg of the Triangular Trade that brought the human cargo from West Africa to New World ports. Rather than provide healthful conditions on the sea crossing, slave traders sought to maximize profits with “tight packing”–cramming so many slaves onto the lower decks that those that survived would compensate for the certain losses. The British slave ship Brookes’ deck plan shows the ship carrying 454 slaves with 6’x 1’4″ of space allowed for each adult male, 5’10” x 11″ for each woman and 5′ x 1’2″ for each boy. This clinical representation of human suffering during the Middle Passage was widely circulated by abolitionist groups.
(HNPD, 12/14/98)

1500-1820 The proto-capitalist epoch. The world GDP grew by .07% per year.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R54)

1501 Mar 1, Lithuania and Livonia established a 10-year union for protection against Russia.
(LHC, 3/1/03)

1501 Mar 20, Jean Carondelet (72), lawyer, chancellor of Burgundy (1480-96), died.
(MC, 3/20/02)

1501 May 20, Portuguese explorer Joao da Nova Castelia (1460-1509) discovered the Ascension Islands on Ascension Day.

1501 Jul 27, Copernicus was formally installed as canon of Frauenberg Cathedral.
(MC, 7/27/02)

1501 Sep 24, Gerolamo Cardano, mathematician, was born. He authored “Games of Chance,” the first systematic computation of probabilities.
(HN, 9/24/00)

1501 Oct 15, English crown prince Arthur married Catharina of Aragon. [see Nov 14]
(MC, 10/15/01)

1501 Nov 14, Arthur Tudor married Katherine of Aragon. [see Oct 15]
(HN, 11/14/98)

1501 Michelangelo was commissioned by Florence, his native home, to carve the colossal statue “David.” The work had been by Agostino di Duccio around 1465. Michelangelo finished it in 1504. It was placed at the front of the Palazzo Signoria. In 1873 it was cleaned and moved indoors.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)(WSJ, 4/29/03, D5)

1501 Books printed before 1501 are called incunabula or incunables, after the Latin word for cradle. The 15th century was the cradle of printing.
(WSJ, 9/14/00, p.A24)

1501 France and Spain occupied Naples, and French troops entered Rome. Louis XII was declared King of Naples by the Pope.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1501 Cesare Borgia captured Romagna (north-central Italy) and appointed Remirro de Orco, his cruelest lieutenant, to pacify the region. After the job was done Borgia had Orco cut in two to gain the gratitude of the people.
(WSJ, 6/22/98, p.A20)

1501 Maximilian I, German emperor, recognized the French conquests of northern Italy in the Peace of Trent.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1501 A worn Roman torso was unearthed in Rome. It later acquired the nickname “Pasquino” and served as a station for posting complaints and opinions that came to be known as Pasquinades.
(WSJ, 12/31/01, p.A6)

1501 The Turks took Durazzo from Venice.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1501 Ivan III, Czar of Russia, invaded Lithuania.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1501 Gaspar de Corte-Real, Portuguese navigator, made the first authenticated European landing on the northern continent of the Western Hemisphere since c1000AD.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1501 Amerigo Vespucci, Florentine navigator, explored the coast of Brazil on his second voyage to the New World.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1501 The Anglo-Portuguese Syndicate completed the first of five voyages to Newfoundland.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1502 Jan 1, Portuguese navigator Pedro Cabral and Amerigo Vespucci sailed the into the harbor of Rio de Janeiro. Portuguese explorers sailed into Guanabra Bay and mistook it for the mouth of a river which they named Rio de Janeiro.
(Hem., Dec. ’95, p.129)(MC, 1/1/02)

1502 Feb 12, Vasco da Gama, Portuguese explorer, departed on a second trip to India with 20 well-armed ships.
1502 Feb 12, Isabella issued a royal order giving all remaining Moors in the realms of Castile the choice between baptism and expulsion.

1502 Apr 2, Arthur, English crown prince, husband of Catharina of Aragon, died.
(MC, 4/2/02)

1502 May 9, Christopher Columbus left Cadiz, Spain, on his fourth and final trip to the Western Hemisphere. He explored Central America, and discovered St. Lucia, the Isthmus of Panama, Honduras, and Costa Rica. Columbus left 52 Jewish families in Costa Rica. [see May 11]
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)(AP, 5/9/97)(WSJ, 6/15/00, p.A1)

1502 May 11, Columbus embarked on his 4th voyage with 150 men in 4 caravels. Among those in the fleet were Columbus’s brother Bartholomew, and Columbus’ younger son Fernando, then just 13 years old. They reached the coast of Honduras after 8 months and passed south to Panama (1503). The ships included the Capitana, which served as the flagship, and the Vizcaina. In 2006 Klaus Brinkbaumer authored “The Voyage of the Vizcaina.”
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)(http://www1.minn.net/~keithp/v4.htm)(WSJ, 5/26/06, p.W5)

1502 Jun 6, Jofo III, King of Portugal (1521-57), was born.
(MC, 6/6/02)

1502 Jun 7, Pope Gregory XIII was born. He introduced the Gregorian calendar in 1582. [see 1552]
(HN, 6/7/98)(SFEC, 2/20/00, Par p.7)

1502 Jun 29, Christopher Columbus arrived at Santo Domingo, Hispaniola, on his 4th voyage to the new world. He requested harbor and advised Gov. Nicolas de Ovando of an approaching hurricane. Ovando denied the request and dispatched a treasure fleet to Spain. 20 ships sank in the storm, 9 returned to port and one made it to Spain.

1502 Jul, Columbus reached the northern coast of Honduras during his 4th voyage and passed south to Panama.
(http://www1.minn.net/~keithp/v4.htm)(Econ, 12/10/11, p.65)

1502 Sep 18, Christopher Columbus landed at Costa Rica during his 4th and last voyage. Columbus left 52 Jewish families in Costa Rica.
(MC, 9/18/01)(WSJ, 6/15/00, p.A1)

1502 Dec 31, Cesare Borgia (son of Pope Alexander VI) occupied Urbino.
(MC, 12/31/01)

1502 Donato Bramante began the Tempietto of S. Pietro in Montorio, Rome.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1502 Vittore Carpaccio began the fresco cycle “Scenes from the Lives of SS George and Jerome.” Full of light and detail, it is typical of the Venetian manner.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1502 Lucas Cranch, German painter, began his career in Vienna. In 1521 he painted the famous portrait of Martin Luther.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1502 Leonardo da Vinci drew plans for a 720-foot stone span across the Golden Horn at the mouth of the Bosporus. In 2001 Vebjorn Sand, Norwegian artist, completed a 330-foot, laminated timber bridge linking Norway and Sweden at Aas, 16 miles south of Oslo based on the da Vinci plans.
(SSFC, 12/9/01, p.C2)

1502 Vasco da Gama founded the Portuguese colony at Cochin, China.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1502 Ahuizotl, ruler of the Aztecs, died and was cremated on a funeral pyre about this time at the foot of the Templo Mayor pyramid. In 2007 Mexican archeologists found underground chambers in Mexico City they believed to contain his remains.
(AP, 8/4/07)(AP, 6/17/10)
1502 Moctezuma Xocoyotl (Montezuma II), an Aztec prince, inherited the Aztec throne becoming the 9th ruler of the Aztecs.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)(ON, 10/00, p.1)(Econ, 9/26/09, p.99)

1502 In Germany Peter Henlein of Nuremberg used iron parts and coiled springs to build a portable timepiece.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)
1502 In Germany Wittenberg University was founded.
(Voruta #27-28, Jul 1996, p.10)(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1502 Shah Ismail founded the Safavid Dynasty in Persia.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1502 Amerigo Vespucci declared that South America is a separate continent after his second voyage.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1502 A hurricane nearly destroyed La Nueva Isabela and it was abandoned. The city was rebuilt on the other side of the river as Santo Domingo by the new governor, Nicholas de Ovando.
(AM, 7/97, p.59)

1502 Vasco da Gama returned to Calicut, India. He bombarded the town, burned a ship full of Arab men, women, and children because its captain had offended him, and demanded that the Muslims turn over the trade to the Portuguese. Within a generation his demands were met.
1502 Portuguese traders took peanuts from Brazil and Peru to Africa.
(SFEC, 1/10/99, Z1 p.8)
1502 Jaoa de Nova, Portuguese explorer, discovered St. Helena Island. It became a way station for ships for centuries and was a key port for Britain’s East India Company.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)(AP, 10/14/17)

1502 Spain legalized slave shipments to the Americas.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1502-1533 Atahualpa, emperor of the Incas. He had a fortune in gold and silver and tried to purchase his freedom from Pizarro for a chamber filled with gold. Pizarro took 124 tons of gold in ransom and then re-arrested Atahualpa for treason to the Spanish crown and had him decapitated.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1503 Jan 9, Christopher Columbus returned to the mouth of Rio Belen (western Panama), where he built a garrison.

1503 Feb 11, Elizabeth of York (b.1466), consort of King Henry VII, died on 38th birthday.

1503 Mar 10, Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor (1558-1564), was born. He was King of Bohemia and Hungary from 1526-1564.
(HN, 3/10/01)(WUD, 1994 p.523)

1503 Mar 28, The 2nd Lithuanian war with Russia (1500-1503) ended with a treaty. Lithuania lost a fourth of its territory.
(LHC, 3/28/03)

1503 Apr 6, Christopher Columbus fended off an Indian attack at his garrison at Rio Belen (Panama).

1503 Apr 16, Christopher Columbus abandoned the garrison at Rio Belen (Panama) and sailed for home (Hispaniola) with 3 ships. On the way he was shipwrecked in Jamaica.

1503 May 10, Columbus stumbled across the Cayman Islands and dubbed them Las Tortugas after the numerous sea turtles.
(SFEC, 2/16/97, p.T8)(HN, 5/10/98)

1503 May, The ship Esmeralda sank during a violent storm near al-Hallaniyah Island in the Indian Ocean, killing commander Vicente Sodre and all those aboard. The ship was one of two lost in the storm from Vasco da Gama’s second voyage to India. Archaeologists in 2016 reported finding the ship off the coast of Oman in 2013.
(AP, 3/15/16)

1503 Jun 25, Christopher Columbus beached his sinking ships in St. Anne’s Bay, Jamaica, and spent a year shipwrecked and marooned there before returning to Spain.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)(http://www1.minn.net/~keithp/v4.htm)

1503 Aug 18, Pope Alexander VI (1492-1503), born in Spain as Rodrigo di Borgia (1431), died. He had recently authorized the building of a prison in the cellars of Castel Sant’Angelo in Rome.
(PTA, p.424)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Alexander_VI)(SSFC, 7/22/07, p.G2)

1503 Nov 28, Giuliano della Rovere (1443-1513) was crowned as Pope Julius II.

1503 Oct 30, Queen Isabella of Spain banned violence against Indians.
(MC, 10/30/01)

1503 Nov 17, Il Bronzino, Florentine painter (Eleanor de Toledo & her Son), was born.
(MC, 11/17/01)

1503 Dec 14, Nostradamus [Michel de Nostredame], prophet, was born in St. Remy, Provence, France. He predicted correctly French king Henri II’s manner of death. Nostradamus was the author of a book of prophecies that many still believe foretold the future. He was also physician, an astrologer and a clairvoyant. He wrote in rhyming quatrains, accurately predicting the Great London Fire in 1666, Spain’s Civil War, and a Hitler that would lead Germany into war. He even correctly predicted his own death on July 2, 1566.
(HN, 12/14/99)(MC, 12/14/01)

1503 Lucas Cranach (1472-1553) the Elder, German artist ( Saxony), completed his painting “The Crucifixion.”

1503 Parmigianino (d.1540), Italian painter and master draftsman, was born. His paintings included “Madonna of the Long Neck.”
(WSJ, 2/12/00, p.A25)

1503 Leonardo Da Vinci began painting the “Mona Lisa.” The husband of Lisa del Giocondo commissioned Leonardo da Vinci to paint the “Mona Lisa,” The model was Lisa Gheradini whose relatives had emigrated to Ireland in the 12th century and translated their surname to Fitzgerald, an ancestral name of later US president John F. Kennedy. Lisa Gherardini (b.1479) was originally identified as the subject of the world’s most famous painting by Leonardo’s first biographer, the 16th-century Italian writer Giorgio Vasari. In 2001 Donald Sassoon authored “Becoming Mona Lisa: The Making of a Global Icon.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lisa_del_Giocondo)(SFC, 4/26/97, p.E4)(SFC, 3/21/98, p.E3)(WSJ, 12/7/01, p.W16)(AP, 9/13/04)
1503 Leonardo da Vinci was commissioned to decorate a hall in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence. For some 18 months he worked on a mural for the 1440 Battle of Anghiari but abandoned the work in 1506. The mural was later lost when Georgio Vasari was hired to remodel the hall.
(WSJ, 11/9/07, p.W4)

1503 Thomas a Kempis published his “Imitation of Christ” in an English translation and it had great religious influence.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1503 Canterbury Cathedral was finished after 433 years of construction.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1503 Henry VII’s chapel, the final stage of English gothic art, was begun in Westminster Abbey.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1503 The pocket handkerchief came into general use in polite European society.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1503 The missionary Bartolome de Las Casa described the brutal destruction of a Taino Indian city, La Aleta (later in the Dominican Republic). Captain-Gen’l. Juan de Esquival led a Spanish force that massacred 600-700 Higuey Tainos for rebelling after one of their chiefs was disemboweled by a Spanish attack dog. In 1997 archeologists found evidence of a city at the site called La Aleta.
(SFC, 3/29/97, p.A10)(AM, 7/97, p.60)

1503 The French in Italy were defeated by the Spaniards in the battles of Cerignola and Garigliano, and Spanish forces entered Naples.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1503 A War of Succession broke out between Albert IV of Bavaria and Rupert of the Palatinate (a state of the Holy Roman Empire).
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1503 Jean Poyet, French Renaissance artist, died. His work included “Vespers: Massacre of the Innocents and Flight Into Egypt.”
(WSJ, 2/22/00, p.A20)

1503 Seville, Spain, was awarded rights to all trade with the recently discovered New World.
(SSFC, 8/15/10, p.M4)

1503 Zanzibar became a Portuguese colony.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1504 Jan 17, Pius V, Pope from 1566-1572, was born.
(HN, 1/17/99)

1504 Feb 29, An eclipse occurred and helped Christopher Columbus subdue his rebellious Indian carriers.
(SCTS, p.29)

1504 Apr 1, English guilds went under state control.
(MC, 4/1/02)

1504 Apr 18, Fra Filippo Lippi (~52), painter, died.
(MC, 4/18/02)

1504 Apr 23, King Maximilian I routed troops to Bavaria.
(MC, 4/23/02)

1504 May 5, Anton of Burgundy (~82), the Great Bastard, knight, died.
(MC, 5/5/02)

1504 Jun 29, Diego Mendez, one of Columbus’s captains, returned to Jamaica with a small caravel and rescued the Columbus expedition. Mendez had managed to take a canoe from Jamaica to Hispaniola where he chartered the rescue ship.

1504 Jul 12, Steven the Great (b.1433), Stefan Chel Mare, Prince of the Principality of Moldavia (1457-1504), died. He had waged battles against the Turks in the 14th century and became a national hero. Stephen III was buried in the village of Kobynya. In 2000 a 600-year-old oak tree that marked his grave was killed by a cold snap and high winds.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_III_of_Moldavia)(SFC, 12/9/00, p.D8)

1504 Aug 6, Matthew “Nosey” Parker, archbishop of Canterbury, was born.
(MC, 8/6/02)

1504 Nov 7, Columbus returned to Spain following his 4th voyage after suffering a shipwreck at Jamaica. Columbus brought back cocoa beans and chocolate drinks soon became a favorite in the Spanish court. In 2005 Martin Dugard authored “The Last Voyage of Columbus.”
(EWH, 1968, p.390)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)(SSFC, 6/26/05, p.C1)

1504 Nov 26, Isabella I (53), Catholic Queen of Castille and Aragon (1474-1504), patron of Columbus died.
(MC, 11/26/01)

1504 Raphael painted “The Marriage of the Virgin.” It exemplified the major principles of High Renaissance art.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1504 Albrecht Durer (1471-1528) drew his “Adam and Eve.”
(SFEC, 2/9/97, DB p.6)

1504 The Signoria of Florence commissioned Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo to paint the walls of the Grand Council Chamber in the Palazzo Vecchio.

1504 In Florence Leonardo da Vinci and Machiavelli became involved in a scheme to divert the Arno River and thereby cut the water supply to Pisa and force its surrender. Colombino, the project foreman, failed to follow da Vinci’s design, and the project was a spectacular failure. This is covered in the 1998 book “Fortune Is a River” by Roger D. Masters.
(WSJ, 6/22/98, p.A20)

1504 Louis XII of France ceded Naples to Ferdinand II of Aragon in the Treaty of Lyon. Naples remained under Spanish control for the next 200 years.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1504 Babur, founder of the Mughal dynasty in India, captured Kabul in Afghanistan and maintained control to 1519. Babur’s mother descended from Genghis Khan and his father from Timur (Tamerlane).
(https://www.afghan-web.com/history/chronology/)(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)(WSJ, 10/24/00, p.A12)

1504 Venetian ambassadors proposed to Turkey the construction of a Suez Canal.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1504 Henry Tudor, king of England, had coins minted with an accurate self likeness.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1505 Feb 4, Joan of Valois (40), Queen of France, saint, died.
(MC, 2/4/02)

1505 Feb 26, In Brest Polish Chancellor J. Laski invited the Lithuanian government to reconfirm and expand the 1501 Union of Melnik, but the offer was rejected.
(LHC, 2/26/03)

1505 Apr 20, Jews were expelled from Orange, Burgundy, by Philibert of Luxembourg.
(MC, 4/20/02)

1505 Jul 24, On their way to India, a group of Portuguese explorers sacked the city-state of Kilwa, East Africa, and killed the king for failing to pay tribute.
(HN, 7/24/98)

1505 Oct 27, The Grand Duke of Moscow, Ivan III (also known as “Ivan the Great”), died; he was succeeded by his son, Vasily III (Basil III). Vasily’s son, Ivan IV, later became the first czar of Russia, “Ivan the Terrible.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)(AP, 10/27/05)

1505 Dec 18, John IX van Horne, prince-bishop of Lieges, Belgium, was executed.
(MC, 12/18/01)

1505 Giovanni Bellini painted “The Virgin and Child with Saints,” the most perfect realization of the “holy conversation” theme in all of Western painting.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1505 Hieronymus Bosch began his triptych “The Garden of Earthly Delights” and marked the last fling of the Gothic Middle Ages. He also painted “The Temptation of St. Anthony.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)(SFC, 8/27/98, p.E3)

1505 Giorgione painted “The Concert.”
(WSJ, 7/16/02, p.D6)

1505 Pope Julius summoned Michelangelo to Rome to design the pope’s tomb. The contract was revised 5 times and only 3 of 40 large figures were executed.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)(OG)

1505 Leonardo da Vinci painted “The Battle of Anghiari” on a wall in Florence’s Palazzo Vecchio. It commemorated a victory of Florentine forces over the ruling Medici. In 1563 the Medici, having regained power, hired Giorgio Vasari to cover up Leonardo’s work with a painting celebrating one of their own martial successes. It was later thought that Vasari hid the original behind his new work.
(WSJ, 4/10/08, p.D7)
1505 Leonardo da Vinci’s “Codex on the Flight of Birds” dated to about this time.

1505 Raphael painted his “Madonna of the Goldfinch” about this time for the wedding of a friend, Lorenzo Nasi. The painting was shredded in 1548 when Nasi’s palace collapsed. The work was pieced together and modern restoration, which began in 1999, was completed in 2008.
(SFC, 10/31/08, p.E7)

1505 Wimpfeling published the first history of Germany, “Epitome Rerum Germanicarum.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1505 Maximilian I began a reformation of the Holy Roman Empire.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1505 Christ’s College, Cambridge, England, was founded.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1505 Magellan began to serve Portugal when he enlisted in the fleet of Francisco de Almeida. He continued in Portuguese service on many expeditions, being wounded in a campaign against the Moroccan stronghold of Azamor in 1513. The wound caused him to limp for the rest of his life. Magellan petitioned King Manuel of Portugal for an increase in his pension as a titular rise in rank, but the king refused and sent him back to Morocco. Upon his second petition in 1516, Magellan was told he might offer his services elsewhere.
(HNQ, 10/9/00)

1505 A well armed Portuguese fleet attacks Kilwa and then Mombasa. The Portuguese then attempt to monopolize the trade in the east African ports but were unable to maintain control. By the late 1500s, Swahili groups regained control of several ports from the Portuguese..
(ATC, p.144)

1505 Portuguese explorers discovered Ceylon (Sri Lanka), and established factories on the east coast of Africa.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1505 Christopher Columbus died in poverty in Spain. Columbus was the author of “Books of Prophecies,” later translated by Delno C. West.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)(WSJ, 10/8/99, p.W15)

1505-1585 Thomas Tallis, English organist and vocal composer, especially of church music.
(WUD, 1994, p.1450)

1506 Jan 22, The Swiss Guard mercenaries, summoned by Pope Julius II to protect the pope and the Vatican, arrived in Rome.
(USAT, 5/6/98, p.6A)(AP, 1/22/06)

1506 Apr 7, Francis Xavier, saint, Jesuit missionary to India, Malaya, and Japan, was born.
(MC, 4/7/02)

1506 May 19, Columbus selected his son Diego as sole heir.
(MC, 5/19/02)

1506 May 20, Christopher Columbus (55) died in poverty in Spain, still believing he discovered the coast of Asia. Columbus died in the Spanish city of Valladolid, and was initially interred in a monastery there. Three years later, his remains were moved to a monastery on La Cartuja. In 1537, Maria de Rojas y Toledo, widow of Columbus’ son Diego, was allowed to send the bones of her husband and his father to the cathedral in Santo Domingo for burial. There they lay until 1795, when Spain ceded the island of Hispaniola to France and decided Columbus’ remains should not fall into foreigners’ hands. A set of remains that the Spaniards thought were Columbus’ were then dug up from behind the main altar in the newly built cathedral and shipped to a cathedral in Havana, where they remained until the Spanish-American War broke out in 1898 and Spain brought them to Seville. But in 1877, workers digging inside the Santo Domingo cathedral unearthed a leaden box containing 13 large bone fragments and 28 small ones. It was inscribed “Illustrious and distinguished male, don Cristobal Colon.” The Dominicans said these were the real remains of Columbus and that the Spaniards must have taken the wrong remains in 1795.
(AP, 5/20/97)(HN, 5/20/99)(AP, 10/13/02)(SFC, 1/18/05, p.A8)

1506 Leonardo da Vinci began work on “Salvador Mundi,” a painting commissioned by King Louis XII of France. The painting was completed by 1513. In 2013 it was sold for $127.5 million to Russian billionaire Dmitry Rybolovlev.
(SFC, 10/12/17, p.D3)
1506 Albrecht Durer painted his “Portrait of a Young Woman.”
(SFEC, 12/26/99, p.C17)
1506 Giorgione painted “The Three Philosophers” about this time.
(WSJ, 8/3/06, p.D5)
1506 The Laocoon sculpture was unearthed in Rome. It served as a peg for Goethe’s aesthetic theories. It later inspired Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, 18th century German dramatist and critic, to write one of the greatest essays ever written on a work of ancient art.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)(WSJ, 9/7/99, p.A23)

1506 Pope Julius II placed the 1st stone for the new St. Peter’s Basilica. Bramante began to rebuild St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome, which had been neglected since the 14th century when the popes resided at Avignon. Pope Urban VIII consecrated it in 1626.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)(SSFC, 2/18/07, p.A2)

1506 The University of Frankfurt-on-the-Oder was founded.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1506 Jacob Fugger, Augsburg merchant, imported spices to Europe from the East Indies.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)
1506 The Spaniards in the West Indies began raising sugar cane.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1506 Machiavelli, Italian diplomat, established the Florentine militia, the first Italian national troops.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)
1506 Andrea Mantegna (b.1431), Italian painter and engraver, died. His paintings included a dead Christ, “Christo Morto,” whose bare feet seem to stick out of the picture. He also painted “Virgin and Child in Glory.”
(WSJ, 6/6/96, p.A12)(SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T11)(WSJ, 11/10/07, p.W14)

1506 King Chungjong (r.1506-1544) began his rule in Korea. He restored Confucian rule with the support of officials who had deposed King Yongsan-gun.

1506 Copernicus, Polish-born astronomer, was appointed canon of church properties in the Prussian diocese of Ermland.
(ON, 2/11, p.5)

1506 Riots in Lisbon, Portugal, led to the slaughter of 2,000-4,000 converted Jews. This became the setting for a 1998 novel by Richard Zimler, “The Last Kabbalist of Lisbon.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9) (WSJ, 6/8/98, p.A21)

1506 Philip I of Castile died and was succeeded by a Council of Regency because of the insanity of his widow.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1506 Mozambique, Africa, was colonized by the Portuguese.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1506-1510 Leonardo da Vinci divided his time between Florence and Milan, where he serve Charles d’Amboise, the region’s French governor. It was in this period that he compiled his illustrated observations that came to be known as the 72-page Codex Leicester. It consists of 18 loose, double-sided sheets, written in mirror script and illustrated with about 360 sketches. The work was first planned as a treatise on the motion of water.
(SFC, 10/29/96, p.F3)(WSJ, 10/31/96, p.A21)(NH, 11/96, p.14,96)

1507 Jan 15, Johann Oporinus [Herbster], Swiss book publisher (Koran), was born.
(MC, 1/15/02)

1507 Feb 23, Gentile Bellini, Venetian artist, died.

1507 Mar 12, Cesare Borgia (31), cardinal, soldier, politician, died while fighting alongside his brother, the king of Navarre, in Spain.
(HN, 3/12/99)(MC, 3/12/02)

1507 Apr 25, Martin Waldseemuller, a German geographer working at a small college in Eastern France, labeled the New World “America,” for the first time in his book “Cosmographiae Introductio,” and gave Amerigo Vespucci (d.1512) credit for discovering it. His map was the first to show North and South America as separate continents. Letters of 1504-1505 had circulated in Florence claimed that Vespucci had discovered the new World. Vespucci was in fact only a passenger or low officer on one of the ships captained by others. Vespucci was later believed to have been the brother of Simonetta Vespucci, the model for Venus in the Botticelli painting. In 2000 the US Library of Congress planned to acquire the original map for $14 million from the Prince Johannes Waldburg-wolfegg. A $10 million purchase was completed in 2003. In 2009 Toby Lester authored “The Fourth Part of the World: The Race to the Ends of the World, and the Epic Story of the Map That Gave America Its Name.”
(SFEC, 8/23/98, p.T10)(SFC, 10/27/00, p.C14)(WSJ, 7/25/03, p.W19)(AP, 4/25/07)(SSFC, 12/27/09, Books p.E5)(SFC, 11/8/17, p.A4)

1507 Oct 1, Italian architect Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola was born.
(AP, 10/1/07)

1507 Giorgione painted his “Sunset Landscape” about this time.
(WSJ, 8/3/06, p.D5)

1507 Margaret of Austria was appointed Regent by the States-General (parliament) of the Netherlands until the Archduke Charles came of age.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1507 The Diet of Constance recognized the unity of the Holy Roman Empire and founded the Imperial Chamber, the empire’s supreme judicial court.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1507 Genoa was annexed by the French.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1507 Martin Luther was ordained.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1507 Pope Julius II announced an indulgence for the re-building of St. Peter’s.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1507 Johannes Ruysch produced the first printed map of America, as declared by the selling map dealer, R.B. Arkway, Inc. It is dotted with Asian place names. In 1995 it was for sale for $135,000.
(WSJ, 11/24/95, p.B-8)

1507-1650 The shores of Oman were dominated by Portuguese adventurers who were responsible for the forts of Mirani and Jalali. The native Bedouins spoke the Harsusi language.
(NG, 5/95, p.121-123)

1508 Feb 4, Proclamation of Trent.
(HN, 2/4/99)

1508 Feb 6, King Maximilian I (1459-1519) assumed the title of Emperor (1493-1519) without being crowned.
(TL-MB, p.9)(WUD, 1994, p.886)(MC, 2/6/02)

1508 Aug 12, Ponce de Leon arrived and conquered the island of Boriquen (Puerto Rico). Spain had appointed him to colonize Puerto Rico. He explored Puerto Rico and Spanish ships under his command began to capture Bahamanian Tainos to work as slaves on Hispaniola. His settlement at Caparra, 2 miles south of San Juan Bay, was plagued by Taino Indians and cannibalistic Carib Indians.
(NH, 10/96, p.23)(SC, 8/12/02)(http://welcome.topuertorico.org/glossary/index.shtml#936)

1508 Nov 30, Andrea Palladio (d.1580), [Andrea di Piero della Gondola], Italian Renaissance architect, was born in Padua.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrea_Palladio)

1508 Giorgione painted “The Tempesta,” a landscape of a stormy setting with a town in the background, a soldier lower left and a woman nursing to the right. It is at the Academia Gallery in Venice. His work “the Three Philosophers” also dated to about this time.
(T&L, 10/80, p. 58)(WSJ, 12/4/97, p.A20)(SFC, 10/29/11, p.E2)
1508 Pope Julius II transferred Michelangelo to paint the Sistine Chapel ceiling in Rome.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)(OG)
1508 Raphael at age 26 entered the service of Pope Julius II and was entrusted with the decoration of the new papal apartments.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)
1508 The League of Cambrai was formed against Venice by Ferdinand of Aragon, Emp. Maximilian, Louis XII of France, and Pope Julius II as part of an ongoing dispute over sovereignty in Italy.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1508 Tamerlane’s descendant, Babur, the founder of the Mughal Empire, annexed Kandahar (Afghanistan).

1508 Alfonso d’Albuquerque, Portuguese navigator, conquered Muscat in Oman.
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.53)

1508 Sebastian de Ocampo, Spanish navigator, explored Cuba.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1508 In England Althorp was bought by John Spencer, the ancestor of the 9th Earl Spencer, Princess Diana’s brother. The estate in Great Brington was selected as the grave site for Princess Diana in 1997.
(SFC, 4/3/98, p.B2)

1509 Jan 25, Giovanni Morone, Italian theologist, diplomat, cardinal, “heretic,” was born.
(MC, 1/25/02)

1509 Apr 21, Henry VII (b.1457), 1st Tudor king of England (1485-1509), died. In 2011 Allen Lane authored “Winter King: The Dawn of Tudor England.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_VII_of_England)(Econ, 9/24/11, p.107)

1509 Apr 22, Henry Tudor became King Henry VIII of England following the death of his father, Henry VII. He soon married Catherine of Aragon, his brother’s widow and the aunt of Charles V (the Holy Roman Emperor), and fathered Mary, future Queen of England.
(V.D.-H.K.p.161)(AP, 4/22/08)

1509 Apr 27, Pope Julius II excommunicated the republic of Venice. The pope lifted the ban in February 1510.
(AP, 4/27/07)

1509 May 14, In the Battle of Agnadello, the French defeat the Venetians in Northern Italy.
(HN, 5/14/98)

1509 May 20, Catharina Sforza (45), “La Sforza del Destino”, Italian duchess of Forli, died.
(MC, 5/20/02)

1509 Jun 11, England’s King Henry VIII married Catherine of Aragon.
(AP, 6/11/97)(HN, 6/11/98)
1509 Jun 11, In Italy troops of Florence took Pisa.
(AP, 6/11/03)

1509 Jun 24, Henry VIII was crowned king of England.
(AP, 6/24/97)(HN, 6/24/98)

1509 Jul 10, John Calvin, founder of Calvinism, the basis for modern Protestantism, was born.
(HN, 7/10/98)

1509 Andrea Calmo (d.1571, Venetian playwright, was born about this time. He became a pioneer in comedia dell’arte.

1509 Fra Bartolomeo, Italian artist, painted “The Holy Family with the Infant St. John.” It was purchased by the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA) for close to $4 million. His work “The Holy Family with the Infant St. John,” was purchased by the John Paul Getty Museum in Malibu for $22.5 mil.
(WUD, 1994, p.123)(SFC, 5/13/96, p.D-5)(WSJ, 10/29/96, p.A21)(SFEC, 1/11/98, p.D7)

1509 Sebastian Brant’s “Ship of Fools,” a satire first published in 1494, appeared in an English version by Alexander Barclay.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1509 Erasmus lectured at Cambridge and dedicated his “In Praise of Folly,” a witty satire on church corruption and scholastic philosophy, to Thomas More.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1509 Johann Pfefferkorn, a converted Jew, led a persecution of the Jews in Germany under Maximilian I.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1509 Brasenose College, Oxford, and St. John’s College, Cambridge, were founded.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1509 The Egyptian and Gujarat fleets were routed by the Portuguese at the Battle of Diu, which left the latter in control of the Indian seas and the spice trade.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1509 In Portugal the Madre de Deus convent was established by Queen Leonor. The tile-bedecked church, Igreja de Madre de Deus, was built almost 50 years later.
(Econ, 6/12/10, p.96)

1509 Spanish armies invaded North Africa in a crusade against the Muslim rulers of Tripoli, Oran, and Bougie.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)
1509 Spanish conquistadores founded a colony at Darien on the Isthmus of Panama.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1509 The Venetian defeat at Agnadello led to the annexation of Faenza, Rimini, and Ravenna by Pope Julius II, and Otranto and Brindisi by Ferdinand of Aragon.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1509 Peter Henlein, Nuremberg inventor, invented the watch, nicknamed the Nuremberg egg.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1509-1520 The Spanish colonized the area of Nueva Granada (modern Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Venezuela).
(http://homepage20.seed.net.tw/[email protected]/flags/wfh/pg-am-4.htm)

1509-1523 The 177-foot Saint-Jacques bell tower was constructed in central Paris as part of the Church of Saint-Jacques-de-la-Boucherie (“Saint James of the butchery”). The was leveled in 1793 shortly after the French Revolution and only the bell tower survived.
(SFC, 8/23/13, p.A2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint-Jacques_Tower)

1509-1564 John Calvin, French theologian. He started the Protestant Reformation in France in 1532.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.14)(SFC, 7/21/97, p.A11)

1510 Jan 22, Jews were expelled from Colmar, Germany.
(MC, 1/22/02)

1510 May 25, Georges d’Amboise (49), French cardinal, viceroy in North Italy, died.
(SC, 5/25/02)

1510 Jun 9, Nicolaas van Nieuwland, corrupt 1st bishop of Harlem, was born.
(MC, 6/9/02)

1510 Jul 19, In Berlin 38 Jews were burned at the stake.
(MC, 7/19/02)

1510 Oct 28, Francisco Borgia was born. He was the grandson of debauched Pope Alexander VI, and became a theologian and saint.
(MC, 10/28/01)

1510 Bernard Pallissy (d.1590), French ceramicist, painter and writer, was born.

1510 Giovanni Bellini painted “Virgin With the Blessing Child.”
(WSJ, 8/3/06, p.D5)
1510 Raphael painted “The Triumph of Galatea,” a fresco on the wall of the Farnesina, the villa of Agnostino Chigi.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)
c1510 Alexander Barcley wrote his long poetic essay on the “Miseries of Courtiers.” It described the psychology of feasting.
(MT, 6/96, p.9)
1510 In Spain Garci Ordonez de Montalvo authored “Serges de Esplandian” (The Adventures of Esplandian), a novel that described an island filled with gold named California and ruled by Queen Califia.
(SFEC, 4/18/99, BR p.1)(SFC, 2/25/00, p.C14)
1510 Juan de la Cosa, cartographer, made an early map of the New World.
(SFEC, 2/14/99, p.T11)
1510 “Everyman,” the first English morality play, was performed.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)
1510 John Colet, English churchman and humanist, founded St. Paul’s School in London.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1510 Erasmus became Prof. of Greek at Cambridge Univ.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1510 Martin Luther became professor of theology at the Univ. of Wittenberg.

1510 Sunflowers from America were introduced by the Spaniards into Europe.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1510 The Florentine banker Bartolomeo di Marchionni lent the King of Spain money for the crown’s first shipment of Africans to Santo Domingo.
(SFEC,11/16/97, BR p.4)

1510 Slave trade began with a consignment of African slaves to work on Portuguese sugar plantations in Brazil.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1510 In China Liu Jin, a eunuch of the Ming dynasty, was executed for abusing his authority. He had grown wealthy from graft.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R4)

1510 War broke out between Denmark and the Hanseatic League.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1510 Goa, India, was captured by the Portuguese.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1510 The wheel-lock firearm was introduced in Nurnberg, Germany.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1510 Leonardo da Vinci designed the horizontal water wheel that was the forerunner of the modern water turbine.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1510 Giorgione (b.~1478), Italian painter, died of the plague. He was a top student of Bellini and excelled in the paragone: a competition between painting an poetry, where painters sought to rival poets in conveying beauty. Titian finished Giorgione’s “Sleeping Venus.”
(T&L, 10/80, p. 58)(WSJ, 12/4/97, p.A20)(Econ, 7/29/06, p.77)

1510 The Catholic Church’s ban on usury was rewritten under Pope Leo X.
(Econ, 8/1/15, p.71)

1510-1515 Don Pedro Fajardo y Chacon, commissioned a set of wood friezes for his Velez Blanco castle in Almeria. The friezes were based on engravings by Jacopo da Strasbourg and Zoan Andrea Vavasorri that depicted the triumphs of Caesar and events in the mythical life of Hercules, the “Labors of Hercules.”
(WSJ, 1/6/00, p.A20)(WSJ, 5/18/00, p.A24)

1510-1550 Spain took in gold shipments from the New World at 3,000 pounds a year.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1510-1572 Frances Clouet, French painter. His work included the dandified “Charles IX of France.”
(SFEC, 12/1/96, BR p.4)

1511 Jul 30, Giorgio Vasari (d.1574), Italy, painter, architect and art historian (Vasari’s Lives), was born. He wrote “Lives of the Artists.”
(WUD, 1994, p.1582)(MC, 7/30/02)

1511 Sep 1, Council of Pisa opened. Louis XII of France called the council to oppose the Holy League of Pope Julius II.
(PTA, 1980, p.432)(MC, 9/1/02)

1511 Nov 22, Erasmus Reinhold, German mathematician (calculated planetary table), was born.
(MC, 11/22/01)

1511 Fra Bartolomeo painted “The Mystic Marriage of St. Catherine.” He emphasizing his mastery in the display of draperies.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1511 Raphael completed the frescoes in the Stanza della Segnatura in the Vatican for Pope Julius II.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1511 Diego de Velazquez, Spanish commander, occupied Cuba. In the village of Caonao soldiers under Velazquez slaughtered close to 2,000 Taino Indians. Among the Spaniards was Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo (13), who in 1542 led a 3-ship expedition up the California coast.
(TL-MB, p.10)(SFC, 10/18/14, p.C1)

1511 There were Jews in Thessaloniki, Greece involved in the printing.
(WSJ, 4/29/97, p.A20)

1511 Sebastian Virdung, German musician, published the earliest manual for playing musical instruments.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1511 Pope Julius joined the Holy League with Aragon and Venice against the French. Papal forces captured Modena and Mirandola from the French.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1511 In Mecca, Arabia, there was an attempt to ban coffee.
(Econ, 12/20/03, p.90)

1511 Portuguese sailors first reached the unsettled Mascarene Islands (Mauritius, Reunion and Rodrigues). They discovered the dodo bird and killed many for sport.
(NH, 11/96, p.24)(SSFC, 12/9/01, p.C9)

1511 Vasily III became the new patriarch of Moscow.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1511 Malacca (Melaka), the center of East Indian spice trade, was captured by the Portuguese. When the Dutch gained influence in Indonesia and Jakarta they took over Melaka and built the fortress A Famosa. St. Paul’s Church, originally called Our Lady of the Hill, was built by the Portuguese following their takeover of Malacca.
(TL-MB, p.10)(SFEC, 8/3/97, p.T8)(Econ, 11/15/14, SR p.5)

1511 Portuguese traders reached the Banda Islands, including Run, and broke the Venetian monopoly over nutmeg. Over the next century the Dutch muscled in an almost cornered the nutmeg market. The history of the nutmeg trade was documented in 1999 by Giles Milton in his: “Nathaniel’s Nutmeg.”
(WSJ, 5/21/99, p.W7)

1511 King Ferdinand of Spain said: “Get gold, humanely if possible, but at all hazards – get gold.”
(WSJ, 11/9/00, p.A24)

1512 Feb 22, Amerigo Vespucci (b.1454), Italian explorer, financier, navigator, and cartographer, died in Seville. He was born in the Republic of Florence and sailing for Portugal around 1501–1502, demonstrated that Brazil and the West Indies were not Asia’s eastern outskirts (as initially conjectured from Columbus’ voyages) but a separate, unexplored land mass colloquially known as the New World. In 1507, the new continent was named America after the Latin version of Vespucci’s first name.
1512 Mar 5, Gerardus Mercator (d.1594), Flemish philosopher and cartographer, was born in Rupelmonde, Flanders (later Belgium).

1512 Apr 10, James V, king of Scotland (1513-42), was born.
(PCh, 1992, p.167)(MC, 4/10/02)

1512 Apr 11, The forces of the Holy League were heavily defeated by the French at the Battle of Ravenna. France under Gaston de Foix beat the Spanish Army. Gaston de Foix, French pretender to Navarre throne, died in battle.
(HN, 4/11/99)(MC, 4/11/02)

1512 Aug 31, Giuliano de Medici became the new governor of Florence.
(ON, 11/04, p.3)

1512 Nov 1, Michelangelo’s paintings on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel were completed and first exhibited to the public.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)(AP, 11/1/97)(HN, 11/1/98)

1512 Nov 7, Giuliano de Medici fired Niccolo Machiavelli from civil service in Florence.
(ON, 11/04, p.4)

1512 Nov 16, Jemme Herjuwsma, Fries rebel, was beheaded.
(MC, 11/16/01)

1512 Nov 17, Kempo Roeper, Frisian rebel, was quartered.
(MC, 11/17/01)

1512 Dec 27, The laws of Burgos gave New World natives legal protection against abuse and authorized Negro slavery.
(HN, 12/27/98)

1512 Raphael completed the Sistine Madonna, a visual expression of Renaissance humanism.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1512 “Masque” was used for the first time to describe a poetic drama.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1512 The English began using double-deck warships. They displaced 1,000 tons and were armed with 70 guns.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1512 Newfoundland cod banks were exploited by fisherman from England, France, Portugal and Holland, who sent the dried catch back to Europe.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1512 Copernicus, Polish-born astronomer, wrote his manuscript “The Little Commentary,” in which he suggested that the earth’s apparent immobility was due to a “false appearance” and a sun-centered cosmos would resolve many astronomical inconsistencies.
(ON, 2/11, p.5)

1512 French armies defeated the forces of the Holy League at the Battle of Ravenna.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1512 Henry VIII claimed the throne of France and sent troops unsuccessfully into Spain.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1512 Shi’ism became the state religion of Persia.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1512 Portuguese explorers discovered the Celebes and found nutmeg trees in the Moluccas. This began an 84-year monopoly of the nutmeg and mace trades.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)
1512 The Portuguese took over control of East Timor.
(SFC, 3/3/98, p.A6)

1512 Spain imported black slaves to Hispaniola to replace moribund Indian laborers.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)
1512 The Spaniards conquered Navarre and annexed it to Castile.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)(Econ, 6/26/04, Survey p.13)

1512 Selim I deposed his father Bayazid II and became Sultan of Turkey.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1512 Ponce de Leon stepped ashore on the Turks and Caicos Islands.
(SFEC, 2/14/99, p.T4)

1512 Julius II convened the Lateran Council to try for the first time to reform abuses within the Church of Rome.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1512-1520 Selim I followed Beyazid II in the Ottoman House of Osman.
(Ot, 1993, xvii)

1513 Feb 20, Pope Julius II died. He was laid in rest in a huge tomb sculptured by Michelangelo.
(HN, 2/20/99)

1513 Mar 6, Niccolo Machiavelli was released from jail in Florence. He complained in verse that it was difficult to write poetry there because people kept beating him up.
(ON, 11/04, p.4)

1513 Mar 11, Giovanni de’ Medici became Pope Leo X. The Medici Pope Leo X led the Catholic Church until 1521.
(OG)(MC, 3/12/02)

1513 Mar 27, Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de Leon sighted Florida.
(AP, 3/27/97)(HN, 3/27/98)

1513 Apr 2, Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de Leon landed in Florida. Juan Ponce de Leon, Spanish explorer, discovered Florida and planted orange and lemon trees there. [see March 27, 1512 entry] He also discovered the Dry Tortugas, 10 small keys southwest of Key West. The Spanish governor of Puerto Rico, Juan Ponce de Leon, discovered Florida and named it Pascua Florida, “feast of the flowers.” His discovery was made during his search for the legendary Fountain of Youth.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)(NH, 4/97, p.317)(AP, 4/2/97)(SFEC, 1/2/00, Z1 p.2)(HNQ, 3/9/00)

1513 Apr 8, Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de Leon and his expedition began exploring the Florida coastline.
(AP, 4/8/07)

1513 Jun 6, Battle at Novara: Habsburgers vs. Valois.
(MC, 6/6/02)

1513 Aug 16, Henry VIII of England and Emperor Maximilian defeated the French at Guinegatte, France, in the Battle of the Spurs.
(HN, 8/16/98)

1513 Sep 9, James IV (40), King of Scotland (1488-1513), was defeated and killed by English at the Battle of Flodden Field. The Scottish navy was sold to France.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)(HN, 9/9/98)(MC, 9/9/01)

1513 Sept 25, Vasco Nunez de Balboa, Spanish explorer, crossed the Isthmus of Panama and claimed the Pacific Ocean for Spain. He was named governor of Panama and the Pacific by King Ferdinand. In 2004 Hugh Thomas authored “Rivers of Gold: The Rise of the Spanish Empire from Columbus to Magellan.”
(HFA, ’96, p.38)(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)(SFEC, 9/21/97, p.C7)(WSJ, 6/2/04, p.D12)

1513 Sep 29, Spanish explorer Vasco Nunez de Balboa discovered the Pacific Ocean.
(HN, 9/29/98)

1513 Michelangelo began to work on his Moses, the awesome central figure of the statues surrounding the tomb of Julius II.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1513 Niccolo Machiavelli wrote “The Prince” in which he gave reasons for the rise and fall of states. He dedicated it to Lorenzo de Medici, the successor to Giuliano. It was not published until 1532. In it he justified the ruthless subjection of religion and morality to politics. A 1998 translation by Prof. Angelo M. Codevilla included 428 footnotes and attempted to maintain the peculiar language of Machiavelli.
(WSJ, 2/18/98, p.A20)(WSJ, 2/27/98, p.A15)(ON, 11/04, p.5)

1513 Chartres Cathedral, near Paris, was completed after almost 400 years of work.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1513 The Palazzo Farnese, a large and magnificent palace in Rome, was designed by Antonio de Sangallo the younger and Michelangelo.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1513 Calusa Indians in catamaran canoes attacked Spanish ships under Ponce de Leon in the southwest Florida and both sides suffered casualties.
(AM, 11/04, p.49)

1513 Henry VIII and Maximilian defeated the French forces in Italy and Louis XII gave up Milan.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1513 Christian II became King of Denmark and Norway. He later asserted his right to the Swedish throne by force of arms.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1513 Jorge Alvarez, Portuguese commander, reached Canton, China.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)
1513 Portugal captured Goa, India.
(SSFC, 3/19/06, p.F7)
1513 Magellan, who served for the Portuguese on many expeditions, was wounded in a campaign against the Moroccan stronghold of Azamor. The wound caused him to limp for the rest of his life.
(HNQ, 10/9/00)

1513 The Swiss completed the acquisition of the southern province of Ticino.
(SFEC, 6/14/98, p.T4)

1513 A manuscript map was drawn by Piri Reis (1470-1554) a Turkish captain who later became the Chief Admiral of the Ottoman Navy. It was presented to Ottoman Sultan Selim I in Egypt in 1517.

1513-1514 Dosso Dossi painted his portrait of “Saint George.”
(WSJ, 1/20/98, p.A20)

1514 Apr 26, Copernicus made his first observations of Saturn. Nicholas Copernicus later proposed that the sun is stationary and that the earth and the planets move in circular orbits around it.
(HN, 4/26/98)(BHT, Hawking, p.4)

1514 Aug 23, Selim I (the Grim), Ottoman Sultan, routed a Persian army in the Battle of Chaldiran.
(TL-MB, p.10)(PCh, 1992, p.168)

1514 Sep 15, Selim I entered Tabriz, Persia, and massacred much of the population.
(PCh, 1992, p.168)

1514 Sep, Thomas Wolsey (1473-1530) was appointed archbishop of York.
(TL-MB, p.10)

1514 Dec 4, Richard Hunne, English “heretic”, allegedly committed suicide.
(MC, 12/4/01)

1514 Dec 31, Andreas Vesalius (d.1564), anatomist, author of “De Humani Corporis Fabrica,” was born in Brussels, Belgium
(NH, 10/96, p.34)(TL-MB, 1988, p.15)(MC, 12/31/01)

1514 Giovanni Bellini painted “Feast of the Gods.” The painting depicts Ovid’s tale of how Vesta, goddess of virginity is approached while sleeping by Priapus, god of fertility, who begins to twitch up her tunic. At that moment a donkey sneezes and awakens Vesta, who quickly awakes and runs away. It is now on exhibit at the National Gallery of Art in Wa., DC.
(T&L, 10/1980, p.66)(WSJ, 8/3/06, p.D5)

1514 Diego Columbus, son of Christopher, built the first seat of government in the Americas in Santo Domingo.
(SFEC, 2/14/99, p.T10)

1514 Hampton Court Palace was begun for Wolsey.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1514 Pope Leo X issued a papal bull against slavery.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1514 England and France declared a truce in their warfare. Mary Tudor, sister of Henry VIII, married Louis XII.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1514 At the Battle of Orsha, Lithuanian forces defeated those of Moscow.
(SFC, 9/9/96, p.A12)

1514 Vasily III, ruler of Moscow, captured Smolensk from Poland.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1514 George Dozsa, soldier of fortune, instigated a peasant’s revolt in Hungary. He was later captured and grilled alive.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1514 Spanish soldiers conquered the natives of Cuba and founded the city of Trinidad.
(TL-MB, p.10)(SSFC, 5/31/15, p.L1)

1514 1,500 Spanish settlers went to Panama.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1515 Jan 1, King Louis XII (b.1462) of France, died. He was succeeded by Francis I (1494-1547).
(Econ, 12/12/09, p.93)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_I_of_France)

1515 Feb 4, Michael Radvila the Black was born in Nesvizh. He later became palatine of Vilnius, chancellor of Lithuania, and supporter of Reformation.
(LHC, 2/4/03)

1515 Mar 28, Theresa of Avila (d.1582), Teresa de Jesus (St. Theresa), Spanish Carmelite nun, mystic writer, saint, was born. She initiated reforms in the Order. She co-founded with John of the Cross (1542-1591) the Order of Discalced (barefoot) Carmelites. “Untilled ground, however rich, will bring forth thistles and thorns; so also the mind of man.” “To wish to act like angels while we are still in this world is nothing but folly.”
(CU, 6/87)(WUD, 1994, p.769)(AP, 12/8/97)(AP, 7/5/98)(MC, 3/28/02)

1515 Jul 21, St. Philippus Nerius, [Philippo Neri], Italian merchant, priest, was born.
(MC, 7/21/02)

1515 Jul 22, Emperor Maximillian and Vladislav of Bohemia forged an alliance between the Habsburg [Austria] and Jagiello [Polish-Lithuanian] dynasties in Vienna.
(HN, 7/22/98)

1515 Jul 26, Santiago, Cuba, was founded.
(SFC, 7/22/00, p.A17)

1515 Sep 13, King Francis of France defeated the Swiss army under Cardinal Matthias Schiner at Marignano, northern Italy. Switzerland was last involved in a war. French armies defeated the Swiss and Venetians at the Battle of Marignano and Milan fell to the French. Francis I conquered Lombardy in northern Italy.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)(SFC, 6/7/96, p.A12)(HN, 9/13/98)

1515 Sep 22, Anne of Cleeves, fourth wife of Henry the VIII, was born in Cleeves, Germany.
(HN, 9/22/00)

1515 Oct 4, Lucas Cranach (d.1586), the Younger, German painter, was born.
(WUD, 1994, p.339)(MC, 10/4/01)

1515 Nov 15, Thomas Wolsey (1473-1530), archbishop of York, was made a cardinal.

1515 Dec 2, Gonzalo de Cordoba, Spanish general, strategist, viceroy of Naples, died.
(MC, 12/2/01)

1515 Dec 24, Thomas Cardinal Wolsey was appointed English Lord Chancellor.
(MC, 12/24/01)

1515 Giovanni Bellini (b.~1430-1516), Italian artist, painted his masterpiece “Lady With a Mirror.
(Econ, 7/29/06, p.77)

1515 Jul 26, Santiago, Cuba, was founded.
(SFC, 7/22/00, p.A17)

1515 Sep 13, King Francis of France defeated the Swiss army under Cardinal Matthias Schiner at Marignano, northern Italy. Switzerland was last involved in a war. French armies defeated the Swiss and Venetians at the Battle of Marignano and Milan fell to the French. Francis I conquered Lombardy in northern Italy.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)(SFC, 6/7/96, p.A12)(HN, 9/13/98)

1515 Sep 22, Anne of Cleeves, fourth wife of Henry the VIII, was born in Cleeves, Germany.
(HN, 9/22/00)

1515 Oct 4, Lucas Cranach (d.1586), the Younger, German painter, was born.
(WUD, 1994, p.339)(MC, 10/4/01)

1515 Nov 15, Thomas Wolsey (1473-1530), archbishop of York, was made a cardinal.

1515 Dec 2, Gonzalo de Cordoba, Spanish general, strategist, viceroy of Naples, died.
(MC, 12/2/01)

1515 Dec 24, Thomas Cardinal Wolsey was appointed English Lord Chancellor.
(MC, 12/24/01)

1515 Giovanni Bellini (b.~1430-1516), Italian artist, painted his masterpiece “Lady With a Mirror.
(Econ, 7/29/06, p.77)

1515 Hans Holbein the Younger arrived in Basel, the European center of book publishing. The city in 1997 owned 340 prints by Holbein.
(WSJ, 6/24/97, p.A20)

1515 Alexander Barclay began composing his “Eclogues,” the earliest pastoral poems in English.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1515 John Skelton’s “Magnyficense” became one of the best known morality plays.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1515 Raphael succeeded Bramante as chief architect of St. Peter’s in Rome.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1515 Matthias Grunewald completed the enormous altarpiece for the Antonites of Isenheim.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1515 In England the Gothic style chapel at King’s College in Cambridge was completed.
(Econ 6/3/17, p.71)

1515 By this year the Taino Indians of what is now the Dominican Republic were practically annihilated in clashes with the Spanish.
(SFC, 3/29/97, p.A10)

1515 Petrus Apianus, German mathematician and instrument maker, attempted to explain the universe by crafting an artistic dial that tracked the movement of the stars.
(SFC, 7/19/02, p.E3)

1515 Juan Diaz de Solis, Spanish navigator, reached the Rio de la Plata in South America and discovered Argentina.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)
1515 Bartolome de Las Casas, Dominican priest, returned to Spain from Hispaniola to plead on behalf of the ill-treated native Indians.
(NH, 10/96, p.29)
1515 Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de Leon first described the Gulf Stream. In 1770 Benjamin Franklin drew a map of the Gulf Stream and in 1786 described it in detail in Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. In 2008 Stan Ulanski authored “The Gulf Stream: Tiny Plankton, Giant Bluefin, and the Amazing Story of the Powerful River in the Atlantic.”
(WSJ, 10/4/08, p.W9)

1515 Afonso d’Albuquerque, Viceroy of the Portuguese Indies, captured Hormuz (Ormuz) and forced all other traders to round the Cape of Good Hope. This established Portugal’s supremacy in trade with the Far East. Hormuz is the strait between Iran and Trucial Oman.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)(WUD, 1994, p.684)

1515 The first nationalized French factories were set up in the manufacture of tapestries and arms.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1515 Spanish conquistadores founded Havana, Cuba.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)
1515 Bartolome de Las Casas (1474-1566), Dominican priest and the first Spanish priest to be ordained in the New World, returned to Spain from Hispaniola to plead on behalf of the ill-treated native Indians. He became known as the “Apostle to the Indians.” Helen Rand Parish (1912-2005) later authored a number of seminal works on Las Casas.
(NH, 10/96, p.29)(TL-MB, p.11)(SSFC, 5/15/05, p.A19)(http://tinyurl.com/brzzu)

1515 Diego (b.~1450), the younger brother of Christopher Columbus, died. He had accompanied Columbus on his second voyage (1493). Diego was released from chains in Spain in 1500, became a priest and returned to the West Indies in 1509.
(AH, 2/03, p.7)(www.newadvent.org/cathen/04140a.htm)

1515-1516 Dosso Dossi, court painter in Ferrara, painted “Melissa” (aka Circe).
(WSJ, 1/20/98, p.A20)

1515-1519 Coffee from Arabia appeared in Europe.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1515-1520 In Portugal the Belem Tower was built in Lisbon and served as a beacon to sailors. It originally stood well in the water but now the Tagus laps only its base.
(SFEC, 2/1/98, p.T7)

1516 Feb 18, Mary Tudor, later Queen Mary I of England (1553-1558) and popularly known as “Bloody Mary,” was born in Greenwich Palace.
(HN, 2/18/98)(AP, 2/18/98)

1516 Feb 23, The Hapsburg Charles I succeeded Ferdinand in Spain.
(HN, 2/23/99)

1516 Mar 17, Giuliano de’ Medici (37), monarch of Florence, died.
(MC, 3/17/02)

1516 Mar 26, Konrad von Gesner, naturalist (Bibliotheca Universalis), was born in Zurich, Switzerland.
(SS, 3/26/02)

1516 Mar 29, The Jewish Ghetto of Venice, the first ghetto in Europe, was established by the government of Venetian Serenissima Republic. The incoming Jews were forced to pay 30% more to their new landlords as compared to the outgoing Christian tenants.
(www.elitehotel.it/en/the_ancient_jewish_ghetto_in_venice_13en1341en.htm)(Econ, 6/18/16, p.83)

1516 Apr 23, Bavarian Dukes Wilhelm IV and his brother Ludwig X enacted the Reinheitsgebot law (purity law). It required that beer be made from malt, hops, water and nothing else. Yeast was added to the list later.
(WSJ, 5/27/98, p.A1)(SFC, 7/15/04, p.A2)(Econ, 10/9/10, p.76)(SFC, 4/23/16, p.A2)(Econ, 4/23/15, p.44)

1516 Aug 24, At the Battle of Marj Dabik, north of Aleppo, the Turks beat Syria. Suliman I (Selim the Grim), the Ottoman Sultan, routed the Mamelukes (Egypt) with the support of artillery capturing Aleppo and Damascus. This opened the way to 400 years of Ottoman Turkish rule over most of the Arab world.
(PC, 1992, p.169)(Econ, 11/14/09, p.101)

1516 Mateo Realdo Colombo (d.1559), Italian anatomist and discoverer of the pulmonary circulation, was born at Cremona. He studied medicine at Padua with Vesalius, became his assistant, and in 1544 succeeded him as lecturer in surgery and anatomy. The best authority for Colombo’s work in anatomy is his “De Re Anatomicâ” (Venice, 1559; Paris, 1562). The most complete life is that by Tollin in Pflügers Archiv: XXI-XXII. In English there is a good sketch by Fisher, Annals of Anatomy and Surgery (Brooklyn, 1880). In 1997 Federico Andahazi authored “The Anatomist,” a novel that was based on Colombo’s research on the clitoris.
(CE, online)(SFEC, 10/29/00, BR p.5)

1516 Hans Holbein in Basel painted a wooden shingle as a sort of advertisement for the schoolmaster Oswald Geishüsler. It marked the beginning of “profane” painting in the West.
(WSJ, 6/24/97, p.A20)
1516 Titian began “The Assumption of the Virgin,” a monumental altarpiece in the Church of the Frari, Venice.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)
1516 Giovanni Bellini (b.~1430), Italian artist, died in Venice. Giorgione and Titian had graduated from his workshop.
(Econ, 7/29/06, p.77)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giovanni_Bellini)

1516 The first published account of the discovery of North America appeared in “De Rebus Oceanicus et Novo Orbe” by the Italian historian Peter Martyr.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1516 Erasmus published his version of the New Testament. He began by copying manuscripts found in monasteries and given to him by his friend Thomas More. His Latin translation and commentary and an improved Greek text differed in many places from the Vulgate of St. Jerome, and was immediately recognized as the most accurate translation so far.

1516 Thomas More published his “Utopia,” the “golden little book” that invented a literary-world immune from the evils of Europe, where all citizens were equal and believed in a good and just God. “Your sheep, which are usually so tame and cheaply fed, begin now… to be so greedy and so wild that they devour human beings themselves and devastate and depopulate fields, houses, and towns.” From More’s Utopia. The key thought in the work is that poverty, injustice and inequality will never be eliminated from the world until private property is abolished.
(V.D.-H.K.p.160)(NG, 5.1988, pp. 574)(WSJ, 10/22/98, p.A20)

1516 The German Quedlinburg Manuscript of this date and other church treasures were stolen from a cave where they were being stored in 1945 by Lt. Joe Tom Meador of Whitewright, Texas. The items were then sold by his brother and sister. In 1996 a criminal trial focused on the issue.
(WSJ, 12/11/96, p.A20)

1516 Music printed from engraved plates was used for the first time in Italy.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1516 Archduke Charles, later Emp. Charles V, succeeded his grandfather, King Ferdinand II of Spain, and founded the Hapsburg dynasty.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1516 The Treaty of Noyon brought peace between France and Spain.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1516 Corpus Christi College, Oxford, and Seville Univ., Spain, were founded.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1516 Juan Diaz de Solis, Spanish explorer, was killed on the coast of Argentina. He was eaten by natives.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.26)

1516 The Ottomans made Aleppo their second city following its seizure.
(Econ, 10/1/16, p.46)

1517 Jan 20, Ottoman sultan Selim I captured Cairo. The center of power transferred then to Istanbul. The Ottoman Empire retained the Mamluks as an Egyptian ruling class.

1517 Mar 26, The famous Flemish composer Heinrich Issac, whose music fused Flemish, Italian and Germanic styles, died.
(HN, 3/26/99)

1517 Apr 13, Tuman Bey, the last Mameluke sultan of Egypt, was hanged as Osman’s army occupied Cairo.
(MC, 4/13/02)

1517 Jun 11, Sir Thomas Pert reached Hudson Bay.
(SC, 6/11/02)

1517 Jul 1, The 1st burning of Protestants at stake in Netherlands.
(MC, 7/1/02)

1517 Oct 6, Fra Bartolommeo (b.1472), Florentine Renaissance painter, died. He was a Dominican monk nicknamed Baccio della Porta. His work included a portrait of Savonarola.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fra_Bartolommeo)(SFC, 5/13/96, p.D-5)

1517 Oct 31, Martin Luther nailed his Ninety-five Thesis to the door of the Wittenberg Palace All Saints’ Church. He grew to believe in faith alone as man’s link to the justice of God, and therefore denied the need for the vast infrastructure of the Church. This event signaled the beginning of the Protestant Reformation in Germany and Protestantism in general, shattering the external structure of the medieval church and at the same time reviving the religious consciousness of Europe. Martin Luther (1483-1546) was born in Eisleben, Germany. He was a monk in the Catholic Church until 1517, when he founded the Lutheran Church.
(V.D.-H.K.p.163)(CU, 6/87)(SFC, 7/21/97, p.A11)(AP, 10/31/97)(AP, 10/31/97) (HN, 10/31/98)

1517 Oct, Ferdinand Magellan arrived in Spain and began the first voyage to successfully circumnavigate the world a little less than two years later. He eventually died in the Philippines in 1521. The expedition was completed by others in 1522.
(HNQ, 10/9/00)

1517 Seville Cathedral was completed after 115 years of work.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1517 Archduke Charles left the Netherlands for Spain and entered Valladolid in triumph.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1517 Archduke Charles granted a monopoly in the African slave trade to Florentine merchants.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1517 Francisco Hernandez de Cordoba, Spanish explorer, sailed from Cuba and discovered the Mayan civilization in the Yucatan, southeast Mexico.
(TL-MB, p.11)(SSFC, 5/6/01, p.T6)

1517 Bartolomeo de las Casas, the first Spanish priest to be ordained in the New World, pleaded the case of oppressed and enslaved American Indians.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1517 An Aztec chronicler described a comet as a “flaming ear of corn.”
(NG, 12/97, p.97)

1517 The Mamelukes in Egypt lost power.
(WUD, 1994, p.869)

1517 In Germany the Salzbergwerk Berchtesgaden salt mine began operations.
(SSFC, 8/6/06, p.G5)

1517 Cardinal Alessandro Farnese (1468-1549) began work on his Palazzo Farnese. He was Pope Paul III of the Roman Catholic Church from 1534 to his death.
1517 Luca Pacioli (b.1445), Italian Franciscan friar and mathematician, died. His work included the first principles of double-entry book-keeping.
(Econ, 1/18/14, SR p.5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luca_Pacioli)

1517 Portuguese sailors named Ilha Formosa (beautiful island), later known as Taiwan.
(SFC, 12/11/99, p.B6)

1517-1648 This period was covered by Mark Greengrass in his 2014 book “Christendom Destroyed: Europe 1517-1648.”
(Econ, 8/2/14, p.64)

1518 Mar, Martin Luther wrote his “Sermon on Indulgences and Grace” and published the work in his native German avoiding regional vocabulary.
(Econ, 12/17/11, p.94)

1518 Apr 18, Bona Sforza (1494-1558) was crowned Queen of Poland and Grand Duchess of Lithuania in Wawel Cathedral, Krakow. The Italian niece of Bianca Maria Sforza, who in 1493 married Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, became the 3rd consort of Lithuania’s Grand Duke Sigismund the Old (1467-1548).

1518 Sep 29, Jacopo Tintoretto (d.1588), Italian artist, was born.
(Econ, 2/10/07, p.90)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tintoretto)

1518 Oct 12, A pontifical ambassador interrogated Rev. Dr. Martin Luther. Luther was summoned to the Diet of Augsburg where he refused to recant.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)(MC, 10/12/01)

1518 Raphael painted a portrait of Leo X which showed spectacles with concave lenses for short-sightedness.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)
1518 Raphael began painting the nude model “La Fornarina” (the Little Baker Girl). It was completed about 1519.

1518 Titian painted “Offering to Venus.”
(NH, 6/01, p.47)

1518 Gil Vicente, founder of Portuguese drama, wrote “The Ship of Purgatory.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1518 Ulrich Zwingli, a Swiss clergyman, supported Martin Luther’s Reformation.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1518 Forks were used at a banquet in Venice (for the first time?).
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1518 Portugal and the Kingdom of Kotte, Ceylon, signed a peace treaty.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1518 Cardinal Wolsey arranged the Peace of London between England, France, the Pope, Maximilian I and Spain.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1518 Algiers and Tunis, Barbary states in North Africa, were founded.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1518 Henry VIII authorized a college of physicians and it was founded by Oxford physician Thomas Linacre.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1518 Porcelain from Asia was imported to Europe (for the first time?) from Asia.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1518 Anthony Blatner, German goldsmith, built the first fire-engine in Augsburg, Germany.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1518 Vasco Nunez de Balboa, Spanish explorer, was wrongly charged with treason and beheaded.
(SFEC, 9/21/97, p.C7)

1518 Juan de Grijalva, Spanish explorer, named the area comprising of Mexico, Central America north of Panama, the Spanish West Indies, and south-west North America New Spain. He was also the first European to smoke tobacco, introduced to him by a native chief.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1518 Lorens de Gominot obtained a license to import 4,000 African slaves into the New World colonies.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1519 Jan 12, Maximilian I of Hapsburg (59), Holy Roman Emperor and German Kaiser, died.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)(AP, 1/12/98)(PC, 1992, p.170)

1519 Feb 15, Pedro Menendez de Aviles, explorer (found St. Augustine, Florida), was born.
(MC, 2/15/02)

1519 Feb 16, Gaspard de Coligny, Huguenot leader, French admiral, was born.
(MC, 2/16/02)

1519 Apr 13, Catherine de Medicis (d.1589), the daughter of Lorenzo de Medici, was born in Florence. She married at age 14 and became queen in 1547 as Henry II of France acceded to the throne. She was the mother of Francis II, Charles IX, and Henry III.

1519 Mar 13, The Spaniards under Cortez landed in Mexico with 10 stallions, 5 mares and a foal. Smallpox was carried to America in the party of Hernando Cortes.
(SFC, 9/2/96, p.A3)(HN, 3/13/98)(SFC, 10/19/01, p.A17)(SSFC, 5/6/01, p.T6)

1519 Mar 27, A truce was arranged with Cortes when Mayan caciques brought food and gold as well as 20 female slaves. Among these was a young woman from Jalisco named Marina, who had been stolen from a noble family when small and sold into slavery, where she learned the language of Yucatán. As a bilingual translator from Aztec to Mayan, Marina played a major role in the eventual conquest of Tenochtitlán.

1519 Apr 21, Hernan Cortes landed at Veracruz, Mexico, on Holy Thursday.

1519 Apr 24, Envoys of Montezuma II attended the first Easter mass in Central America.
(HN, 4/24/98)

1519 Apr, Montezuma received a message that white strangers had reappeared and attacked a Mayan coastal village south of the Aztec border. Hundreds of Mayans were killed and the strangers sailed north.
(ON, 10/00, p.2)

1519 May 2, Artist Leonardo da Vinci (67) died at the Chateau du Clos-Luce, France, where he had lived since 1516. In 1994 A. Richard Turner wrote “Inventing Leonardo,” a history of Leonardo legends. In 2004 Bulent Atalay authored “Math and the Mona Lisa: The Art and Science of Leonardo da Vinci.” In 2004 Charles Nicholl authored “Leonard da Vinci: The Flights of the Mind.”
(AP, 5/2/97)(NH, 5/97, p.58)(Econ, 5/15/04, p.80)(Econ, 12/11/04, p.81)(SSFC, 10/9/11, p.C6)

1519 Jun 24, Lucretia Borgia (39), daughter of Pope Alexander VI, died. In 2004 Sarah Bradford authored “Lucrezia Borgia: Life, Love and Death in Renaissance Italy.”
(HN, 4/18/98)(WUD, 1994, p.171)(SSFC, 12/19/04, p.E2)

1519 Jul 6, Charles of Spain was elected Holy Roman emperor in Barcelona. The Catholic heir to the Hapsburg dynasty, Charles V, was elected Holy Roman Emperor, combining the crowns of Spain, Burgundy (with the Netherlands), Austria and Germany. He was the grandson of Ferdnand and Isabella of Spain.
(V.D.-H.K.p.162)(NH, 9/96, p.18)(HN, 7/6/98)

1519 Jul 16, There was a public debate between Martin Luther and theologian John Eck.
(MC, 7/16/02)

1519 Aug 11, Johann Tetzel (~79), Dominican monk, died.
(MC, 8/11/02)

1519 Aug 15, Panama City was founded.
(MC, 8/15/02)

1519 Aug, Montezuma learned that Cortez was marching toward Tenochtitlan with an army of 300 soldiers and 2000 non-Aztec Indians. Cortez was accompanied by Malinche, his Indian mistress and interpreter.
(ON, 10/00, p.2)

1519 Sep 5, In the 2nd Battle of Tehuacingo, Mexico, Hernan Cortes faced the Tlascala Aztecs.
(MC, 9/5/01)

1519 Sep 20, Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan set out from Spain with 270 men and 5 ships on a voyage to find a western passage to the Spice Islands in Indonesia. Magellan was killed en route, but one of his ships eventually circumnavigated the world. He was first European explorer to reach the Pacific Ocean from the Atlantic by sailing through the dangerous straits below South America that now bear his name. [see Sep 20, 1520]
(V.D.-H.K.p.182)(DD-EVTT, p.41)(AP, 9/20/97)(HN, 9/20/98)

1519 Sep 21, Hans Backofen (Backoffen), German sculptor, died at about 49.
(MC, 9/21/01)

1519 Nov 7, University of Leuven condemned the teachings of Rev. Martin Luther.
(MC, 11/7/01)

1519 Nov 8, The Aztec and their leader, Moctezuma, welcomed Hernando Cortez and his 650 explorers to their capital at Tenochtitlan. Spanish adventurer Hernando Cortez and his force of about 300 Spanish soldiers, 18 horses and thousands of Mexico’s native inhabitants who had grown resentful of Aztec rule marched unmolested into Tenochtitlán, the capital city of the Aztec empire. The Aztec ruler Montezuma, believing that Cortez could be the white-skinned deity Quetzalcoatl, whose return had been foretold for centuries, greeted the arrival of these strange visitors with courtesy–at least until it became clear that the Spaniards were all too human and bent on conquest. Cortez and his men, dazzled by the Aztec riches and horrified by the human sacrifice central to their religion, began to systematically plunder Tenochtitlán and tear down the bloody temples. Montezuma’s warriors attacked the Spaniards but with the aid of Indian allies, Spanish reinforcements, superior weapons and disease, Cortez defeated an empire of approximately 25 million people by August 13, 1521.
(ATC, p.16)(SFC, 9/2/96, p.A3) (HNPD, 11/8/98)

1519 Dec, Magellan reached the Bay of the Rio de Janeiro.
(V.D.-H.K.p.182)(DD-EVTT, p.41)

1519 Corregio began painting the ceiling frescoes in the dining room of the abbess of St. Paul’s Convent in Parma.
(SFEC, 9/15/96, p.T6)

1519 Gil Vicente, Portuguese dramatist, wrote a second farce, “The Ship of Heaven.”
(TL-MB, 1988, 1988, p.11)

1519 St. George’s Chapel, Windsor, England, was completed after 46 years of work.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1519 The Chateau of Chombard was begun in France, and would take 30 years to finish.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1519 The Italian influenced medieval church at the Moscow Monastery of Peter the Metropolitan was constructed.
(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.38)

1519 Nanak (1469-1539) founded Sikhism, a combination of Hinduism and Buddhism. Sikhs revere 10 gurus. “Be in the world, but not worldly.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)(WSJ, 10/12/01, p.W17)

1519 Ulrich Zwingli initiated the Swiss Reformation with his preaching in Zurich.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1519 Martin Luther disputed with Johann Eck in the Leipzig Disputation and questioned the infallibility of the Pope.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1519 Bohemians minted silver Joachimsthalers, “thalers” for short. This was the basis for the word “dollar.”
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1519 A mass-production technique for casting brass objects was used in Italy.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1519 Cortes found the court of Moctezuma to have a ravenous appetite for turkeys. The gobblers, later served for Thanksgiving, returned to North America only after their Mexican ancestors had crossed the Atlantic twice, first to Spain and then back from England.
(Econ, 12/20/14, p.78)

1519 Prussia experienced a monetary crises.
(ON, 2/11, p.6)

1519 Domenico de Pineda, Spanish navigator, explored the Gulf of Mexico.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)
1519 Francisco de Montejo, a captain under Cortez, set about subjugating the Maya in Mexico.
(SSFC, 5/6/01, p.T6)
1519 In Mexico Cortes discovered a plot by some Cholulans to assassinate him and ordered some 6,000 Cholulan men executed.
(SFEC, 11/8/98, p.T10)
1519 Spanish soldiers in Mexico learned that the shipwrecked sailor Gonzalo Guerrero had drifted there in 1511. Guerrero married a Maya woman and raised the first mestizo children.
(Econ, 11/10/07, p.102)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gonzalo_Guerrero)

1519-1579 Sir Thomas Gresham, merchant prince. He was a British banker and money-changer and served as the financial agent for Elizabeth I. He ran a news service in the Netherlands to keep informed of finances there and built the Royal Exchange of London modeled on the Antwerp commodities exchange.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1519-1682 In 2015 Robert Goodwin authored “Spain: The Center of the World 1519-1682.”
(Econ, 7/25/15, p.67)

1520 Apr 6, Raphael (b.1483), [Sanzio], Italian painter (Sistine Madonna), died on his 37th birthday. His work included “The Veiled Lady” and a set of cartoons that were woven into 10 tapestries titled “The Acts of the Apostles” (1544-1557).
(WSJ, 4/11/02, p.D7)(www.abcgallery.com/R/raphael/raphaelbio.html)

1520 May 20, Hernando Cortes defeated Spanish troops sent to punish him in Mexico.
(HN, 5/20/98)

1520 Jun 15, Pope Leo the Tenth threatened to excommunicate Martin Luther if he did not recant his religious beliefs. Pope Leo X excommunicated Martin Luther by the bull Exsurge.
(AP, 6/15/00)(HT, 6/15/00)

1520 Jun 24, Montezuma, under orders by Cortez to calm his people, was showered with “stones, darts, arrows and sticks” from a jeering crowd.
(ON, 10/00, p.5)

1520 Jun 30, Montezuma II was murdered as Spanish conquistadors fled the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan during the night. Montezuma died from wounds inflicted by his people. Conquistadors under Cortez plundered gold from Aztecs.
(HN, 6/30/01)(ON, 10/00, p.5)(MC, 6/30/02)

1520 Jul 10, The explorer Cortes was driven from Tenochtitlan, Mexico, by Aztec leader Cuauhtemoc, and retreated to Tlaxcala.
(HN, 7/10/98)

1520 Jul 14, Hernando Cortes fought the Aztecs at the Battle of Otumba, Mexico.
(MC, 7/14/02)

1520 Sep 20, Magellan set sail from Spain with five ships and 265 men, on a voyage to find a western passage to the Spice Islands of Indonesia.
(MC, 11/28/01)

1520 Sep 21, Suleiman I (the Magnificent), son of Selim, became the Ottoman sultan in Constantinople. He ruled to 1566. [see Sep 30]
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(HN, 9/21/98)(Ot, 1993, xvii)

1520 Sep 22, Selim I, Sultan of Turkey (1512-20), died at 53.
(MC, 9/22/01)

1520 Sep 30, Suleiman I succeeded his father Selim I as sultan of Turkey. [see Sep 21]
(MC, 9/30/01)

1520 Oct 7, The 1st public burning of books took place in Louvain, Netherlands.
(MC, 10/7/01)

1520 Oct 15, King Henry VIII of England ordered bowling lanes at Whitehall.
(MC, 10/15/01)

1520 Oct 21, Ferdinand Magellan arrived at Tierra Del Fuego (Argentina-Chile).
(MC, 10/21/01)

1520 Oct 23, King Carlos I (1500-1558) was crowned as German emperor Charles V (1520-1558), a Holy Roman Emperor.

1520 Nov 4, Danish-Norwegian king Christian II was crowned king of Sweden.
(MC, 11/4/01)

1520 Nov 9, Swedish King Christian II executed 600 nobles.
(MC, 11/9/01)

1520 Nov 28, Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan reached the Pacific Ocean after passing through the South American strait, the straits of Magellan, and entered the “Sea of the South.”
(V.D.-H.K.p.177)(AP, 11/28/97)

1520 Dec 10, Martin Luther publicly burned the papal edict demanding that he recant, or face excommunication.
(AP, 12/10/97)

1520 Dec 18, Magellan struck out into the open sea to the northwest

1520 A 9-piece tapestry set was created for the Holy Roman Empire coronation of Belgium-born Charles V, King of Spain, titled “Los Honores.” The set was restored by Belgium in 2000 for the 500th anniversary of Charles’ birth.
(WSJ, 4/11/02, p.AD7)

1520 The funereal monuments of the Medici Chapel were commissioned by Pope Clement VII. They were done primarily by Michelangelo (1475-1564) from 1520 to 1534, being completed by his students after his departure. The four figures—dawn, day, dusk and night—are considered among the sculptor‘s most accomplished work. He left Florence in 1534, hoping to return, but spent his last years in Rome.
(HNQ, 11/15/00)

1520 Joachim Patenier painted one of the earliest industrial pictures showing a blast-furnace.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1520 Jacopo Pontormo made his red chalk body sketches.
(SFC, 2/15/97, p.D6)

1520 The book “Prester John of the Indies” was written. It was translated in 1810. Later Robert Silverberg wrote: “The Realm of Prester John” and John Buchanon wrote “Prester John.” In 1952 the French work “Le Pretre Jean” was written.
(SFEC, 12/15/96, p.C5)

1520 In Germany Jacob Fugger “The Rich” established a Roman Catholic housing settlement for the poor in Augsburg in the name of Augsburg’s local St. Ulrich. In return for cheap rent residents agreed to pray for the Fuggers’ souls.
(WSJ, 12/26/08, p.A10)
1520 The Jews of Rothenburg, Bavaria, were banished entirely and forevermore.
(NH, 9/96, p.24)

1520 The Anabaptists, Protestants who baptized believers only and not infants, grew as a movement in Switzerland, Germany and the Netherlands. Some emigrated to America and established themselves as the Amish of Lancaster, Pa.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(SFC, 7/2/98, p.A7)

1520 King Francis founded the Royal Library of France at Fontainebleu.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1520 Chocolate was brought from Mexico to Spain for the first time. [see 1502]
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1520 “Many small stars congregated… like to two clouds.” (Now known as the Large Magellanic Cloud) Thus one of Ferdinand Magellan’s crew, on the first voyage around the earth, described the southern Pacific sky on a clear night in this year.
(NG, 5/88, p.619)

1520 King Christian II of Denmark and Norway defeated a Swedish army at Lake Asunden and was crowned King of Sweden. He then renounced his offer of amnesty and massacred most of the Swedish leaders.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1520 Emperor Charles V and Henry VIII met at Dover and agreed to an Anglo-French commercial treaty.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1520 Magellan sailed around the tip of South America and renamed the South Sea as the Pacific Ocean.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1520 Scipione del Ferro, Italian mathematician, solved cubic equations for the first time.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1520 A smallpox epidemic raged in Vera Cruz, Mexico. The 16th century smallpox epidemic in Mexico and Central America killed about half of the Aztecs.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(SFEC, 1/30/00, Z1 p.2)

1520-1530 The “Shahnameh” (Persian Book of Kings), completed in 1010AD by Persian poet Firdawsi (Ferdowsi) was commissioned to be illustrated for Shah Tahmasp by more than a dozen artists. 258 miniatures were made with 750 folios of Farsi text. In 1568 it was given to the Ottoman Sultan. In 1981 Stuart Cary Welch and martin Dickinson published “The Houghton Shahnameh,” a 2-volume study.
(www.mazdapublisher.com/BookDetails.aspx?BookID=186)(WSJ, 10/13/94, p. A18,)(Econ, 4/9/11, p.95)

1520-1579 Bayazid Roshan, an Afghan intellectual, lived. He revolted against the power of the Moghul government.

1520/24-1579/80 Giovanni Battista Moroni was a Renaissance portraitist. He worked in Trent and Bergamo and then returned to his hometown of Albino.
(WSJ, 2/22/00, p.A38)

1520-1598 William Cecil. He later became the Lord Treasurer and chief adviser for Queen Elizabeth I, for which he was made Lord Burghley. He built the Burghley House.
(WSJ, 8/24/99, p.A16)

1521 Jan 3, Pope Leo X excommunicated Martin Luther from the Roman Catholic Church.
(NH, 9/96, p.18)(AP, 1/3/98)

1521 March 6, Magellan made landfall at the island of Guam in the Marianas.
(HN, 3/6/98) (V.D.-H.K.p.177-178)

1521 March 9, Magellan sailed west, southwest towards the Philippines.

1521 Mar 16, Ferdinand Magellan discovered the Philippine Islands, where he was killed by natives the following month [see Apr 27].
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_Magellan)(AP, 3/16/97)

1521 Apr 7, Inquisitor-general Adrian Boeyens banned Lutheran books.
(MC, 4/7/02)
1521 Apr 7, Ferdinand Magellan landed on Cebu Island, Philippines. Italian chronicler Antonio Pigafetta reported a thriving port with large supplies of rice and gold. In 2003 the island was a booming commercial center with a population of 4 million.
(WSJ, 10/15/03, p.B2A)

1521 Apr 16, Martin Luther arrived at Diet of Worms.
(MC, 4/16/02)

1521 Apr 17, Under the protection of Frederick the Wise, elector of Saxony, Martin Luther first appeared before Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and the Imperial Diet to face charges stemming from his religious writings. The Roman Catholic Church had already excommunicated him on Jan 3, 1521. He was later declared an outlaw by Charles V.
(NH, 9/96, p.18)(HN, 4/17/98)(AP, 4/17/07)

1521 Apr 18, Martin Luther confronted the emperor Charles V in the Diet of Worms and refused to retract his views which led to his excommunication. Cardinal Alexander questioned the Rev Martin Luther.
(HN, 4/18/99)(MC, 4/18/02)

1521 Apr 21, Martin Luther was called before an Imperial Diet in Worms. He was already accused of heresy and excommunicated by the Pope. Here he was absolved of all charges.

1521 Apr 22, French king Francois I declared war on Spain.
(MC, 4/22/02)
1521 Apr 22, Juan de Padilla, Spanish nobleman, communero-rebel, was beheaded.
(MC, 4/22/02)

1521 Apr 23, The Comuneros were crushed by royalist troops in Spain.
(HN, 4/23/99)

1521 April 27, Ferdinand Magellan (41) was killed in a fight with natives on Mactan Island. Juan Sebastian Elcano, Magellan’s second in command, returned to Spain with 18 men and one ship, the Vittorio, laden with spices. His coat of arms was augmented in reward with the inscription Primus circumdisti me: “You were the first to encircle me.” Some 50,000 Chamorro people populated the islands.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_Magellan)(AP, 4/27/99)

1521 May 8, Peter Canisius, [Pieter de Hondt/Kanijs], Jesuit, saint, was born.
(MC, 5/8/02)
1521 May 8, Emperor Charles V and the Diet issued the Edict of Worms. It banned Luther’s work and enjoined his detention, but was not able to be enforced.
(NH, 9/96, p.20)

1521 May 20, Ignatius Loyola was seriously wounded by a cannon ball.
(MC, 5/20/02)

1521 May 26, Martin Luther was banned by the Edict of Worms of because of his religious beliefs and writings.
(AP, 5/26/97)

1521 May 28, Willem van Croij (~62), duke of Soria, died.
(MC, 5/28/02)

1521 Aug 13, Spanish conqueror Hernando Cortez conquered the Mexican city of Tenochtitlan (Mexico City) after an 85-day battle. Cuauhtemoc fought against Cortes in Tlatelolco when Moctezuma surrendered. Cortez had an Indian mistress named La Malinche.
(NG, 6/1988, p.763)(AP, 8/13/97)(TL-MB, p.12)(WSJ, 8/13/97, p.A12)(WSJ, 4/24/98, p.A15)

1521 Aug 27, Josquin Des Prez, composer, died.
(MC, 8/27/02)

1521 Aug 31, Spanish conqueror Cortez (1485-1547), having captured the city of Tenochtitlan, Mexico, set it on fire. Nearly 100,000 people died in the siege and some 100,000 more died afterwards of smallpox. In 2008 Buddy levy authored “Conquistador: Hernan Cortes, King Montezuma, and the Last Stand of the Aztecs.”
(HN, 8/31/98)(WSJ, 7/10/08, p.A13)

1521 Sep 28, Turkish sultan Suleiman I’s troops occupied Belgrade.
(MC, 9/28/01)

1521 Oct 11, Pope Leo X titled King Henry VIII of England “Defender of the Faith” in recognition of his writings in support of the Catholic Church. Henry had penned a defense of the seven Catholic Sacraments in response to Martin Luther‘s Protestant reform movement. By 1534, Henry had broken completely with the Catholic Church, and the Pope‘s authority in England was abolished.
(TL-MB, p.12)(HNQ, 8/12/00)(MC, 10/11/01)

1521 Oct 24, Robert Fayrfax, composer, died at 57.
(MC, 10/24/01)

1521 Oct 25, Emperor Charles V banned wooden buildings in Amsterdam.
(MC, 10/25/01)

1521 Nov 19, Battle at Milan: Emperor Charles V’s Spanish, German, and papal troops beat France and occupied Milan. An eight year war between France and the Holy Roman Emp., Charles V, began after the French supported rebels in Spain.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(MC, 11/19/01)

1521 Nov 20, Arabs attributed a shortage of water in Jerusalem to Jews making wine.
(MC, 11/20/01)

1521 Lorenzo Lotto, Italian artist, painted the “Christ Bidding Farewell to His Mother.”
(WSJ, 1/15/98, p.A17)

1521 Suleiman I, the Ottoman Sultan, conquered Belgrade and invaded Hungary.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)
1521 Piri Reis, Ottoman cartographer, authored the Kitab-i Bahriye, or “Book of the Sea”, one of the most famous cartographical works of the period. The book gives seafarers information on the Mediterranean coast, islands, crossings, straits, and gulfs; where to take refuge in the event of a storm, how to approach the ports, and precise routes to the ports.

1521 The Chateau de Chenonceaux in the Loire Valley of France was built for the royal tax collector, Thomas Bohier. It took eight years to construct.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1521 The manufacture of silk cloth was introduced to France. It had been made in Sicily since the 1100s.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1521 Andres de Tapia, a Spanish soldier who accompanied Cortes in the conquest of Mexico, counted tens of thousands of skulls at what became known as the Huey Tzompantli in Tenochtitlan, later Mexico City. Archeologist later identified crania of women and children among the hundreds embedded in the forbidding structure.
(Reuters, 7/2/17)

1521 In Puerto Rico the Caparra colony founded by Spanish conquistadores relocated to a barrier island at the entrance of San Juan Bay.
(HT, 4/97, p.28)(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1521 The first running of the bulls was held at Pamplona, Spain. [see 1591]
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1521 Francisco de Gordillo, Spanish explorer, sailed up the American Atlantic coast to South Carolina.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1521 Ponce de Leon returned to Key Marco in southwest Florida, where he was again repulsed by the Calusa Indians and died from an arrow wound.
(AM, 11/04, p.49)

1521 Clipperton Island was originally discovered by Ferdinand Magellan in 1521, but was later named after John Clipperton, an English pirate who led a mutiny against William Dampier in 1704. Mexico occupied the island in 1897 and established a military outpost there. In 1930, the Vatican gave the rights to the King of Italy, Viktor Emanuel II, who declared one year later that Clipperton was a part of France. In 1944 US President Franklin D. Roosevelt ordered the navy to occupy the island in one of the most secret US operations of WW II. After the war it was abandoned, and has since only been visited by the French Navy and an occasional scientific or amateur radio expedition. In 1989 Jimmy M. Skaggs authored “Clipperton: A History of the Island the World Forgot.”
(NH, 12/96, p.70)(www.qsl.net/clipperton2000/history.html)

1522 Feb 7, Treaty of Brussels: Habsburgers split into Spanish and Austrian Branches.
(MC, 2/7/02)

1522 Mar 9-1522 Mar 16, Marten Luther preached his Invocavit.
(MC, 3/9/02)

1522 Apr 12, Florentine artist Piero di Cosimo (b.1462), aka Piero di Lorenzo, died of plague. His work included “Cart of Death.”
(Econ, 1/31/15, p.76)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piero_di_Cosimo)

1522 Apr 29, Emperor Charles V named Frans van Holly inquisitor-gen of Netherlands.
(MC, 4/29/02)

1522 May 25, Emperor Karel I returned to Spain.
(SC, 5/25/02)

1522 Jun 30, Johann Reuchlin (b.1455), German-born humanist, died in Stuttgart. He was the first Christian Hebraist in northern Europe.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johann_Reuchlin)(Econ, 9/10/16, p.72)

1522 Jul 5, Antonio de Nebrija (b.1441), Spanish scholar, died. His work included a Spanish grammar written in Latin. It was the first systematic treatment of a vernacular European language.
(Econ, 6/1/13, p.80)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_de_Nebrija)

1522 Aug 27, Giovanni A. Amadei (75), Amadeo, Italian sculptor, architect, died.
(MC, 8/27/02)

1522 Sep 6, Juan Sebastian Elcano (Del Cano), Magellan’s second in command, returned to Spain with 18 men and one ship, the Vittorio, laden with spices. His coat of arms was augmented in reward with the inscription: Primus circumdisti me: “You were the first to encircle me.”18 survivors of the original Magellan expedition completed the circumnavigation of the globe under Sebastian del Cano. Plumes of the bird of paradise from New Guinea were first brought back to Europe. One of the five ships that set out in Ferdinand Magellan’s trip around the world made it back to Spain. Only 15 of the original 265 men that set out survived. Magellan was killed by natives in the Philippines.
(V.D.-H.K.p.177-178)(SFEC, 11/10/96, zone 1 p.2)(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(NH, 9/96, p.8)(HN, 9/6/98)

1522 Sep 8, Spanish navigator Juan de Elcano returned to Spain. He completed the 1st circumnavigation of globe, expedition begun under Ferdinand Magellan. [see Sep 6]
(MC, 9/8/01)

1522 Oct 15, Emperor Charles named Hernan Cortes governor of Mexico.
(MC, 10/15/01)

1522 Dosso Dossi painted “Allegory of Music.”
(WSJ, 1/20/98, p.A20)

1522 Martin Luther completed his translation of the New Testament into German and returned to Wittenberg. His supporter, Ulrich Zwingli, condemned Lenten fasting and celibacy. Luther also published his Christmas Postils as preaching models for other pastors.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(WSJ, 12/21/01, p.W15)

1522 A Bible was printed in Alcala, Spain, in Hebrew, Greek, Latin and Aramaic.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1522 Adrian VI was elected Pope. He was the last non-Italian pope until John Paul II.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1522 In 2007 The book “Beyond Capricorn” said a 16th century maritime map in a Los Angeles library vault, which accurately marks geographical sites along Australia’s east coast in Portuguese, proves that Portuguese seafarer Christopher de Mendonca lead a fleet of four ships into Botany Bay in this year.
(Reuters, 3/21/07)

1522 England declared war on France and Scotland. Holy Roman Emp. Charles V visited Henry VIII and signed the Treaty of Windsor. Both monarchs agreed to invade France.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1522 Suleiman I captured Rhodes from the Knights Hospitallers of St. John. The knights surrendered after a 6-month siege. In 1530 the knights were resettled on Malta by Charles V.
(WSJ, 7/21/08, p.A11)

1522 Albrecht Durer, German artist and engraver, designed a flying machine for use in war.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1522 Guatemala was conquered by Spanish armies.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1522 A massive slave rebellion, the first of dozens, was crushed in Hispaniola.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1522 Martin Cortes (d.1569), son of Hernando Cortes, was born in Mexico to an Amerindian woman named Malinche. Cortes also named a 3rd son Martin, who was born in Spain. Both brothers were arrested in 1566 for purportedly fomenting a rebellion against the Spanish crown.
(SSFC, 7/11/04, p.M3)

1522 The Portuguese crown began administering Sao Tome.
(AP, 7/18/03)

1522 Pascual de Andagoya, Spanish explorer, became the first European to set foot in Peru.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1522 Gustavus Vasa became administrator of Sweden and pledged to free his country from Danish control.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1522-1524 Titian painted “Bacchanal of the Andrians” during this period.
(WSJ, 8/3/06, p.D5)

1523 Jun 6, [Gustav] Gustavus Vasa was elected Gustavus I of Sweden.
(HFA, ’96, p.32)(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(HN, 6/6/98)

1523 Jul 1, Hendrik Voes, Flemish priest, church reformer, was burned at stake along with John of Esschen (Jan van Essen), Flemish priest, church reformer. The 2 monks were executed in Brussels, Belgium, for refusing to recant their Lutheran beliefs.
(http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jan_van_Essen)(Econ, 12/17/11, p.94)

1523 Oct 27, English troops occupied Montalidier, France.
(MC, 10/27/01)

1523 Nov 30, Amsterdam banned the assembly of heretics.
(MC, 11/30/01)

1523 Titian painted “Bacchus and Ariadne,” a heroic mythological composition for Alfonso d’Este, Duke of Ferrara. It is now at the London National Gallery.
(TL-MB, p.12)(SFEC, 2/1/98, p.T8)

1523 Hans Holbein completed the first of several portraits of Erasmus in Basel. He also began the design of 51 plates on the “Dance of Death,” which reflected ideas of the Reformation.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(WSJ, 6/24/97, p.A20)

1523 Hans Judenkonig published in Vienna the first manual of lute playing.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1523 Anthony Fitzherbert published the “Book of Husbandry,” the first English manual of agriculture.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1523 Pope Adrian VI died and was succeeded by Pope Clement VII, nephew of Lorenzo de’ Medici. Adrian VI was the last non-Italian Pope until 1978 when Cardinal Wojtyla, Archbishop of Cracow, became Pope Paul II. Clement was pope until 1534.
(WUD, 1994, p.1691)(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(WUD, 1994, p.276)

1523 Sugar was grown in Cuba for the first time.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1523 The first turkeys were introduced to Spain and Europe from America by the conquistadors.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(SFEC, 11/24/96, p.A3)

1523 Christian II was deposed in Denmark after a civil war and was exiled. His uncle became King Frederick I of Denmark and Norway.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1523 The first marine insurance policies were issued in Florence.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1523 The Ottoman Emperor Suleiman the Magnificent successfully overcame the Knights Hospitaller, Order of St. John, from their position on the island of Rhodes in the Aegean Sea. The Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, offered the Knights the Isle of Malta. In exchange for a perpetual lease the Knights undertook to send the emperor a falcon (made famous in the mystery novel, The Maltese Falcon, and the movie of the same name) once every year as a token of their fealty. They remained there until the time of Napoleon, and became known as the Knights of Malta.
(WSJ, 12/30/94, A-6, Review of The Knights of Malta by H.J.A. Sire)

1523 Portuguese settlers were expelled from China.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1523 Sweden became independent and dropped out of the Kalmar Union, formed in 1397 with Denmark and Norway.

1523-1524 Dosso Dossi painted “Jupiter, Mercury and Virtue.”
(WSJ, 1/20/98, p.A20)

1524 Mar 19, Giovanni de Verrazano of France sighted land around area of Carolinas.
(MC, 3/19/02)

1524 Apr 17, Giovanni da Verrazano, Florentine navigator, reached present-day New York Harbor. He explored from Cape Fear to Newfoundland and discovered New York Bay and the Hudson River. He was later eaten by natives.
(TL-MB, p.12)(HN, 4/17/98)(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.26)(AP, 4/17/08)

1524 Apr 19, Pope Clemens VII fired the Netherlands inquisitor-general French Van de Holly.
(MC, 4/19/02)

1524 cApr, The Peasant’s War, in which Protestants fought against Catholics and demanded an end to feudal services and oppression by the landed gentry, broke out in Germany.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1524 Jul 26, James I became king of Scotland at age 12.
(MC, 7/26/02)

1524 Aug 19, Emperor Charles V’s troops besieged Marseille.
(MC, 8/19/02)

1524 Nov 14, Pizarro began his 1st great expedition, near Colombia.
(MC, 11/14/01)

1524 Dec 11, Henry Van Zutphen, Dutch Protestant martyr, was burned at stake.
(MC, 12/11/01)

1524 Dec 24, Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama (~55), who had discovered a sea route around Africa to India, died in Cochin, India. He had served as Viceroy in India. Gama served under the patronage of Dom Manoel and at one time burned alive 380 men, women and children.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(AP, 12/24/97)(MC, 12/24/01)(SSFC, 3/10/02, p.M3)

1524 Albrecht Durer drafted a dozen drawings of the same face on a grid. Each grid was transformed as if it were printed on a rubber graph which was then bent and twisted to distort the normal proportions. Computerized morphing only came c1990.
(MT, 10/94, p.9)

1524 Peter Bennewitz, German prof. of mathematics, produced the first textbook on theoretical geography: “Cosmographia.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1524 Jan Wynken de Worde printed Robert Wakefield’s “Oration” using Italic type for the first time in English typography.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1524 Martin Luther and Johann Walther produced jointly a German hymnal: “Geistliche Lieder.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1524 Aden became a tributary of Portugal.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1524 Hans Holbein the Elder (b. c1460), German-born artist, died in Eisenheim.

1524 Pedro de Alvarado, a lieutenant of Cortez, marched into the Guatemalan highlands. He played the local Indian tribes against one another and won a major battle fought at a river in western Guatemala against warriors of the Quiche tribe led by Tecun Uman.
(NG, 6/1988, p.790)

1524 Chevalier Bayard, commander of French forces in Lombardy, was killed and the French were driven out.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1524 Hernandez de Cordoba founded Granada, Nicaragua. The city, also known as La Gran Sultana (The Grand Sultan), is the oldest city in Central America.
(SSFC, 4/10/05, p.F4)

1524 Denmark confirmed Swedish independence under Gustavus Vasa in the Treaty of Malmo.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1524 Shah Ismail, ruler of Persia, died.

1524 Ulrich Zwingli abolished the Catholic mass in Zurich.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1524-1585 Pierre de Ronsard, established the use of the vernacular in French verse.

1524-1608 Giambologna, a sculptor from Florence.
(WSJ, 2/1/96, p.A-16)