Timeline of the Eighteenth Century: 1775-1799

1775 Jan 8, John Baskerville (68), English printer, type designer, died.
(MC, 1/8/02)

1775 Jan 11, In South Carolina Francis Salvador became the 1st Jew elected to office in America. [see Aug 1]
(AH, 2/05, p.16)

1775 Jan 17, 9 old women were burned as witches for causing bad harvests in Kalisk, Poland.
(MC, 1/17/02)

1775 Jan 22, Marshal Oscar von Lubomirski expelled Jews from Warsaw, Poland.
(MC, 1/22/02)

1775 Jan 25, Americans dragged cannon up hill to fight the British at Gun Hill Road, Bronx.
(MC, 1/25/02)

1775 Jan 28, Peter the Great, Czar of Russia, was born.
(HN, 1/28/99)

1775 Feb 9, English Parliament declared the Mass. colony was in rebellion.
(MC, 2/9/02)

1775 Feb 10, Charles Lamb (d.1834), critic, poet, essayist, was born in London, England. “No one ever regarded the first of January with indifference. It is the nativity of our common Adam.”
(AP, 12/31/97)(MC, 2/10/02)

1775 Feb 12, Louisa Adams, wife of John Quincy Adams was born.
(HN, 2/12/98)

1775 Feb 21, As troubles with Great Britain increased, colonists in Massachusetts voted to buy military equipment for 15,000 men.
(HN, 2/21/99)

1775 Feb 22, Jews were expelled from the outskirts of Warsaw, Poland.
(MC, 2/22/02)

1775 Feb, Englishman Thomas Paine became editor of the Pennsylvania Magazine, owned by printer Robert Aitken.
(ON, 6/2011, p.1)

1775 Mar 17, Richard Henderson, a North Carolina judge, representing the Transylvania Company, met with three Cherokee Chiefs (Oconistoto, chief warrior and first representative of the Cherokee Nation or tribe of Indians, and Attacuttuillah and Sewanooko) to purchase (for the equivalent of $50,000) all the land lying between the Ohio, Kentucky and Cumberland rivers; some 17 to 20 million acres. It was known as the Treaty of Sycamore Shoals or The Henderson Purchase. The purchase was later declared invalid but land cession was not reversed.

1775 Mar 19, In Italy 4 people were buried by avalanche for 37 days and 3 survived. [not clear if this was the date of the avalanche or the recovery date.]
(MC, 3/19/02)
1775 Mar 19, Portuguese fleet was repulsed in attack on Montevideo, Uruguay.
(AP, 3/19/03)

1775 Mar 22, British statesman Edmund Burke made a speech in the House of Commons, urging the government to adopt a policy of reconciliation with America.
(AP, 3/22/99)

1775 Mar 23, In a speech to the Virginia Provincial Convention, assembled at Henrico Church in Richmond, American revolutionary Patrick Henry made his famous plea for independence from Britain, saying, “Give me liberty, or give me death!”
(AP, 3/23/97)(AH, 2/06, p.50)

1775 Apr 7, Francis C. Lowell was born. He founded the 1st raw cotton-to-cloth textile mill.
(MC, 4/7/02)

1775 Apr 8, Adam A. earl von Neipperg, Austrian general, Napoleon’s wife Marie lover, was born.
(MC, 4/8/02)

1775 Apr 13, Lord North extended the New England Restraining Act to South Carolina, Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland. The act forbade trade with any country other than Britain and Ireland.
(HN, 4/13/99)

1775 Apr 14, The first American society for the abolition of slavery was organized by Benjamin Franklin and Benjamin Rush in Philadelphia.
(AP, 4/14/97)(HN, 4/14/97)
1775 Apr 14, Gen. Thomas Gage, commander of British forces in North America, received orders from Parliament authorizing him to use aggressive military force against the American rebels.
(ON, 3/01, p.2)

1775 Apr 18, Several post riders set out to warn colonists of the British attack that started the American Revolution. One patriotic myth that grew out of that movement began with a poem Henry Wadsworth Longfellow called “Paul Revere’s Ride.” Paul Revere began his famous ride from Charlestown to Lexington, Mass., warning American colonists that the British were coming. American revolutionaries Paul Revere, William Dawes and Samuel Prescott warned that “the British are coming”. Only Prescott galloped all the way to Concord. Revere was corralled by a British cavalry patrol near Lexington, MA; Dawes and Prescott escaped. A company of over 700 British troops marched toward Concord. 23-year-old church sexton Robert Newman hung two lanterns in the Old North Church to warn riders that the British were leaving Boston by boat to march on Concord. Every April, a descendant of the 18th-century patriot still climbs to the steeple of Old North Church and hangs two small tin and glass lanterns.
(HN, 4/18/98)(ON, 3/01, p.2)(HNQ, 7/5/01)(AP, 4/18/07)

1775 Apr 19, Alerted by Paul Revere the American Revolutionary War began at Lexington Common with the Battle of Lexington-Concord. Capt. John Parker mustered 78 militiamen on the town green of Lexington to send a warning to the 700 British soldiers marching to Concord to seize weapons and gunpowder. Maj. Gen. Thomas Gage sent a force of 700 British troops to Concord, west of Boston, to capture colonial weapons and arrest Patriot leaders Samuel Adams and John Hancock. Arriving at Lexington on their way to Concord, the British were met on the town common by about 70 Minutemen. The “shot heard ‘round the world” ignited the American Revolutionary War. No one knows who fired the first shot, but when the smoke cleared, eight Americans lay dead. The British suffered more than 250 casualties as they opposed more than 1,500 Massachusetts men. The events are documented in the 1997 book “Liberty by Thomas Fleming.” Isaac Davis was among the first to die at Lexington and Concord.
(HFA, ’96, p.28)(V.D.-H.K.p.224)(AP, 4/19/97)(SFEC,11/23/97, Par p.14) (HN, 4/19/97)(HNPD, 4/19/99)(HNQ, 10/17/00)

1775 Apr 20, British troops began the siege of Boston.
(HN, 4/20/98)

1775 Apr 23, Joseph Mallord William Turner (d.1851), landscape painter, was born in England.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._M._W._Turner)(SFC, 6/20/15, p.E3)
1775 Apr 23, Mozart’s Opera “Il Re Pastore” was produced (Salzburg).
(MC, 4/23/02)

1775 May 5, Benjamin Franklin arrived in Philadelphia from London where he had lived since 1757. He soon began working with Thomas Paine on a pamphlet urging independence from Britain, an idea proposed by physician Benjamin Rush.
(AH, 2/06, p.52)(ON, 6/2011, p.2)

1775 May 10, The Second Continental Congress convened in Pennsylvania. It named George Washington as supreme commander. Benjamin Franklin represented Pennsylvania soon presented his reworked Plan of Union under the title The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Continental_Congress)(AH, 2/06, p.47)
1775 May 10, Ethan Allen and his 83 Green Mountain Boys captured the British-held fortress at Ticonderoga, N.Y., on the western shore of Lake Champlain. They took the entire garrison captive without firing a shot. This was the 1st aggressive American action in the War of Independence.
(AP, 5/10/97)(HN, 5/10/98)(ON, 3/00, p.4)

1775 May 20, North Carolina became the first colony to declare its independence. Citizens of Mecklenburg County, NC, declared independence from Britain.
(HN, 5/20/98)(MC, 5/20/02)

1775 May, George Washington went to the Philadelphia State House where the Second Continental Congress was meeting and John Adams moved to name him Commander-in-chief of the Continental army.
(A & IP, ESM, p.13)

1775 Jun 7, The United Colonies changed name to United States.
(HN, 6/7/98)

1775 Jun 12, In the 1st naval battle of Revolution the US ship Unity captured the British ship Margaretta.
(MC, 6/12/02)

1775 Jun 14, The Continental Army, forerunner of the United States Army, was founded when the Continental Congress first authorized the muster of troops under its sponsorship.
(HN, 6/14/98)(AP, 6/14/07)

1775 Jun 15, Word reached the Americans that the British intended to occupy the Charlestown peninsula.
(HT, 3/97, p.30)
1775 Jun 15, The Second Continental Congress voted unanimously to appoint George Washington head of the Continental Army.
(AP, 6/15/97)(HN, 6/15/98)

1775 Jun 16, American Col. William Prescott led 1200 men from Cambridge to dig in at Bunker’s Hill but arrived at night and dug in at Breed’s Hill. A siege on Boston by Colonial militia generals John Stark and Israel Putnam prompted the British to attack.
(HT, 3/97, p.30)(SFC, 4/2/97, Z1 p.6)

1775 Jun 17, The Battle of Bunker Hill was actually fought on Breed’s Hill near Boston. It lasted less than 2 hours and was the deadliest of the Revolutionary War. The British captured the hill on their third attempt but suffered over 1,000 casualties vs. about 400-600 for the Americans. Patriotic hero Dr. Joseph Warren died in the battle. Patriot General William Prescott allegedly told his men, “Don’t one of you fire until you see the whites of their eyes!” British casualties were estimated at 226 dead and 828 wounded, while American casualties were estimated at 140 dead and 301 wounded.
(SFC, 4/2/97, Z1 p.6)(AP, 6/17/98)(HNQ, 4/1/99)(AH, 10/07, p.72)

1775 Jul 2, George Washington arrived in Boston and took over as commander-in-chief of the new Continental Army.
(HT, 3/97, p.33)

1775 Jul 3, Gen. George Washington took command of the Continental Army at Cambridge, Mass.
(AP, 7/3/97)

1775 Jul 5, William Crotch, composer, was born.
(MC, 7/5/02)
1775 Jul 5, The Olive Branch Petition was adopted by the Continental Congress and professed the attachment of the American people to George III. It expressed hope for the restoration of harmony and begged the king to prevent further hostile actions against the colonies. The following day, Congress passed a resolution written by Thomas Jefferson and John Dickinson, a “Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms,” which rejected independence but asserted that Americans were ready to die rather than be enslaved. King George refused to receive the Olive Branch Petition on August 23 and proclaimed the American colonies to be in open rebellion.
(HNQ, 7/2/99)

1775 Jul 10, Gen Horatio Gates, issued an order excluding blacks from Continental Army. [see Oct 8]
(MC, 7/10/02)

1775 Jul 16, John Adams graduated from Harvard.
(MC, 7/16/02)

1775 Jul 25, Anna Symmes Harrison, 1st lady, was born.
(SC, 7/25/02)
1775 Jul 25, Maryland issued currency depicting George III trampling the Magna Carta.
(SC, 7/25/02)

1775 Jul 26, The Continental Congress established a postal system for the colonies with Benjamin Franklin as the first postmaster general in Philadelphia.
(AP, 7/26/97)(HN, 7/26/98)

1775 Jul 30, Captain Cook returned to England.
(MC, 7/30/02)

1775 Aug 1, Francis Salvador and his men were ambushed by a group of Cherokees and Loyalists near present-day Seneca, South Carolina, while leading a militia group under the general command of Major Wilkinson. Salvador was wounded and then scalped by the Cherokees.
(MC, 1/11/02)

1775 Aug 5, Spanish Lieutenant Juan Manuel de Ayala and his crew of 30 became the first European explorers to sail into the San Francisco Bay. He anchored at Angel Island and waited for the overland expedition of Captain Juan Bautista de Anza. Angel Island was one of the first landforms named by the Spanish when they entered SF Bay. The 58-foot Spanish fregata, Punta de San Carlos, was the first sailing vessel to enter the SF Bay while on a voyage of exploration. Ayala named Alcatraz Island after a large flock of pelicans, called alcatraces in Spanish.
(CAS, 1996, p.19)(SFEC, 2/9/97, p.W4)(SFEC, 3/8/98, p.W38)(SFC, 12/26/01, p.A28)(SFC, 8/16/14, p.C1)

1775 Aug 23, Britain’s King George III refused the American colonies’ offer of peace and proclaimed the American colonies in a state of “open and avowed rebellion.”
(HN, 8/23/98)(AP, 8/23/07)

1775 Sep 13, Gotthold Lessing’s “Die Juden,” premiered in Frankfurt-am-Main.
(MC, 9/13/01)

1775 Sep 25, British troops captured Ethan Allen, the hero of Ticonderoga, when he and a handful of Americans led an attack on Montreal, Canada.
(AP, 9/25/97)(HN, 9/25/98)

1775 Sep 29, Mexican Captain Juan Bautista de Anza (39) and his party of Spanish soldiers and setters departed Tubac, Arizona, on a journey to the SF Bay Area following reports of a great river flowing into the bay. Anza led 240 soldiers, priests and settlers to Monterey. Jose Manuel Valencia was one of the soldiers. His son, Candelario Valencia, later served in the military at the Presidio and owned a ranch in Lafayette and property next to Mission Dolores. One of the soldiers was Don Salvio Pacheco.
(SFEC, 9/21/97, p.C7)(SFC, 12/31/99, p.A22)(SFC, 9/14/13, p.C4)

1775 Oct 8, Officers decided to bar slaves and free blacks from Continental Army. [see Jul 10, Oct 23, Nov 12, Dec 31]
(MC, 10/8/01)

1775 Oct 13, The U.S. Navy had its origins as the Continental Congress ordered the construction of a naval fleet. The Continental Congress authorized construction of two warships. The 1st ship in the US Navy was the schooner Hannah. It was commissioned by George Washington and outfitted at Beverly, Mass. In 2006 Ian W. Toll authored “Six Frigates: The Epic History of the Founding of the US Navy.
(AP, 10/13/97)(HN, 10/13/98)(SFC, 2/12/00, p.B3)(Econ, 11/4/06, p.94)

1775 Oct 16, Portland, Maine, was burned by British.
(MC, 10/16/01)

1775 Oct 23, Continental Congress approved a resolution barring blacks from army.
(MC, 10/23/01)

1775 Oct 30, Fr. Lasuen founded Mission San Juan Capistrano, but the site was abandoned after eight days when they received word of an attack at the San Diego Mission. They quickly buried the bells for safe keeping and fled to the Presidio (fort) in San Diego for shelter.

1775 Nov 5, In southern California Indians infuriated by Spanish soldier rapes of native women attacked the mission at San Diego bludgeoning a priest to death and killing two other church workers.
(SFC, 12/6/14, p.C2)

1775 Nov 7, Lord Dunmore promised freedom to male slaves who would join the British army.
(MC, 11/7/01)

1775 Nov 10, The US Marines were organized under authority of the Continental Congress. Congress commissioned Samuel Nicholas to raise two Battalions of Marines. That very day, Nicholas set up shop in Philadelphia’s Tun Tavern. He appointed Robert Mullan, then the proprietor of the tavern, to the job of chief Marine Recruiter serving, of course, from his place of business at Tun Tavern.
(AP, 11/10/97)(www.usmcpress.com/heritage/usmc_heritage.htm)

1775 Nov 12, General Washington forbade the enlistment of blacks.
(MC, 11/12/01)
1775 Nov 12, US Gen. Montgomery began his siege of St. John’s and brought about the surrender of 600 British troops.
(ON, 3/00, p.6)

1775 Nov 13, American forces under Gen. Richard Montgomery captured Montreal. This was part of a two-pronged attack on Canada, with the goal of capturing Quebec entrusted to Benedict Arnold, who was leading a 1,100 man force through a hurricane ravaged Maine wilderness. In 2006 Thomas A. Desjardin authored “Through A Howling Wilderness,” an account of Arnold’s march to Quebec.
(AP, 11/13/97)(WSJ, 5/12/06, p.W5)

1775 Nov 17, George Washington was in Boston with his ragtag army facing 12,000 Redcoat regulars.
(SFEC, 10/15/00, p.T12)

1775 Nov 28, The Second Continental Congress formally established the American Navy.
(DTnet 11/28/97)

1775 Nov 29, The American Congress formed the Committee of Secret Correspondence with the mission of corresponding with friends in Great Britain, Ireland and other parts of the world. It April, 1777, its title was changed to Committee for Foreign Affairs. Members included Benjamin Franklin, Benjamin Harrison, John Jay, Thomas Johnson and John Dickinson.
(AH, 2/06, p.54)
1775 Nov 29, Sir James Jay invented invisible ink.
(MC, 11/29/01)

1775 Dec 6, Nicolas Isouard, composer, was born.
(MC, 12/6/01)

1775 Dec 9, Lord Dunmore (1730-1809), governor of Virginia, lost decisively at the American Revolution Battle of Great Bridge. Following that defeat, Dunmore loaded his troops, and many Virginia Loyalists, onto British ships. Smallpox spread in the confined quarters, and some 500 of the 800 members of his Ethiopian Regiment died.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Murray,_4th_Earl_of_Dunmore)(Econ, 8/10/13, p.26)

1775 Dec 16, Jane Austen (d.1817), novelist, was born in [Steventon] Hampshire, England, as the 6th of 7 children [7th of 8]. Her well-educated parents encouraged reading and writing. Her work included “Sense and Sensibility” (1811), “Pride and Prejudice” (1812), “Mansfield Park” (1814) “Lady Susan” and “Emma” (1815). Her books “Persuasion” (1817) and “Northanger Abbey” were published posthumously. Austen’s witty, well-constructed stories about realistic middle-class characters challenged the limits of women writers. Although she called herself a “merely domestic” novelist, she greatly influenced the development of the modern novel. Austen’s most famous works were published between 1811 and 1816, shortly before she died in July 1817. Later in the 19th century critics appreciated Austen’s writing more, and her novels remain popular today–for both literary critics and moviegoers, as they are widely read and adapted for the silver screen. “One does not love a place the less for having suffered in it unless it has all been suffering, nothing but suffering.” Two biographies were published in 1997 with the same title: “Jane Austen: A Life,” one by Calire Tomalin and the other by David Nokes.
(SFEC, 5/11/97, BR p.10)(Hem., 5/97, p.102)(AP, 5/31/97)(SFEC, 11/9/97, BR p.4)(WSJ, 11/17/97, p.A24)(HN, 12/16/98)(HNPD, 12/18/98)

1775 Dec 18-1775 Dec 27, In Philadelphia Benjamin Franklin, John Jay and Francis Daymon, members of the Committee of Secret Correspondence, met 3 times at Carpenter’s Hall with French agent Chevalier Julien-Alexandre Achard de Bonvouloir regarding French support for American Independence.

1775 Dec 22, Esek Hopkins was named the first commander of the US Navy. He took command of the Continental Navy, a total of seven ships.
(HFA,’96,.44)(AP, 12/22/97)(HN, 12/22/98)

1775 Dec 31, George Washington ordered recruiting officers to accept free blacks into the army.
(HN, 12/31/98)

1775 Dec 31, The British repulsed an attack by Continental Army generals Richard Montgomery and Benedict Arnold at Quebec during a raging snowstorm; Montgomery was killed.
(AP, 12/31/97)(SFEC, 1/10/99, p.T5)

1775 James Adair (~65) authored “The History of the American Indians,” based on his experiences living in their midst. In 2005 Kathryn E. Holland Braund edited a new edition.
(WSJ, 2/11/05, p.W6)

1775 Beaumarchais wrote his farce “The Barber of Seville.” Beaumarchais reconceived his Barber opera as a play and turned it into a triumph at the Comedie Francaise.
(WSJ, 12/19/96, p.A16)(SFC, 8/13/96, p.A20)

1775 Joseph Priestley published his book “Experiments and Observations on Different Kinds of Air.” He refuted some opinions of Lavoisier, who had recently named oxygen based on experiments modeled after Priestley’s work. In 1777 German chemist Karl Wilhelm Schele verified that he had independently isolated oxygen in 1772.
(www.woodrow.org/teachers/chemistry/institutes/1992/Priestley.html)(ON, 10/05, p.2)

1775 Richard Brinsley Sheridan’s wrote “The Duenna.” In 1940 Prokofiev composed the opera “Betrothal in a Monastery,” based on Sheridan’s work. The Prokofiev work had its premiere in Prague.
(WSJ, 5/7/98, p.A21)(SFC, 11/25/98, p.D1)

1775 Mozart at 19 composed Il Re Pastore, K. 208. It is considered the last major stage work from Mozart’s Salzburg period.
(EMN, 1/96, p.3)

1775 Presbyterians made up the third largest denomination in America with more than 400,000 members. The largest denomination was made up of Congregationalists, with the second largest being Anglicans.
(HNQ, 7/6/99)

1775 Tucson, Arizona was founded as a Spanish presidio.
(AWAM, Dec. 94, p.31)

1775 Bodega Bay, Ca., was founded by the Spanish.
(SFEC, 9/14/97, p.T3)
1775 Spanish Lieutenant Juan Manuel de Ayala named SF Bay’s northernmost island Isla Plana (Flat Island). In 1835 Gen. Vallejo later renamed it Mare Island.
(SSFC, 8/11/02, p.C1)(SFC, 1/3/15, p.D1)

1775 The 7th Virginia Volunteers first fought as militia in the War of Independence.
(RC handout, 5/27/96)
1775 Lord Dunmore, Royal Governor of Virginia, called on local slaves to join the British side to suppress the American Revolution: “When we win we will free you from your shackles.” The British issued similar proclamations throughout their North American colonies and enticed thousands of indentured servants and slaves, known as Black Loyalists, to the British side.
(MT, summer 2003, p.8)

1775 The Hornet and the Wasp were frigates of the Continental Navy that fought British ships in Chesapeake Bay.
(SFC, 8/17/98, p.A22)

1775 The Swedish chemist Scheele found a way to detect arsenic in the body.
(SFEC, 12/22/96, zone1 p.2)

1775 Captain Cook on his 2nd voyage around the southern continent landed on an island (South Georgia) that he named after his sponsor, George III of England. He described the land as “savage and horrible.”
(NH, 2/97, p.54)

1775 Daniel Boone blazed a trail through the Cumberland Gap in Kentucky.
(WSJ, 1/28/00, p.W8)

1775 Kabul became the capital of Afghanistan.
(NG, V184, No. 4, Oct. 1993, p.66)

1775 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe moved to Weimar after Carl August asked him to be his secretary of state.
(SSFC, 8/1/04, p.D10)

1775 Altar was founded in Mexico’s Sonora state as a military base. It’s location 60 miles south of Arizona later proved valuable as a jumping off point for immigrant smuggling to the US.
(Econ, 8/12/06, p.31)
1775 In Mexico the Monte de Piedad (Mount of Pity), or National Pawn Shop, stands on the site of Montezuma’s brother’s palace in Mexico City. It was founded by the Count of Regla. As a lender of last resort the shop provided loans worth one-fifth to one-third an item’s value at interest rates of 4% a month.
(Hem., 1/96, p.50)(SFC, 1/15/98, p.A10)
1775 In Mexico Manuel Arroyo of Real del Monte confessed to 30 counts of oral sex on men. He claimed that his doctor told him it was good for his health and a way to avoid evil thoughts about women. He was sentenced to 3 years in prison by the Inquisition.
(SFC, 9/18/96, p.A11)

1775 Szymon Antoni Sobiekrajski, cartographer to King Stanislaus Augustus Poniatowski, calculated that the center of Europe was in Suchowola, Eastern Poland.
(WSJ, 7/14/04, p.A7)

1775 Catherine the Great of Russia received an ornament containing over 1000 diamonds, the “Sultan Feather” from the Turkish Sultan Abdulhamid.
(WSJ, 2/10/98, p.A16)

1775 In Russia the Cossack Yemelyan Pugachev was captured and beheaded.
(SFC,10/28/97, p.A8)

1775-1776 Juan Bautista de Anza led 198 colonists and 1,000 cattle from Sonora, Mexico, to California.
(SFC, 6/7/00, p.A15)

1775-1781 George Washington got his brother-in-law, Fielding Lewis, to take charge of provisioning his regiments for the 6 years of the Revolutionary War. In 2002 Gordon S. Wood authored “The American Revolution: A History.”
(HT, 5/97, p.47)(WSJ, 3/8/02, p.AW9)
1775-1781 Some 5,000 Black Americans fought in the Revolutionary War. A silver coin commemorating their contribution was issued in 1998 to help finance a new memorial on the National Mall.
(SFC, 2/26/98, p.A22)
1775-1781 The Royal Welch Fusiliers, a British regiment, was among the British troops that fought in the American Revolution during this period. In 2007 mark Urban authored “Fusiliers: the Saga of a British Redcoat Regiment in the American Revolution.
(WSJ, 11/15/07, p.D6)

1775-1782 More Revolutionary War engagements were fought in New Jersey–238–than in any other state. New York was second with 228. New Hampshire. The only one of the original 13 colonies not invaded by the British during the Revolutionary War was New Hampshire.
(HNQ, 4/17/99)(HNQ, 7/31/99)

1775-1844 John Rubens Smith, British born painter. He came to the US in 1806 and produced numerous paintings of the emerging American landscape. He authored such books as: A Compendium of Picturesque Anatomy (1827), The Key to the Art of Drawing the Human Figure (1831), and the Juvenile Drawing-Book (1839). A collection of almost 700 drawings, paintings and engravings was acquired by the Library of Congress in 1993.
(Civil., Jul-Aug., ’95, p.66)

1775-1847 Daniel O’Connell, Irish political leader: “Bigotry has no head, and cannot think; no heart, and cannot feel.”
(AP, 8/12/98)

1775-1851 Joseph Mallord William Turner, English painter. In 1999 Anthony Bailey published “Standing in the Sun: A Life of J.M.W. Turner.”
(SFC, 4/29/97, p.B5)(SFEC, 2/7/99, BR p.6)

1775-1880 The Shaker community produced handmade furniture until 1880 when manufactured furniture became acceptable and their workshops were forced to close. The watercolors “Tree of Light” by Hannah Cohoon and “Gift Drawing” by Polly Collins were found in 1996 and put up for auction.
(WSJ, 1/30/96, p.A-12)

1776 Jan 1-1776 Dec 31, In 2005 David McCullough authored “1776,” and an account of Washington’s Continental Army throughout this year.
(SSFC, 6/19/05, p.C1)

1776 Jan 2, 1st US revolutionary flag was displayed.
(MC, 1/2/02)

1776 Jan 5, Assembly of New Hampshire adopted its 1st state constitution.
(MC, 1/5/02)

1776 Jan 10, Thomas Paine (1737-1809), British émigré and propagandist, anonymously published “Common Sense,” a scathing attack on King George III’s reign over the colonies and a call for complete independence. The first 1,000 sold within days at 2 shillings. By the end of the year some 150,000 copies were sold, greatly affecting public sentiment and the deliberations of the Continental Congress leading up to the Declaration of Independence. An instant bestseller in both the colonies and in Britain, Paine baldly stated that King George III was a tyrant and that Americans should shed any sentimental attachment to the monarchy. America, he argued, had a moral obligation to reject monarchy.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Paine)(AP, 1/10/98)(ON, 6/2011, p.3)

1776 Jan 14, George Washington commanded an army that consisted of some 9,000 men, up to half of whom were not fit for duty.
(WSJ, 5/19/05, p.W10)

1776 Jan 16, Continental Congress approved the enlistment of free blacks. This led to the all-black First Rhode Island Regiment, composed of 33 freedmen and 92 slaves, who were promised freedom if they served to the end of the war. The regiment distinguished itself at the Battle of Newport.
(SFEC,11/23/97, Par p.19)(MC, 1/16/02)

1776 Feb 8, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe’s “Stella” premiered in Hamburg.
(MC, 2/8/02)

1776 Feb 17, Edward Gibbon (1737-1794), English historian, published his 1st volume of “The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.” He completed the 6-volume classic in 1788.
(WUD, 1994 p.596)(WSJ, 5/26/07, p.P6)

1776 Mar 1, French minister Charles Gravier advised his Spanish counterpart to support the American rebels against the English.
(HN, 3/1/99)

1776 Mar 2, Americans began shelling British troops in Boston. Henry Knox had managed to drag 58 canon and mortars from Fort Ticonderoga to the Dorchester Heights above Boston.
(HN, 3/2/99)(WSJ, 5/20/05, p.W10)
1776 Mar 2, The American Secret Committee of Correspondence appointed Connecticut lawyer Silas Deane as a special envoy to negotiate with the French government for aid.
(AH, 2/06, p.59)

1776 Mar 3, US commodore Esek Hopkins occupied Nassau, Bahamas.
(SC, 3/3/02)

1776 Mar 3, US commodore Esek Hopkins occupied Nassau, Bahamas.
(SC, 3/3/02)

1776 Mar 5, A terrific storm wrecked British hope of a counterattack on Dorchester Heights in Boston, Mass.
(WSJ, 5/20/05, p.W10)

1776 Mar 10, The expedition of Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza arrived in Monterey, Ca. Colonists were left in Monterey as a smaller party departed for the SF Bay.
(http://tinyurl.com/pltuw96)(SFC, 9/14/13, p.C4)

1776 Mar 17, British forces evacuated Boston to Nova Scotia during the Revolutionary War. Suffolk Ct. Massachusetts declared this day Evacuation Day
(AP, 3/17/97)(HN, 3/17/98)(SFEC, 4/25/99, Z1 p.8)

1776 Mar 25, The Continental Congress authorized a medal for General George Washington.
(HN, 3/24/98)

1776 Mar 27, Mexican Captain Juan Bautista de Anza and his party of Spanish explorers spent their first night in the future city of San Francisco at what came to be called Mountain Lake in the Presidio.
(SFC, 9/14/13, p.C4)(SFC, 11/2/19, p.C4)

1776 Mar 28, Mexican Captain Juan Bautista de Anza, Lt. Jose Moraga, and Franciscan priest Pedro Font arrived at the tip of San Francisco. De Anza planted a cross at what is now Fort Point. They camped at Mountain Lake and searched inland for a more hospitable area and found a site they called Laguna de los Dolores or the Friday of Sorrows since the day was Friday before Palm Sunday. Anza became known as the “father of SF.” Mission Dolores was founded by Father Francisco Palou and Father Pedro Cambon. Rancho San Pedro, near what is now Pacifica, served as the agricultural center. Laguna de los Dolores was later believed to be a spring near the modern-day corner of Duboce and Sanchez.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juan_Bautista_de_Anza)(SFEC, 9/21/97, p.C7)(SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W34)(SFC, 2/19/11, p.A10)

1776 Mar 31, Abigail Adams wrote to her husband John that women were “determined to foment a rebellion” if the new Declaration of Independence failed to guarantee their rights.
(HN, 3/31/98)
1776 Mar 31, Captain Juan Bautista de Anza and a crew that included such names as Castro, Peralta, Bernal, Moraga, Alviso and Berryessa, among others, arrived at the eastern side of the San Francisco Bay on a 5-day expedition to explore the area.
(SFC, 12/5/11, p.A1)

1776 Mar, “An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations” was published by Adam Smith. He was the first to describe and explain the workings of the labor market and argued for a laissez faire economy. [see 1723-1790, Smith]
(WSJ, 11/30/95, p.A-20)(V.D.-H.K.p.214,253)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1776 Apr 1, Friedrich von Klinger’s “Sturm und Drang,” premiered in Leipzig.
(MC, 4/1/02)

1776 Apr 3, George Washington received an honorary doctor of law degree from Harvard College.
(AP, 4/3/97)

1776 Apr 12, North Carolina’s Fourth Provincial Congress adopted the Halifax Resolves, which authorized the colony’s delegates to the Continental Congress to support independence from Britain.
(AP, 4/12/07)

1776 Apr 22, Johann Adolph Scheibe (67), German music theorist, composer, died.
(MC, 4/22/02)

1776 Apr 26, Joan M. Kemper, Dutch lawyer (designed civil code law book), was born.
(MC, 4/26/02)

1776 Apr, Charles Gravier, comte de Vergennes, the French foreign minister, enlisted Pierre Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais, playwright and French spy, to establish a commercial firm to supply America with arms, munitions and equipment.
(AH, 2/06, p.59)

1776 May 1, Adam Weishaupt founded the secret society of Illuminati.
(MC, 5/1/02)

1776 May 2, France and Spain agreed to donate arms to American rebels.
(HN, 5/2/98)

1776 May 4, Rhode Island declared its freedom from England, two months before the Declaration of Independence was adopted.
(AP, 5/4/97)(HN, 5/4/98)

1776 May 10, George Thomas Smart, composer, was born.
(MC, 5/10/02)

1776 May 12, Turgot, French minister of Finance, resigned.
(MC, 5/12/02)

1776 May 13, Rodrigo Ferreira da Costa, composer, was born.
(MC, 5/13/02)

1776 May 15, Virginia took the lead in instructing its delegates to go for complete independence from Britain at the Continental Congress.
(Civil., Jul-Aug., ’95, p.60)

1776 May-1776 Jun, Betsy Ross finished sewing the 1st American flag.

1776 Jun 7, Richard Henry Lee of Virginia proposed to the Continental Congress the resolution calling for a Declaration of Independence: that “these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States…” Congress delayed the vote on the resolution until July 1. In the meantime, a committee consisting of Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Roger Sherman, Benjamin Franklin and Robert R. Livingston was created to prepare a declaration of independence.
(Civil., Jul-Aug., ’95, p.60)(AP, 6/7/97)(HNQ, 7/3/98)

1776 Jun 10, The Continental Congress appointed a committee to write a Declaration of Independence.
(HN, 6/10/98)

1776 Jun 11, John Constable (d.1837), English landscape painter (Hay Wain), was born.
(SFC, 4/29/97, p.B5)(SC, 6/11/02)
1776 Jun 11, A committee to draft the document of Independence met. John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Robert Livingston, Roger Sherman and Thomas Jefferson were the members. They immediately delegated the writing to Adams and Jefferson, and Adams gave it over to Jefferson. The events were later documented by Pauline Maier in her 1997 book: “American Scripture: Making the Declaration of Independence.”
(Civil., Jul-Aug., ’95, p.60)(AP, 6/11/97)(SFEC, 6/29/97, BR p.5)

1776 Jun 11-1776 Jul 4, The Continental Congress met and Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence, based on the principals of John Locke. But where Locke had used the word “property,” Jefferson used the term “the pursuit of happiness.”

1776 Jun 12 Virginia’s colonial legislature became the first to adopt a Bill of Rights. The Virginia Declaration of Rights granted every individual the right to the enjoyment of life and liberty and to acquire and possess property. The Virginia document was written by George Mason and was a precursor to the Declaration of Independence. In 1787 Mason refused to endorse the Declaration of Independence because it did not include a Bill of Rights.
(SFEC, 7/27/97, Par p.8)(AP, 6/12/97)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R55)

1776 Jun 15, Delaware declared independence from both England and Pennsylvania with whom it had shared a royal governor.
(WSJ, 5/30/00, p.A24)

1776 Jun 23, The final draft of Declaration of Independence was submitted to US Congress.
(MC, 6/23/02)

1776 Jun 26, In San Francisco the St. Francis of Assisi Church, later Mission Dolores, was founded by Father Francisco Palleu.
(SFEC, 1/30/00, DB p.26)

1776 Jun 27, Thomas Hickey, who plotted to hand George Washington over to British, was hanged.
(MC, 6/27/02)

1776 Jun 28, Jefferson’s document was placed before the Congress after some minor changes by Adams and Franklin. This event was immortalized in the painting by John Trumball.
(Civil., Jul-Aug., ’95, p.61)
1776 Jun 28, Colonists repulsed a British sea attack on Charleston, South Carolina.
(HN, 6/28/98)
1776 Jun 28, Thomas Hickey, American sergeant convicted of treason, was hanged.
(MC, 6/28/02)

1776 Jun 29, Settlers who had been waiting in Monterey headed north and gathered for Mass under a crude shelter at the new mission in San Francisco.
(SFC, 5/19/96,City Guide, p.16)

1776 Jun, Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais established Hortalez et Cie, a fictitious company, to facilitate the transfer of arms to revolutionaries in America. It facilitated the transfer of weapons and munitions from France and Spain to the Americans. Under the scheme, France and Spain each loaned funds to the company for the purchase of munitions and the Americans would in turn pay for the material with rice, tobacco and other products. The scandal-plagued operation continued after the signing of the Franco-American alliance permitting open shipments of military aid between the two countries.
(HNQ, 4/20/00)

1776 Jul 1, The Continental Congress, sitting as a committee, met on July 1, 1776, to debate a resolution submitted by Virginia delegate Richard Henry Lee on June 7. The resolution stated that the United Colonies “are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States.” The committee voted for the motion and, on July 2 in formal session took the final vote for independence.
(HNQ, 7/1/99)
1776 Jul 1, The British fleet anchored off Sandy Hook in New York Bay.
(WSJ, 11/16/99, p.A28)

1776 July 2, The Continental Congress passed Lee’s resolution that “these united Colonies are, and of right, ought to be, Free and Independent States,” and then spent two days over the wording of Jefferson’s document.
(Civil., Jul-Aug., ’95, p.61)(AP, 7/2/97)(HN, 7/2/98)

1776 cJul 3, Caesar Rodney rode 80 miles from Dover to Philadelphia to vote for the Declaration of Independence. In 1998 the ride was commemorated by the US mint on the back of a new quarter.
(SFC, 1/5/99, p.A2)

1776 Jul 4, The Continental Congress approved adoption of the amended Declaration of Independence, prepared by Thomas Jefferson and signed by John Hancock–President of the Continental Congress–and Charles Thomson, Congress secretary, without dissent. However, the New York delegation abstained as directed by the New York Provisional Congress. On July 9, the New York Congress voted to endorse the declaration. On July 19, Congress then resolved to have the “Unanimous Declaration” inscribed on parchment for the signature of the delegates. Among the signers of the Declaration of Independence, two went on to become presidents of the United States, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson. The Declaration of Independence was signed by president of Congress John Hancock and secretary Charles Thomson. John Hancock said, “There, I guess King George will be able to read that.” referring to his signature on the Declaration of Independence. Most delegates signed the parchment copy on August 2. Other signers later included Benjamin Rush and Robert Morris. Of the 56 signers of the Declaration of Independence, eight were born outside North America. In 2007 David Armitage authored “The Declaration of Independence: A Global History.”
(SFC,12/19/97,p.B6)(SFC,2/9/98, p.A19)(WSJ, 1/4/07, p.B11)(SFC, 7/4/13, p.A14)

1776 Jul 5, The Declaration of Independence was first printed by John Dunlop in Philadelphia. 200 copies were prepared July 5-6 and distributed to the states.
(HN, 7/5/98)(HNQ, 7/4/99)(SFC, 7/4/01, p.A3)

1776 Jul 6, The US Declaration of Independence was announced on the front page of “PA Evening Gazette.”
(MC, 7/6/02)

1776 Jul 8, Col. John Nixon gave the first public reading of the Declaration of Independence to a crowd gathered at Independence Square in Philadelphia. The reading was announced by the “Liberty Bell.” The bell had the inscription: “proclaim liberty throughout all the land onto all the inhabitants thereof.”
(AP, 7/8/97)(SFEC, 8/16/98, p.T5)

1776 Jul 9, The Declaration of Independence was read aloud to Gen. George Washington’s troops in New York.
(AP, 7/9/97)
1776 Jul 9, New York was the 13th colony to ratify the Declaration of Independence.
(SFC, 7/7/96, T1)

1776 Jul 10, The statue of King George III was pulled down in New York City.
(HN, 7/10/98)

1776 Jul 12, Capt. Cook departed with Resolution for 3rd trip to Pacific Ocean.
(MC, 7/12/02)

1776 Jul 14, Jemima Boone (13), the daughter of Daniel Boone, and 2 friends were kidnapped by a group of 5 Shawnee and Cherokee Indians near Boonesborough, Kentucky. They were rescued on July 16 by Daniel Boone and 7 other Boonesborough men.
(ON, 8/08, p.6)

1776 Jul 15, Declaration of Independence was read to every brigade in NYC.

1776 Jul 19, After New York’s Provincial Congress voted to endorse the declaration, Congress resolved on July 19 to have the “Unanimous Declaration” engrossed on parchment for the signature of the delegates.
(HNQ, 7/4/99)

1776 Jul 27, Silas Deane (1737-1789), secretly sent to France as America’s first official envoy, wrote a letter to the US Congress informing them that he has been successful beyond his expectations. Deane had served as the Connecticut delegate to the Continental Congress.

1776 Aug 2, In Philadelphia most members of the Continental Congress began attaching their signatures to the parchment copy of the Declaration of Independence. Benjamin Harrison was one of the signers. His son and grandson later became the 9th and 23rd presidents of the US. Most of the 55 signatures were affixed on August 2, but Matthew Thornton of New Hampshire, who was not a member of Congress when the declaration was adopted, added his name in November.
(Civil., Jul-Aug., ’95, p.61)(SFC, 5/7/96, p.A-6)(AP, 8/2/97)(HNQ, 7/4/99)

1776 Aug 8, John Paul Jones was commissioned as a captain and appointed to command the Alfred. His orders were to harass enemy merchant ships and defend the American coast.
(ON, 2/04, p.6)(Internet)

1776 Aug 27, The Americans were defeated by the British at the Battle of Long Island, New York.
(HN, 8/27/98)

1776 Aug 29, General George Washington retreated during the night from Long Island to New York City.
(HN, 8/29/98)
1776 Aug 29, Americans withdrew from Manhattan to Westchester.
(MC, 8/29/01)

1776 Sep 2-9, The Hurricane of Independence killed 4,170 people from North Carolina to Nova Scotia.
(WSJ, 9/13/01, p.B11)

1776 Sep 6, The Turtle, the 1st submarine invented by David Bushnell, attempted to secure a cask of gunpowder to the HMS Eagle, flagship of the British fleet, in the Bay of NY but got entangled with the Eagle’s rudder bar, lost ballast and surfaced before the charge was planted. Sergeant Ezra Lee released the bomb the next morning as a British barge approached. The british turned back and the bomb soon exploded. A month later the turtle was lost under British attack as it was being transported on a sailboat.
(SFEC,11/23/97, Par p.14)(Arch, 5/05, p.36)
1776 Sep 6, A hurricane hit Martinique; 100 French & Dutch ships sank and 600 died.
(MC, 9/6/01)

1776 Sep 9, The term “United States” was adopted by the second Continental Congress to be used instead of the “United Colonies.”
(AP, 9/9/97)(HN, 9/9/98)

1776 Sep 10, George Washington asked for a spy volunteer and Nathan Hale volunteered.
(MC, 9/10/01)

1776 Sep 11, An American delegation consisting of Benjamin Franklin, John Adams and Edward Rutledge met with British Admiral Richard Lord Howe to discuss terms upon which reconciliation between Britain and the colonies might be based. The talks were unsuccessful. In 2003 Barnet Schecter authored “The Battle for New York: The City at the Heart of the American Revolution.”
(AH, 6/03, p.61)(www.patriotresource.com/people/howe/page2.html)

1776 Sep 12, Nathan Hale left Harlem Heights Camp (127th St) for a spy mission.
(MC, 9/12/01)

1776 Sep 15, British forces occupied New York City during the American Revolution. British forces captured Kip’s Bay, Manhattan, during the American Revolution.
(AP, 9/15/97)(HN, 9/15/99)(MC, 9/15/01)

1776 Sep 17, The Presidio of SF was formally possessed as a Spanish fort. The Spanish built the Presidio on the hill where the Golden Gate Bridge now meets San Francisco.
(WSJ, 9/17/96, p.A12)(www.sfmuseum.org/hist6/founding.html)

1776 Sep 20, American soldiers, some of them members of Nathan Hale’s regiment, filtered into British-held New York City and stashed resin soaked logs into numerous buildings and a roaring inferno was started. A fourth of the city was destroyed including Trinity Church. The events are documented in the 1997 book “Liberty by Thomas Fleming.”
(SFEC,11/23/97, Par p.14)(WSJ, 9/14/01, p.W13)

1776 Sep 21, Nathan Hale was arrested in NYC by the British for spying for American rebels.
(SFC, 9/20/03, p.A2)
1776 Sep 21, NYC burned down in the Great Fire 5 days after British took over.
(MC, 9/21/01)

1776 Sep 22, American Captain Nathan Hale was hanged as a spy with no trial by the British in New York City during the Revolutionary War. He was considered as one of the incendiaries of the burning of NYC. Hale was commissioned by General George Washington to cross behind British lines on Long Island and report on their activity. His last words are reputed to have been, “I only regret that I have but one life to give for my country.”
(AP, 9/22/97)(SFEC,11/23/97, Par p.14)(HN, 9/22/98)

1776 Oct 3, Congress borrowed five million dollars to halt the rapid depreciation of paper money in the colonies.
(HN, 10/3/98)

1776 Oct 9, A group of Spanish missionaries settled in present-day San Francisco. The formal dedication of Mission San Francisco de Asis was made.
(SFC, 5/19/96,City Guide, p.16)(AP, 10/9/97)

1776 Oct 11, C. Randle painted: “A View of the New England Arm’d Vessels on Valcure Bay on Lake Champlain.” It depicted the fleet of Benedict Arnold just before the Battle of Valcour Island on this day. The fleet was defeated but it slowed the British advance from Canada.
(SFC, 7/1/97, p.A3)
1776 Oct 11, The naval Battle of Valcour Island on Lake Champlain was fought during the American Revolution. American forces led by Gen. Benedict Arnold suffered heavy losses, but managed to stall the British.
(AP, 10/11/07)

1776 Oct 12, British Brigade began guarding Throgs Necks Road in Bronx.
(MC, 10/12/01)

1776 Oct 13, Benedict Arnold was defeated at Lake Champlain by the British, who then retreated to Canada for the winter. Arnold’s efforts bought the colonists 9 months to consolidate their hold in northern New York. In 2006 James L. Nelson authored “Benedict Arnold’s Navy.”
(HN, 10/13/98)(WSJ, 5/12/06, p.W5)

1776 Oct 18, In a NY bar decorated with bird tail, a customer ordered a “cocktail.”
(MC, 10/18/01)
1776 Oct 18, At the Battle of Pelham Col. John Glover and the Marblehead regiment collided with British Forces in the Bronx.
(MC, 10/18/01)

1776 Oct 28, The Battle of White Plains was fought during the Revolutionary War, resulting in a limited British victory. Washington retreated to NJ.
(AP, 10/28/06)

1776 Oct 29, Benjamin Franklin departed for France one month to the day after being named an agent of a diplomatic commission by the Continental Congress. He served from 1776-1778 on a three-man commission to France charged with the critical task of gaining French support for American independence.

1776 Nov 1, Father Junipero Serra arrived at the site of Mission of San Juan Capistrano and re-founded it. His mission was to convert the members of the Acagchemem tribe called Juanenos by the Spaniards. The tribe at the time was experiencing the end of a 7-year draught.
(HT, 3/97, p.58)(http://gocalifornia.about.com/cs/missioncalifornia/a/capistranohist.htm)

1776 Nov 16, British troops captured Fort Washington on the north end of Manhattan during the American Revolution.
(AP, 11/1697)(MC, 11/16/01)

1776 Nov 18, Hessians captured Ft Lee, NJ.
(MC, 11/18/01)

1776 Nov 20, The British invaded New Jersey.
(NH, 5/97, p.76)

1776 Nov 28, Washington and his troops crossed the Delaware River.
(DTnet 11/28/97)

1776 Nov 30, Captain Cook began his 3rd and last trip to the Pacific South Seas.
(MC, 11/30/01)

1776 Dec 2, George Washington’s army began retreating across the Delaware River from New Jersey to Pennsylvania. In 2004 David Hackett Fischer authored “Washington’s Crossing.”
(WSJ, 2/6/04, p.W8)

1776 Dec 5, Phi Beta Kappa was organized as the first American college scholastic Greek letter fraternity, at William and Mary College, Williamsburg, Va. In 2005 the honor society had some 600,000 members with about 15,000 new members joining annually.
(AP, 12/5/97)(HN, 12/5/98)(WSJ, 11/4/05, p.W12)

1776 Dec 8, George Washington’s retreating army in the American Revolution crossed the Delaware River from New Jersey to Pennsylvania.
(AP, 12/8/97)

1776 Dec 19, Thomas Paine published his first “American Crisis” essay, writing: “These are the times that try men’s souls.” In the first of his Crises papers, Thomas Paine wrote, “These are the times that try men’s souls. The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of their country.” Written as Paine took part in the Revolutionary Army‘s retreat across New Jersey in 1776, the pamphlet was ordered read to the troops in the Revolutionary encampments.
(HFA, ’96, p.44)(AP, 12/19/97)(HNQ, 9/21/99)

1776 Dec 23, Continental Congress negotiated a war loan of $181,500 from France.
(MC, 12/23/01)
1776 Dec 23, Thomas Paine’s pamphlet, “The American Crisis,” which included the line “These are the times that try men’s souls…” was read out loud by George Washington to the Continental Army.
(ON, 6/2011, p.4)

1776 Dec 25, Gen. George Washington and his troops crossed the Delaware River for a surprise attack against 1,400 Hessian forces at Trenton, N.J.
(AP, 12/25/97)(MC, 12/25/01)

1776 Dec 26, The British suffered a major defeat in the Battle of Trenton during the Revolutionary War. After crossing the Delaware River into New Jersey, George Washington led an attack on Hessian mercenaries and took 900 men prisoner. Two Americans froze to death on the march but none died in battle. There were 30 German casualties, 1,000 prisoners and 6 cannon captured. Four Americans were wounded in the overwhelming American victory, while 22 Hessians were killed and 78 wounded. The surprise attack caught most of the 1,200 Hessian soldiers at Trenton sleeping after a day of Christmas celebration. The Americans captured 918 Hessians, who were taken as prisoners to Philadelphia. The victory was a huge morale booster for the American army and the country. The victory at Trenton was a huge success and morale booster for the American army and people. However, the enlistments of more than 4,500 of Washington’s soldiers were set to end four days later and it was critical that the force remain intact. General George Washington offered a bounty of $10 to any of his soldiers who extended their enlistments six weeks beyond their December 31, 1776, expiration dates. The American Revolution Battle of Trenton saw the routing of 1,400 Hessian mercenaries, with 101 killed or wounded and about 900 taken prisoner, with no Americans killed in the combat. Four Americans were wounded and two had died of exhaustion en route to Trenton.
(AP, 12/26/97)(HN, 12/26/98)(SFC, 12/26/98, p.A3)(HNQ, 3/20/99)(HNQ, 4/11/99)(HNQ, 12/26/99)
1776 Dec 26, Johann Gottlieb Rall, Hessian colonel and mercenary, died in battle of Trenton.
(MC, 12/26/01)

1776 Dec 29, Charles Macintosh, patented waterproof fabric, was born in Scotland.
(MC, 12/29/01)

1776 Augustin Pajou, French sculptor, completed his “Monument to Buffon.”
(WSJ, 3/18/98, p.A20)

1776 Fort Sullivan, outside the town of Charleston, S.C., was built primarily of palmetto logs and sand. Commanded by Colonel William Moultrie–for whom it was later renamed–the partially uncompleted Fort Sullivan on Sullivan’s Island bore the brunt of gunfire from a British naval force when the British tried to invade Charleston on June 28, 1776. The palmetto logs and sand from which the fort was primarily constructed absorbed most of the British shot, while the fort’s defenders managed to inflict disproportionate punishment to the British warships, one of which, the frigate Actaeon, ran hard aground and had to be abandoned and blown up by her crew. The successful defense of Charleston effectively left the Carolinas in the hands of the rebelling Patriots until a new invasion force returned to Charleston in February 1780.
(HNQ, 10/25/01)

1776 Nano Nagle, a wealthy Irish woman, founded the Sisters of Presentation. At this time it was a crime in Ireland for a Catholic to teach or be taught.
(SFC, 11/12/04, p.F11)

1776 A New York tavern keeper mixed a rum and “cocktail.” The name was derived from rooster feathers used as ornaments for glasses.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1776 George Washington ordered his chief of artillery, Henry Knox, to establish an American arsenal to manufacture guns and ammunition for his army. Knox chose Springfield, Mass., on the Connecticut River. The Springfield Armory stayed open 173 years and was closed in 1967, but continues as a museum.
(WSJ, 3/9/95, p.A-16)

1776 Col. George Rogers Clark was charged by the Virginia Assembly to seize the Northwest Territory. By 1778, Clark was in control of the land between Virginia and the Mississippi River—except Fort Sackville.
(HNQ, 7/24/00)

1776 Margaret Corbin, the wife of an artilleryman, was badly wounded while serving in her husband’s gun crew at the Battle of Harlem Heights.
(SFEC,11/23/97, Par p.19)

1776 The first issue of the US $2 bill was 49,000 notes by the Continental Congress as “bills of credit for the defense of America.”
(SFC, 9/14/96, p.A4)

1776 The Quakers of Pennsylvania abolished slavery within the Society of Friends and then took their crusade to society at large by petitioning the state legislature to outlaw the practice.
(AH, 10/02, p.50)

1776 Don Marcos Briones came to San Francisco. His daughter, Juana Briones, was the first settler on Powell St. in North Beach. She was a battered wife and was the first California woman to get a divorce.
(SFC, 5/26/97, p.A11)

1776 Spanish explorers encountered the native Havasupai Indians in Arizona.
(SSFC, 2/19/06, p.F4)

1776 The southernmost of the Bantu peoples, the Xhosa, arrived at the Fish River in South Africa.
(Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.169)

1776 The Russian Bolshoi Theater was founded.
(SFC, 3/29/01, p.A11)

1776 Ike Taiga (b.1723), Japanese painter based in Kyoto, died.
(SFC, 12/8/05, p.E1)

1776 David Hume, Scottish philosopher, died. He was the first prominent European atheist. Hume said “the overriding force in all our actions is… the desire for self-gratification. In order to survive, society has to devise strategies to channel our passions in constructive directions.” “The most unhappy of all men is he who believes himself to be so.”
(WSJ, 5/10/96, p.A-8)(SFC, 3/20/99, p.B4)(WSJ, 12/14/01, p.W14)

1776 The Dutch built a slave house on Goree Island off the coast of Senegal.
(SFC, 7/9/03, p.A10)

1776-1781 During this period Britain sent 60,000 troops to America.
(WSJ, 5/16/96, p.A-12)
1776-1781 It is estimated that 30,000 Hessian soldiers fought for the British during the American Revolution. After Russia refused to provide troops for the war, the German states of Brunswick, Hesse-Cassel, Hesse-Hanau, Waldeck, Anspach-Bayreuth and Anhalt-Zerbst supplied mercenary soldiers, collectively referred to as Hessians. Seven thousand Hessians died in the war and another 5,000 deserted and settled in America. The British paid the German rulers for each soldier sent to North America and an additional sum for each killed.
(HNQ, 3/31/99)
1776-1781 During the Revolutionary War some 100 ships were scuttled in the Elizabeth River in Portsmouth, Virginia, to prevent their capture by the British.
(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.15)

c1776-1781 Molly Corbin manned a cannon during the American Revolution and was wounded. She was cited for bravery and sent to the Invalid Regiment at West Point where she received half the male pay. She was also denied the daily rum ration until her complaints were heard.
(SFEC, 6/4/00, Z1 p.3)

1776-1789 Charles Burney wrote “A General History of Music” that covers this period.
(LGC-HCS, p.36)

1776-1822 E.T.A. Hoffman, German poet and novelist, author of “The Tales of Hoffman.” The ballet “Coppelia” was based on one of his tales.
(Harvard BDM, p.294)(SFC, 11/19/96, p.E1)(WSJ, 6/10/97, p.A16)

1776-1836 The correspondence between Thomas Jefferson and James Madison is documented in “The Republic of Letters” by James Morton Smith in 3 volumes published by Norton 1995. The two men are believed to have met in 1776 in the Virginia House of Delegates.
(WSJ, 2/2/95, p.A-16)

1776-1841 Jane Austin, English author. She wrote “Sense and Sensibility.”
(WSJ, 3/25/96, p.A-1)

1776-1856 Amadeo Avogadro, Italian chemist.

1776-1876 The population of California Native Americans diminished from about 300,000 to 20,000.
(SFC, 5/19/96,City Guide, p.16)

1777 Jan 3, Gen. George Washington’s army routed the British led by Cornwallis in the Battle of Princeton, N.J.
(AP, 1/3/98)(HN, 1/3/99)

1777 Jan 12, Franciscans founded Mission Santa Clara de Asis, the 8th of California’s original 21 missions.
(SFC, 8/19/00, p.A13)(MC, 1/12/02)

1777 Jan 15, The people of New Connecticut, a chunk of upstate New York, declared their independence. The tiny republic became the state of Vermont in 1791.
(AP, 1/15/99)(ST, 3/2/04, p.A1)(Econ., 2/28/15, p.26)

1777 Feb 13, The Marquis de Sade was arrested without charge and imprisoned in Vincennes fortress.
(MC, 2/13/02)

1777 Mar 13, Congress ordered its European envoys to appeal to high-ranking foreign officers to send troops to reinforce the American army.
(HN, 3/13/99)

1777 Mar 31, A young Abigail Adams encouraged her husband John to give women voting privileges in the new American government. She wrote to her husband on this day while he was a delegate to the Constitutional Convention: “I desire you would remember the ladies and be more generous to them than were your ancestors. Do not put such unlimited power into the hands of husbands. Remember all men would be tyrants if they could. If particular care and attention are not paid to the ladies we are determined to foment a rebellion, and will not hold ourselves bound to obey any laws in which we have no voice or representation.” Twenty years later her husband was a candidate in America’s first real election.
(HNPD, 3/30/99)

1777 Mar, The Rev. Patrick Bronte was born on St. Patrick’s Day in County Down, Ireland. He married Maria Branwell of Cornwall in 1812 and they had six children that included the writers Charlotte and Emily. Mrs. Branwell died in 1821 at 38.
(WP, 1952, p.34)

1777 Apr 12, Henry Clay, the “Great Compromiser”, American politician and statesman, was born. He ran unsuccessfully for president three times. [see Apr 22]
(HN, 4/12/99)

1777 Apr 14, NY adopted a new constitution as an independent state. Governeur Morris was the chief writer of the state constitution. [see Apr 20]
(MC, 4/14/02)(WSJ, 5/28/03, p.D8)

1777 Apr 16, New England’s minute men, Green Mountain Boys, routed British regulars at the Battle of Bennington.
(HN, 4/16/98)(MC, 4/16/02)

1777 Apr 20, New York adopted a new constitution as an independent state. [see Apr 14]
(MC, 4/20/02)

1777 Apr 22, Henry Clay, American statesman, the “Great Compromiser,” was born. Henry Clay of Kentucky was a master politician in the era preceding the Civil War. Clay was a lawyer by trade. He began his lengthy political career in the Kentucky legislature and made three unsuccessful bids as the Whig Party’s presidential candidate. [see Apr 12]
(HN, 4/22/98)(HNPD, 6/29/98)

1777 Apr 26, Sybil Ludington (16) rode from NY to Ct rallying her father’s militia.
(MC, 4/26/02)

1777 Apr 30, Karl Friedrich Gauss, German mathematician, was born. He researched infinitesimal calculus, algebra and astronomy. He was also a pioneer in topology and is considered one of the world’s great mathematicians. His methods in World War II helped disarm magnetic mines
(HN, 4/30/99)

1777 May 1, Richard Brinsley Sheridan’s “School for Scandal,” premiered in London with Georgiana Cavendish as Lady Teazle. “Its assumptions are that lust and greed – when allied with beauty and cunning – deserve to triumph over dullness and age.” He also wrote “A Trip to Scarborough,” a rewrite of a Restoration original.
(WSJ,11/24/95, p.A-6)(WSJ, 11/20/98, p.W6)(MC, 5/1/02)

1777 May 12, The 1st ice cream advertisement appeared in the Philip Lenzi NY Gazette.
(MC, 5/12/02)

1777 May 13, University library at Vienna opened.
(MC, 5/13/02)

1777 May 16, Button Gwinnet, US revolutionary leader, died from wounds.
(MC, 5/16/02)

1777 Jun 13, Marquis de Lafayette landed in the United States to assist the colonies in their war against England.
(HN, 6/13/99)

1777 Jun 14, The Continental Congress in Philadelphia adopted the Stars and Stripes, created by Betsy Ross, as the national flag. America’s Flag Day, commemorates the date when John Adams spoke the following words before the Continental Congress in Philadelphia. “Resolved, that the Flag of the thirteen United States shall be thirteen stripes, alternate red and white; that the Union be thirteen stars, white on a blue field, representing a new constellation.” Over the years, there have been 27 versions of the American flag. The present version was adopted on July 4, 1960, when Hawaii became the 50th state. In 2005 Marc Leepson authored “Flag: An American Biography.”
(AP, 6/14/97)(HNQ, 6/14/98)(WSJ, 7/1/05, p.W4)

1777 Jul 1, British troops departed from their base at the Bouquet river to head toward Ticonderoga, New York.
(HN, 7/1/00)

1777 Jul 8, Vermont became the 1st American colony to abolish slavery.

1777 Jul 4, No member of Congress thought about commemorating the adoption of the Declaration of Independence until July 3 – one day too late. So the first organized elaborate celebration of independence occurred the following day: July 4, 1777, in Philadelphia.

1777 Jul 6, British forces under Gen. Burgoyne captured Fort Ticonderoga from the Americans.
(AP, 7/6/97)(MC, 7/6/02)

1777 Jul 7, American troops gave up Fort Ticonderoga, on Lake Champlain, to the British.
(HN, 7/7/98)

1777 Jul 8, The Continental frigate Hancock was captured by the British ships Rainbow and Flora. The prisoners, including cabin-boy John Blatchford, were taken to Halifax.
(ON, 1/00, p.4)

1777 Jul 27, Thomas Campbell, Scottish writer (The Pleasures of Hope), was born.
(HN, 7/27/01)
1777 Jul 27, The Marquis of Lafayette arrived in New England to help the rebellious colonists fight the British.
(HN, 7/27/98)

1777 Jul 31, The Marquis de Lafayette, a 19-year-old French nobleman, was made a major-general in the American Continental Army.
(AP, 7/31/97)

1777 Jul, John Paul Jones was given command of the 20-gun ship Ranger at Portsmouth, New Hampshire. He was then ordered to report to a Secret Committee in Paris, that included Benjamin Franklin.
(ON, 2/04, p.6)

1777 Aug 14, Hans Christian Oersted, Danish scientist, was born. He discovered electromagnetism.
(HN, 8/14/00)

1777 Aug 16, American forces won the Revolutionary War Battle of Bennington, Vt.
(AP, 8/16/97)

1777 Aug 16, France declared a state of bankruptcy.
(HN, 8/16/98)

1777 Aug 22, With the approach of General Benedict Arnold’s army, British Colonel Barry St. Ledger abandoned Fort Stanwix and returns to Canada.
(HN, 8/22/98)

1777 Sep 3, The American flag (stars & stripes), approved by Congress on June 14th, was carried into battle for the first time by a force under General William Maxwell.
(HN, 9/3/00)

1777 Sep 11, General George Washington and his troops were defeated by the British under General Sir William Howe at the Battle of Brandywine in Pennsylvania. Posing as a gunsmith, British Sergeant John Howe served as General Gage’s eyes in a restive Massachusetts colony.
(HN, 9/11/98)

1777 Sep 16, Nathan Rothschild (d.1836), banker, was born in Frankfurt. He was the son of Mayer Rothschild (1744-1812), who rose from the Frankfurt ghetto to become the banker to Prince William of Prussia. Nathan worked in London as a banker and invested Prussian money in the Napoleonic Wars and smuggled it to Wellington in Spain. He was the first to hear news from Waterloo and sold stock to convince other investors that the British had lost. His agents bought the stock at low prices. His 4 brothers established banks in Vienna, Naples and Paris.
(WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R18)(www.rothschildarchive.org/ib/?doc=/ib/articles/BW3bNathan)y

1777 Sep 19, During the Revolutionary War, American soldiers won the first Battle of Saratoga, aka Battle of Freeman’s Farm (Bemis Heights). American forces under Gen. Horatio Gates met British troops led by Gen. John Burgoyne at Saratoga Springs, NY.
(AP, 9/19/97)(www.americanrevolution.com/BattleofSaratoga.htm)

1777 Sep 20, British Dragoons massacred sleeping Continental troops at Paoli, Pa. Prior to launching a surprise night attack on Anthony Wayne’s Continental division at Paoli, General Charles Grey ordered his troops to rely entirely on their bayonets. To ensure that his troops obeyed, he had his men remove the flints from their weapons so they could not be fired.
(MC, 9/20/01)(HNQ, 8/19/02)

1777 Sep 26, The British army launched a major offensive during the American Revolution, capturing Philadelphia.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philadelphia_campaign)(AP, 9/26/97)

1777 Sep 30, The Congress of the United States, forced to flee in the face of advancing British forces, moved to York, Pennsylvania.
(AP, 9/30/00)

1777 Oct 4, George Washington’s troops launched an assault on the British at Germantown, Penn., resulting in heavy American casualties. British General Sir William Howe repelled Washington’s last attempt to retake Philadelphia, compelling Washington to spend the winter at Valley Forge.
(AP, 10/4/97)(HN, 10/4/98)

1777 Oct 7, The second Battle of Saratoga began during the American Revolution. During the battle General Benedict Arnold was shot in the leg. Another bullet killed his horse, which fell on Arnold, crushing his leg. The “Boot Monument” sits close to the spot where Arnold was wounded, and is a tribute to the general’s heroic deeds during that battle. Although Arnold’s accomplishments are described on the monument, it pointedly avoids naming the man best known for betraying his country. The British forces, under Gen. John Burgoyne, surrendered 10 days later.
(AP, 10/7/97)(HNQ, 7/20/01)
1777 Oct 7, Simon Fraser, English general, died in the battle of Saratoga, NY.

1777 Oct 15, Tory Maj. James Graves Simcoe was appointed commandant of Queen’s Rangers to combat American rebels.
(MC, 10/15/01)

1777 Oct 17, General John Burgoyne with British forces of 5,000 men surrendered to General Horatio Gates, commander of the American forces at Schuylerville, NY. In the fall of 1777, the British commander Gen’l. Burgoyne and his men were advancing along the Hudson River. After Burgoyne had retreated to the heights of Saratoga, the Americans stopped and surrounded them. The surrender was a turning point in the American Revolution, demonstrating American determination to gain independence. After the surrender, France sided with the Americans, and other countries began to get involved and align themselves against Britain.
(AP, 10/17/97)(HN, 10/17/98)(HNPD, 10/17/99)(SSFC, 6/30/02, p.C10)

1777 Nov 15, The Continental Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation in York, Pa. These instituted the perpetual union of the United States of America and served as a precursor to the U.S. Constitution. The structure of the Constitution was inspired by the Iroquois Confederacy of six major northeastern tribes. The matrilineal society of the Iroquois later inspired the suffragist movement.
(PCh, 1992, p.325)(AP, 11/15/97)(SFEC, 4/19/98, BR p.2)(HN, 11/15/98)

1777 Nov 30, San Jose, California, was founded by the Spanish as El Pueblo de San Jose de Guadeloupe, California’s first town.
(SFEC, 7/11/99, BR p.1)(SFC, 9/2/99, p.A12)(SFC, 11/30/07, p.B4)
1777 Nov 30, Jean-Marie Leclair (74), composer, died.
(MC, 11/30/01)

1777 Dec 2, British officers under Gen. Howe met in the Philadelphia home of Lydia Darragh to discuss plans to the attack American forces on December 5, just prior to Gen. Washington’s planned move to Valley Forge. Mrs. Darragh listened in on the plans and sent word to Whitemarsh of the impending attack.
(ON, 8/07, p.8)

1777 Dec 8, Britain’s Gen. Howe withdrew to Philadelphia following a failed attempt on American forces encamped at Whitemarsh.
(ON, 8/07, p.8)
1777 Dec 8, Captain Cook left the Society Islands (French Polynesia).
(MC, 12/8/01)

1777 Dec 12, Rev. Benjamin Russen was hanged at Tyburn, England, for rape.
(MC, 12/12/01)

1777 Dec 17, France recognized American independence.
(AP, 12/17/97)

1777 Dec 18, The 1st America Thanksgiving Day commemorated Burgoyne’s surrender at Saratoga. A national Thanksgiving was declared by Congress after the American victory over the British at the Battle of Saratoga in December 1777. For many years Thanksgiving celebrations were haphazard with Presidents Washington, Adams and Madison declaring occasional national festivities.
(HNPD, 11/26/98)(MC, 12/18/01)

1777 Dec 19, Gen. George Washington led his army of about 11,000 men to Valley Forge, Pa., to camp for the winter. [see Dec 17]
(AP, 12/19/97)

1777 Dec 23, Alexander I, Czar of Russia, was born.
(HN, 12/23/98)

1777 Dec, Moroccan sultan Muhammad III included the United States of America in a list of countries to which Morocco’s ports were open. Morocco thus became the first country whose head of state publicly recognized the new United States.

1777 Jean-Baptiste Greuze painted a portrait of Benjamin Franklin.
(WSJ, 8/26/97, p.A14)

1777 The Acagchemem Indians built a small adobe church at Mission San Juan Capistrano. It’s been renamed the Serra Chapel and is the oldest building still in use in California. In 1791 a bell tower was completed.
(HT, 3/97, p.60)(http://gocalifornia.about.com/cs/missioncalifornia/a/capistranohist.htm)

1777 George Washington wrote a letter offering Nathaniel Sackett $50 a month to set up an intelligence network.
(SFC, 7/17/02, p.A3)
1777 George Washington led a campaign against the British and their Iroquois allies in Pennsylvania, New York, and the Ohio country. These included the Six Nations Indians: Mohawk, Cayuga, Onondaga, Seneca, Oneida, and Tuscarora. In 2005 Glenn F. Williams published “The Year of the Hangman: George Washington’s Campaign Against the Iroquois.
(WSJ, 7/26/05, p.D8)
1777 Thomas Jefferson (34), US President (1801-1809), drafted Virginia’s Statute for Religious Freedom. It was passed by Virginia’s General Assembly in 1786.

1777 In San Francisco an Ohlone man name Chamis (20) became the first adult Indian to be baptized at Mission Dolores.
(SFC, 11/2/19, p.C4)

1777 The circular saw was invented.
(SFC, 7/14/99, p.4)

1777 Captain James Cook, while exploring the Pacific, reported on long-board surfers in Tahiti and Oahu and observed that the sport appeared recreational rather than competitive.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1777 Marie Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, the Marquis de Lafayette, arrived in the US in his own boat and offered his services to Gen’l. George Washington.
(WSJ, 1/15/97, p.A12)

1777 An Italian scientist became the 1st to identify a certain eel as female. In 1882 another scientist figured out how to identify a male eel.
(SFC, 7/22/00, p.E4)

1777 In England Charles Hall founded a brewery in Dorset. In 1847 the Woodhouses married into the family and it became the Hall & Woodhouse brewery.
(Econ, 5/10/14, SR p.3)

1777 Stavropol was founded in south-western Russia during the Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774 as a military encampment. In 1785 it was designated as a city.

1777-1778 Some 2,000 American soldiers died at Washington’s Valley Forge encampment in Penn. over a harsh weather period of 7 months.
(WSJ, 1/3/02, p.A7)

1777-1787 Juan Bautista de Anza served as the governor of New Mexico.
(SFC, 6/7/00, p.A15)

1777 Vermont including the town of Killington declared independence from New York and New Hampshire. It became a country unto itself, coined its own money, set up its own postal service and elected its own president. The Republic of Vermont stayed independent until 1791.
(SFEC, 4/2/00, p.A6)(ST, 3/2/04, p.A5)

1777-1810 Phillip Otto Runge, German artist.
(WSJ, 7/16/98, p.A16)

1777-1811 Heinrich von Kleist, writer. His work included “St. Cecilia or The Power of Music.”
(SFC, 2/19/96, p.E1)

1777-1851 Hans Christian Ursted (Oersted), Danish physicist.
(AHD, 1971, p.911)

1778 Jan 10, Carolus Linnaeus [Carl von Linné, b.1707], Swedish botanist, died. His system for classifying living organisms in a hierarchy placed kingdoms at the top and species at the bottom.
(HN, 5/23/01)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carolus_Linnaeus)

1778 Jan 18, English navigator Captain James Cook discovered the Hawaiian Islands, which he dubbed the “Sandwich Islands” after the First Lord of the Admiralty, Lord Sandwich. About 350,000 Hawaiians inhabited them. Cook first landed on Kauai and then Niihau where his men introduced venereal disease.
(Wired, 8/95, p.90)(AP, 1/18/98)(HN, 1/18/99)

1778 Jan 27, Nicolo Piccinni’s (1728-1800) opera “Roland” premiered in Paris.
(WUD, 1994 p.1088)(MC, 1/27/02)

1778 Feb 6, The United States won official recognition from France as the nations signed a treaty of aid in Paris. The Franco-American Treaty of Alliance bound the 2 powers together “forever against all other powers.” It was the first alliance treaty for the fledgling US government and the last until the 1949 NATO pact. Benjamin Franklin signed for the US.
(WSJ, 6/17/96, p.A15)(AP, 2/6/97)(AH, 2/06, p.59)
1778 Feb 6, England declared war on France.
(MC, 2/6/02)

1778 Feb 13, Fernando Sor, composer, was born.
(MC, 2/13/02)

1778 Feb 14, The American ship Ranger carried the recently adopted Star and Stripes to a foreign port for the first time as it arrived in France.
(AP, 2/14/98)

1778 Feb 22, Rembrandt Peale, American painter who painted excellent portraits of the founding fathers of the United States, was born.
(HN, 2/22/99)

1778 Feb 23, Baron von Steuben joined the Continental Army at Valley Forge.
(HN, 2/23/98)

1778 Feb 25, Jose Francisco de San Martin (d.1850) was born in Argentina. He liberated Argentina, Chile and Peru. Protector of Peru (1821-1822).
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jos%C3%A9_de_San_Mart%C3%ADn)(ON, 10/09, p.8)

1778 Feb 28, Rhode Island General Assembly authorized the enlistment of slaves.
(MC, 2/28/02)

1778 Mar 5, Thomas A. Arne (67), English composer (Alfred, Rule Britannia), died.
(MC, 3/5/02)

1778 Mar 7, Capt. James Cook 1st sighted the Oregon coast and named Perpetua Cape in honor of St. Perpetua’s Day.
(SSFC, 9/21/08, p.E7)

1778 Mar 15, In command of two frigates, the Frenchman la Perouse sailed east from Botany Bay for the last lap of his voyage around the world.
(HN, 3/15/99)

1778 Mar 15, Nootka Sound, Vancouver Island, was discovered by Captain Cook.
(HN, 3/15/98)(MC, 3/15/02)

1778 Mar 22, Captain Cook sighted Cape Flattery in Washington state.
(MC, 3/22/02)

1778 Apr 1, Oliver Pollock, a New Orleans businessman, created the “$” symbol.
(HN, 4/1/98)(OTD)

1778 Apr 10, William Hazlitt (d.1830), essayist, critic, was born in Maidstone, Kent, England.
(AP, 11/10/99)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Hazlitt)

1778 Apr 18, John Paul Jones attacked the British revenue cutter Husar near the Isle of Man, but it escaped. Soon thereafter he raided Whitehaven and burned one coal ship.
(ON, 2/04, p.6)

1778 Apr 22, James Hargreaves, inventor (spinning jenny), died.
(MC, 4/22/02)

1778 Apr 23, US Captain John Paul Jones attempted to kidnap the Earl of Selkirk, but he only got Lady Selkirk’s silverware.
(ON, 2/04, p.6)

1778 Apr 24, US Ranger Captain John Paul Jones captured the British ship Drake.
(ON, 2/04, p.6)(Internet)

1778 May 11, William Pitt Sr. (69), English premier (1756-61, 66-68), died.
(MC, 5/11/02)

1778 May 30, Voltaire (b.1694), French writer born as Francois-Marie Arouet, died. His books included Candide (1759).

1778 Jun 7, George Byran “Beau” Brummell (d.1840), English wit, was born. He influenced men’s fashion and introduced trouser to replace breeches.
(HN, 6/7/99)

1778 Jun 18, American forces entered Philadelphia as the British withdrew during the Revolutionary War.
(AP, 6/18/97)(HN, 6/18/98)

1778 Jun 19, General George Washington’s troops finally left Valley Forge after a winter of training. Washington left to intercept the British force on its way to New York City.
(HN, 6/19/98)(MC, 6/20/02)

1778 Jun 27, The Liberty Bell came home to Philadelphia after the British left.
(MC, 6/27/02)

1778 Jun 28, “Molly Pitcher,” Mary Ludwig Hays McCauley, wife of an American artilleryman, carried water to the soldiers during the Revolutionary War Battle of Monmouth, N.J. and, supposedly, took her husband’s place at his cannon after he was overcome with heat. Temperatures reportedly reached 96 degrees in the shade. According to myth she was presented to General George Washington after the battle. Her actual existence is a matter of historical debate and the outcome of the battle was inconclusive.
(SFEC,11/23/97, Par p.19)(HNQ, 7/25/99)(AP, 6/28/08)(SSFC, 6/28/09, p.B12)

1778 Jun, George Washington appointed Benedict Arnold as military governor of Philadelphia.
(ON, 11/01, p.1)

1778 Jul 2, Jean-Jacques Rousseau (b.1712), Swiss-born writer and philosopher, died in France. He was considered part of the French Enlightenment along with Voltaire and Diderot. In 2005 Leo Damrosch authored “Jean-Jacques Rousseau: Restless Genius.”
(www.infed.org/thinkers/et-rous.htm)(WSJ, 6/7/00, p.A24)

1778 Jul 3, The Wyoming Massacre occurred during the American Revolution in the Wyoming Valley of Pennsylvania. As part of a British campaign against settlers in the frontier during the war, 360 American settlers, including women and children, were killed at an outpost called Wintermoot’s Fort after they were drawn out of the protection of the fort and ambushed.
(HNQ, 11/5/98)(MC, 7/3/02)

1778 Jul 8, George Washington headquartered his Continental Army at West Point.
(MC, 7/8/02)

1778 Jul 10, In support of the American Revolution, Louis XVI declared war on England.
(HN, 7/10/98)

1778 Jul 27, British and French fleets fought to a standoff in the first Battle of Ushant.
(HN, 7/27/98)

1778 Jul, In Indiana American Captain Leonard Helm occupied Fort Sackville, formerly named Fort Vincennes, the British having withdrawn to Detroit.

1778 Aug 3, In Milan the Teatro alla Scala, originally known as the Nuovo Regio Ducale Teatro alla Scala (New Royal-Ducal Theatre alla Scala), was inaugurated. It was built by Giuseppe Piermarini in neo-Classical style.

1778 Aug 9, Captain Cook reached Cape Prince of Wales in the Bering straits.
(MC, 8/9/02)

1778 Aug 14, Augustus Montague Toplady (b.1740), English Calvinist hymn writer (Rock of Ages), died. His best prose work is the “Historic Proof of the Doctrinal Calvinism of the Church of England” (London, 1774).
(MC, 8/14/02)(Wikipedia)

1778 Aug 20, Bernardo O’Higgins was born in Chile. He later won independence for Chile.
(MC, 8/20/02)

1778 Aug 31, British killed 17 Stockbridge Indians in Bronx during Revolution.
(MC, 8/31/01)

1778 Sep 3, Jean Nicolas Auguste Kreutzer, composer, was born.
(MC, 9/3/01)

1778 Sep 5, Gideon Olmstead and 3 fellow Americans took over the British sloop Active and sailed it toward the New Jersey coast, where it was intercepted by the American brig Convention, owned by the state of Pennsylvania. A state court ruled the sloop a prize of the state. An appeals committee overturned the Philadelphia court. Olmstead spent the next 30 years fighting for his claim and won in 1808. [see Mar 6, 1779]
(ON, 12/01, p.9)

1778 Sep 7, Shawnee Indians attacked and laid siege to Boonesborough, Kentucky.
(HN, 9/7/98)

1778 Sep 17, The 1st treaty between the US and Indian tribes was signed at Fort Pitt.
(MC, 9/17/01)

1778 Oct 3, Capt. Cook anchored off Alaska.
(MC, 10/3/01)

1778 Nov 9, Giovanni Battista Piranesi (58), Italian etcher, died.
(MC, 11/9/01)

1778 Nov 11, British redcoats, Tory rangers and Seneca Indians in central New York state killed more than 40 people in the Cherry Valley Massacre. A regiment of 800 Tory rangers under Butler (1752-1781) and 500 Native forces under the Mohawk war chief Joseph Brant (1742-1807), fell upon the settlement, killing 47, including 32 noncombatants, mostly by tomahawk.
(www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Cherry-Valley-Massacre)(AP, 11/11/07)

1778 Nov 14, Johann Nepomuk Hummel, composer, was born.
(MC, 11/14/01)

1778 Nov 26, Captain Cook discovered Maui in the Sandwich Islands, later named Hawaii.
(MC, 11/26/01)

1778 Nov 27, John Murray, publisher, was born.
(MC, 11/27/01)

1778 Dec 17, Humphrey Davy (d.1829), English chemist who discovered the anesthetic effect of laughing gas (1799), was born.
(HN, 12/17/98)(Dr, 7/17/01, p.2)(ON, 12/01, p.7)
1778 Dec 17, The British—under Lt. Col. Henry Hamilton—returned and recaptured Fort Sackville (near Vincennes, Indiana).
(HNQ, 7/24/00)

1778 Dec 26, Juan Lovera, artist, was born: ‘artist of independence’: originator of Venezuelan historical painting: paintings commemorate Venezuela’s independence dates.

1778 Dec 29, British troops, attempting a new strategy to defeat the colonials in America, captured Savannah, the capital of Georgia.
(HN, 12/29/98)

1778 John Singleton Copley, American artist, painted “Watson and the Shark.” The work was based on a real life incident from 1749 in Cuba’s Havana Harbor, where Brook Watson (14) lost half a leg to a shark. Watson went on to become the Lord Mayor of London.
(WSJ, 4/9/99, p.W16)

1778 Thomas West, a Jesuit priest (c.1720-1779), wrote the “Guide to the Lakes,” the first guidebook to the Lake District of England.
(Econ, 4/3/10, p.88)(http://tinyurl.com/y4prxbr)

1778 Federalists won over anti-Federalists in a crucial New York state ratifying convention for the Constitution.
(WSJ, 6/10/98, p.A18)

1778 In the winter of 1778, American troops stationed at West Point on the Hudson River nicknamed the place “Point Purgatory.” Now the site of the famous military academy, during the Revolutionary War West Point was a strategic highland on the Hudson. Both the British and the Americans considered it very important for controlling the vital Hudson.
(HNQ, 5/29/00)

1778 British troops ordered ships in Newport Harbor, R.I., to be sunk as French naval forces approached.
(SFC, 3/12/99, p.A9)

1778 Benjamin Franklin, on a diplomatic mission in France, approved a plan by John Paul Jones to disrupt British merchant shipping along Britain’s undefended west coast.
(ON, 2/04, p.6)

1778 Ethan Allen, the hero of Ticonderoga, was released from prison in England as part of a prisoner exchange.
(ON, 3/00, p.6)

1778 In New York City Robert Edwards, a Welsh buccaneer, or his son supposedly leased 77 acres of prime land to Trinity Church on a 99-year lease. The land later included what became Wall street. The land was supposed to revert to his descendants but that didn’t happen. The case was to go to court in 1999.
(SFEC, 1/10/99, p.A13)
1778 Benjamin Tallmadge, under orders from George Washington, organized a spy network in NYC, the heart of the British forces. The code name for the group was Samuel Culper and it became known as the Culper Gang.
(MT, Fall/99, p.6)

1778 A census in Argentina showed that about 30% of the 24,363 residents of Buenos Aires were African.
(SSFC, 11/27/05, p.A24)

1778 Juan Bautista de Anza led a punitive expedition across new Mexico and Colorado against the Comanches. His forces cornered and killed Comanche Chief Cuerno Verde and other leaders at what later became Rye, Colo.
(SFC, 6/7/00, p.A15)

1778 The king of the Big Island of Hawaii sent his warrior-general Kamehameha to Lana’i, under the rule of Maui, after being thwarted in a bid to conquer Maui. Kamehameha’s troops destroyed everyone on the island, which event gave the island its name. Lana’i means “day of conquest.”
(SFEM, 10/13/96, p.24)

1778 Joshua Spoontree was murdered by three ruffians hired by his wife.
(LSA., Fall 1995, p.21)

1778 In England the Catholic Relief Act was enacted. It inspired London riots in Jun 1780.
(HNQ, 2/24/99)
1778 Botanist Joseph Banks (1743-1820) became president of the British Royal Society. He had accompanied Capt. Cook to catalog plants and animals of Australia and New Zealand on the 3-year journey (1768-1771).
(Econ, 7/11/09, p.87)(www.nndb.com/people/077/000100774/)

1878 A repressive general of the Russian Czar was shot and wounded by revolutionary Vera Zasulich. She was able to talk a jury into acquitting her. Oscar Wilde’s first play, “Vera” (1883), was inspired by her actions.
(SFC, 9/24/08, p.E1)

1778 King Carlos III of Spain sent Spanish settlers from the Canary Islands to Louisiana. They settled in St. Bernard Parish and became known as Islenos or Spanish Cajuns.
(SFC, 9/4/00, p.B2)

1778-1781 Under the Treaty of Commerce and Friendship, France aided the American revolutionaries. Some 44,000 French troops served during the American War of Independence.
(AP, 5/3/03)

1778-1788 John Adams began a series of numerous missions to Europe. He was the first American ambassador to the court of St. James. Adams was able to negotiate a treaty with the Dutch government and secured a loan of $2 million. He also arranged a secret treaty with Brittain that recognized American territorial rights in the Mississippi Valley.
(A&IP, Miers, p.20)(WSJ, 12/22/98, p.A16)

1778-1829 Sir Humphrey Davy, British chemist. He discovered 12 chemical elements.
(AHD, 1971 p.337)

1779 Jan 5, Stephen Decatur (d.1820), U.S. naval hero during actions against the Barbary pirates and the War of 1812, was born. [see 1820 Decatur-Barron duel]
(HFA, ’96, p.26)(HN, 1/5/99)
1779 Jan 5, Zebulon Montgomery Pike, explorer, (Pike’s Peak), was born.
(MC, 1/5/02)

1779 Feb 14, American Loyalists were defeated by Patriots at Kettle Creek, Ga.
(HN, 2/14/98)

1779 Jan 18, Peter Roget, thesaurus fame, inventor (slide rule, pocket chessboard), was born.
(MC, 1/18/02)

1779 Feb 7, William Boyce (67), composer, died. [see Feb 16]
(MC, 2/7/02)

1779 Feb 10, A shootout at Carr’s Fort in Georgia turned back men sent to Wilkes County to recruit colonists loyal to the British army. In 2012 archeologists located the site.
(AP, 5/6/13)

1779 Feb 14, Captain James Cook (b.1728), English explorer, was killed on the Big Island in Hawaii. In 2002 Tony Horwitz authored “Blue Latitudes,” and Vanessa Collingridge authored “Captain Cook: A Legacy Under Fire.”
(WSJ, 10/2/02, p.D12)(www.royal-navy.mod.uk/static/pages/3521.html)

1779 Feb 16, William Boyce, English organist, composer (Cathedral Music), died. [see Feb 7]
(MC, 2/16/02)

1779 Feb 25, Fort Sackville, originally named Fort Vincennes, was captured by Colonel George Rogers Clark in 1779. Col. Clark led a force of some 170 men from Kaskaskia to lay siege to Fort Sackville in January, and received Hamilton‘s surrender on February 25. With the surrender of Fort Sackville, American forces gained effective control of the Old Northwest, thereby affecting the outcome of the Revolutionary War. The fort, which Clark described as “a wretched stockade, surrounded by a dozen wretched cabins called houses,” was located near present-day Vincennes, Indiana.
(HNQ, 7/24/00)(AP, 2/25/08)

1779 Mar 6, The US Congress declared that only the federal government, and not individual states, had the power to determine the legality of captures on the high seas. This was the basis for the 1st test case of the US Constitution in 1808.
(ON, 12/01, p.9)

1779 Mar 31, Russia and Turkey signed a treaty by which they promised to take no military action in the Crimea.
(HN, 3/31/99)

1779 Apr 24, Mr. H. Sykes, an English optician living in Paris, wrote to Ben Franklin and explained a delay in sending an order for special spectacles, complaining that he was having difficulty making them. Franklin is believed to have ordered his first pair of bifocals from Sykes.

1779 May 13, War of Bavarian Succession ended.
(SS, Internet, 5/13/97)

1779 May 23, Benedict Arnold, military governor of Philadelphia, wrote a query to the British asking what they would pay for his services. He had already begun trading with the British for personal profit and faced charges.
(ON, 11/01, p.1)

1779 May 25, Henry M. Baron de Kock, Dutch officer, politician, was born.
(SC, 5/25/02)

1779 May 28, Thomas Moore, Irish poet, was born.
(HN, 5/28/01)

1779 Jun 16, Spain, in support of the US, declared war on England.
(MC, 6/16/02)
1779 Jun 16, Vice-Admiral Hardy sailed out of Isle of Wight against the Spanish fleet.
(MC, 6/16/02)

1779 Jun 18, French fleet occupied St Vincent.
(MC, 6/18/02)

1779 Jul 4, A French fleet occupied Grenada.

1779 Jul 10, Alois Basil Nikolaus Tomasini, composer, was born.
(MC, 7/10/02)

1779 Jul 15, Clement Moore, founder of the General Theological Seminary in New York City, was born.
(HN, 7/15/98)

1779 Jul 16, American troops under General Anthony Wayne, aka Mad Anthony Wayne, captured Stony Point, NY, with a loss to the British of more than 600 killed or captured.
(HN, 7/16/98)(http://hhr.highlands.com/stpt.htm)

1779 Jul 24, The Siege of Gibraltar by the Spanish and French was begun. British Gen. George Eliott led the 5,000 man Gibraltar garrison. The siege was finally lifted on Feb 7, 1783. In 1965 T.H. McGuffie authored “The Siege of Gibraltar, 1779-1783).
(HN, 2/7/99)(ON, 7/01, p.8)

1779 Aug 1, Francis Scott Key, author of the “Star Spangled Banner,” was born.
(HN, 8/1/98)

1779 Aug 7, Carl Ritter, cofounder of modern science of geography, was born in Quedlinberg, Prussia.
(MC, 8/7/02)

1779 Aug 19, Americans under Major Henry Lee took the British garrison at Paulus Hook, New Jersey.
(HN, 8/19/98)

1779 Sep 2, Louis Napoleon Bonaparte (d.1844), French king of the Netherlands (1806-10), was born in Corsica. He was one of 3 younger brothers of Napoleon I.

1779 Sep 10, Louis Alexandre Piccinni, composer, was born.
(MC, 9/10/01)

1779 Sep 13, Frederick II of Prussia issued a manifesto in which he bemoaned the increased use of coffee and called for more consumption of beer.
(SFC, 1/30/99, p.D3)

1779 Sep 23, During the Revolutionary War, the American navy under John Paul Jones, commanding from Bonhomie Richard, defeated and captured the British man-of-war Serapis. An American attack on a British convoy pitted the British frigate HMS Serapis against the American Bon Homme Richard. The American ship was commanded by Scotsman John Paul Jones, who chose to name the ship after Benjamin Franklin’s “Poor Richard’s Almanack.” Fierce fighting ensued, and when Richard began to sink, Serapis commander Richard Pearson called over to ask if Richard would surrender and Jones responded, “I have not yet begun to fight!”–a response that would become a slogan of the U.S. Navy. Pearson surrendered and Jones took control of Serapis. The Bonhomie Richard sank 2 days after the battle. In 1959 the film Jean Paul Jones starred Robert Stack.
(TVM, 1975, p.294)(AP, 9/23/97)(HN, 9/23/98)(HNPD, 9/23/98)(Arch, 9/02, p.17)

1779 Sep 27, John Adams was named to negotiate the Revolutionary War’s peace terms with Britain.
(AP, 9/27/97)

1779 Oct 9, The Luddite riots being in Manchester, England in reaction to machinery for spinning cotton.
(HN, 10/9/00)

1779 Oct 11, Polish nobleman General Casimir Pulaski died two days after being mortally wounded while fighting for American independence during the Revolutionary War Battle of Savannah, Ga. Brig. Gen. Casimir Pulaski had come to America in 1777. In 2005 an attempt to confirm his remains using DNA was inconclusive.
(AH, 10/04, p.15)(AP, 6/24/05)(AP, 10/11/07)

1779 Dec 25, A court-martial was convened against Benedict Arnold. He defended himself successfully on 6 of 8 charges but was convicted of illegally issuing a government pass and using government wagons to transport personal goods.
(ON, 11/01, p.2)

1779 Nov 4, John W. Pieneman, historical painter (Battle at Waterloo), was born.
(MC, 11/4/01)

1779 Nov 12, A group of 20 slaves who had fought in the war submitted a petition to the New Hampshire General Assembly, while the war was still being fought. Lawmakers decided the time was not right. 6 of the slaves were later freed. In 2013 a state Senate committee recommended that the state posthumously emancipate 14 of the slaves who died in bondage. On June 7, 2013, they were granted posthumous emancipation when Gov. Maggie Hassan signed a largely symbolic bill that supporters hope will encourage future generations to pursue social justice.
(SFC, 3/7/13, p.A5)(AP, 6/7/13)

1779 Nov 13, Thomas Chippendale (61), English furniture maker, died.
(MC, 11/13/01)

1779 Dec 6, Jean Baptiste Simeon Chardin (b.1699), French painter, died.

1779 Dec 19, Auguste-Gaspard-Louis Desnoyers, engraver, was born in Paris, France.
(MC, 12/19/01)

1779 Dec 23, Benedict Arnold was court-martialed for improper conduct. He followed the time-honored military tradition of using government carts to transport his personal items. He was routinely sentenced to be censured by Gen. Washington- a formality which the thin-skinned Arnold took personally, ultimately leading him to switch allegiance to the British cause.
(MC, 12/23/01)

1779 Frances Trollope was born the daughter of a clergyman and raised near Bristol. She produced 35 novels and 5 travel books. In 1998 Pamela Neville-Sington wrote the biography “Fanny Trollope: The Life and Adventures of a Clever Woman.”
(WSJ, 12/11/98, p.W10)

1779 Charles Willson Peale (1741-1827) painted the portrait “George Washington at Princeton.” In 2006 it was auctioned for a $21.3 million, a record price for an American portrait.
(SFC, 1/11/06, p.G2)(SSFC, 1/22/06, p.A3)

1779 Richard Samuel (d.1787), British painter, sent the Royal Academy exhibition his “Nine Living Muses of Great Britain.” The 1778 painting featured a group of female writers and artists that included the Swiss-Austrian painter Angelica Kauffman (1741-1807).
(Econ, 3/22/08, p.97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angelica_Kauffmann)

1779 The captured journal of British officer Henry De Berniere was published by John Gill, member of the Sons of Liberty. Gill had printed many anti-British pamphlets including the rebel newspaper Boston Gazette.
(AH, 10/01, p.56)

1779 The play “Nathan der Weise” (Nathan the Wise) by Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, German playwright, was 1st produced. It is set in Jerusalem in 1193 and shows a humane Jewish merchant, Nathan, spreading benevolence and reconciliation among local Muslims and Christians. Nathan tells Saladin a story: “My council is: Accept the matter wholly as it stands …Let each one believe his ring to be the true one.”
(WSJ,11/24/95, p.A-6)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R55)(WSJ, 1/4/02, p.A11)

1779 Richard Brinsley Sheridan wrote his play “The Critic.” It was a rewrite of a Restoration original.
(WSJ, 11/20/98, p.W6)

1779 Ethan Allen authored “A Narrative of Ethan Allen’s Captivity.”
(ON, 3/00, p.6)

1779 The Gluck opera “Iphigenie en Tauride” was composed.
(WSJ, 8/12/97, p.A12)

1779 There were 21 regiments of loyalists in the British army estimated at 6500-8000 men. Washington reported a field army of 3468 men.
(SFEC,11/23/97, Par p.19)

1779 Thomas Jefferson (36), US President (1801-1809), was elected as the 2nd Governor of Virginia succeeding Patrick Henry. Jefferson served for 2 years with James Madison (28) in his cabinet.
(www.monticello.org/site/jefferson/timeline-jeffersons-life)(WSJ, 2/2/95, p.A-16)

1779 John Adams drafted most of the Massachusetts state constitution.
(WSJ, 12/22/98, p.A16)

1779 Samuel Crompton invented the spinning mule, so called because it is a hybrid of Arkwright’s water frame and James Hargreaves’ spinning jenny in the same way that mule is the product of crossbreeding a female horse with a male donkey.

1779 The British adopted a strategy to seize parts of Maine, especially around Penobscot Bay, and make it a new colony to be called “New Ireland.” In July a British naval and military force under the command of General Francis McLean sailed into the harbor of Castine, Maine, landed troops, and took control of the village. After peace was signed in 1783, the New Ireland proposal was abandoned.
{Maine, USA, Britain, Canada}

1779 The Italian grappa distillery, Ditta Bortolo Nardini, was founded.
(Econ, 12/18/04, p.104)

1779 Catherine the Great of Russia bought 204 works of art from the collection of Sir Robert Walpole (d.1745) from Walpole’s grandson. The sale was brokered by pioneering auctioneer James Christie. In 1789 the Picture Gallery at Walpole’s Houghton estate was destroyed by fire.
(WSJ, 1/04/00, p.A16)(Econ, 5/18/13, p.89)(Econ, 9/28/13, p.63)

1779-1780 In Russia the Molokans split from the Doukhobors because they thought that the Doukhobors neglected the Bible in their belief that God had placed the Word directly into their hearts. The first recorded use of the term “Molokan” appears in the 1670s, in reference to the people who had the practice of drinking milk on the 200 fasting days stipulated by the Orthodox Church.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molokan)(SSFC, 3/17/19, p.A2)

1780-1789 xxxx

1780 Jan 2, A blizzard hit Washington’s army at the Morristown, NJ, winter encampment.
(AH, 2/05, p.16)
1780 Jan 2, Johann Ludwig Krebs (b.1713), German composer, died.

1780 Feb 9, Walenty Karol Kratzer, composer, was born.
(MC, 2/9/02)

1780 Feb 14, William Blackstone (56), English lawyer, died.
(MC, 2/14/02)

1780 Mar 1, Pennsylvania became the first U.S. state to abolish slavery (for new-borns only). It was followed by Connecticut and Rhode Island in 1784, New York in 1785, and New Jersey in 1786. Massachusetts abolished slavery through a judicial decision in 1783 (see July 8 1777).

1780 Mar 17, Thomas Chalmers, 1st moderator (Free Church of Scotland 1843-47), was born.
(MC, 3/17/02)

1780 Mar 21, The Marquis de Lafayette set sail for the US aboard the Hermione after persuading French King Louis XVI to provide military and financial aid to support George Washington’s troops.
(SSFC, 4/19/15, p.A2)

1780 Mar 26, The 1st British Sunday newspaper appeared as the British Gazette and Sunday Monitor.
(SS, 3/26/02)

1780 Mar 27, August L. Crelle, German inventor, mathematician (1st Prussian Railway), was born.
(MC, 3/27/02)

1780 Apr 4, Edward Hicks (d.1849), Quaker preacher and painter, was born. His work included over 60 paintings that were all titled “The Peaceable Kingdom.’
(WSJ, 11/16/99, p.A28)(SFC, 9/25/00, p.F1)(HN, 4/4/01)

1780 Apr, George Washington censured Benedict Arnold for his misdeeds as governor of Philadelphia.
(ON, 11/01, p.2)

1780 May 4, American Academy of Arts & Science was founded.
(MC, 5/4/02)

1780 May 12, Charleston, SC, fell to the British in the US Revolutionary War.
(SC, internet, 5/12/97)(HN, 5/12/98)

1780 May 19, A mysterious darkness enveloped much of New England and part of Canada in the early afternoon; the cause has never been determined.
(HFA, ’96, p.30)(DTnet 5/19/97)

1780 May, The Virginia continentals surrendered to Lieutenant Colonel Banastre Tarleton, commander of the British Legion, following his victory at Waxhaws, SC. Tarleton then led the British troops to a massacre of the surrendering Virginia regulars and militiamen, eliminating the last organized force in South Carolina. During the course of the Revolutionary War, Tarleton became one of the most hated men in America.
(HNQ, 9/26/00)(AH, 10/07, p.29)

1780 Jun, The East India ship Princess Royal landed at Bengkulu on Sumatra with American rebels. The prisoners were sent to Fort Marlboro to be trained as British soldiers.
(ON, 1/00, p.5)

1780 Jun, The London riots led by George Gordon in opposition to the Catholic Relief Act of 1778 took place. Anti-Catholic protesters wrought anarchy for a week in the Gordon riots.
(HNQ, 2/24/99)(Econ, 10/19/13, p.88)

1780 Aug 5, Benedict Arnold took over the command of West Point from American Major Gen. Robert Howe.
(ON, 11/01, p.2)

1780 Aug 16, American troops under Gen. Horatio Gates were badly defeated by the British at the Battle of Camden, South Carolina.
(HFA, ’96, p.36)(HN, 8/16/98)(ON, 12/01, p.9)

1780 Aug 22, HMS Resolution returned to England without Capt Cook.
(MC, 8/22/02)

1780 Aug 24, King Louis XVI abolished torture as a means to get suspects to confess.
(HN, 8/24/98)

1780 Aug 29, Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (d.1867), French painter, was born. His work included the “Portrait of Monsieur de Norvins” and “Valpincon Bather.”
(WUD, 1994, p.731)(WSJ, 7/1/96, p.A11)(MC, 8/29/01)

1780 Aug 30, General Benedict Arnold betrayed the US when he promised secretly to surrender the fort at West Point to the British army. Arnold whose name has become synonymous with traitor fled to England after the botched conspiracy. His co-conspirator, British spy Major John Andre, was hanged in an act of spite by Washington (“it’s good for the armies”).
(MC, 8/30/01)

1780 Sep 21-22, General Benedict Arnold, American commander of West Point, met with British spy Major John André to hand over plans of the important Hudson River fort to the enemy. Unhappy with how General George Washington treated him and in need of money, Arnold planned to “sell” West Point for 20,000 pounds–a move that would enable the British to cut New England off from the rest of the rebellious colonies. Arnold’s treason was exposed when André was captured by American militiamen who found the incriminating plans in his stocking. Arnold received a timely warning and was able to escape to a British ship, but André was hanged as a spy on October 2, 1780. Condemned for his Revolutionary War actions by both Americans and British, Arnold lived until 1801.
(HNPD, 9/21/98)

1780 Sep 23, British spy John Andre was captured along with papers revealing Benedict Arnold’s plot to surrender West Point to the British. Arnold had switched sides partly because he disapproved of the US French alliance.
(AP, 9/23/97)(SFEC,11/23/97, Par p.19)

1780 Sep 25, American General Benedict Arnold joined the British.
(MC, 9/25/01)(ON, 11/01, p.5)

1780 Oct 2, British spy John Andre was hanged in Tappan, N.Y., for conspiring with Benedict Arnold.
(AP, 10/2/97)

1780 Oct 6, Over 1500 Patriot fighters assembled on the outskirts of Cowpens, South Carolina, to confront Loyalist forces of British Major Patrick Ferguson.
(ON, 12/07, p.6)

1780 Oct 7, Colonial patriots slaughtered a loyalist group at the Battle of King’s Mountain in South Carolina. Patrick Ferguson (36), English Major in South Carolina, died in the battle along with some 200 Loyalists. Patriot losses numbered 30 with 62 wounded.
(HN, 10/7/99)(ON, 12/07, p.7)

1780 Oct 10, A Great Hurricane killed 20,000 to 30,000 in Caribbean.
(MC, 10/10/01)

1780 Oct 20, M. Pauline Bonaparte, Corsican duchess of Parma and Guastalla, was born.
(MC, 10/20/01)

1780 Oct 31, The HMS Ontario was lost with barely a trace and as many as 130 people aboard during a gale on Lake Ontario. In 2008 explorers found the 22-gun British warship. Canadian author Arthur Britton Smith chronicled the history of the HMS Ontario in a 1997 book, “The Legend of the Lake.”
(AP, 6/14/08)

1780 Oct, Gen. Washington ordered Major General Nathanael Greene to replace Gen. Horatio Gates and take command of the southern Department of the Continental Army.
(ON, 12/01, p.9)

1780 Nov 29, Maria Theresa Hapsburg (63), Queen of Austria, died.
(MC, 11/29/01)

1780 Dec 4, At the Battle of Rugeley’s Mill, South Carolina, Colonel William Washington attacked a fortified log barn with 107 Loyalists inside. When the Patriot‘s small arms proved ineffective, Washington cut a log to resemble a cannon and demanded the surrender of the Loyalists. The “Quaker guns” used in the American War of Independence were fashioned out of logs to resemble cannon. Fooled by the fake cannon, the promptly gave up. Quaker guns were also decisive at the May 1780 Battle of Hunt‘s Bluff, also in South Carolina.
(HNQ, 4/24/00)

1780 George Stubbs, British painter, created his portrait of a poodle.
(SFC, 6/25/99, p.A3)

1780 Goethe published a fragment of Faust.

1780 In San Francisco stone foundations were laid for a building at the military garrison in the Presidio. The Presidio’s Officer’s Club was later built on the same site.
(SFC, 9/29/14, p.A9)

1780 The Warren Tavern was built in Charlestown (Boston) and named after Gen’l. Joseph Warren, who was killed at the battle of Bunker Hill.
(HT, 3/97, p.34)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warren_Tavern)

c1780 It was Alexander Hamilton’s idea to establish a central bank and consolidate the state debts left over from the Revolutionary War.
(WSJ,2/13/97, p.A18)

1780 John Paul Jones’ “Continental Ship of War,” Ranger, was captured by the British at the fall of Charleston, South Carolina, and was added to the Royal Navy under the name of Halifax.
(NG, Sept. 1939, J. Maloney p.362)

1780 US Gen’l. Benedict Arnold, newly married and strapped for cash to maintain an extravagant lifestyle, began providing information to the British. He eventually joined the British as a brigadier general.
(SFC, 7/1/97, p.A3)

1780 The first inflation-linked bonds were issued in Massachusetts.
(Econ, 2/25/12, SRp.4)

1780 Guillaume Raynal, a French historian, proclaimed Puerto Rico to be “in proportion to its size the very best island in the New World.”
(SFEC, 4/26/98, p.A3)

1780 The mission of San Lorenzo in the Native American pueblo of Picuris was built. It has no bell towers, is flanked by curved buttresses, and is one of the 6 adobe missions scattered along the western shoulder of the Sangre de Cristo mountains between Taos and Santa Fe, New Mexico.
(SFC, 5/12/96, p.T-5)

1780 A Japanese whaling ship ran aground near the western end of the Aleutian Islands. Rats from the ship reached the nearest island giving it the name Rat Island. The incident introduced the non-native Norway rat, also known as the brown rat, to Alaska. The rats terrorized all but the largest birds on the island. In the Fall of 2008 poison was dropped onto the island from helicopter-hoisted buckets for a week and a half. By mid 2009 there were no signs of living rats and some birds had returned.
(Econ, 1/20/07, p.43)(Reuters, 6/12/09)

1780 The giant Mosasaurus dinosaur head was found in the Netherlands near Maastricht. [see 1794]
(NYT, 6/7/96, p.A4)

1780 A deadly hurricane hit the Windward and Leeward Islands and 20-22,000 people were killed.
(SFC, 11/30/98, p.A2)

1780 In England Richard Brinsley Sheridan, playwright, entered Parliament as a supporter of the Whig politician Charles James Fox, who supported the American colonies against George III.
(WSJ, 11/20/98, p.W6)(WSJ, 1/7/00, p.W4)

1780 In France a communal grave at the Cemetery of the Innocents in Paris cracked and spilled into the cellars of adjoining houses and prompted its closure.
(Hem., 3/97, p.129)

1780 Salomon Gessner, printer, poet and friend of Goethe, founded the Neue Zurcher Zeitung (NZZ). In 2005 the newspaper celebrated its 225th birthday.
(Econ, 4/2/05, p.45)

1780 The Ottomans build the al-Ajyad Castle in Mecca to protect the city and its Muslim shrines from invaders. The castle was torn down by the Saudis in 2001 to make way for a trade center and hotel complex. Turkey called this a “cultural massacre.”
(SFC, 1/8/02, p.A6)

1780 Sheep were introduced to Ireland from Scotland.
(SFCM, 10/14/01, p.25)

1780 In Peru Jose Gabriel Condorcanqui led a failed Indian revolt against the Spanish.
(SFC, 12/20/96, p.B4)

1780s Steel pens were developed as more durable than quills.
(SFC, 7/26/04, p.F4)

1784 Feb 28, John Wesley (1703-1791) chartered the Methodist Church. His teaching emphasized field preaching along with piety, probity and respectability. In 2003 Roy Hattersley authored “A Brand from the Burning: The Life of John Wesley.”
(MC, 2/28/02)(WSJ, 6/13/03, p.W19)

1784 Feb 29, Marquis de Sade was transferred from Vincennes fortress to the Bastille.
(HN, 2/29/00)

1784 Mar 1, E. Kidner opened the 1st cooking school in Great Britain.
(SC, 3/1/02)

1784 Apr 2, Pierre Leclair (74), composer, died.
(MC, 4/2/02)

1784 Apr 5, Louis [Ludwig] Spohr, German violin virtuoso, composer (Faust), was born.
(MC, 4/5/02)

1784 Apr 15, The first balloon flight occurred in Ireland. [see Jun 5, 1783 in France]
(HN, 4/15/98)

1784 Apr 29, Premiere of Mozart’s Sonata in B flat, K454 (Vienna).
(MC, 4/29/02)

1784 Apr, The idea of resetting clocks forward an hour in the spring and back an hour in the fall was first suggested by Benjamin Franklin in his essay “An Economical Project for Diminishing the Cost of Light,” published in the Journal de Paris, as a way to save electricity.

1784 May 20, Peace of Versailles ended the war between France, England, and Holland.
(HN, 5/20/98)

1784 May 25, Jews were expelled from Warsaw by Marshall Mniszek.
(SC, 5/25/02)

1784 Jun 4, Elizabeth Thible became the first woman to fly aboard a Montgolfier hot-air balloon, over Lyon, France.
(AP, 6/4/07)

1784 Jun 9, John Carroll was appointed supervisor of US Catholic Missions.
(MC, 6/9/02)

1784 Jun 16, Holland forbade orange clothes.
(MC, 6/16/02)

1784 Jun 24, In a tethered flight from Baltimore, Maryland, Edward Warren (13) became the 1st to fly in a balloon on US soil.
(NPub, 2002, p.3)

1784 Jun 29, Caesar Rodney (b.1728), US judge, Delaware representative as a signer of the Declaration of Independence, died. He was later depicted on the Delaware state quarter

1784 Jul 1, Wilhelm Friedmann Bach (73), composer (Sinfonias 64), died.
(MC, 7/1/02)

1784 Jul 30, Denis Diderot (b.1713), French philosopher, critic, and encyclopedist, died. “Men will never be free until the last king is strangled with the entrails of the last priest.”
(WSJ, 6/15/99, p.A16)( www.giga-usa.com/quotes/authors/denis_diderot_a001.htm)

1784 Aug 14, The 1st Russian settlement in Alaska was established on Kodiak Island. Grigori Shelekhov, a Russian fur trader, founded Three Saints Bay.
(MC, 8/14/02)

1784 Aug 23, Eastern Tennessee settlers declared their area an independent state and named it Franklin; a year later the Continental Congress rejected it.
(MC, 8/23/02)

1784 Sep 20, Packet and Daily, the first daily publication in America, appeared on the streets.
(HN, 9/20/98)

1784 Aug 28, Father Junipero Serra (b.1713) died of tuberculosis at the adobe church of San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo, later Carmel.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jun%C3%ADpero_Serra)(SFEC, 3/12/00, p.T4)

1784 Oct 13, Ferdinand VII, king of Spain, was born.
(HN, 10/13/98)

1784 Oct 19, Leigh Hunt (d.1859), English journalist, essayist, poet and political radical, was born. He was a friend and advisor to Shelley and Lord Byron and wrote the poems “Abou Ben Adhem” and “Jenny Kissed Me.”
(HN, 10/19/99)(www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/PRleigh.htm)
1784 Oct 19, John McLoughlin (d.1857), Hudson’s Bay Co. pioneer at Fort Vancouver and in Oregon Country, was born in Quebec.

1784 Oct, Pierre Eugene Du Simitiere (b.1736), artist and philosopher, died. He helped design the 1st Great Seal of the US.
(WSJ, 5/19/05, p.D8)(http://tinyurl.com/d23rr)

1784 Nov 1, Maryland granted citizenship to Lafayette and his descendents.
(MC, 11/1/01)

1784 Nov 24, Zachary Taylor, the 12th president of the United States, was born in Orange County, Va.
(AP, 11/24/97)

1784 Nov 28, Ferdinand Reis, composer, was born.
(MC, 11/28/01)

1784 Nov 29, American Dr. John Jeffries paid Frenchman Jean-Pierre Blanchard £100 pounds for a balloon flight in England during which he made some atmospheric measurements.
(ON, 10/03, p.6)

1784 Dec 13, Samuel Johnson (b.1709), English lexicographer, essayist, poet and moralist best known for “The Dictionary of the English Language,” died. “Patriotism is the last refuge of a scoundrel.” — (To which Ambrose Bierce replied, “I beg to submit that it is the first.”) Johnson, an antagonist of slavery, left behind an annuity and much of his personal property to his black valet, Francis Barber (b.1735-1801). In 1791 Boswell wrote the celebrated “The Life of Samuel Johnson.” In 1955 Walter Jackson Bate (1918-1999) published “The Achievement of Samuel Johnson” and in 1977 the biography “Samuel Johnson.” In 2000 Adam Potkay authored “The Passion for Happiness,” in which he argued that Samuel Johnson should be included in the Anglo-Scottish Enlightenment along with David Hume, Adam Smith and Edward Gibbon. In 2000 Peter Martin authored “A Life of James Boswell.” In 2008 Peter Martin authored “Samuel Johnson: A biography.”
(AP, 10/8/97)(WSJ, 11/29/00, p.A24)(ON, 11/06, p.10)(SSFC, 10/28/07, p.M3)(WSJ, 9/18/08, p.A23)

1784 John Filson, schoolmaster, published the stories of Daniel Boone as narrated to him by Boone.
(SFEC, 7/23/00, Z1 p.2)

1784 Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais wrote “The Marriage of Figaro,” the sequel to “The Barber of Seville.” A 1997 film, “Beaumarchais,” was a look at the artist, who was also a womanizer, a spy and an arms runner.
(WSJ, 12/19/96, p.A16)(SFEC,11/23/97, DB p.14)

1784 William Blake coined the term “transmography,” to describe artistic processes of continual invention and cumulative transformation.
(LSA, Spring 1995, p.17)

1784 German philosopher Emmanuel Kant wrote his essay “What is enlightenment?” Here he crystallized the essence of the metaphysics movement in the motto Sapere aude (Dare to know).
(WSJ, 9/1/04, p.AD10)(Econ, 9/3/16, p.72)

1784 Mozart composed four piano concertos. The G Major is K. 453 (K is for Kochel who catalogues all of Mozart’s work in chronological order).
(T&L, 10/80, p. 103)

1784 Trenton, North Carolina, was founded.
(SFC, 3/10/99, p.A3)

1784 George Washington met a 16-year-old slave named Venus, who later bore a mulatto son named West Ford who lived in special favor at Mt. Vernon. In 1998 descendants of Ford set out to prove that Washington was his father.
(SFC, 11/23/98, p.A6)

1784 Thomas Jefferson excavated an Indian burial mound on his property in Virginia.
(TV Doc.)
1784 Virginia Congressman Thomas Jefferson (41) became the US Commissioner and Minister to France. He continued there to 1798 and negotiated commercial treaties with European nations along with Ben Franklin and John Adams.
1784 Ben Franklin, while serving as US Minister to France, came up with the idea of manipulating the hours of the business day so that shops would both open and close earlier, when it was still light outside.
(WSJ, 10/26/95, p.A-22)

1784 NY state awarded Thomas Paine 227 acres in New Rochelle.
(SSFC, 4/1/01, p.A7)

1784 Phillis Wheatley, black poet, died. Only a child of about eight when she was kidnapped and brought to America as a slave, Phillis Wheatley was given the name of her Boston master, tailor John Wheatley. With his wife Susanna, John Wheatley treated the young girl kindly, providing an education that included the classical languages and literature. Her work, lost and forgotten until the publication of a new edition in 1834, was used by abolitionists to prove that blacks were not intellectually inferior to white.
(HNPD, 2/21/00)

1784 The British gave their Indian allies from New York a large parcel of land southwest of Toronto after they fled to Canada following the American war of independence. In 2006 the Six Nations Iroquois Confederacy claimed that part of this land had been sold without their proper consent for a new housing development in Caledonia.
(Econ, 9/16/06, p.46)
1784 England’s Quarry Bank Mill on the river Bollin at Styal was built by merchant Samuel Greg to supply cotton to the weavers of Lancashire. Raw cotton from America was processed on the latest machinery, Richard Arkwright’s water frame.
(Econ, 9/24/11, SR p.3)

1784 The Hotel de Salm, a palace, was built in Paris. It became the headquarters of Napoleon’s Legion of Honor.
(WSJ, 11/16/95, p.A-18)

1784 King Louis XVI appointed a French commission to examine the theory of “animal magnetism,” developed by German Dr. Franz Anton Mesmer (1734-1815). The commission, which included American ambassador Benjamin Franklin, branded Mesmer a fraud.
(WSJ, 12/8/04, p.A1)

1784 The 1st Spanish military officer who explored the Mayan ruins of Palenque thought it was Atlantis risen.
(SSFC, 12/7/03, p.C10)

1784-1785 The Mrauk U kingdom was conquered by the Konbaung dynasty of Burma, after which Rakhine became part of the Konbaung kingdom of Burma.

1784-1789 Thomas Jefferson’s years in Paris are depicted in a film titled “Jefferson in Paris.” He served as an American minister and Sally Hemmings accompanied him as his daughter’s servant.
(WSJ, 4/6/95, p.A-12)(WSJ, 11/6/98, p.W15)

1784-1849 Peter De Wint, watercolorist.
(SFC, 4/29/97, p.B5)

1785 Jan 1, The Daily Universal Register (Times of London) published its 1st issue. It became The Times on Jan 1, 1788.

1785 Jan 4, Jacob Ludwig Carl Grimm, German philosopher who wrote Grimm’s Fairy Tales, was born.
(HN, 1/4/99)(MC, 1/4/02)

1785 Jan 6, Haym Salomon (44) died in Philadelphia. He helped finance the US revolution.
(MC, 1/6/02)

1785 Jan 7, The first balloon flight across the English Channel was made. Frenchman Jean-Pierre Blanchard and the American Dr. John Jeffries crossed the English Channel for the first time in a hydrogen balloon.
(HN, 5/15/98)(HN, 1/7/99)

1785 Jan 11, Continental Congress convened in NYC.
(MC, 1/11/02)

1785 Jan 21, Chippewa, Delaware, Ottawa and Wyandot Indians signed a treaty of Fort McIntosh, ceding present-day Ohio to the United States.
(HN, 1/21/99)

1785 Feb 24, Carlo Bonaparte (39), Corsican attorney, died.
(MC, 2/24/02)

1785 Mar 1, Philadelphia Society for the Promotion of Agriculture was organized.
(SC, 3/1/02)

1785 Mar 7, Alessandro Manzoni, poet, novelist (Betrothed), was born in Italy.
(MC, 3/7/02)

1785 Mar 10, Thomas Jefferson was appointed minister to France, succeeding Benjamin Franklin.
(AP, 3/10/98)(HN, 3/10/98)

1785 Mar 19, Pierre-Joseph-Guillaume Zimmermann, composer, was born.
(MC, 3/19/02)

1785 Mar 27, Louis XVII, Pretender to the throne (1793-1795) during the French Revolution, was born. His father may have been Marie Antoinette’s Swedish lover, Count Axel von Fersen.
(HN, 3/27/98)(SFC, 4/20/00, p.A18)(MC, 3/27/02)

1785 Apr 21, Russian Tsarina Catharina II ended nobility privileges.
(MC, 4/21/02)

1785 Apr 26, John James Audubon (d.1851), American naturalist, bird watcher (ornithologist) and artist, was born in Haiti and educated in France. The engraving of America’s indigenous turkey, which Benjamin Franklin nominated as the national bird, appeared in John James Audubon’s classic work “Birds of America,” a book of 435 hand-colored engravings prepared from his wildlife paintings begun in 1820. An artist and naturalist, Audubon was one of the first to study and paint American birds in their natural surroundings. Audubon came to America at 18 and failed in several business ventures.
(440 Int’l. internet,4/26/97, p.5)(AP, 4/26/98)(HN, 4/26/98)(HNPD, 7/15/98)

1785 Apr, Elizabeth Marsh (b.1735), traveler and writer, died of breast cancer in Calcutta, India. In 1769 she had published “The Female Captive,” an account of her captivity in a Muslim court. In 2007 Linda Colley authored “The Ordeal of Elizabeth Marsh: A Woman in World History.”
(Econ, 7/14/07, p.89)(www.lrb.co.uk/v29/n12/mant01_.html)

1785 May 9, James Pollard Espy, meteorologist (Philosophy of Storms), was born in Pennsylvania.
(MC, 5/9/02)
1785 May 9, British inventor Joseph Bramah patented a beer-pump handle.
(MC, 5/9/02)

1785 May 23, Benjamin Franklin in Paris spoke of his invention of bifocals in a letter to friend and philanthropist George Whatley.

1785 Jun 15, Two Frenchmen attempting to cross the English Channel in a hot-air balloon were killed when their balloon caught fire and crashed, in possibly the first fatal aviation accident.
(AP, 2/26/13)(www.space.com/16595-montgolfiers-first-balloon-flight.html)

1785 Jul 4, The first Fourth of July parade was held in Bristol, Rhode Island. It served as a prayerful walk to celebrate independence from England.
(SFC, 7/5/97, p.A3)

1785 Jul 17, France limited the importation of goods from Britain.
(HN, 7/17/98)

1785 Jul 20, Mahmud II, sultan of Turkey (1808-39), Westernizer, reformer, was born.
(MC, 7/20/02)

1785 Jul 23, Prussia’s Frederick the Great formed Die Furstenbund (League of German Princes).
(AP, 7/23/97)

1785 Aug 15, Thomas De Quincey, English writer (Confessions of English Opium Eater), was born.
(MC, 8/15/02)
1785 Aug 15, French Cardinal De Rohan (51), Bishop of Strasbourg, was arrested in the affair of the diamond necklace. He was accused of forging the queen’s signature to gain possession of a necklace containing 647 diamonds. In 2014 Jonathan Beckman authored “How to Ruin a Queen: Marie Antoinette, the Stolen Diamonds, and the Scandal that Shook the French Throne.”
(PC, 1992, p.335)(Econ, 7/12/14, p.76)

1785 Aug 20, Oliver Hazard Perry, US Naval hero (“We have met the enemy”), was born in Rhode Island.
(MC, 8/20/02)

1785 Sep 1, Mozart published his 6th string quartet opus 10 in Vienna.
(MC, 9/1/02)

1785 Sep 28, Napoleon Bonaparte (16) graduated from the military academy in Paris. He was 42nd in a class of 51.
(MC, 9/28/01)

1785 Oct 18, Benjamin Franklin was elected president of Pennsylvania. Special balloting unanimously elected Franklin the sixth President of the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania, replacing John Dickinson.
(AH, 2/06, p.47)(http://help.com/post/275760-why-is-benjamin-franklin-important)

1785 Nov 17, Church of England was organized in New England.
(MC, 11/17/01)

1785 Nov 21, William Beaumont, surgeon, was born. He later studied digestion by peering through a natural opening of the stomach wall in a young Indian in Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin.
(MC, 11/21/01)

1785 Nov 23, John Hancock was elected President of the Continental Congress for the second time.
(HN, 11/23/98)

1785 Dec 8, Antonio Maria Mazzoni (68), composer, died.
(MC, 12/8/01)

1785 Dec 26, Laurent Clerc, teacher, was born: 1st deaf teacher in U.S., helped establish American School for the Deaf in Connecticut.

1785 Dec 29, Johann Heinrich Rolle (69), composer, died.
(MC, 12/29/01)

1785 Jean-Antoine Houdon sculpted a white marble bust of the Marquis de Condorcet.
(WSJ, 8/26/97, p.A14)

1785 Romney painted Emma, Lady Hamilton, the passion of sea-hero Nelson.
(SFEC, 2/1/98, p.T8)

1785 James Madison wrote the petition “Memorial and Remonstrance” for circulation in Virginia to oppose the use of public funds for Christian education.
(WSJ, 9/1/99, p.A24)

1785 William Paley (1743-1805), an orthodox Anglican and conservative moral and political thinker, published “The Principles of Moral and Political Philosophy.”

1785 US Congress decided that the country‘s monetary system would be based on a silver coin called a dollar, similar to that of the Spanish dollar. The first American silver dollar was minted in 1794.
(HNQ, 1/5/00)

1785 John Adams, the new US ambassador to Britain, presented himself to King George.
(Econ, 1/28/06, p.80)
1785 Thomas Jefferson succeeded Benjamin Franklin as US ambassador to France.

1785 The American Continental Congress’ Land Grant Act of 1785 set aside land for schools. In anticipation of the country expanding with new states, the Continental Congress took possession of all land won during the Revolution, dividing it into 640-acre sections and selling it for $1 an acre. Thirty-six sections comprised a township, and within each township, one section was set aside to support public schools.
(HNQ, 4/3/99)

1785 The University of Georgia was the first state university chartered, in 1785, but was not established until 1801. The University of North Carolina was chartered in 1789 and was the first state university in the U.S. to begin instruction, in 1795.
(HNQ, 12/3/01)

1785 Barbary pirates seized American ships and imprisoned their crew in Algiers for 11 years. Military and ransom operations raised issues of Congressional approval and appropriations that bedeviled Thomas Jefferson as both Sec. of State and as president. The issue is covered in the 1997 book: Separating Power: Essays on the Founding Period” by Gerhard Casper.
(SFEC, 1/4/98, BR p.9)

1785 James Hutton presented his Theory of the Earth. Here he formulated the principle of “uniformitarianism,” which stated that geological features were understandable as having resulted from processes still occurring (i.e. volcanism, erosion, and deposition). Hutton had studied physiology at Leyden and wrote his thesis on the circulation of the blood. He wrote of Earth as a kind of super-organism, whose proper study is planetary physiology.
(RFH-MDHP, p.70)(DD-EVTT, p.16)(NOHY, 3/90, p.192)

1785 Manual Gonzalez, the 3rd mayor of Pueblo San Jose de Guadelupe (California), conscripted local residents to build the town’s 1st City Hall.
(SFC, 8/10/05, p.B4)

1785 Prince George of England after mentioning to his wife that he liked her right eye, was presented with a Christmas painting of the eye. It started a London fad and eye paintings flourished for a brief time.
(SFEC, 10/5/97, Z1 p.6)
1785 Major John Money (1752–1817) took off in a balloon from Norwich, in an attempt to raise money for the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital. He passed over Lowestoft at 6pm and came down about 18 miles (29 km) into the North Sea and was saved by a revenue cutter about five hours later.
(Econ, 5/11/13, p.89)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_ballooning)
1785 Lt. Col. John Money set up a British balloon observation corps, but it did not gain much support.

1785 In Canada Loyalist graduates of Harvard and King’s College founded the Univ. of New Brunswick.
(SFEC, 5/25/97, p.T7)

1785 Chechen people launched an armed struggle for freedom and independence under the leadership of Sheikh Mansur.

1785 Marie-Joseph de Condorcet (1743-1794), French philosopher and mathematician, wrote the “Essay on the Application of Analysis to the Probability of Majority Decisions,” one of his most important works. This work described several now famous results, including Condorcet’s jury theorem, which states that if each member of a voting group is more likely than not to make a correct decision, the probability that the highest vote of the group is the correct decision increases as the number of members of the group increases.
1785 The Marquis de Sade (1740-1814) authored “The 120 Days of Sodom.” It tells the story of four wealthy male libertines who resolve to experience the ultimate sexual gratification in orgies.

1785 In Sweden the first Illis Quorum Meruere Labores (For Those Whose Labors Have Deserved It), a gold medal, was awarded.
(NH, 4/97, p.31)



Timeline of the Eighteenth Century: 1775-1799 2

1785 In Sweden the first Illis Quorum Meruere Labores (For Those Whose Labors Have Deserved It), a gold medal, was awarded.
(NH, 4/97, p.31)

1785-1812 This period in the life of Martha Ballard, Maine herbalist and mid-wife, was covered by Ballard in her diaries and later uncovered by historian Laurel Thatcher Ulrich and portrayed in a 1998 TV documentary for “The American Experience.”
(WSJ, 1/8/98, p.A7)

1786 Jan 4, Mozes Mendelssohn (56), Jewish-German philosopher (Haksalah), died.
(MC, 1/4/02)

1786 Jan 8, Nicholas Biddle, head of the first United States bank, was born.
(HN, 1/8/99)

1786 Jan 16, The Council of Virginia passed the Virginia Act for Establishing Religious Freedom. Thomas Jefferson had drafted The Virginia Act for Establishing Religious Freedom in 1779 three years after he wrote the Declaration of Independence.
(HN, 1/16/99)(WSJ, 12/14/02, p.W17)(http://religiousfreedom.lib.virginia.edu/sacred/vaact.html)

1786 Jan 26, Benjamin Robert Haydon, painter (Waiting for The Times, Wordsworth Ascending), was born in Plymouth.
(MC, 1/26/02)

1786 Feb 24, Wilhelm Carl Grimm (d.1859), compiler of “Grimm’s Fairytales,” was born in Germany.
(HN, 2/24/98)(WUD, 1994, p.623)
1786 Feb 24, Charles Cornwallis, whose armies had surrendered to US at Yorktown, was appointed governor-general of India. [see Sep 12]
(MC, 2/24/02)

1786 Mar 22, Joachim Lelevelis was born in Warsaw. He became a renowned historian and Prof. at Vilnius Univ. He died May 29, 1861 in Paris.
(LHC, 3/22/03)

c1786 Apr 6, Sacagawea (also Sacajawea), American explorer, was born.
(HN, 4/6/01)

1786 Apr 16, Sir John Franklin, arctic explorer, was born. He discovered the North-West Passage.
(HN, 4/16/99)

1786 Apr 20, John Goodricke (21), English deaf and dumb astronomer, died.
(MC, 4/20/02)

1786 Apr, The process of moving the bones from the Cemetery of the Innocents to the new site in the limestone quarries began. The process took 2 years. The Revolutionary Government of Paris had decided to relieve congestion and improve sanitary conditions by emptying the city cemeteries into an official ossuary. The Cemetery of the Innocents and other church cemeteries were moved to the limestone quarries south of the city.
(Hem., 3/97, p.129)(SSFC, 11/12/06, p.G3)

1786 May 1, The opera “The Marriage of Figaro,” by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, premiered in Vienna.
(AP, 5/1/97)

1786 May 19, John Stanley (74), composer, died.
(MC, 5/19/02)

1786 May 21, Carl W. Scheele (43), Swedish pharmacist, chemist, died.
(MC, 5/21/02)

1786 Jun 13, Winfield Scott, U.S. Army general famous for his victories in the War of 1812 and the War with Mexico, was born.
(HN, 6/13/98)

1786 Jun 19, Gen. Nathanael Greene died of sunstroke at his Georgia plantation. In 1960 Theodore Thayer authored “Nathanael Greene, Strategist of the American Revolution.” In 1973 William Johnson authored “Life and Correspondence of Nathanael Greene.”
(ON, 12/01, p.12)

1786 Jul 11, Morocco agreed to stop attacking American ships in the Mediterranean for a payment of $10,000.
(HN, 7/11/98)

1786 Jul 24, Jean-Louis Nicollet, French explorer, was born.
(HN, 7/24/02)

1786 Aug 8, The US Congress adopted the silver dollar and decimal system of money.
(MC, 8/8/02)
1786 Aug 8, Jacques Balmat and Dr. Michel-Gabriel Paccard became the first men to climb Mont Blanc in France.
(HN, 8/8/98)(ON, 4/04, p.1)

1786 Aug 17, Davy Crockett, American frontiersman and politician who died in the defense of the Alamo, was born.
(HN, 8/17/98)
1786 Aug 17, Frederick the Great (b.1712) died. In 2000 Giles MacDonogh authored “Frederick the Great.” In 2001 David Fraser authored “Frederick the Great: King of Prussia.” In 2015 Tim Blanning authored “Frederick the Great: King of Prussia.”
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_the_Great)(WSJ, 4/27/00, p.A24)(Econ, 9/12/15, p.77)(http://tinyurl.com/qeeh657)

1786 Aug 25, Ludwig I (d.1868), King of Bavaria, was born. He later had an affair with international courtesan, Lola Montez.
(MC, 8/25/02)

1786 Aug 29, Shays’ Rebellion began in Springfield, Mass. Daniel Shays led a rebellion in Massachusetts to protest the seizure of property for the non-payment of debt. Shays was a Revolutionary War veteran who led a short-lived insurrection in western Massachusetts to protest a tax increase that had to be paid in cash, a hardship for veteran farmers who relied on barter and didn‘t own enough land to vote. The taxes were to pay off the debts from the Revolutionary War, and those who couldn‘t pay were evicted or sent to prison. [see Jan 25, 1787]
(HNQ, 7/6/00)(www.shaysnet.com/dshays.html)(SFC, 8/3/16, p.A5)

1786 Sep 9, George Washington called for the abolition of slavery.
(HN, 9/9/98)

1786 Sep 11, The US Convention of Annapolis opened with the aim of revising the articles of confederation.
(HN, 9/11/98)

1786 Sep 12, Despite his failed efforts to suppress the American Revolution, Lord Cornwallis was appointed governor general of India. [see Feb 24]
(HN, 9/12/98)

1786 Sep 14, Two French ships appeared off the coast of Monterey, the first foreign vessels to visit Spain’s California colonies. Aboard was a party of eminent scientists, navigators, cartographers, illustrators, and physicians. For the next ten days Jean Francois de La Pérouse, the commander of this expedition, took detailed notes on the life and character of the area. Perouse’s notes were later published under the title “Life in a California Mission: Monterey in 1786: The Journals of Jean Francois De LA Perouse.”

1786 Sep 26, France and Britain signed a trade agreement in London.
(HN, 9/26/99)

1786 Oct 20, Harvard University organized the 1st astronomical expedition in US.
(MC, 10/20/01)

1786 Nov 18, Karl Maria Friedrich Ernst von Weber, German composer (Der Freischutz), was born.
(MC, 11/18/01)

1786 Dec 18, Carl Maria von Weber, German romantic composer (Der Freischutz), was born.
(MC, 12/18/01)

1786 Dec 20, Pietro Raimondi, composer, was born.
(MC, 12/20/01)

1786 Dec 26, Daniel Shays led a rebellion in Massachusetts to protest the seizure of property for the non-payment of debt. Shays was a Revolutionary War veteran who led a short-lived insurrection in western Massachusetts to protest a tax increase that had to be paid in cash, a hardship for veteran farmers who relied on barter and didn‘t own enough land to vote. The taxes were to pay off the debts from the Revolutionary War, and those who couldn‘t pay were evicted or sent to prison. [see Jan 25, 1787]
(HN, 12/26/98)(HNQ, 7/6/00)

1786 Scotsman Gregor MacGregor (d.1845), later known as His Serene Highness Gregor I, Prince of Poyais, was born in Scotland. [see 1811]
(SSFC, 1/18/04, p.M2)(WSJ, 1/30/04, p.W9)

1786 Andres Lopez of Mexico painted “Sacred Heart of Jesus.”
(WSJ, 3/3/98, p.A16)

1786 George Morland painted “The Wreck of the Haswell.”
(WSJ, 9/3/98, p.A20)

1786 Tiepolo painted “The Third Temptation of Jesus.”
(SSFC, 12/17/06, p.M6)

1786 Robert Burns published his first book of poetry in Kilmarnock, Scotland.
(SFC, 9/30/98, Z1 p.3)

1786 Nicolas-Edme Restif de la Bretonne began writing in a new genre, the nighttime prowl. His “Les Nuits de Paris ou Le Spectateur nocturne” was a rambling account of 1,001 nights wandering the streets of Paris.
(SFCM, 10/14/01, p.35)

1786 Relations were formalized with the Moroccan–American Treaty of Friendship negotiated by Thomas Barclay, and signed by Thomas Jefferson, John Adams and Muhammad III.

1786 Rev. Henry Channing gave a sermon on the occasion of the hanging of a 12-year old mulatto girl, Hannah Ocuish, in New London, Connecticut.
(LSA., Fall 1995, p.20)

1786 Mission Santa Barbara in California was founded as a place for the Franciscan friars to assemble and convert the native Chumash Indians.
(SFEC, 5/4/97, p.T6)

1786 Encke, the most frequent visiting comet was first observed. Its period is only 3.3 years. NASA planned a rendezvous for 1984.
(NG, Aug., 1974, p.223)

1786 Meg Nicholson (d.1828) attempted to stab King George III. She was sent to Bedlam and died there at age 77.
(WSJ, 1/29/03, p.D10)
1786 William Playfair, Scottish draughtsman for James Watt, produced an “atlas” of Britain using 44 charts and no maps. It was titled “The Commercial and Political Atlas: Representing, by Means of Stained Copper-Plate Charts, the Progress of the Commerce, Revenues, Expenditure and Debts of England during the Whole of the Eighteenth Century.”
(Econ, 1/8/05, p.75)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Playfair)

1786 French explorer Jean-Francois de Galaup de la Perouse set foot near Makena Beach on the Hawaiian island of Maui.
(SFEC, 9/7/97, p.T5)

1786 Capt. Francis Light landed in Penang (Malaysia) and built Fort Cornwallis. Light, acting on behalf of the East India Company, swindled the island from the ruling sultan with a promise of protection. The British usurped the land to break the Dutch monopoly on the spice trade.
(SFEC, 8/3/97, p.T8)(SFEM, 12/19/99, p.8)(SFC, 12/8/05, p.E7)

1786 Muscat became the capital of Oman with the ascendance of the Al Busaid dynasty.
(www.marktoursoman.com/tours/showDestination.php)(SSFC, 6/9/13, Par p.16)

1786 Graaff-Reinet, the major town of the Easter Karoo in South Africa, was founded.
(Nat. Hist., 3/96, p.60)

1786 The secretive Swedish Academy was established by King Gustav III. It is not a government agency and its statutes say once a member is elected he or she cannot step down. The academy was set up to safeguard the Swedish language. It was later assigned to pick the winner of the Nobel Prize only in the field of literature.
(Reuters, 4/18/18)(Reuters, 3/5/19)

1786-1859 Marceline Desbordes-Valmore, French actress and poet: “Who will give me back those days when life had wings and flew just like a skylark in the sky.”
(AP, 2/28/99)

1787 Jan 11, Titania and Oberon, moons of Uranus, were discovered by William Herschel.

1787 Jan 25, Shays’ Rebellion suffered a setback when debt-ridden farmers led by Capt. Daniel Shays failed to capture an arsenal at Springfield, Mass. Small farmers in Springfield, Massachusetts led by Daniel Shays continued their revolt against tax laws. Federal troops broke up the protesters of what later became known as Shays’ Rebellion. [see Aug 29, 1786]
(AP, 1/25/98)(HN, 1/25/99)(www.sjchs-history.org/Shays.html)

1787 Feb 4, Shays’ Rebellion, an uprising of debt-ridden Massachusetts farmers, failed.
(HN, 2/4/99)

1787 Feb 18, Austrian emperor Josef II banned children under 8 from labor.
(MC, 2/18/02)

1787 Feb 23, Emma Hart Willard, pioneer in higher education for women, was born.
(HN, 2/23/98)

1787 Mar 8, Karl Ferdinand von Grafe was born. He helped create modern plastic surgery.
(MC, 3/8/02)

1787 Mar 16, George S. Ohm, German scientist, was born. He gave his name to the ohm unit of electrical resistance. [HN later said Mar 16, 1789]
(HN, 3/16/99)(WUD, 1994 p.1001)

1787 Apr 12, Philadelphia’s Free African Society formed.
(MC, 4/12/02)

1787 May 10, The British Parliament impeached Warren Hastings. There was an effort to impeach the governor-general of India. Edmund Burke indicted Warren Hastings, governor-general of India (1773-1785), on 21 charges for high crimes and misdemeanors. The trial lasted 7 years and Hastings was acquitted on all charges.
(SFEC, 11/1/98, BR p.11)(WSJ, 5/1/00, p.A24)(MC, 5/10/02)

1787 May 13, Arthur Phillip set sail from Portsmouth, Great Britain, with 11 ships of criminals to Australia. By year’s end some 50,000 British convict servants were transported to the American colonies in commutation of death sentences. After the American Revolution, Britain continued dumping convicts in the US illegally into 1787. Australia eventually replaced America for this purpose. Penal transports continued until 1853, which left a remarkable legacy: an almost totally unexplored continent settled largely by convicted felons.
(HNQ, 1/24/99)(www.foundingdocs.gov.au/item.asp?dID=35)

1787 May 14, Delegates began gathering in Philadelphia for a convention to draw up the U.S. Constitution.
(AP, 5/14/97)

1787 May 25, The Constitutional Convention convened in Philadelphia after enough delegates showed up for a quorum. The Founding Fathers turned to the Rushworth’s Collections of England for revolutionary precedents. George Washington presided. [see May 25, 1777] Rhode Island refused to send delegates.
(AP, 5/25/97)(WSJ, 3/10/99, p.A22)(HN, 5/25/99)(Econ, 9/16/06, p.44)

1787 May 28, Johann Georg Leopold Mozart (67), Austrian composer, died.
(MC, 5/28/02)

1787 May 29, The “Virginia Plan” was proposed.
(SC, 5/29/02)

1787 May, Eight ships left Great Britain carrying the first of what would be the largest transportation of convicts in history to Botany Bay in New South Wales, Australia. Penal transports continued until 1853, which left a remarkable legacy: an almost totally unexplored continent settled largely by convicted felons.

1787 Jun 28, Sir Henry G. W. Smith, leader of British-Indian forces, was born.
(HN, 6/28/98)

1787 Jul 2, The Marquis de Sade shouted from Bastille that prisoners were being slaughtered.
(SC, 7/2/02)

1787 Jul 13, Congress, under the Articles of Confederation, enacted the Northwest Ordinance, establishing rules for governing the Northwest Territory, for admitting new states to the Union and limiting the expansion of slavery.
(AP, 7/13/97)(HN, 7/13/98)

1787 Jul 30, The French parliament refused to approve a more equitable land tax.
(HN, 7/30/98)

1787 Jul, The US Congress ratified the 1786 American-Moroccan Treaty of Peace and Friendship.

1787 Aug 2, Horace de Saussure, Swiss scientist, reached the top of Mont Blanc.
(MC, 8/2/02)

1787 Aug 6, The Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia began to debate the articles contained in a draft of the United States Constitution.
(AP, 8/6/97)

1787 Aug 10, Mozart completed his “Eine Kleine Nachtmusik.”
(MC, 8/10/02)

1787 Aug 13, The Ottoman Empire declared war on Russia.
(HN, 8/13/98)

1787 Aug 17, Jews were granted permission in Budapest, Hungary, to pray in groups.
(SC, 8/17/02)

1787 Aug 22, Inventor John Fitch demonstrated his steamboat, the Perseverance, on the Delaware River to delegates of the Continental Congress. In 2004 Andrea Sutcliffe authored “Steam: The Untold Story of America’s First Great Invention.”
(AP, 8/22/99)(WSJ, 7/27/04, p.D10)

1787 Aug 24, Wolfgang A. Mozart completed his viola sonata in A, K526.
(MC, 8/24/02)

1787 Sep 4, Louis XVI of France recalled parliament.
(HN, 9/4/98)

1787 Sep 17, The Constitution of the United States was completed and signed by a majority of delegates (12) attending the constitutional convention in Philadelphia. The US Constitution went into effect on Mar 4, 1789. Clause 3 of Article I, Section 8 empowered Congress to “regulate Commerce with foreign nations, among the several states, and with the Indian Tribes.” Two of the signers went on to become presidents of the United States. George Washington, the president of the Constitutional Convention, and James Madison both signed the Constitution. The US Constitution is the world’s oldest working Constitution. George Mason of Virginia refused to sign the document because he thought it made the federal government too powerful believed that it should contain a Bill of Rights.
(AP, 9/17/97)(WUD, 1994, p.314)(WSJ, 4/9/99, p.W17)(HNQ, 5/19/99)(WSJ, 3/31/06, p.A1)
1787 Sep 17, The US Constitution included the Connecticut, or “Great,” Compromise in which every state was conceded an equal vote in the Senate irrespective of its size, but representation in the House was to be on the basis of the “federal ratio,” an enumeration of the free population plus three fifths of the slaves.
(SSFC, 11/2/03, p.M6)
1787 Sep 17, The “College of Electors” (electoral college) was established at the Constitutional Convention with representatives to be chosen by the states. Pierce Butler of South Carolina first proposed the electoral college system. [see Sep 13, 1788]
(SFC, 11/9/00, p.A14)(WSJ, 11/9/00, p.A26)
1787 Sep 17, The Electoral College, proposed by James Wilson, was the compromise that the Constitutional Convention reached. In 2004 George C. Edwards III authored “Why the Electoral College Is Bad for America.”
(www.usconstitution.net/consttop_elec.html)(SSFC, 10/17/04, p.M3)

1787 Sep 27, The US Constitution was submitted to states for ratification. [see Sep 28]
(MC, 9/27/01)

1787 Sep 28, Congress voted to send the just-completed Constitution of the United States to state legislatures for their approval. [see Sep 27]
(AP, 9/28/97)

1787 Oct 27, The first of the Federalist Papers, a series of 77 essays calling for ratification of the U.S. Constitution, was published in a New York newspaper. The essays by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and John Jay were written under the pseudonym “Publius” and later published as “The Federalist Papers.”
(AP, 10/27/97)(WSJ, 11/19/98, p.A1)(WSJ, 12/29/07, p.A8)

1787 Oct 29, Mozart’s opera Don Giovanni opened in Prague. Don Giovanni was first performed at the Prague’s Estates Theater with Mozart at the piano and conducting the orchestra. It was a sensational success.
(V.D.-H.K.p.236)(SFC, 4/14/96, T-12)(HN, 10/29/00)

1787 Nov 15, Christoph W. Ritter von Gluck (73), composer (Iphigenie Tauride), died.
(MC, 11/15/01)

1787 Nov 18, Louis-Jacques Daguerre, French painter (daguerreotype), was born.
(MC, 11/18/01)
1787 Nov 18, Sojourner Truth, abolitionist and feminist, was born. [see Nov 19]
(MC, 11/18/01)
1787 Nov 18, The 1st Unitarian minister in US was ordained in Boston.
(MC, 11/18/01)

1797 Nov 19, Sojourner Truth (d.1883), abolitionist and women’s rights advocate, was born. “Religion without humanity is a poor human stuff.” [see Nov 18]
(HN, 11/19/98)(AP, 10/29/00)

1787 Nov 21, Samuel Cunard (d.1865), founder of the 1st regular Atlantic steamship line, was born in Canada.
(MC, 11/21/01)(WSJ, 7/1/03, p.D8)

1787 Nov 23, Anton Schweitzer (52), composer, died.
(MC, 11/23/01)

1787 Nov 25, Franz Xavier Gruber, Austria, organist and composer (Silent Night), was born.
(MC, 11/25/01)

1787 Nov 29, In France Louis XVI promulgated an edict of tolerance, granting civil status to Protestants.
(HN, 11/29/98)(WSJ, 11/1/01, p.A19)

1787 Dec 7, Delaware became the first state to ratify the U.S. Constitution.
(AP, 12/7/97)

1787 Dec 10, Thomas H. Gallaudet, a pioneer of educating the deaf, was born in Philadelphia.
(AP, 12/10/07)

1787 Dec 12, Pennsylvania became the second state to ratify the U.S. Constitution.
(AP, 12/12/97)

1787 Dec 18, New Jersey became the third state to ratify the U.S. Constitution.
(AP, 12/18/97)

1787 Dec, William Wilberforce, on the suggestion of PM William Pitt, introduced a motion in British Parliament for the abolition of the slave trade.
(ON, 4/05, p.2)

1787 Robert Barker, an Irish painter, is credited with inventing the panorama and patented the idea in this year.
(WSJ, 9/3/98, p.A20)
1787 Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) authored “Panopticon,” a plan for prison construction and management.
(SSFC, 9/12/04, p.M1)(http://cartome.org/panopticon2.htm)
1787 Peter Markoe (1752?-1792) authored “An Algerine Spy in Pennsylvania.” His satirical provocation helped to push the US Congress authorized a Navy and to dispatch Marines to subdue the pirates of Tripoli.
(WSJ, 6/2/07, p.P8)
1787 The Mission La Purisima Concepcion in Lompoc, Ca., was founded. It is now a 900 acre state park. (AWAM, Dec. 94, p.67)
1787 Rev. Richard Allen and Absalom Jones decided to form the Free African Society, a non-denominational religious mutual aid society for the black community. Eventually this society grew into the African Church of Philadelphia.
1787 Quatremiere de Quincy coined the term “Baroque” and defined it as absurdity carried to excess.
(WSJ, 8/18/99, p.A17)

1787 George Washington at this time owned some 30,000 acres in the West.
(Econ, 5/9/15, p.79)

1787 Alexander Hamilton sponsored a New York law that recognized adultery as the only ground for divorce. It remained in force until 1967.
(WSJ, 8/6/07, p.B1)

1787 Thomas Jefferson toured Bordeaux while serving as US ambassador to France. He purchased cases Haut-Brion, d’Yquiem, and Margaux for himself and George Washington.
(WSJ, 9/1/06, p.A9)

1787 In the US the Northwest Ordinance abolished slavery and marked the establishment of segregation and separate churches for blacks. It included the sentence: “Religion, morality and knowledge are necessary to good government…”
(SFC, 6/24/96, p.A19)

1787 A private mint struck the first penny. It was 100% copper and known as the Fugio cent.
(USAT, 7/19/01, p.3A)
1787 Ephraim Brasher, a goldsmith living in the Cherry Hill district of NYC, began minting gold doubloons, valued at $15, as currency for the new United States. In 1947 the film The Brasher Doubloon” was made based on a detective by novel Raymond Chandler. In 2011 a Brasher doubloon was sold for $7.4 million.
(SFC, 12/15/11, p.A1)

1787 The first left and right shoes were made.
(SFEC, 1/30/00, Z1 p.2)

1787 The younger brother of William Blake, Robert, died. His death deeply affected William and marked the genesis of Blake’s Illuminated Works.
(LSA, Spring 1995, p.17)

1887 In Argentina the last census to include blacks as a separate category indicated that about 2% of the population in Buenos Aires was African.
(SSFC, 11/27/05, p.A24)

1787 Granville Sharp, English abolitionist, formed the Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade.
(ON, 12/08, p.9)
1787 Thomas Clarkson, deacon in the Church of England, led the formation of the original abolitionist committee, the interdenominational “Committee to Effect the Abolition of the Slave Trade.” His anti-slavery committee distributed 1,000 copies of “A Letter to our Friends in the Country, to inform them of the state of the Business.” This was later considered as possibly the 1st direct-mail fund-raising letter. In 2004 Adam Hochschild authored “Bury the Chains: Prophets and Rebels in the Fight to Free an Empire’s Slaves.”
(SSFC, 1/23/05, p.F1)(ON, 4/05, p.1)
1787 Henry Hobhouse, a Bristol slave trader, bought the Hadspen country house in Somerset, England, and rebuilt it.
(Econ, 5/3/08, p.23)
1787 English ships transported some 38,000 slaves this year.
(Econ, 12/23/06, p.93)
1787 British settlers bought land from African tribal leaders in Sierra Leone and used it as a haven for freed African slaves. The indigenous community, dominated by the Mende, wiped out the first settlers. A 2nd group followed in 1792. The settlers intermarried but held themselves aloof, monopolized power and discriminated against the original population. In 2005 Simon Schama authored “Rough Crossings: Britain, the Slaves and the American Revolution.”
(SFC, 3/11/98, p.A10)(SFC, 2/14/98, p.A8)(WSJ, 5/31/00, p.A26)(Econ, 8/27/05, p.66)(MT, summer 2003, p.8)
1787 Gen. Thomas Gage, former commander of British forces in North America, died at age 66. In 1948 John Richard Alden authored “General Gage in America.”
(ON, 3/01, p.4)

1787 Carl Axel Arrhenius discovered the mineral ytterbite in Ytterby, Sweden. Two years later yttrium oxide was found in the sample and named. It took another 329 years for yttrium, a rare earth element, to be isolated from its oxide.
(SSFC, 11/25/12, p.E7)

1787 Nguyen Khan (b.1734), Annamese official and poet, died in Vietnam.

1787-1826 Joseph von Fraunhofer, German physicist, using advanced optical techniques, found that the spectrum of Newton’s rainbow ribbon is marred by a large number of thin dark crosslines. The lines are called Fraunhofer lines but were not explained until the work of Kirchoff 50 years later.
(SCTS, p.6)

1787-1863 Richard Whately, British theologian: “Honesty is the best policy, but he who acts on that principle is not an honest man.”
(AP, 1/24/01)

1787-1948 William Herschel and other astronomers spotted 5 moons circling Uranus during this period.
(SFC, 12/23/05, p.A4)

1788 Jan 1, London’s Daily Universal Register began publishing as The Times.
1788 Jan 1, Quakers in Pennsylvania emancipated their slaves.
(MC, 1/1/02)

1788 Jan 2, Georgia became the fourth state to ratify the U.S. Constitution.
(HFA, ’96, p.22)(AP, 1/2/98)

1788 Jan 9, Connecticut became the fifth state to ratify the U.S. Constitution.
(AP, 1/9/99)

1788 Jan 18, The first English settlers arrived in Australia’s Botany Bay to establish a penal colony. They found the location unsuitable and Capt. Arthur Philip moved on to Sydney Cove. England sent the first sheep along with convicts to Australia.
(NG, 5.1988, pp. 575)(SFEC, 1/4/98, p.T4)(AP, 1/18/98)(Econ, 5/7/05, Survey p.14)

1788 Jan 20, The pioneer African Baptist church was organized in Savannah, Ga.
(MC, 1/20/02)

1788 Jan 22, George Gordon (d.1824), (6th Baron Byron) aka Lord Byron, English poet, was born with a deformed foot. His work included “Lara,” “Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage” and “Don Juan.” He died in Greece at Missolonghi on the gulf of Patras preparing to fight for Greek independence. In 1997 the biography: “Byron: The flawed Angel” by Phyllis Grosskurth was published.
(WUD, 1994, p.204,917)(SFC, 6/9/97, p.D3)(SFEC, 11/15/98, Z1 p.10)(HN, 1/22/99)

1788 Jan 26, The 1st fleet of ships carrying 736 convicts from England landed at Sydney Cove, New South Wales, Australia. The first European settlers in Australia, led by Capt. Arthur Phillip, landed in present-day Sydney. The day is since known as Australia’s national day. In 2006 Thomas Keneally authored “The Commonwealth of Thieves: The Story of the Founding of Australia.”
(AP, 1/26/98)(HN, 1/26/99)(WSJ, 9/19/00, p.A1)(Econ, 7/15/06, p.83)

1788 Jan 31, Charles Edward Stuart (67), The Young Pretender, died.
(HN, 1/31/99)(MC, 1/31/02)

1788 Feb 1, Isaac Briggs and William Longstreet patented the steamboat on this day.
(440 Int’l, 2/1/1999)

1788 Feb 5, Sir Robert Peel (d.1850), British prime minister through the early 1800s, was born. He founded the Conservative Party and the London Police Force whose officers were called “bobbies.”
(HN, 2/5/99)(Econ, 6/30/07, p.93)

1788 Feb 6, Massachusetts became the sixth state to ratify the U.S. Constitution.
(AP, 2/6/97)(HN, 2/6/99)

1788 Feb 22, Arthur Schopenhauer (d.1860), German philosopher (Great Pessimist), was born: “Hatred comes from the heart; contempt from the head; and neither feeling is quite within our control.”
(AP, 12/9/99)(MC, 2/22/02)

1788 Mar 7, Alexander Hamilton published his Federalist Paper 65 in the New York Packet. It discussed the subject of impeachment.
(USAT, 9/14/98, p.4A)

1788 Mar 21, Almost the entire city of New Orleans, Louisiana, was destroyed by fire. 856 buildings were burned.
(HN, 3/21/99)(MC, 3/21/02)

1788 Mar 29, Charles Wesley, hymn writer and brother of John Wesley, died.
(MC, 3/29/02)(WSJ, 6/13/03, p.W19)

1788 Apr 4, Last of the Federalist essays was published. The series of 85 letters were written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay urging ratification of the US Constitution. Defects in the Articles of Confederation became apparent, such as the lack of central authority over foreign and domestic commerce and the inability of Congress to levy taxes, leading Congress to endorse a plan to draft a new constitution.
(MC, 4/4/02)

1788 Apr 5, Franz Pforr, German painter, cartoonist (Lukasbund), was born.
(MC, 4/5/02)

1788 Apr 12, Carlo Antonio Campioni (67), composer, died.
(MC, 4/12/02)

1788 Apr 15, Mary Delany (b.1700), English artist and writer, died. She became known for her “Flora Delanica,” a collection of 985 botanically accurate portraits of flowers in bloom. In 2011 Molly Peacock authored “”The Paper Garden: An Artist Begins Her Life’s work at 72.”
(Econ, 6/11/11, p.86)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_Delany)

1788 Apr 28, Maryland became the seventh state to ratify the US constitution, but on condition that a Bill of Rights be added.
(AP, 4/28/07)(WSJ, 9/20/08, p.A21)

1788 May 10, Augustin-Jean Fresnel, optics pioneer, physicist, was born.
(MC, 5/10/02)

1788 May 18, Hugh Clapperton, African explorer, was born in Annan, Scotland.
(SC, 5/18/02)

1788 May 23, South Carolina became the eighth state to ratify the U. S. Constitution.
(AP, 5/23/97)(HN, 5/23/98)

1788 May 29, Jacques Aliamet (61), French etcher, engraver, died.
(SC, 5/29/02)

1788 Jun 11, The 1st British ship to be built on Pacific coast was begun at Nootka Sound, BC.
(SC, 6/11/02)

1788 Jun 21, The U.S. Constitution went into effect as New Hampshire became the ninth state to ratify it.
(AP, 6/21/97)

1788 Jun 25, Virginia ratified the U.S. Constitution.
(AP, 6/25/97)

1788 Jul 6, Ten thousand troops were called out in Paris as unrest mounted in the poorer districts over poverty and lack of food.
(HN, 7/6/98)

1788 Jul 15, Louis XVI jailed 12 deputies who protest new judicial reforms.
(HN, 7/15/98)

1788 Jul 19, Prices plunged on the Paris stock market.
(HN, 7/19/98)

1788 Jul 20, The governor of the French colony of Pondicherry, Vietnam, abandoned plans to place King Nhuyen Anh back on the throne.
(HN, 7/20/98)

1788 Jul 26, New York became the 11th state to ratify the Constitution.
(AP, 7/26/97)

1788 Aug 2, Thomas Gainsborough (61), English painter, died. His work included the 1771 portraits of the Viscount and Viscountess Ligonier and “Blue Boy.”
(HN, 5/14/01)(AAP, 1964)(MC, 5/14/02)(WSJ, 12/19/02, p.D10)(MC, 8/2/02)

1788 Aug 8, King Louis XVI called the French States and Generals together.
(MC, 8/8/02)
1788 Aug 8, Louis FAD Duke de Richelieu (92), French marshal, died.
(MC, 8/8/02)

1788 Aug 27, Jacques Neeker was named French minister of Finance.
(MC, 8/27/01)

1788 Sep 13, The Congress of the Confederation authorized the first national election, and declared New York City the temporary national capital. The Constitutional Convention authorized the first federal election resolving that electors (electoral college) in all the states will be appointed on January 7, 1789. The Convention decreed that the first federal election would be held on the first Wednesday in February of the following year.
(AP, 9/13/97)(HN, 9/13/00)

1788 Sep 15, An alliance between Britain, Prussia and the Netherlands was ratified at the Hague.
(HN, 9/15/99)

1788 Sep 19, Charles de Barentin became lord chancellor of France.
(HN, 9/19/98)

1788 Sep 22, Theodore Hook, English novelist best known for “Impromptu at Fulham,” was born.
(HN, 9/22/98)

1788 Sep 23, Louis XVI of France declared the Parliament restored.
(HN, 9/23/98)

1788 Sep 24, After having been dissolved, the French Parliament of Paris reassembled in triumph.
(HN, 9/24/98)

1788 Oct 6, The Polish Diet decided to hold a four year session.
(HN, 10/6/98)

1788 Oct 24, Sarah Josepha Hale, magazine editor and poet whose book Poems for Our Children included “Mary Had a Little Lamb” (the first words to be recorded in sound), was born.
(HN, 10/24/98)

1788 Dec 18, Camille Pleyel, Austrian piano builder and composer, was born.
(MC, 12/18/01)

1788 Dec 23, Maryland voted to cede a 100-square-mile area for the seat of the national government; about two-thirds of the area became the District of Columbia.
(AP, 12/23/97)

1788 Dec 30, Francesco Zuccarelli (86), Italian rococo painter and etcher, died.
(MC, 12/30/01)

1788 Pierre-Paul Prud’hon (1758-1823), French artist, painted “Love Seduces Innocence, Pleasure Entraps, and Remorse Follows.”
(WSJ, 4/8/98, p.A20)

1788 Virginia’s state Capitol was completed.
(SFC, 5/10/13, p.E3)

1788 John Adams published “A Defense of the Constitutions.”
(WSJ, 12/22/98, p.A16)

1788 “The Narrative of John Blanchford” was published. Blanchford (15), a Massachusetts cabin-boy, had been captured by the British and sent to prison in Halifax and later to Sumatra from where he escaped after a 6 year ordeal.
(ON, 1/00, p.5)

1788 “The Art of Cookery, Made Plain and Easy” by Hannah Glasse was published in London.
(SFC, 5/4/05, p.G10)

1788 Mozart’s Don Giovanni was performed in conservative Vienna but was not a success.

1788 Mozart composed his 41st symphony titled by his publisher as the Jupiter.
(T&L, 10/80, p. 103)

1788 Rules were set for the game of cricket.
(Econ, 4/24/04, p.81)

1788 “Buffalo clover… nearly knee-high… afforded a rich pasture.” An image of the fertile frontier penned by historian S.P. Hildreth. After 1907 the clover was unseen until 1989 when it emerged in some topsoil delivered to a botanist’s backyard.
(NG, Jan. 94, p.144)

1788 As British settlers arrived in Australia the native Aborigines are believed to have numbered about 750,000, and to have inhabited Australia for up to 70,000 years.
(AP, 1/30/08)

1788 A botanical garden opened in Puerto de la Cruz on Tenerife Island (Canary Islands).
(SSFC, 4/16/06, p.F7)

1788 A great fire destroyed much of the wooden city of Kyoto, Japan.
(WSJ, 1/25/06, p.D10)(www.city.kyoto.jp/koho/eng/historical/chronology.html)

1788 A salon from Paris of this time was later transferred [c1993] to the Legion of Honor Museum in San Francisco, Ca.
(WSJ, 11/16/95, p.A-18)

1788-1789 King George III suffered a mental breakdown.
(WSJ, 1/29/03, p.A1)

1780-1800 In 2007 Jay Winik authored “The Great Upheaval: America and the Birth of the Modern World, 1788-1800.”
(WSJ, 9/14/07, p.W5)

1788-1865 C.J. Thomson, Danish museum curator, contributed to the Three Age System classification of early man from stone to bronze to iron.
(RFH-MDHP, 1969, p.25)

1789 Jan 7, The first U.S. presidential election was held. Americans voted for electors who, a month later, chose George Washington to be the nation’s first president.
(AP, 1/7/98)

1789 Jan 21, Baron Paul Thierry d’Holbach (b.1723), a French-German author, philosopher, encyclopedist and a prominent figure in the French Enlightenment, died. In 2010 Philipp Blom authored “A Wicked Company: The Forgotten Radicalism of the European Enlightenment,” the story of the Paris salon run by Baron Paul Thierry d’Holbach.
(Econ, 10/30/10, p.90)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baron_d%27Holbach)

1789 Jan 23, Georgetown University was established by Jesuits in present-day Washington, D.C., as the 1st US Catholic college.
(AP, 1/23/98)(MC, 1/23/02)

1789 Feb 2, Armand-Louis Couperin (63), French composer, organist at Notre Dame, died.
(MC, 2/2/02)

1789 Feb 4, Electors unanimously chose George Washington to be the first president of the United States and John Adams as vice-president. The results of the balloting were not counted in the US Senate until two months later. Washington accepted office at the Federal Building of New York. His first cabinet included Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton as first secretary of the Treasury, Henry Knox, and Edmund Randolph.
(A & IP, ESM, p.10)(WSJ, 3/12/97, p.A18)(AP, 2/4/07)

1789 Feb 8, Ludwig Wilhelm Maurer, composer, was born.
(MC, 2/8/02)

1789 Mar 2, Pennsylvania ended the prohibition of theatrical performances.
(SC, 3/2/02)

1789 Mar 4, The Constitution of the United States, framed in 1787, went into effect as the first Federal Congress met in New York City. Lawmakers then adjourned for the lack of a quorum (9 senators, 13 representatives). In 2006 Robert V. Remini, historian of the US House of Representatives, authored “The House.”
(WUD, 1994, p.314)(AP, 3/4/98)(HN, 3/4/98)(SC, 3/4/02)
1789 Mar 4, Pavel P. Gagarin, Russian monarch, was born.
(SC, 3/4/02)

1789 Mar 16, George S. Ohm (d.1854), German scientist, was born. He gave his name to the ohm unit of electrical resistance. [WUD says Mar 16, 1787]
(HN, 3/16/02)(WUD, 1994 p.1001)

1789 Apr 1, The U.S. House of Representatives held its first full meeting, in New York City. Frederick Muhlenberg of Pennsylvania was elected the first House Speaker.
(AP, 4/1/98)

1789 Apr 6, The first US Congress began regular sessions at Federal Hall on Wall Street, NYC.
(HN, 4/6/98)(MC, 4/6/02)

1789 Apr 8, The U.S. House of Representatives held its first meeting.
(HN, 4/8/98)

1789 Apr 16, George Washington left Mount Vernon, Va., for the first presidential inauguration in New York.
(AP, 4/16/97)(HN, 4/16/98)

1789 Apr 21, John Adams was sworn in as the first vice president of the United States.
(AP, 4/21/97)(HN, 4/21/98)

1789 Apr 23, President-elect Washington and his wife moved into the first executive mansion, the Franklin House, in New York. George Washington was inaugurated at Federal Hall and lived at 3 Cherry Street in New York City. In 1790, with construction on the new federal capital underway, the government was moved temporarily to Philadelphia, where Washington served out his two terms. He is the only president who never resided in the White House.
(AP, 4/23/97)(HNPD, 12/22/98)

1789 Apr 28, Fletcher Christian lead a mutiny on the Bounty as the crew of the British ship set Captain William Bligh and 18 sailors adrift in a launch in the South Pacific. Richard Hough later authored: “Captain Bligh and Mr. Christian.”
(AP, 4/28/97)(HN, 4/28/98)(SFC, 10/9/99, p.A20)(MC, 4/28/02)

1789 Apr 30, George Washington was inaugurated and took office in New York as the first president of the United States. He took his oath of office on the balcony of Federal Hall on Wall Street and spoke the words “So help me God,” which all future US presidents have repeated. The oath as prescribed by the Constitution makes no mention of God of the Bible.
(AP, 4/30/97)(HN, 4/30/98)(SSFC, 1/18/09, p.W4)(AH, 4/07, p.31)

1789 May 5, In France the Estates General, summoned by King Louis XVI, convened to repair the national finances. It sat for several weeks in May and June, but came to an impasse as the three Estates clashed over their respective powers. It was brought to an end when many members of the Third Estate formed themselves into a National Assembly, signaling the outbreak of the French Revolution.

1789 May 7, The first inaugural ball was held in New York in honor of President and Mrs. George Washington.
(AP, 5/7/97)

1789 May 10, Joaquim Jose da Silva Xavier, Tiradentes, rebel for Independence, was arrested. He was betrayed by Joaquim Silverio dos Reis, a participant of the movement, in exchange of waiving of his due taxes; Silverio’s name is carved in Brazilian History as The Betrayer.
(SFC, 2/26/99, p.E2)(www.v-brazil.com/culture/historic-characters/tiradentes.html)

1789 May 12, The Society of St. Tammany was formed by Revolutionary War soldiers. It later became an infamous group of NYC political bosses.
(SC, internet, 5/12/97)
1789 May 12, In England William Wilberforce laid out his case for the abolition of slavery to the House of Commons. This speech directly led to Britain’s abolition of slavery in 1807.
(WSJ, 5/12/07, p.P14)

1789 Jun 1, Congress passed its first act which mandated the procedure for administering oaths of public office.
(DTnet 6/1/97)(HN, 6/1/98)

1789 Jun 4, The US constitution, enacted as sovereign law, went into effect.
(V.D.-H.K.p.300)(MC, 6/4/02)

1789 Jun 10, Bernard-Jordan de Launay, military governor of the Bastille, suspended the prisoners’ daily supervised walks outside the Bastille walls.
(ON, 4/01, p.1)

1789 Jun 14, Captain William Bligh of the HMS Bounty arrived in Timor in a small boat.
(HN, 6/14/98)

1789 Jun 17, The Third Estate in France declared itself a national assembly, and undertook to frame a constitution.
(AP, 6/17/97)

1789 Jun 20, Oath on the Tennis Court in Versailles, France, bonded members of the Third Estate to resist eviction until they have a new constitution.
(MC, 6/20/02)

1789 Jul 4, The US passed its first tariff which included a 15% duty on imported nails among other things.
(Maggio)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)

1789 Jul 9, In Versailles, the French National Assembly declared itself the Constituent Assembly and began to prepare a French constitution.
(HN, 7/9/98)

1789 cJul 11, In France just days before the Bastille was taken the tavern keepers and wine merchants of Belleville, angered by levies on food and drink, sacked the local tax collector’s office.
(SFEC, 6/28/98, p.T8)

1789 Jul 13, Parisians rioted over an increase in price of grain. The mob plundered the armories and opened the prison gates of St. Lazare. The King at Versailles refused to withdraw his troops from Paris.
(MC, 7/13/02)

1789 July 14, Bastille Day. Tens of thousands of the citizens of Paris stormed the Bastille, the Paris fortress used as a prison to hold political prisoners, and released the seven prisoners inside at the onset of the French Revolution. Over 100 rioters were killed or wounded. The average Frenchman was 5 foot 2 and weighed 105 pounds. France’s Louis XIV made a diary entry that read “Rien” (nothing). Historian Francois Furet (1927-1997), a leading writer on the French Revolution, was best known for his work: “Critical Dictionary of the French Revolution.” He refuted Marxist interpretations of the events that preceded and followed the fall of the monarchy. In 1939 W. Higgins edited “The French Revolution Told by Contemporaries.”
(AP, 7/14/97)(HN, 7/14/98)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R12)(ON, 4/01, p.1)(Econ, 6/25/05, p.52)(SFC, 7/15/97, p.A18)
1789 Jul 14, The French Revolution. “It was not the literate and cultured minority of Frenchmen who brought down the government, as had been the case in England and America. Instead it was the common people, who marched upon the king and queen in their palace at Versailles. The Jacobins promulgated a Declaration of Rights of Man and of the Citizen that went beyond the American Bill of Rights in affirming, “Nothing that is not forbidden by Law may be hindered, and no one may be compelled to do what the Law does not ordain,” for “Liberty consists in being able to do anything that does not harm others.”
(V.D.-H.K.p.230-231)(SFC, 6/23/96, Z1 p.2)

1789 Jul 15, The electors of Paris set up a “Commune” to live without the authority of the government.
(HN, 7/15/98)

1789 Jul 18, Robespierre, a deputy from Arras, France, decided to back the French Revolution.
(HN, 7/18/98)

1789 Jul 22, Thomas Jefferson became the first head of the U.S. Department of Foreign Affairs.
(HN, 7/22/98)

1789 Jul 23, The Great Fear swept through France as the Revolution continued.
(MC, 7/23/02)

1789 Jul 27, President Washington signed a measure establishing the Department of Foreign Affairs, forerunner of the Department of State.
(AP, 7/27/08)

1789 Aug 4, The Constituent Assembly in France dissolved feudal system by abolishing the privileges of nobility.
(HN, 8/4/98)(MC, 8/4/02)

1789 Aug 7, The U.S. War Department was established by Congress.
(AP, 8/7/97)

1789 Aug 21, Augustin-Louis Baron Cauchy, French mathematician, was born.
(SC, 8/21/02)

1789 Aug 25, Mary Ball Washington, mother of George, died.
(MC, 8/25/02)

1789 Aug 26, The Constituent Assembly in Versailles, France, approved the final version of the Declaration of Human Rights.
(HN, 8/26/99)

1789 Aug 27, French National Assembly issued “Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen.”
(MC, 8/27/01)

1789 Sep 1, Lady Marguerite Blessington, beautiful English socialite and author, was born. She wrote a biography of Lord Byron.
(HN, 9/1/99)

1789 Sep 2, The US Congress created a permanent institution for the management of government finances. The Treasury Department, headed by Alexander Hamilton, was created in New York City and housed in Fraunces Tavern at 54 Pearl St.
(http://tinyurl.com/yd4v7gtb)(AP, 9/2/97)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R43)

1789 Sep 11, Alexander Hamilton was appointed the first U.S. secretary of the treasury. During his tenure, Hamilton established the National Bank, introduced an excise tax, suppressed the Whiskey Rebellion and spearheaded the effort for the federal government to assume the debts of the states. In the presidential election of 1800, Hamilton broke the deadlock between Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr by supporting Jefferson. The enmity between Hamilton and his longtime political enemy Burr grew worse during the 1804 campaign for governor of New York.
(AP, 9/11/97)(HNPD, 1/11/99)

1789 Sep 12, Franz Xaver Richter, composer, died at 79.
(MC, 9/12/01)

1789 Sep 13, Start of the US National Debt as the government took out its first loan, borrowed from the Bank of North America (NYC) at 6 percent interest. The US debt had reached $77 million when Washington became president.
(MC, 9/13/01)(WSJ, 10/1/03, p.B1)
1789 Sep 13, Guardsmen in Orleans, France, opened fire on rioters trying to loot bakeries, killing 90.
(HN, 9/13/98)

1789 Sep 15, James Fenimore Cooper (d.1851), American novelist, was born in Burlington, NJ. He is best known for “The Pioneers” and “Last of the Mohicans.” “The press, like fire, is an excellent servant, but a terrible master.”
(AP, 6/25/97)(HN, 9/15/99)
1789 Sep 15, The U.S. Department of Foreign Affairs was renamed the Department of State.
(AP, 9/15/97)

1789 Sep 16, Jean-Paul Marat set up a new newspaper in France, L’Ami du Peuple (The Friend of the People).
(HN, 9/16/98)(ON, SC, p.7)

1789 Sep 18, The 1st loan was made to pay salaries of the US president & Congress. [see Sep 13]
(MC, 9/18/01)

1789 Sep 22, The US Act 1 Stat. 70 temporarily established a post office and created the Office of the Postmaster General.
(AP, 9/22/97)(www.usps.com/history/his1_5.htm)
1789 Sep 22, Russian forces under Aleksandr Suvorov drove the Turkish army under Yusuf Pasha from the Rymnik River, upsetting the Turkish invasion of Russia.
(HN, 9/22/99)

1789 Sep 24, President George Washington appointed John Jay as the 1st Chief Justice.
(MC, 9/24/01)
1789 Sep 24, The US Federal Judiciary Act was passed. It created a six-person Supreme Court and provided for an Attorney General.
(AP, 9/24/97)(AH, 10/04, p.14)

1789 Sep 25, The First Federal Congress of the United States, meeting in NYC, proposed to the state legislatures twelve amendments to the Constitution. The first two, concerning the number of constituents for each Representative and the compensation of Congressmen, were not ratified.* Articles three through twelve, known as the Bill of Rights, became the first ten amendments to the US Constitution and contained guarantees of essential rights and liberties omitted in the crafting of the original document. 14 copies were hand written and 13 were sent to the individual states.
(http://www.loc.gov/rr//program/bib/ourdocs/billofrights.html)(SFC, 1/20/02, p.A11)

1789 Sep 26, Thomas Jefferson was appointed America’s first Secretary of State; John Jay the first chief justice of the United States; Samuel Osgood the first Postmaster-General; and Edmund Jennings Randolph the first Attorney General. The US Congress had created the position of attorney general as a part-time gig. The salary lagged well behind other executive positions, and lacked congressional appropriations for office space and supplies.
(AP, 9/26/97)(SFC, 8/16/99, p.A21)(Bloomberg, 9/29/19)

1789 Sep 28, Richard Bright, physician (Bright’s Disease, nephritis), was born in England.
(MC, 9/28/01)

1789 Sep 29, The U.S. War Department established a regular U.S. army with a strength of several hundred men.
(AP, 9/29/97)(HN, 9/29/98)

1789 Sep, Fletcher Henderson left Tahiti with the Bounty with a light crew. 16 men were left abandoned.
(ON, 3/04, p.9)

1789 Oct 3, George Washington proclaimed the 1st national Thanksgiving Day to be Nov 26.
(MC, 10/3/01)
Whereas it is the duty of all nations to acknowledge the providence of Almighty God, to obey His will, to be grateful for His benefits, and humbly to implore His protection and favor; and Whereas both Houses of Congress have, by their joint committee, requested me to “recommend to the people of the United States a day of public thanksgiving and prayer, to be observed by acknowledging with grateful hearts the many and signal favors of Almighty God, especially by affording them an opportunity peaceably to establish a form of government for their safety and happiness:”
Now, therefore, I do recommend and assign Thursday, the 26th day of November next, to be devoted by the people of these States to the service of that great and glorious Being who is the beneficent author of all the good that was, that is, or that will be; that we may then all unite in rendering unto Him our sincere and humble thanks for His kind care and protection of the people of this country previous to their becoming a nation; for the signal and manifold mercies and the favorable interpositions of His providence in the course and conclusion of the late war; for the great degree of tranquility, union, and plenty which we have since enjoyed; for the peaceable and rational manner in which we have been enable to establish constitutions of government for our safety and happiness, and particularly the national one now lately instituted for the civil and religious liberty with which we are blessed, and the means we have of acquiring and diffusing useful knowledge; and, in general, for all the great and various favors which He has been pleased to confer upon us. And also that we may then unite in most humbly offering our prayers and supplications to the great Lord and Ruler of Nations and beseech Him to pardon our national and other transgressions; to enable us all, whether in public or private stations, to perform our several and relative duties properly and punctually; to render our National Government a blessing to all the people by constantly being a Government of wise, just, and constitutional laws, discreetly and faithfully executed and obeyed; to protect and guide all sovereigns and nations (especially such as have shown kindness to us), and to bless them with good governments, peace, and concord; to promote the knowledge and practice of true religion and virtue, and the increase of science among them and us; and, generally to grant unto all mankind such a degree of temporal prosperity as He alone knows to be best.
(Ihub, 11/27/03)

1789 Oct 10, In Versailles France, Joseph Guillotin said the most humane way of carrying out a death sentence is decapitation by a single blow of a blade.
(HN, 10/10/98)
1789 Oct 10, Pierre-Louis Couperin, composer, died at 34.
(MC, 10/10/01)

1789 Oct 15, George Washington went to New England on the 1st presidential tour.
(MC, 10/15/01)

1789 Nov 2, The property of the Church in France was taken away by the state.
(HN, 11/2/98)

1789 Nov 5, French National Assembly declared all citizens equal under law.
(MC, 11/5/01)

1789 Nov 8, Bourbon Whiskey, 1st distilled from corn, was made by Elijah Craig in Bourbon, Ky.
(MC, 11/8/01)

1789 Nov 13, Benjamin Franklin wrote a letter to a friend in which he said, “In this world nothing can be said to be certain, except death and taxes.”
(AP, 11/13/97)

1789 Nov 18, Louis Jacques Daguerre (d.1851), French painter, physicist and photography pioneer, was born. He invented the process of setting the impression on a light-sensitive, silver-coated metallic plate and developed by mercury vapor. See contrasting info 1765-1833, Nicephore Niepce, French lithographer.
(AHD, 1971, p.332)(HN, 11/18/00)

1789 Nov 20, New Jersey became the first state to ratify the Bill of Rights.
(HFA, ’96, p.18)(AP, 11/20/97)

1789 Nov 21, North Carolina became the 12th state to ratify the U.S. Constitution.
(AP, 11/21/97)

1789 Nov 26, George Washington proclaimed on Oct 3 that Nov 26 be a National Thanksgiving Day in honor of the new Constitution. He made it clear that the day should be one of prayer and giving thanks to God, to be celebrated by all the religious denominations. In 1863 Pres. Lincoln designated the last Thursday of November as Thanksgiving Day.
(HFA, ’96, p.42)(AP, 11/26/97)(HN, 11/26/98)

1789 Nov, The U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York, the oldest federal court in the United States, convened in New York, a few weeks ahead of the Supreme Court.
(http://jimzirin.com/book-the-mother-court/foreword/)(Econ, 6/28/14, p.75)

1789 Dec 3, Claude-Joseph Vernet, French seascape painter, died.
(MC, 12/3/01)

1789 Dec 13, The National Guard was created in France.
(HN, 12/13/98)

1789 Dec 28, Lydia Darrragh (b.1729), American spy, died in Philadelphia. Her exploits in 1777 did not become public until the publication of an anonymous article in 1827.
(ON, 8/07, p.8)(www.lexidigital.com/bcdarwomen4.htm)

1789 Dec, In India’s city of Coringa 3 tidal waves caused by a cyclone destroyed the harbor city at the mouth of the Ganges river. Most ships were sunk and some 20,000 people drowned.

1789 Johann Friedrich Overbeck (d.1869), German Nazarene artist, was born.
(SSFC, 1/27/02, p.C7)

1789 The ballet “La fille mal gardee” had its premiere. It included dialogue and singing as well as dancing.
(SFEC, 8/25/96, DB p.37)

1789 William Blake published his “Songs of Innocence.”
(WSJ, 4/23/97, p.A16)

1789 Rev. Gilbert White (1720-1793) authored “The Natural History and Antiquities of Selborne, in the County of Southampton.” One chapter was about a local tortoise named Timothy. In 2006 Verlyn Klinkenborg authored “Timothy; Or, Notes Of an Abject Reptile,” a look at the parson from the point of view of the tortoise.
(WSJ, 2/11/06, p.P11)

1789 In 1999 Rachel Wright authored “Paris: 1789,” an informative children’s book of Parisian life on the eve of the Revolution.
(SFEC, 5/9/99, Par p.8)

1789 Tammany Hall was a powerful Democratic political organization in NYC, founded as a fraternal benevolent society. The name was based after a Delaware Indian Chief, Tamanen or Temmenund, later facetiously canonized as patron saint of the US. The Tammany Hall officials lost on Nov. 6, 1894.
(HFA, ’96, p.42)

1789 In the US the Church of England Episcopal Church fomally separated from the Church of England became the Protestant Episcopal Church of the USA.

1789 Congress introduced paid chaplains. In 1983 the Supreme Court ruled in Marsh vs. Chambers that it is not a violation of the Establishment Clause to have paid legislative chaplains. In 2002 Michael Newdow filed suit contending that taxpayer-funded chaplains was unconstitutional.
(SFC, 8/31/02, p.A2)

1789 The US Alien Tort Claims Act (ATCA) was meant to combat piracy. The Alien Tort Statute (ATS) was intended to be used to prosecute pirates for crimes committed outside the US. It went unused for a long time until rights lawyers dusted it off in the late 1970s.
(SFC, 8/11/00, p.A13)(SFC, 3/13/02, p.A8)(WSJ, 10/6/03, p.A1)(WSJ, 7/12/04, p.A16)(SFC, 10/12/17, p.A6)

1789 The first tobacco advertisement came out in the US. It depicted an Indian smoking a long clay pipe.
(SFEC, 5/24/98, Z1 p.10)

1789 Dentist John Greenwood (1760-1819) carved his first dentures for George Washington out of hippopotamus ivory.
(ON, 4/12, p.8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Greenwood_%28dentist%29)

1789 Georgetown College was founded in Washington DC.
(WSJ, 3/28/96,p.A-15)

1789 Massachusetts commenced work on the Middlesex Canal. It was completed in 1808.
(Panic, p.12)

1789 The University of North Carolina was chartered. It was the first state university in the U.S. to begin instruction, in 1795. The University of Georgia was the first state university chartered, in 1785, but was not established until 1801.
(HNQ, 12/3/01)

1789 Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier (1743-1794), French nobleman and chemist, presented a paper on the geology of the Earth that proposed that sea level had oscillated over time, as opposed to a stationary sea with linear sedimentation.
(NH, 12/98, p.14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antoine_Lavoisier)

1789 Martin Klaproth, German chemist, discovered Uranium. It named after the planet Uranus discovered 8 years earlier.
(NH, 7/02, p.36)(WSJ, 3/18/05, p.C1)

1789 The HMS Bounty made a brief stop at the Cook Island of Rarotonga before moving on to Pitcairn Island.
(SFEC, 1/5/97, p.T6)

1789 The flower China Rose was introduced to Europe.
(TGR, 1995, p.4)

1789 Ethan Allen (b.1738), leader of Vermont’s Green Mountain Boys, died. In 1949 Stewart H. Holbrook authored “Ethan Allen.” In 1969 Charles A. Jellison authored “Ethan Allen: Frontier Rebel.”
(WUD, 1994 p.39)(ON, 3/00, p.6)

1789 The prison ship Lady Julian delivered over 200 women to the penal colony at Sydney harbor. In 2002 Sian Rees authored “The Floating Brothel: The Extraordinary True Story of an Eighteenth-Century Ship and Its Cargo of Female Convicts.”
(SSFC, 3/3/02, p.M3)

1789 Smallpox was introduced to Australia and caused devastation among the aborigines.
(SFC, 10/19/01, p.A17)

1789 In Brazil poet and dentist Joaquim Jose da Silva Xavier helped launch the first Brazilian rebellion against the country’s Portuguese rulers.
(AP, 4/19/03)

1789 English Thomas Clarkson and his fellow abolitionists published 700 posters with the image of the slave ship Brookes loaded with 482 slaves. The ship, owned by the Brookes family of Liverpool, operated between the Gold Coast of Africa and Jamaica.
(Econ, 2/24/07, p.72)
1789 Thomas Stokes built clocks in London.
(SFC, 11/13/96, z-1 p.6)

c1789 The Marquis de Lafayette wrote the original version of the Declaration of the Rights of Man. He was appalled by the excesses of the revolution and fled to Austria where he was imprisoned for 5 years.
(WSJ, 1/15/97, p.A12)
1789 A French decree allowed wine and coffee to be served on the same premises.
(Econ, 10/22/11, p.105)
1789 Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyes, a delegate to the Estates General, said the third estate is everything, has nothing but wants to be something.
(Econ, 6/12/10, p.65)
1789 The French dwarf Richeborg stood 23 inches and was costumed as a baby in diapers during the French Revolution. In the arms of innocent girls he could eavesdrop on sensitive conversations and carried secret dispatches in and out of Paris.
(SFC, 6/23/96, Z1 p.2)
1789 The bankruptcy of the French government brought banks across Europe to their knees.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R48)
1789 Pierre Ordinaire, French chemist, invented absinthe as a digestive or all-purpose tonic. It quickly caught on as an apéritif. It was popularized by Henri-Louis Pernod, who opened his first distillery in Switzerland before moving to Pontarlier, France, in 1805.
(http://chemistry.about.com/od/chemistryhowtoguide/a/absinthe.htm)(WSJ, 1/22/99, p.W8)(SFC, 3/24/00, p.A3)

1789 Tobias Schmidt, a German piano maker, built the first guillotine.
(SFC, 5/2/98, p.E4)
1789 In Germany the Brandenburg Gate of Berlin was built.
(SFEC, 7/27/97, p.T5)

1789 Russian soldiers under the leadership of Jose Pascual Domingo de Ribas y Boyons (aka Osip Deribas) chased Ottoman forces from the barracks hamlet of Khadjibey. He recognized the site’s potential for a military base to control the mouths of the Danube, Dniester, Dnieper and Bug rivers. Odessa became the name of the city built there.
(Econ, 2/26/11, p.91)

1789-1793 Alexander Mackenzie, Scottish-born fur trader, became the 1st European to cross the North American continent.
(SFC, 1/31/04, p.D12)

1789-1795 John Jay served as the first chief justice of the US Supreme Court.
(WUD, 1994, p.764)(WSJ, 8/7/98, p.W13)

1789-1807 Selim III succeeded Abdul Hamid I in the Ottoman House of Osman.
(Ot, 1993, xvii)

1789-1837 Ben Wilson covered this period in his 2007 book “The Making of Victorian Values: Decency and Dissent in Britain, 1789-1837.”
(WSJ, 3/24/07, p.P12)(Econ, 4/7/07, p.81)

1789-1848 In 2015 Adam Zamoyski covered this period in Europe in “Phantom Terror: The Threat of Revolution and the Repression of Liberty 1789-1848.”
(Econ, 11/15/14, p.84)

1789-1854 John Martin, British artist. He was known as “Mad Martin” for his paintings of monumental disasters. His work included “Assuaging of the Waters” (1840), “The Eve of the Deluge,” and “The Deluge.”
(SFEC, 5/4/97, DB p.9)(SFEM, 5/11/97, p.6)

1789-1914 In 2006 Michael Burleigh authored “Earthly Powers: The Clash of Religion and Politics in Europe from the French Revolution to the Great War.”
(Econ, 2/25/06, p.87)

1790 Jan 6, Johann Trier (73), composer, died.
(MC, 1/6/02)

1790 Jan 8, President Washington delivered the 1st “State of the Union” address in NYC.

1790 Jan 21, Joseph Guillotine proposed a new, more humane method of execution: a machine designed to cut off the condemned person’s head as painlessly as possible.
(HN, 1/21/99)

1790 Jan 26, Mozart’s opera “Cosi Fan Tutte” premiered in Vienna.

1790 Feb 1, The US Supreme Court convened for 1st time in Royal Exchange Building, New York City, the nations temporary capital.

1790 Feb 6, The last stone of the Bastille, torn down by order of the French revolutionary leaders, was presented to the National Assembly.
(ON, 4/01, p.3)

1790 Feb 11, The first petition to Congress for emancipation of the slaves was made by the Society of Friends.
(HNQ, 1/11/99)

1790 Feb 20, Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II (48) died.
(AP, 2/20/98)(MC, 2/20/02)

1790 Feb 26, As a result of the Revolution, France was divided into 83 departments.
(HN, 2/26/99)

1790 Mar 1, President Washington signed a measure authorizing the first US Census. The Connecticut Compromise was a proposal for two houses in the legislature-one based on equal representation for each state, the other for population-based representation-that resolved the dispute between large and small states at the Constitutional Convention. Connecticut delegate Roger Sherman’s proposal led to the first nationwide census in 1790. The population was determined to be 3,929,625, which included 697,624 slaves and 59,557 free blacks. The most populous state was Virginia, with 747,610 people and the most populous city was Philadelphia with 42,444 inhabitants. The average cost of this year’s census was 1.13 cents per person.
(HNQ, 7/13/01)(AP, 3/1/08)(http://www.genealogybranches.com/censuscosts.html)

1790 Mar 14, Captain Bligh returned to England with news of the mutiny on the Bounty.
(ON, 3/04, p.9)

1790 Mar 21, Thomas Jefferson (46) reported to President Washington in New York as the new US Secretary of state.
(AP, 3/21/97)(www.monticello.org/site/jefferson/private-banks-quotation)

1790 Mar 22, Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) became the first US Secretary of State. As Secretary of State, he served on the first Board of Arts, the body that reviewed patent applications and granted patents. Jefferson was one of a triumvirate that served as both America’s first patent commissioner and first patent examiner.
(HN, 3/22/97)(www.archipelago.org/vol10-34/matsuura.htm)

1790 Mar 24, King George ordered the Admiralty to capture Fletcher Henderson for the mutiny on the Bounty.
(ON, 3/04, p.9)

1790 Mar 26, US Congress passed a Naturalization Act. It required a 2-year residency.
(SS, 3/26/02)

1790 Mar 27, The shoelace was invented.
(MC, 3/27/02)

1790 Mar 29, John Tyler, the 10th president of the United States (1841-1845), was born in Charles City County, Va. He was also the first vice-president to succeed to office on the death of a president.
(AP, 3/29/97)(HN, 3/29/99)(MC, 3/29/02)

1790 Mar 31, In Paris, France, Maximilien Robespierre was elected president of the Jacobin Club.
(HN, 3/31/99)

1790 Apr 3, Revenue Marine Service (US Coast Guard) was created.
(MC, 4/3/02)

1790 Apr 10, President George Washington signed into law the first United States Patent Act. The Patent Board was made up of the Secretary of State, Secretary of War and the Attorney General and was responsible for granting patents on “useful and important” inventions. In the first three years, 47 patents were granted. Until 1888 miniature models of the device to be patented were required. [see July 31] The US Patent and Trademark Office’s subject grouping scheme includes a major component called a class and a minor one called a subclass. A class distinguishes one technology from another. Subclasses of the USPTO delineate processes, structural features and functional features of the technology in that particular class. By 2015 there were 474 classes and over 160,000 codes.
(HN, 4/10/98)(HNQ, 8/6/99)(AP, 4/10/07)(Econ., 4/25/15, p.73)

1790 Apr 17, Benjamin Franklin (born 1706), American statesman, died in Philadelphia at age 84. He mechanized the process of making sounds from tuned glass with his glass armonica. In 2000 H.W. Brands authored his Franklin biography: “The First American.” In 2003 Walter Isaacson authored “Benjamin Franklin: An American Life.” In 2005 Philip Dray authored “Stealing God’s Thunder,” an account of Franklin’s work with lightning rods.
(AP, 4/17/97)(WSJ, 9/20/00, p.A24)(WSJ, 7/3/03, p.D8)(WSJ, 8/15/05, p.D8)

1790 May 21, Paris was divided into 48 zones.
(HN, 5/21/98)

1790 May 26, Territory South of River Ohio was created by Congress.
(HN, 5/26/98)

1790 May 29, Rhode Island became the last of the 13 original colonies to ratify the United States Constitution. They held out for an amendment securing religious freedom. The state was largely founded by Baptists fleeing persecution in Massachusetts.
(SFC, 6/24/96, p.A19)(AP, 5/29/97)(HN, 5/29/98)

1790 May 31, The US copyright law was enacted.
(MC, 5/31/02)

1790 May, John Tanner (9) was kidnapped from his home in northern Kentucky by Saginaw Indians. He was taken to an area near what later became Saginaw, Michigan, where he learned the Ojibway language. After about 2 years he was sold to a woman named Net-no-kwa, who took him up to northern Michigan and later to Manitoba, Canada.
(ON, 4/10, p.4)(http://baptisthistoryhomepage.com/ky.boone.tanner.j.kidnapd.html)

1790 Jun 9, The “Philadelphia Spelling Book” was the first US work to be copyrighted.
(WSJ, 6/14/00, p.A1)(MC, 6/9/02)
1790 Jun 9, Civil war broke out in Martinique.
(HN 6/9/98)

1790 Jul 3, In Paris, the Marquis of Condorcet proposed granting civil rights to women.
(HN, 7/3/98)

1790 Jul 9, The Swedish navy captured one third of the Russian fleet at the naval battle of Svensksund in the Baltic Sea.
(HN, 7/9/98)

1790 Jul 12, The French Assembly approved a Civil Constitution providing for the election of priests and bishops.
(HN, 7/12/98)

1790 Jul 16, The District of Columbia was established as the seat of the United States government.
(AP, 7/16/97)

1790 Jul 17, Economist Adam Smith (b.1723), Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneer of political economy, died. In 2001 Emma Rothschild authored “Economic Sentiments: Adam Smith, Condorcet, and the Enlightenment.” In 2002 Peter J. Dougherty authored “Who’s Afraid of Adam Smith.” In 2010 Nicholas Phillipson authored “Adam Smith: An Enlightened Life.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adam_Smith)(WSJ, 6/21/01, p.A16)(WSJ, 11/13/02, p.D10) (Econ, 8/7/10, p.84)

1790 Jul 26, US Congress passed Alexander Hamilton’s Assumption plan making it responsible for state debts. Virginia eventually withdrew its opposition in return for having the nation’s new capital located on its borders.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Report_on_the_Public_Credit)(Econ, 12/17/11, p.132)
1790 Jul 26, An attempt at a counter-revolution in France was put down by the National Guard at Lyons.
(HN, 7/26/98)

1790 Jul 31, The first US patent was issued to Samuel Hopkins of Vermont for an improvement “in the making of Pot ash and Pearl ash by a new Apparatus and Process”. This patent was signed by then President George Washington. The first 10,280 patents, issued between 1790 and 1836, were destroyed by a fire. The legal basis for the United States patent system (USPTO) is Article 1, Section 8 of the US Constitution wherein the powers of Congress are defined.

1790 Aug 2, The enumeration for the first US census began. It showed that 3,929,326 people were living in the US of which 697,681 were slaves, and that the largest cities were New York City with 33,000 inhabitants; Philadelphia, with 28,000; Boston, with 18,000; Charleston, South Carolina, with 16,000; and Baltimore, with 13,000. Census records for Delaware, Georgia, New Jersey, and Virginia were lost sometime between 1790 and 1830.
(AP, 8/2/06)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1790_United_States_Census)

1790 Aug 4, US Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton urged that ten boats for the collection of revenue be built. This was to stop smuggling, especially of coffee, which was hampering trade. The Coast Guard was born as the Revenue Cutter Service. The Coast Guard was empowered to board and inspect any vessel in US waters and any US boat anywhere in the world.
(Smith., 8/95, p.25)(HFA, ’96, p.36)(SFC, 5/20/96, p.A-16)(AP, 8/4/00)

1790 Aug 9, The Columbia returned to Boston Harbor after a three-year voyage, becoming the first ship to carry the American flag around the world.
(AP, 8/9/97)

1790 Sep 4, Jacques Necker was forced to resign as finance minister in France.
(HN, 9/4/98)

1790 Oct 3, John Ross, Chief of the United Cherokee Nation from 1839 to 1866, was born near Lookout Mountain, Tennessee. Although his father was Scottish and his mother only part Cherokee, Ross was named Tsan-Usdi (Little John) and raised in the Cherokee tradition. A settled people with successful farms, strong schools, and a representative government, the Cherokee resided on 43,000 square miles of land they had held for centuries.
(LCTH, 10/3/99)

1790 Oct 21, Alphonse-Marie Louis de Lamartine, writer (Rene), was born in Macon, France.
(MC, 10/21/01)
1790 Oct 21, The Tricolor was chosen as the official flag of France.
(HN, 10/21/98)

1790 Oct 23, Slaves revolted in Haiti.
(MC, 10/23/01)

1790 Oct 28, NY gave up claims to Vermont for $30,000.
(MC, 10/28/01)

1790 Nov 11, Chrysanthemums were introduced into England from China.
(MC, 11/11/01)

1790 Nov 17, August Ferdinand Mobius, mathematician, inventor (Mobius strip), was born.
(MC, 11/17/01)

1790 Dec 6, Congress moved from New York City to Philadelphia, where Washington served out his two terms. He is the only president who never resided in the White House.
(AP, 12/6/97)(HNPD, 12/22/98)

1790 Dec 17, An Aztec calendar stone was discovered in Mexico City.
(HFA, ’96, p.44)(MC, 12/17/01)

1790 Dec 19, Sir William Parry, England, Arctic explorer, was born.
(HN, 12/19/98)

1790 Dec 20, In Pawtucket, Rhode Island, 23-year-old British subject Samuel Slater began production of the first American spinning mill. The British jealously guarded their technological superiority in the early stages of the Industrial Revolution, making it illegal for machinery, plans and even the men who built and repaired them to leave the country. After serving a 7-year mill apprenticeship in England, Slater recognized the potential offered in America. He memorized the plans for intricate machine specifications, disguised himself as a farm worker and in 1789 sailed to a new life across the Atlantic. Slater entered into a partnership with Rhode Island merchant Moses Brown and built a small spinning mill–the equivalent of 72 spinning wheels. At first, Slater’s Mill employed only a handful of children between the ages of 7 and 12, but by 1800, he had more than 100 employees. By the time of Slater’s death in 1835, he owned or had an interest in 13 textile mills and left an estate of almost $700,000. From this small beginning, America’s own Industrial Revolution grew. [see Dec 21]
(AP, 12/20/97)(HNPD, 12/20/98)(WSJ, 9/23/04, p.D10)

1790 Dec 21, Samuel Slater opened the first cotton mill in the United States in Rhode Island. [see Dec 20]
(HN, 12/21/98)

1790 Dec 23, Jean François Champollion, French founder of Egyptology, was born. He deciphered the Rosetta Stone.
(HN, 12/23/99)

c1790 Henry Fuseli painted his famous work “The Nightmare” wherein a sleeping woman has a glowing demon on her chest and a lantern-eyed stallion parting the curtains behind. He also painted “Woman Standing at a Dressing Table or Spinet” about this time.
(SFC, 10/31/96, p.E1)(WSJ, 4/1/99, p.A20)

1790 Ito Jakuchu (1716-1800), Japanese painter, created his “Compendium of Vegetable and Insects.”
(WSJ, 12/1/98, p.A20)(SFC, 1/14/06, p.E1)

1790 Thomas Rowlandson, English artist, painted “The Lock-Up.”
(WSJ, 4/1/99, p.A20)

1790 Goethe’s “Faust: Ein Fragment,” first appeared.

1790 Alexander Hamilton published his “Report on the Public Credit.”
(WSJ, 12/3/01, p.A17)

1790 Emmanuel Kant published his “Critique of Judgement.” His analysis of the nature of art and aesthetic experience proved to be a major influence on modern ideas. These ideas were later revisited by Murdoch in her 1998 work “Existentialists and Mystics.” [see 1781]
(WSJ, 2/17/98, p.A20)

1790 Beethoven composed his “Cantata on the Death of Emperor Joseph II.”
(WSJ, 8/17/00, p.A20)

1790 The opera “The Philosopher’s Stone” was composed and first performed. A 1997 score showed that a number of composers wrote various sections. Mozart’s name was associated with the 2nd act finale and a duet. It was a singspiel based on fairytales with a libretto by Emanuel Schikaneder. Other composers included Johann Baptist Henneberg, Benedikt Schack, Franz Haver Gerl and Emanuel Schikaneder.
(SFC, 6/13/97, p.C11)(WSJ, 11/4/98, p.A20)

1790 In South Carolina a 900-square-foot octagonal house was built about this time by Scottish immigrant William McKimmy. Ruins of the structure were found in 2009 on the banks of the May River in Blufton. The design took off in 1848 following the publication of “A Home for All” by Orson Fowler, a self-taught architect and phrenologist.
(SFC, 2/22/10, p.A6)(SSFC, 7/24/11, p.A2)

1790 The Episcopal Church was founded.
(SFC, 5/16/96, p.A-11)

1790 The US government issued $80 million in bonds to cover Revolutionary War debts and their trade established the financial activity on Wall Street.
(WSJ, 10/9/97, p.A16)

1790 The US Trade and Intercourse Act prohibited states from acquiring land from Indians without federal approval.
(SFC, 1/13/99, p.A9)(SSFC, 8/29/04, p.M5)

1790 US Minister to France, Gouverneur Morris, said that the French “have taken Genius instead of Reason for their Guide, adopted Experiment instead of Experience, and wander in the Dark because they prefer Lightning to Light.” In 2000 Susan Dunn published “Sister Revolutions: French Lightning, American Light.”
(SFEC, 5/7/00, Par p.28)

1790 The celerifere bicycle appeared in Paris about this time and was a two-wheeled, un-steerable vehicle that the rider propelled by striking his feet on the ground. This was improved upon with a bar to steer the front wheel in 1816 by Baron von Drais of Germany, and was called a draisine. The ordinary, which had a high front wheel, wire-spoked wheels and solid rubber tires, was developed in the 1870s.
(HNQ, 10/29/99)

1790 The US census categorized the population as “free white person, all other free persons except Indians, and slaves.”
(SFC,12/26/97, p.A21)
1790 The US population was 20% African and numbered about 760,000.
(SFC, 12/18/96, p.A25)

1790 Fletcher Christian landed at Pitcairn Island.
(SFC, 6/13/97, p.A14)

1790 In Australia Pemulway, an Aboriginal warrior, speared and killed the governor’s gamekeeper at Botany Bay and waged war against the British for 12 years. His head was later sent to England. Eric Willmot later authored “Pemulway, the Rainbow Warrior.”
(SFEC, 9/10/00, p.T4)

1790 In the Sandwich Islands [Hawaii] King Kamehameha built the Puukohola Heiau temple on the Big Island near the village of Kawaihau. It was built to the war god Ku-Ka’ili-moku. The king’s armies soon swept over all the Hawaiian islands and united the people for the first time.
(SFEC, 9/7/97, p.T8)

1790 Pineapples were introduced to the Sandwich Islands later called Hawaii.
(SFEC,11/9/97, Z1 p.2)

1790 The Haleakala Volcano on Maui erupted.
(SFEC, 8/27/00, p.T8)

1790 La Fenice opera house in Venice was designed. It burned down for the 1st time in 1836.
(WSJ, 9/24/05, p.P12)

1790 A bronze Buddha was cast in Japan. In 1945 it was donated by the Gump family to the city of San Francisco. It resides in the Japanese Tea Garden and was in need of $81,000 worth of repairs.
(SFC, 12/30/96, p.A11)

1790 In Porto, Portugal, the House of Sandeman winery was found by the Scot, George Sandeman.
(SFEC, 7/12/98, p.T8)

1790s Denmark became the 1st country to abolish slavery.
(WSJ, 2/26/02, p.A22)

1790s Floreana Island in the Galapagos began serving as a mail drop for whalers and seal hunters.
(SFEC, 11/19/00, p.T8)

c1790s King Kamehameha slaughtered virtually everyone on the island of Lanai (which means day of conquest) after being thwarted in his bid to conquer Maui.
(SSFC, 8/26/01, p.T10)

1790-1792 Sans-culottes (French for without knee-breeches) was a term created during this period by the French to describe the poorer members of the Third Estate, according to the dominant theory because they usually wore pantaloons (full-length trousers) instead of the chic knee-length culotte. The term came to refer to the ill-clad and ill-equipped volunteers of the Revolutionary army during the early years of the French Revolutionary Wars, but, above all, to the working class radicals of the Revolution.

1790-1799 In 2009 Marcus Daniel authored “Scandal & Civility: Journalism and the Birth of American Democracy,” a study of the American press during this period.
(WSJ, 3/3/09, p.A11)
1790-1799 The revolutionary tide that swept Europe during this period was later covered by R.R. Palmer in his book “The Age of the Democratic Revolution.”
(WSJ, 8/25/07, p.P9)

1790-1830 The “Dalton Minimum,” a period of low solar activity and especially cold climate, began this year and lasted to 1830.

1790-1848 Nicola Vaccai, Italian composer. He composed a version of “I Capuletti ed I Montecchi,” that was also done by Bellini.
(WSJ, 11/10/98, p.A20)

1790-1869 Alphonse Marie Louis de Prat de Lamartine, French poet, historian and statesman.
(WUD, 1994, p.803)

1790s Tadeusz Kosciusko returned to Poland and united the country in the battle against Prussian and Russian domination.
(SFEC, 11/24/96, T7)

1790s The solitaire of Rodrigues, a flightless pigeon, was last seen.
(NH, 11/96, p.24)

1791 Jan 14, Calvin Phillips, shortest known adult male (67 cm; 2′ 2″), was born.
(MC, 1/14/02)

1791 Feb 12, Peter Cooper, industrialist, philanthropist (Cooper Union), was born.
(MC, 2/12/02)

1791 Feb 20, Carl Czerny, pianist, composer (Schule der Virtuosen), was born in Vienna, Austria.
(MC, 2/20/02)

1791 Feb 25, President George Washington signed a bill creating the Bank of the United States.
(HN, 2/25/99)

1791 Mar 3, Congress established the U.S. Mint.
(HN, 3/3/99)
1791 Mar 3, The 1st Internal Revenue Act taxed distilled spirits and carriages.
(SC, 3/3/02)

1791 Mar 4, President Washington called the US Senate into its 1st special session.
(SC, 3/4/02)
1791 Mar 4, Vermont was admitted as the 14th state. It was the first addition to the original 13 colonies.
(HN, 3/4/98)(AP, 3/4/98)
1791 Mar 4, 1st Jewish member of US Congress, Israel Jacobs (Pennsylvania), took office.
(SC, 3/4/02)

1791 Mar 6, Anna Claypoole Peale, painted miniatures, was born.
(MC, 3/6/02)

1791 Mar 10, John Stone of Concord, Mass, patented a pile driver.
(MC, 3/10/02)
1791 Mar 10, Pope condemned France’s Civil Constitution of the clergy.
(MC, 3/10/02)

1791 Mar 11, Samuel Mulliken of Philadelphia was the 1st to obtain more than 1 US patent.
(MC, 3/12/02)

1791 Mar 21, Captain Hopley Yeaton (1740-1812) of New Hampshire became the first commissioned officer of the US Revenue Cutter Service.

1791 Mar 23, Etta Palm, a Dutch champion of woman’s rights, set up a group of women’s clubs called the Confederation of the Friends of Truth.
(HN, 3/23/99)

1791 Mar 4, Vermont was admitted as the 14th state. It was the first addition to the original 13 colonies.
(HN, 3/4/98)(AP, 3/4/98)

1791 Mar 29, Pres. George Washington and French architect Pierre Charles L’Enfant examined the site along the Potomac River that would become the US capital. Maryland and Virginia had ceded land to the federal government to form the District of Columbia. Chosen as the permanent site for the capital of the United States by Congress in 1790, President Washington was given the power by Congress to select the exact site—an area ten-miles square, made up of land given by Virginia and Maryland. Washington became the official federal capital in 1800. In 2008 Fergus Bordewich authored “Washington: The Making of the American Capital.”
(HNQ, 8/13/00)(HN, 8/2/98)(WSJ, 8/8/08, p.A13)

1791 Apr 23, The 15th president of the United States, James Buchanan, was born in Franklin County, Pa.
(AP, 4/23/97)

1791 Apr 12, Francis Preston Blair, Washington Globe newspaper editor, was born.
(HN, 4/12/98)

1791 Apr 15, Surveyor General Andrew Ellicott consecrated the southern tip of the triangular District of Columbia at Jones Point.
(WSJ, 7/25/00, p.A20)

1791 Apr 18, National Guardsmen prevented Louis XVI and his family from leaving Paris.
(HN, 4/18/98)

1791 Apr 23, James Buchanan, was born in Franklin County, Pa. He was the fifteenth U.S. president (1857-1861) and the only president not to marry.
(AP, 4/23/97)(HN, 4/23/99)

1791 Apr 27, Samuel F.B. Morse, inventor, was born in Boston. He created the telegraph and the code which bears his name. Morse was a well-known painter who gained a wide reputation as a portrait artist. He graduated from Yale in 1810 and then studied painting in England for several years. Morse painted two notable portraits of Lafayette, was a founder of the National Academy of Design in 1826 and became professor of painting and sculpture at New York University in 1832-a position he held until his death in 1872. Morse invented the first practical recording telegraph in America and developed the Morse code, revolutionizing communication.
(HN, 4/27/99)(HNQ, 2/26/00)

1791 Apr, William Wilberforce again introduced a motion in British Parliament for the abolition of the slave trade, but lost by a vote of 163 to 88.
(ON, 4/05, p.2)

1791 May 3, Poland adopted a new Constitution. It was designed to redress long-standing political defects of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and its traditional system of “Golden Liberty.” The constitution put Lithuania under Polish domination. It is generally regarded as Europe’s first and the world’s second modern codified national constitution, following the 1788 ratification of the US Constitution.
(SFC, 4/25/09, p.B1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitution_of_May_3,_1791)(Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.13)

1791 May 8, Capt. Edward Edwards set sail from Tahiti in the Pandora with the Bounty mutineers abandoned by Fletcher Henderson.
(ON, 3/04, p.9)

1791 May 9, Francis Hopkinson (53), US writer, music, lawyer, died.
(MC, 5/9/02)

1791 May 14, In Mexico a time capsule was placed atop a bell tower at Mexico City’s Metropolitan Cathedral when the building’s topmost stone was laid, 218 years after construction had begun. Workers restoring the church found it in October, 2007.
(AP, 1/15/08)

1791 May 16, James Boswell’s celebrated 2-volume work, “The Life of Samuel Johnson,” was published. In 2001 Adam Sisman authored “Boswell’s Presumptuous Task,” an account of how Boswell came to write the Johnson biography.
(WSJ, 8/24/01, p.W8)(ON, 11/06, p.10)

1791 May 28, Joseph Schmitt (57), composer, died.
(MC, 5/28/02)

1791 May 29, Pietro Romani, composer, was born.
(SC, 5/29/02)

1791 Jun 9, John Howard Payne, American playwright and actor, was born.
(HN, 6/9/01)

1791 Jun 20, King Louis XVI of France attempted to flee the country in the so-called Flight to Varennes, but was caught.
(AP, 6/20/97)

1791 Jun 21, King Louis XVI and the French royal family were arrested in Varennes. In 2003 Timothy Tackett authored “When the King Took Flight,” an examination of the political culture during this period of transformation.
(HN, 6/21/98)(SSFC, 5/18/03, p.M6)

1791 Jul 7, Benjamin Rush, Richard Allen and Absalom Jones founded the Non-denominational African Church.
(HN, 7/7/98)

1791 Jul 13, The bones of the greatest French satirist, philosopher, and writer, Voltaire (Jean-Marie Arouet) were enshrined in the Pantheon in Paris.
(MC, 7/13/02)

1791 Jul 14-1791 Jul 17, Riots took place in Birmingham, England. The houses of Joseph Priestley and other political dissenters were burned to the ground. Priestley had rejected various supernatural elements of Christianity, criticized the Church of England, and supported the French Revolution.
(SFC, 1/9/09, p.E3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Priestley_Riots)

1791 Jul 16, Louis XVI was suspended from office until he agreed to ratify the constitution.
(HN, 7/16/98)

1791 Jul 17, National Guard troops opened fire in Paris on a crowd of demonstrators calling for the deposition of the king.
(HN, 7/17/99)

1791 Jul 24, Robespierre expelled all Jacobins opposed to the principles of the French Revolution.
(HN, 7/24/98)

1791 Jul 25, Free African Society (FAS) leaders drew up a plan to organize the African Church. Richard Allen purchased a site for a church for the African-American community in Philadelphia. It later stood as the oldest parcel of land continuously owned by African Americans. The Richard Allen Museum contains 19th century artifacts from the church.

1791 Jul 26, Franz Xavier Wolfgang Mozart, 6th child of Austrian composer WAM, was born.
(MC, 7/26/02)

1791 Aug 1, Robert Carter III, a Virginia plantation owner, freed all 500 of his slaves in the largest private emancipation in U.S. history.
(HN, 8/1/98)

1791 Aug 2, Samuel Briggs and his son patented a nail-making machine.
(MC, 8/2/02)

1791 Aug 4, The chief item in the Peace of Sistova agreement between the Austrian Empire and Turkey was the return of Belgrade to Turkey. The peace initiative resulted from the terms of the Convention of Reichenbach between Prussia and Austria. Belgrade had been taken in 1789 by the Holy Roman emperor Joseph II.
(HNQ, 6/25/99)

1791 Aug 14, Haitian slaves, led by voodoo priest Boukman Dutty, gathered to plan a revolution.
(SFCM, 5/30/04, p.9)( http://tinyurl.com/yun3k3)

1791 Aug 26, John Fitch and James Rumsey, rival inventors, were both granted a US patent for a working steamboat.
(MC, 8/26/02)(WSJ, 7/27/04, p.D10)

1791 Aug 29, The Pandora under Capt. Edward Edwards sank in Endeavour Strait (later Torres Strait) between Australia and New Guinea. 33 crewmen and 4 prisoners died. They managed to use small boats and arrived in Timor on Sep 16.
(ON, 3/04, p.9)

1791 Sep 1, Lydia Sigourney, US religious author (How to Be Happy), was born.
(SC, 9/1/02)

1791 Sep 3, The French National Assembly passed a French Constitution passed.
(MC, 9/3/01)

1791 Sep 5, Giacomo Meyerbeer, Vogelsdorf Germany, opera composer (Les Huguenots, Le Prophete), was born.
(MC, 9/5/01)

1791 Sep 6, Mozart’s last opera “La Clemenza di Tito,” premiered in Prague. It was composed for the coronation festivities of the King of Bohemia.
(WSJ, 4/10/00, p.A44)(MC, 9/6/01)

1791 Sep 9, French Royalists took control of Arles and barricaded themselves inside the town.
(HN, 9/9/98)

1791 Sep 13, France’s King Louis XVI accepted a constitution.
(MC, 9/13/01)

1791 Sep 14, Louis XVI solemnly swore his allegiance to the French constitution.
(HN, 9/14/98)

1791 Sep 22, Michael Faraday (d.1867), English physicist, was born in London. He demonstrated that a magnetic field induces a current in a moving conductor. He invented the dynamo, the transformer and the electric motor.
(V.D.-H.K.p.269)(HN, 9/22/00)

1791 Sep 26, J.L.A. Theodore Gericault, French painter, was born.
(MC, 9/26/01)

1791 Sep 27, Jews in France were granted French citizenship. Jews were granted religious and civic rights in 1791.
(HN, 9/27/98)(WSJ, 8/7/00, p.A13)

1791 Sep 30, Mozart’s opera “The Magic Flute” premiered in Vienna, Austria.
(AP, 9/30/97)

1791 Oct 1, In Paris, the National Legislative Assembly held its first meeting.
(HN, 10/1/98)

1791 Nov 3, Gen. St. Clair moved his force of approximately 1,400 men to some high ground on the upper Wabash River. St. Clair was looking for the forces of Michikinikwa (Chief Little Turtle 1752-1812), who had recently defeated Gen. Josiah Harmar’s (1753-1813) army. St. Clair deployed only minimal sentry positions. [see Nov 4]
(DoW, 1999, p.168)

1791 Nov 4, General Arthur St. Clair, governor of Northwest Territory, was badly defeated by a large Indian army near Fort Wayne. Miami Indian Chief Little Turtle (1752-1812) led the powerful force of Miami, Wyandot, Iroquois, Shawnee, Delaware, Ojibwa and Potawatomi that inflicted the greatest defeat ever suffered by the U.S. Army at the hands of North American Indians. Some 623 regulars led by General Arthur St. Clair were killed and 258 wounded on the banks of the Wabash River near present day Fort Wayne, Indiana. The staggering defeat moved Congress to authorize a larger army in 1792.
(HNQ, 8/10/98)(HN, 11/4/98)

1791 Dec 4, Britain’s Observer, oldest Sunday newspaper in world, was 1st published.
(MC, 12/4/01)

1791 Dec 5, Austrian composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart died in Vienna, Austria, at age 35. His first opera was “Idomeneo.” In 1920 Hermann Abert authored “W.A. Mozart.” In 1991 Georg Knepler authored “Wolfang Amade Mozart,” a Marxist view of Mozart in his times. In 1995 Maynard Solomon published a psychoanalytic biography of Mozart. In 1999 Peter Gay authored a Penguin short life of Mozart and Robert W. Gutman authored the comprehensive biography “Mozart.”
(SFEC, 2/2/97, DB. p.54)(AP, 12/5/97)(WSJ, 12/2/99, p.A20)(WSJ, 3/1/08, p.W8)

1791 Dec 15, The US Bill of Rights, the first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution, took effect following ratification by Virginia. The First Amendment declared the separation of church and state and guaranteed freedom of religion, speech, the press and assembly. In 2007 Anthony Lewis authored “Freedom for the Thought That We Hate: A biography of the Frist Amendment.”
(SFC, 6/24/96, p.A19)(AP, 12/15/97)(SFC, 1/21/04, p.D2)(Econ, 1/12/08, p.75)

1791 Dec 17, NYC traffic regulation created the 1st 1-way street.
(MC, 12/17/01)

1791 Dec 22, Alexander Hamilton paid a $600 installment of $1,000 in blackmail to James Reynolds, who threatened to expose Hamilton’s relationship with Reynolds’ wife. Hamilton had begun a relationship with Maria Reynolds during the summer. A 2nd payment was made Jan 3.
(WSJ, 11/19/98, p.1,12)(ON, 10/05, p.5)

1791 Dec, The 1st Bank of the US opened under Alexander Hamilton. It did the work of a central bank even though private investors held most of its shares. James Madison opposed the plans of Alexander Hamilton for a National Bank. [see 1780-1792, Banning book on Madison] It was dissolved in 1811.
(WSJ, 12/20/95, p.A-12)(WSJ, 11/19/04, p.A8)(Econ, 12/24/05, p.91)(Econ, 4/12/14, p.50)

1791 Jose Cardero, a Spanish artist in California, painted “Vista del Presidio de Monterey.”
(SFC, 4/21/99, p.E6)

1791 Alexander Hamilton authored his “Report on the Subject of Manufactures.” His plan to get the country’s economy going included tariffs to protect the young industries.
(Econ, 9/1/07, p.74)(Econ, 1/21/12, SR p.5)

1791 Englishman Thomas Paine wrote the “Rights of Man” in Paris, promoting the French Revolution. It defended the French Revolution against Edmund Burke’s attack in “Reflections on the Revolution in France” (1790).
(ON, 6/2011, p.4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rights_of_Man)

1791 French Comte de Volney (1757-1820) authored “The Ruins, or a Survey of the Revolutions of Empires,” a treatise on why civilizations fell and what men should do to find happiness.
(Econ, 12/21/13, p.128)

1791 The opera “The Beneficent Dervish” was initially attributed to Emanuel Schikaneder but a 1997 find indicated that Mozart wrote the work. Schikaneder was a Vienna theater impresario who had commissioned “The Magic Flute.”
(SFC, 6/13/97, p.C11)

1791 Aaron Burr (1756-1836), later US vice president (1801-1805), was elected as US Senator from New York (1791-1797).

1791 The US Providence Bank was later reported to have profited from traffic in slaves to the New World. The bank eventually became part of FleetBoston Financial Corp.
(SFC, 3/10/00, p.D3)

1791 A document was released in 2004 from Pittsfield, Mass., that contained a 1791 bylaw to protect the windows of a new meeting house from baseball players.
(SFC, 5/12/04, p.A2)

1791 A New Hampshire law called for convicted adulterers to be paraded on the gallows for an hour and then be publicly whipped no exceeding 39 stripes before being sent to prison and fined £100. By 2014 the penalty had been reduced to a fine of $1,200 as legislators proposed a repeal of the law.
(Econ, 4/19/14, p.24)

1791 William Sprague opened the 1st US carpet mill in Philadelphia.
(SFCM, 10/10/04, p.8)

1791 Legend says the Harel family began making Camembert cheese before this time. The family had given a priest refuge, who in gratitude gave them the recipe. In 2003 Pierre Boisard authored “Camembert: A National Myth.”
(SSFC, 7/27/03, p.M3)

1791 Frantisek Koczwara, a Bohemian musician, died in a London brothel from auto-asphyxiation.
(SSFC, 3/18/01, DB p.49)
1791 Grigory A. Potemkin (b.1739), Russian army officer, statesman, Catherine II’s lover, died. In 2002 Simon Sebag Montefiore authored “Prince of Princes: The Life of Potemkin.”
(MC, 9/13/01)(WSJ, 2/14/02, p.A18)
1791 John Wesley (b.1703), English evangelist and theologian, died. He founded the Methodist movement.
(WUD, 1994, p.1622)(WSJ, 6/13/03, p.W19)

1791 In Australia officials granted parcels of land around Sydney to convicts who have served their time, beginning years of dispossession of Aborigines that continued as white settlers dispersed throughout Australia. Clashes between Aborigines and settlers led to tens of thousands of deaths among Aborigines and hundreds of settler deaths.
(AP, 1/30/08)

1791 Sheikh Mansur, Chechen leader, was captured and died in the Schlusselburg Fortress.

1791 The United Irishmen Society was formed. Inspired by the French Revolution many Catholics and Protestants took up the cause of Irish nationalism during the next decade.
(SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1 p.6)

1791 The Berlin Sing-Academie was established.
(SFC, 8/6/99, p.C13)
1791 In Berlin, Germany, the Brandenburg Gate was completed. It stood 66 feet tall and 213 feet wide, and was topped by the copper Quadriga, a sculpture of a goddess riding into the city aboard a chariot. It was restored in 2002.
(AP, 10/2/02)

1791 Wahid Bihbihani (b.~1704), Shiite scholar and founder of the most dominant form of Shiism, died about this time in Karbala (Iraq). He revived and refashioned the waning Usuli school of Shiism.
(Econ, 7/25/15, p.69)(http://tinyurl.com/pyavpz3)

1791 The Marquesas Islands were officially discovered. Over a 30 year period western diseases ravaged the populace and only about 2,000 of 100,000 people survived.
(SFEC, 8/25/96, p.T6)

1791 In St. Domingue Toussaint L’Ouverture joined the slave rebellion against plantation owners and later led a colonial revolt against France. In 1995 Madison Smart Bell authored “All Souls Rising,” a novel set in this period.
(SFEC, 1/26/97 BR, p.10)(SSFC, 4/8/01, BR p.4)(SFCM, 5/30/04, p.10)

1791-1824 Theodore Gericault, French painter. He painted “Mounted Officer of the Imperial Guard.”
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.593)

1791-1888 In Korea 124 Catholics were executed during this period under the Joseon Dynasty, which tried to shut off the Korean Peninsula off from Western influence. They were canonized as saints in 1984 during a visit by Pope John Paul II.
(Econ, 7/26/14, p.A7)

1792 Jan 17, One of the first US Treasury bonds was issued to Pres. George Washington and bears the earliest use of the dollar sign.
(WSJ, 5/29/98, p.W9)

1792 Jan 28, Rebellious slaves in Santo Domingo launched an attack on the city of Cap.
(HN, 1/28/99)

1792 Feb 7, Cimarosa’s opera “Il Matrimonio Segreto,” premiered in Vienna.
(MC, 2/7/02)

1792 Feb 15, Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Delambre (42), astronomer and surveyor, was elected to the French Academy of Sciences to help establish the length of a proposed new unit of measurement, the meter.
(ON, 2/09, p.8)

1792 Feb 20, President Washington signed an act creating the U.S. Post Office. [see Feb 20, 1789, May 8, 1794]
(HN, 2/20/98)(AP, 2/20/98)

1792 Feb 21, US Congress passed the Presidential Succession Act. [see Mar 1]
(MC, 2/21/02)

1792 Feb 23, Joseph Haydn’s 94th Symphony in G premiered.
(MC, 2/23/02)
1792 Feb 23, Humane Society of Massachusetts was incorporated. It erected life-saving stations for distressed mariners.
(MC, 2/23/02)
1792 Feb 23, Joshua Reynolds (68), English portrait painter (Simplicity), died.
(MC, 2/23/02)

1792 Feb 29, The composer Gioacchino Antonio Rossini (d.1868) was born in Pesaro, Italy. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gioachino_Rossini)

1792 Mar 1, US Presidential Succession Act was passed. [see Feb 21]
(SC, 3/1/02)

1792 Mar 4, Oranges were introduced to Hawaii.
(SC, 3/4/02)

1792 Mar 10, John Stuart (78), 3rd earl of Bute, English premier (1760-63), died.
(MC, 3/10/02)

1792 Mar 16, Sweden’s King Gustav III was shot and mortally wounded during a masquerade party by a former member of his regiment. He was murdered by Count Ankarstrom at an opera. It became the inspiration for Giuseppe Verdi’s Un Ballo in Maschera. Gustav died 13 days later.
(AP, 3/16/06)(WSJ, 1/28/07, p.P10)

1792 Mar 20, In Paris, the Legislative Assembly approved the use of the guillotine.
(HN, 3/20/99)

1792 Mar 23, Franz Joseph Haydn’s “Symphony No. 94 in G Major,” also known as the “Surprise Symphony,” was performed publicly for the first time, in London.
(AP, 3/23/97)

1792 Mar 29, Gustav III, King of Sweden (1771-92), died of wounds inflicted by an assassin on March 16.
(AP, 3/16/06)

1792 Mar/Apr, Speculator William Duer defaulted on Hamilton’s freshly exchanged “Stock in the Public Funds,” and caused the first American stock market crash. Hamilton injected liquidity, asked the banks not to call in loans and allowed merchants to pay customs duties with short-term notes.
(WSJ, 3/24/97, p.A16)(WSJ, 8/14/01, p.A12)

1792 Apr 1, Gronings feminist Etta Palm demanded women’s right to divorce.
(MC, 4/1/02)

1792 Apr 2, Congress passed the Coinage Act, which authorized establishment of the U.S. Mint. It established the US dollar defined in fixed weights of gold and silver. State chartered banks issued paper money convertible to gold or silver coins to ease business transactions. U.S. authorized $10 Eagle, $5 half-Eagle & 2.50 quarter-Eagle gold coins & silver dollar, dollar, quarter, dime & half-dime.
(HFA, ’96, p.28)(AP, 4/2/97)(WSJ, 1/13/98, p.A1)(HN, 4/2/98)

1792 Apr 4, American abolitionist Thaddeus Stevens, U.S. Radical Republican congressional leader, was born in Danville, Vt..
(AP, 4/4/98)(HN, 4/4/98)

1792 Apr 5, George Washington cast the first presidential veto, rejecting a congressional measure for apportioning representatives among the states.
(AP, 5/5/97)(HN, 5/5/97)

1792 Apr 14, Pres. George Washington appointed David Rittenhouse, the foremost scientist of America, the first director of the US Mint at a salary of $2000 per annum. Rittenhouse was then in feeble health and lived at the northwest corner of Seventh and Arch Streets, then one of the high places of Old Philadelphia, where he had an observatory and where he later died and was first buried.

1792 Apr 20, France declared war on Austria, Prussia, and Sardinia, marking the start of the French Revolutionary wars.
(AP, 4/20/97)(HN, 4/20/98)

1792 Apr 21, Jose da Silva Xavier, aka Tiradentes (teeth puller), considered by many to be Brazil’s George Washington, was drawn and quartered by the Portuguese. He was hung in Rio de Janeiro. His body was broken to pieces. A document was written With his blood declaring his memory infamous. His head was exposed in Vila Rica. Pieces of his body were exposed in the cities between Vila Rica and Rio, in an attempt to scare the people who had listened to his independence ideas.
(AP, 4/19/03)(www.v-brazil.com/culture/historic-characters/tiradentes.html)

1792 Apr 22, President Washington proclaimed American neutrality in the war in Europe.
(HN, 4/22/98)

1792 Apr 24, Capt. Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle, an officer stationed in Strasbourg, composed “La Marseillaise,” which later became the national anthem of France.
(AP, 4/24/97)(HN, 4/24/98)

1792 Apr 25, Highwayman Nicolas Jacques Pelletier became the first person under French law to be executed by guillotine.
(AP, 4/25/97)(HN, 4/25/98)

1792 Apr 30, John Montague (73), 4th Earl of Sandwich, English Naval minister, died.
(MC, 4/30/02)

1792 May 7, Capt. Robert Gray discovered Gray’s Harbor in Washington state.
(MC, 5/7/02)

1792 May 8, US established a military draft.
(MC, 5/8/02)
1792 May 8, British Capt. George Vancouver sighted and named Mt. Rainier, Wash.
(MC, 5/8/02)

1792 May 11, The Columbia River was discovered and named by Captain Robert Gray.
(HN, 5/11/98)(MC, 5/11/02)

1792 May 12, A toilet that flushed itself at regular intervals was patented.
(MC, 5/12/02)

1792 May 13, Giovanni-Maria Mastaia-Ferretti, later Pope Pius IX, “Pio Nono” (1846-78), was born at Sinigaglia.
(PTA, 1980, p.510)(MC, 5/13/02)

1792 May 16, Denmark abolished slave trade.
(MC, 5/16/02)

1792 May 17, Stock traders signed the Buttonwood Agreement in New York City at the Tontine Coffee House Company near a Buttonwood tree, where business had been transacted in the past. 24 merchants formed their exchange at Wall and Water Streets where they fixed rates on commissions on stocks and bonds. This later developed into the New York Stock Exchange. A market crash and almost total halt in credit, trading and liquidity prompted the Buttonwood Agreement under the influence of Alexander Hamilton. The organization drafted its constitution on March 8th, 1817, and named itself the “New York Stock & Exchange Board.”
(www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/crash/timeline/)(WSJ, 3/24/97, p.A19)(HN, 5/17/98)

1792 May 18, Russian troops invaded Poland.
(HN, 5/18/98)

1792 May 19, The Russian army entered Poland.
(DTnet 5/19/97)

1792 May 21, Gustave-Gaspard Coriolis (d.1843), French engineer and mathematician, was born. He became first person to describe the Coriolis force.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaspard-Gustave_Coriolis)(SFC, 5/21/09, p.D10)

1792 Jun 1, Kentucky became the 15th state of the Union.
(AP, 6/1/97)

1792 Jun 4, Captain George Vancouver claimed Puget Sound for Britain. Englishman George Vancouver sailed into the SF Bay on his ship Discovery in this year and explored the Santa Clara Valley. Vancouver sailed the Inside Passage, the 1000-mile waterway between Puget Sound and Alaska.
(SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W34)(HN, 6/4/98)(WSJ, 11/5/99, p.W12)
1792 Jun 4, John Burgoyne, soldier, playwright, died.
(MC, 6/4/02)

1792 Jul 18, American naval hero John Paul Jones died in Paris at age 45. His body was preserved in rum in case the American government wished him back. In 1905 his body was transported to the US and placed in a crypt in Annapolis. In 2003 Evan Thomas authored “John Paul Jones: Sailor, Hero, Father of the American Navy.”
(AP, 7/18/97)(SSFC, 6/22/03, p.M3)

1792 Jul 30, The French national anthem “La Marseillaise” by Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle, was first sung in Paris.
(AP, 7/30/99)

1792 Jul 31, The foundation-stone was laid for the US Mint by David Rittenhouse, Esq. The property was paid for and deeded to the United States of America for a consideration of $4266.67 on July 18, 1792. The money for the Mint was the first money appropriated by Congress for a building to be used for a public purpose.

1792 Aug 4, Percy Bysshe Shelley (d.1822), English poet and author who wrote “Prometheus Unbound,” was born in Field Place, England. He married Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin, author of “Frankenstein.” He wrote the poem “Adonais.”
(WUD, 1994, p.1314)(HN, 8/4/98)

1792 Aug 5, Frederick 7th baron Lord North (60), English premier, died. He presided over Britain’s loss of its American colonies (1770-82).
(MC, 8/5/02)

1792 Aug 10, Some 10,000 Parisians attacked the Tuileries Palace of Louis XVI at the instigation of Georges Jacques Danton (33), after Louis ordered his Swiss guard to stop firing on the people. The mob massacred some 600 guardsmen. The king was later arrested, put on trial for treason, and executed the following January.
(PC, 1992, p.345)(AP, 8/10/07)(ON, 2/09, p.8)

1792 Aug 11, A revolutionary commune was formed in Paris, France.
(HN, 8/10/98)

1792 Aug 13, Revolutionaries imprisoned the French royal family, including King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. [see Aug 10]
(MC, 8/13/02)

1792 Aug 18, Lord John Russel, Prime Minister of England from 1846 to 1852 and 1865 to 1866, was born.
(HN, 8/18/98)

1792 Aug 29, The English warship Royal George capsized in Spithead and 900 people were killed.
(MC, 8/29/01)

1792 Sep 2, Verdun, France, surrendered to the Prussian Army.
(HN, 9/2/98)
1792 Sep 2, In the “September Massacres”- French mobs removed nobles and clergymen from jails, and some 1,600.
(Econ, 7/18/09, p.80)

1792 Sep 3, In France Princess de Lamballe (b.1749), the best friend of Marie Antoinette, was killed and her body mutilated by an angry mob. Her head was displayed under the window of Marie Antoinette, interned in Temple Prison.
(SSFC, 4/23/06, p.G5)(www.batguano.com/vigeeart100.html)

1792 Sep 5, Maximilien Robespierre was elected to the National Convention in France.
(HN, 9/5/98)

1892 Sep 18, At Spithaead, England, verdicts and sentences were announced for the 10 prisoners from the mutiny on the Bounty. 4 men were acquitted, and 6 were found guilty and condemned to death. 2 of the condemned were pardoned and another was freed on a technicality. 3 were later hanged.
(ON, 3/04, p.9)

1792 Sep 21, Collot D’Herbois proposed to abolish the monarchy in France. The French National Convention voted to abolish the monarchy. 1st French Republic formed
(AP, 9/21/97)(MC, 9/21/01)

1792 Sep 22, The first French Republic was proclaimed.
(AP, 9/22/06)

1792 Sep 27, George Cruikshank, London, caricaturist (Oliver Twist), was born.
(MC, 9/27/01)

1792 Oct 7, James Mason (b.1725), American Revolutionary statesman, died at Gunston Hall Plantation, situated on the Potomac River some 20 miles south of Washington D.C. Mason framed the Bill of Rights for the Virginia Convention in June 1776. This was the model for the first part of fellow Virginian Thomas Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence and the basis of the first 10 Amendments to the federal Constitution. In 2006 Jeff Broadwater authored “George Mason.”
(HNQ, 2/18/99)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Mason)(WSJ, 9/13/06, p.D10)

1792 Oct 12, Columbus Day was 1st celebrated in the US.
(MC, 10/12/01)

1792 Oct 13, The “Old Farmer’s Almanac” was 1st published. [see Nov 25]
(MC, 10/13/01)
1792 Oct 13, The cornerstone of the executive mansion, later known as the White House, was laid during a ceremony in the District of Columbia.
(AP, 10/13/97)(HN, 10/13/98)

1792 Nov 6, Battle at Jemappes: French army beat the Austrians.
(MC, 11/6/01)

1792 Nov 13, Edward John Trelawney, traveler and author (Adventure of a Younger Son), friend of Byron and Shelley, was born in England.
(MC, 11/13/01)

1792 Nov 25, The Farmer’s Almanac was 1st published. [see Oct 13]
(MC, 11/25/01)

1792 Dec 5, George Washington was re-elected president; John Adams was re-elected vice president.
(AP, 12/5/97)

1792 Dec 8, The 1st cremation in US: Henry Laurens.
(MC, 12/8/01)

1792 Dec 11, France’s King Louis XVI went before the Convention to face charges of treason. Louis was convicted and executed the following month.
(AP, 12/11/97)

1792 Dec 12, In Vienna Ludwig Van Beethoven (22) received 1st lesson in music composition from Franz Joseph Haydn.
(MC, 12/12/01)

1792 Dec 15, Alexander Hamilton, US Sec. of the Treasury, was accused of teaming with Mr. James Reynolds to speculate illegally in government securities. Hamilton then acknowledged to three lawmakers, including James Monroe, that he had paid hush money to Mr. Reynolds to cover an affair with Reynolds’ wife.
(WSJ, 11/19/98, p.A12)(ON, 10/05, p.5)

1792 Dec 26, Charles Babbage (d.1871), English inventor of the calculating machine, was born.
(HN, 12/26/98)

1792 John Trumbell painted his portrait of Alexander Hamilton.
(WSJ, 10/20/04, p.D12)

1792 Captain Bligh published “A Voyage to the South Sea” after his return from the Mutiny on the Bounty.
(WSJ, 7/7/98, p.A14)

1792 James Madison published an essay in a newspaper on property and slaves. In this essay Madison extended the idea of property from material possessions to the property in his opinions, especially his religious beliefs.

1792 Mary Wollstonecraft (Godwin) wrote her essay “Vindication of the Rights of Woman.” She married Godwin in 1797 after learning that she was pregnant and died in childbirth.
(SFEM, 6/28/98, p.28)(Econ, 2/26/05, p.84)

1792 Construction began on the Royal Chapel at Carmel, Ca. It was dedicated in 1795.
(SSFC, 1/4/09, p.B3)

1792 An edition of the Bible was first printed in New York.
(WSJ, 8/7/98, p.W13)

1792 George Washington signed a law giving shipowners “allowances” (i.e. subsidies) to offset tariffs they had to pay on their inputs. This was part of an effort to rebuild new England’s cod industry.
(Econ, 11/23/13, p.75)
1792 A US military campaign led by General Arthur St. Clair against Native Americans in Ohio ended in complete disaster. Of the 1,400 US regulars and militia who set out in pursuit of Native Americans, some 650 were killed and 250 wounded when adversaries caught them unprepared for battle. Lawmakers launched the first congressional investigation of US executive branch actions. President George Washington responded with wary cooperation, aware he was setting precedents for presidents to come.
(CSM, 7/26/17)
1792 A US Militia Act was created.
(SFC, 3/2/02, p.A21)
1792 US veterans hired William Hull to petition congress for more compensation.
(Econ, 10/4/08, p.32)
1792 A US penny was struck to test a design. It came to be called the Birch cent after engraver Robert Birch. In 2015 it sold at auction for $2.6 million.
(SFC, 1/13/15, p.A6)
1792 The dime coin “dismes” were first produced. Then came “half-dismes,” or what we call nickels.
(SFEC, 1/12/97, zone 3 p.4)
1792 Explorer Jose Longinos Martinez wrote in his diary about grizzly maulings that killed 2 Indians in California.
(SFC, 8/18/96, p.A6)

1792 Archibald Menzies, Scottish doctor/surgeon, was the naturalist aboard the Discovery under Captain George Vancouver. He collected his first California poppy and classified it incorrectly as Celandine, an old world member of the same family (Papaveracae). [see 1794,1816,1825-1833]
(NBJ, 2/96, p.12)
1792 Three English sailors wandered from Vancouver’s supply ship Daedalus, anchored in Waimea Bay. They were captured and killed by native Hawaiians.
(SFCM, 3/11/01, p.87)

1792 Arthur Phillip, the 1st governor of New South Wales, Australia, returned to England accompanied by Bennelong, an Aboriginal who had earlier attacked and wounded him. Philip later gave Bennelong a house on a point in Sydney Cove. In 1973 it became the site of the Sydney Opera House.
(Econ, 7/15/06, p.83)
1792 In England consumers began an organized boycott against West Indian sugar. The Anti-Saccharine Society displayed a cross-section of a slave ship with men shackled head-to-toe like sardines.
(Econ, 12/23/06, p.94)
1792 William Wilberforce introduced a new motion in British Parliament for the gradual abolition of the slave trade. The “gradual” wording, proposed by home office minister Henry Dundas, led to passage of the bill in the House of Commons 230 to 85.
(ON, 4/05, p.2)
1792 James Penny, Liverpool slave trader, was presented with a magnificent silver epergne for speaking in favor of the slave trade to a parliamentary committee. Liverpool’s Penny Lane was named after him.
(SSFC, 7/9/06, p.A2)(www.liverpoolmuseums.org.uk/maritime/slavery/liverpool.asp)
1792 The British St. George’s Bay Company transported a 2nd group of settlers to Freetown. This included 1,196 Blacks from Nova Scotia, 500 Jamaicans and dozens of rebellious slaves from other colonies.
(MT, summer 2003, p.8)

1792 Niagara-on-the-Lake became the 1st capital of the Upper Canada (later Ontario). The Parliament met for 5 sessions before moving to York (Toronto).
(WSJ, 7/25/02, p.D10)

1792 The Chinese poet Shih Tao-nan, shortly before succumbing to the plague noted: “Few days following the death of the rats, Men pass away like falling walls.”
(NG, 5/88, p.678)

1792 The crown jewels of France were stolen including the 67 carat Blue Diamond.
(THC, 12/3/97)(EB, 1993, V6 p.51)

1792 The La Felecia opera house in Venice opened.
(SFC, 6/27/96, p.D3)

1792 In Mexico Campeche’s northern fort, the Reducto de San Jose, was built. It later housed the Museo de Barcas y Armas.
(SSFC, 1/25/09, p.E5)

1792 In Scotland gas lighting was developed.
(SFC, 7/14/99, p.4)

1792 Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (b.1703), conservative Islamic theologian, died. He founded Wahhabism and set out his ideas in “The Book of Unity” (1736). In 2004 Natana J. Delong-Bas authored “Wahhabi Islam: From Revival and Reform to Global Jihad.”
(www.concise.britannica.com)(WSJ, 7/20/04, p.D8)

1792-1793 Francisco Jose de Goya y Lucientes (1746-1828), Spanish painter, went deaf from an unexplained illness.
(WSJ, 5/10/02, p.W8)(Econ, 10/18/03, p.81)

1792-1796 In St. Petersburg, Russia, Catherine the Great commissioned the building of the neoclassical rococo Alexander Palace for her eldest grandson, the future Alexander I.
(WSJ, 9/9/97, p.A16)

1792-1867 Giovanni Pacing, Italian composer. His work included “Maria, Regina d’Inghilterra,” based on Victor Hugo’s drama “Marie Tudor.”
(WSJ, 11/10/98, p.A20)

1792-1868 Gioacchino Antonio Rossini, Italian composer. His work included the opera “La Donna del Lago,” based on the Walter Scott romance “The Lady of the Lake.”
(WUD, 1994, p.1246)(WSJ, 7/29/97, p.A12)

1793 Jan 1, Francesco Guardi (b.1712), Venetian painter, died.
(Economist, 10/13/12, p.101)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francesco_Guardi)

1793 Jan 3, Lucretia Coffin Mott women’s rights activist, was born. She was a teacher, minister, antislavery leader and founder of the 1st Women’s Rights Convention.
(440 Int’l. 1/3/99)(HN, 1/3/02)

1793 Jan 9, The first US manned balloon flight occurred as Frenchman Jean Pierre Blanchard, using a hot-air balloon, flew between Philadelphia and Woodbury, N.J. He stayed airborne for 46 minutes, traveled close to 15 miles and set down at the “old Clement farm” in Deptford, New Jersey. [see Jun 23, 1784, Mar 9, 1793]
(WSJ, 3/31/98, p.A1)(AP, 1/9/99)(ON, 6/09, p.2)

1793 Jan 19, French King Louis XVI was sentenced to death. [see Jan 21]
(MC, 1/19/02)

1793 Jan 21, Louis XVI (38), last of the French Bourbon dynasty, was executed on the guillotine. The vote in the National Convention for execution for treason won by a margin of one vote. The Great Terror followed his execution.
(WUD, 1994, p.1677)(V.D.-H.K.p.231)(NH, 6/97, p.23)(AP, 1/21/98)

1793 Jan 23, Prussia and Russia signed an accord on the 2nd partition of Lithuania and Poland. The 2nd partition of Poland. Polish patriots had attempted to devise a new constitution which was recognized by Austria and Prussia, but Russia did not recognize it and invaded. Prussia in turn invaded and the two agreed to a partition that left only the central portion of Poland independent.
(WUD, 1994, p.1677)(LHC, 1/23/03)

1793 Feb 1, Ralph Hodgson of Lansingburg, NY, patented one of the world’s greatest inventions this day: Oiled silk.
(440 Int’l, 2/1/1999)
1793 Feb 1, France declared war on Britain and the Netherlands.
(HN, 2/1/99)

1793 Feb 12, The US federal government passed its first fugitive slave law. This gave slave holders the right to reclaim their human property in free states.
(HN, 2/12/97)(WSJ, 1/30/03, p.D8)

1793 Feb 25, The department heads of the U.S. government met with President Washington at his Mt. Vernon home for the first Cabinet meeting on record.
(AP, 2/25/98)(MC, 2/25/02)

1793 Mar 2, Sam Houston, the first president of the Republic of Texas (1836-38, 1841-44), was born near Lexington, Va. He fought for Texas’ independence from Mexico; President of Republic of Texas; U.S. Senator; Texas governor
(AP, 3/2/98)(HC, Internet, 2/3/98)(SC, 3/2/02)

1793 Mar 3, Charles Sealsfield, writer (The Making of America), was born.
(SC, 3/3/02)

1793 Mar 4, George Washington was inaugurated as President for the second time. His 2nd inauguration was the shortest with just 133 words. Since George Washington’s second term, Inauguration Day had been March 4 of the year following the election. That custom meant that defeated presidents and congressmen served four months after the election. In 1933, the so-called Lame Duck Amendment to the U.S. Constitution moved the inauguration of newly elected presidents and congressmen closer to Election Day. The 20th Amendment required the terms of the president and vice-president to begin at noon on January 20, while congressional terms begin on January 3.
(HN, 3/4/98)(HNPD, 3/4/99)(SC, 3/4/02)
1793 Mar 4, French troops conquered Geertruidenberg, Netherlands.
(SC, 3/4/02)

1793 Mar 5, Austrian troops crush the French and recapture Liege.
(HN, 3/5/99)

1793 Mar 10, In France, on a proposal by Georges-Jacques Danton (1759-1794), the National Convention decreed that there should be established in Paris an extraordinary criminal tribunal. The news of the failure of the French arms in Belgium had given rise in Paris to popular movements on March 9 and 10, 1793. On Oct 20 the extraordinary criminal tribunal received by decree the official name of the Revolutionary Tribunal.

1793 Mar 18, The 2nd Battle at Neerwinden: Austria army beat France.
(MC, 3/18/02)

1793 Mar 26, Pro-royalist uprising took place in Vendée region of France.
(SS, 3/26/02)

1793 Apr 1, The volcano Unsen on Japan erupted killing about 53,000.

1793 Apr 6, In France all executive power was conferred upon a Committee of Public Safety. Georges-Jacques Danton was one of the nine original members.

1793 Apr 14, A royalist rebellion in Santo Domingo was crushed by French republican troops.
(HN, 4/14/99)

1793 Apr 17, The Battle of Warsaw was fought.
(HN, 4/17/98)

1793 Apr 22, Pres. Washington attended the opening of Rickett’s, the 1st circus in US.
(MC, 4/22/02)

1793 Apr 29, John Michell (b.1724) English clergyman and natural philosopher, died in Yorkshire. He provided pioneering insights in a wide range of scientific fields, including astronomy, geology, optics, and gravitation. Michell was the first person to propose that black holes existed.

1793 May 7, Pietro Nardini (71), composer, died.
(MC, 5/7/02)

1793 May 20, Charles Bonnet (b.1720) naturalist and philosophical writer, died in Geneva. He is responsible for coining the term phyllotaxis to describe the arrangement of leaves on a plant. Bonnet was from a French family driven into the Geneva region by the religious persecution in the 16th century.

1793 May 25, Father Stephen Theodore Badin became the 1st US Roman Catholic priest ordained.
(SC, 5/25/02)

1793 Jun 2, Maximillian Robespierre, a member of France’s Committee on Public Safety, initiated the “Reign of Terror,” a purge of those suspected of treason against the French Republic. Months of the Great Terror, followed the Revolution in France as thousands died beneath the guillotine.
(V.D.-H.K.p.231)(HN, 6/2/98)

1793 Jun 20, Eli Whitney petitioned for a cotton gin patent in Philadelphia.

1793 Jun 24, The first republican constitution in France was adopted.
(AP, 6/24/97)

1793 Jul 13, John Clare, English poet, was born.
(HN, 7/13/01)
1793 Jul 13, Pierre Dupont de Nemours was ordered arrested in Paris on charges of plotting with rebels against the French Revolutionary National Assembly.
(MC, 7/13/02)
1793 Jul 13, French revolutionary writer Jean Paul Marat was stabbed to death in his bath by Charlotte Corday, who was executed four days later. In 1970 Marie Cher authored “Charlotte Corday, and Certain Men of the Revolutionary Torment.”
(AP, 7/13/97)(ON, SC, p.8)

1793 Jul 23, Roger Sherman (b.1721) of Connecticut, signer of the Declaration of Independence, died. He was only man to sign the four most important documents that were most significant in the formation of the United States. Sherman signed the Association (the 1774 compact to boycott British goods), the Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation and Constitution. Sherman was among the first to declare that Parliament had no right to legislate for the colonies. He was a delegate to the Continental Congress, served in the first U.S. House of Representatives and was a U.S. senator.
(HN, 4/19/97)(HNQ, 7/10/99)
1793 Jul 23, The French garrison at Mainz, Germany, fell to the Prussians.
(HN, 7/23/98)

1793 Jul 24, France passed the 1st copyright law.
(MC, 7/24/02)

1793 Jul 27, In France, Robespierre became a member of the Committee of Public Safety.
(HN, 7/27/98)

1793 Jul, Napoleon Bonaparte published a pro-republican pamphlet that made a good impression on the Jacobin faction that had seized power in Paris.
(ON, 2/12, p.5)

1793 Aug 14, Republican troops in France laid siege to the city of Lyons.
(HN, 8/14/98)

1793 Aug 22, Louis Duke de Noailles (80), marshal of France, was guillotined.
(MC, 8/22/02)

1793 Aug 27, Maximilien Robespierre was elected to the Committee of Public Safety in Paris, France.
(HN, 8/27/98)

1793 Aug 28, Adam-Philippe Custine, Duke de Lauzun (French duke, general, fought in American Revolution, hero in both countries), was guillotined in Paris.
(MC, 8/28/01)

1793 Aug 29, Slavery was abolished in the French colony of Santo Domingo (Haiti).
(HN, 8/29/98)(MC, 8/29/01)

1793 Sep 5, The Reign of Terror began during the French Revolution as the National Convention instituted harsh measures to repress counter-revolutionary activities. One delegate, claiming that the middle class Girondist (moderates) leaders be sentenced to death cried, “It is time for equality to wield its scythe over all the heads. Very well, Legislator, place Terror on the agenda!” The delegates agreed to arrest all suspects and dissenters, try them swiftly in the kangaroo courts known as the Revolutionary Tribunals, and sentence them uniformly to death.
(MC, 9/5/01)(AP, 9/4/07)

1793 Sep 6, French General Jean Houchard and his 40,000 men began a three-day battle against an Anglo-Hanoverian army at Hondschoote, southwest Belgium, in the wars of the French Revolution.
(HN, 9/6/98)

1793 Sep 17, Captain Napoleon Bonaparte reached Toulon and presented himself to his new commander, General Carteaux, a former house painter and policeman.
(ON, 2/12, p.5)

1793 Sep 18, President George Washington laid the foundation stone for the U.S. Capitol on Jenkins Hill.
(AP, 9/18/97)(SFC, 7/18/98, p.A15)(HN, 9/18/98)

1793 Oct 8, John Hancock, US merchant and signer (Declaration of Independence), died at 56.
(MC, 10/8/01)

1793 Oct 10, The rebellious French city of Lyons surrendered to Revolutionary troops.
(MC, 10/10/01)

1793 Oct 16, During the French Revolution, Marie Antoinette was beheaded. Prosecutors claimed she had sexually abused her son and financially abused the French Monarchy. In mourning for her husband, Louis XVI, who had been guillotined the previous January, clad in rags, her once-dazzling locks shorn by the executioner’s assistant, she even suffered the indignity of a crude sketch by the great French painter, Jacques Louis David. Antoinette bore herself with a regal indifference to her martyrdom. Madame Tussaud used her severed head as a model for her wax bust death mask. In 2001 Antonia Fraser authored “Marie Antoinette: The Journey.”
(SFEC, 11/17/96, p.T5)(AP, 10/16/97)(WSJ, 10/5/01, p.W13)

1793 Oct 19, Captain Napoleon Bonaparte was promoted to chef de bataillon (major) giving him greater voice in the councils of war and the siege of Toulon.
(ON, 2/12, p.5)

1793 Oct 20, In France an extraordinary criminal tribunal received the official name of the Revolutionary Tribunal by a decree. The news of the failure of the French arms in Belgium gave rise in Paris to popular movements on March 9 and 10, 1793, and on March 10, on the proposal of Danton, the Convention decreed that there should be established in Paris an extraordinary criminal tribunal.

1793 Oct 28, Eliphalet Remington, US gun maker, was born.
(MC, 10/28/01)
1793 Oct 28, Eli Whitney applied for a patent on the cotton gin, a machine which cleaned the tight-clinging seeds from short-staple cotton easily and effectively–a job which was previously done by hand. The patent was granted the following March. [see Mar 13, Jun 20, 1793, Mar 14, 1794]
(AP, 10/28/97)(HN, 10/28/98)

1793 Oct 31, Execution of 21 Girondins (moderates) in Paris, stepping up the Reign of Terror. Pierre V. Vergniaud (40), French politician and elegant, impassioned orator of Girondins, was guillotined.
(MC, 10/31/01)

1793 Nov 3, Stephen Fuller Austin was born. He colonized Texas.
(MC, 11/3/01)

1793 Nov 8, The Louvre opened in Paris as a museum. It was originally constructed as a fortress in the early thirteenth century.
(HN, 11/6/98)(MC, 11/8/01)

1793 Nov 10, France outlawed the forced worship of God.
(MC, 11/10/01)

1793 Nov 12, Jean-Sylvain Bailley (53), French astronomer and mayor of Paris, was guillotined.
(MC, 11/12/01)

1793 Nov 19, The Jacobin Club was formed in Paris. Robespierre (1758-1794), Jacobin leader: “Terror is nothing but justice, prompt, severe and inflexible.”
(SSFC, 10/28/01, p.C5)(MC, 11/19/01)

1793 Nov 26, Republican calendar replaced the Gregorian calendar in France.
(MC, 11/26/01)

1793 Nov, In France Philippe Aspairt, a hospital porter, ventured alone into the limestones quarries south of Paris, site of the new cemetery, and got lost. Workmen found his bones 11 years later.
(Hem., 3/97, p.119)

1793 Dec 6, Marie Jeanne Becu, Comtesse du Barry, flamboyant mistress of Louis XV, was guillotined in Paris.
(MC, 12/6/01)

1793 Dec 9, Noah Webster established NY’s 1st daily newspaper, American Minerva.
(MC, 12/9/01)

1793 Dec 19, French troops recaptured Toulon from the British. Napoleon Bonaparte led the intense shelling of British positions. This led to his promotion to brigadier general.
(ON, 2/12, p.6)

1793 Dec 20, Joseph Legros (54), composer, died.
(MC, 12/20/01)

1793 Dec 23, Thomas Jefferson warned of slave revolts in West Indies.
(MC, 12/23/01)

1793 Antonio Canova created his clay model for the sculpture “Penitent Magdalen.” The final marble version was completed in 1809.
(WSJ, 1/29/02, p.A18)

1793 Jacques-Louis David painted “Death of Marat.”
(SFEC, 3/21/99, BR p.5)

1793 Pierre-Paul Prud’hon (1758-1823), French artist, painted “Cupid Laughs at the Tears He Causes.”
(WSJ, 4/8/98, p.A20)

1793 William Blake (1757-1827) produced his “Labors of the Artist, the Poet, and the Musician.” He painted “Aged Ignorance.” Blake’s work “The Complaint of Job” was also done about this time.
(LSA, Spring 1995, p.17)(NH, 4/97, p.6)(SFC, 7/16/15, p.C6)

1793 Augustin Ximenez (1726-1817), Marquis of Ximenez, a Frenchman of Spanish origin, wrote a poem with the line “Attaquons dans ses eaux la perfide Albion,” which means “Let us attack perfidious Albion in her waters.” The poet of perfidy later lectured French soldiers that “Il est beau de perir,” which means “it is beautiful to perish.”
(SSFC, 1/14/07, p.M4)(http://tinyurl.com/ye6bd7)

1793 The German Reformed Church was established in the US by Calvinist Puritans.
(SFC, 7/21/97, p.A11)

1793 Capt. George Vancouver introduced cattle to the islands of Hawaii and wrested from King Kamehameha the concession that women as well as men be allowed to eat the meat. The king agreed if separate animals were used.
(SFEM, 2/8/98, p.10)

1793 The 1st US half-cent and one cent coins were minted in Philadelphia. For almost 6 decades the obverse side carried an image of Lady Liberty. The first coins were related to the silver dollar. The half-dollar contained half as much silver, the quarter had one-fourth as much. The dime had a 10th and the half dime has a 20th as much silver as the dollar. Only the penny was made of copper. In 1866 the Mint decided to produce a larger five-cent coin. In 2012 a one-cent copper coin minted this year fetched $1 million at a Florida auction. By 2018 only about 500 pennies were left in existence and one put up for auction was valued at $300,000.
(SFC, 9/11/96, p.A4)(WSJ, 12/12/03, p.W15)(SSFC, 9/27/09, Par p.25)(AP, 1/8/12)(SFC, 1/6/18, p.A6)

1793 Cape Girardeau, Missouri, was first founded where the present day Cape Rock Park sits, when Don Louis Lorimier was given a land grant by the Spanish government. The City of Cape Girardeau celebrated its 200th year in 2006.

1793 In Vermont Captain John Norton founded a stoneware pottery shop in Bennington. The wares were rarely marked until 1823. Various members of the family worked at the pottery until it closed shop in 1894.
(SFC, 2/18/98, Z1 p.3)
1793 Early settlers discovered ore in what became known as Vermont’s copper belt, two years after statehood. In 1809 people began to make copperas, an industrial chemical made from iron sulfide used to make inks and dyes and for other industrial applications, also common in the area.
(AP, 9/7/19)

1793 The Spanish Governor of Alta California made the first official notice of the fire problem in California. He warned military officers, missions and civil authorities of the problem.
(SFC, 10/23/96, p.A8)

1793 There was a yellow fever epidemic in Philadelphia. About 5,000 people were killed. Stephen Girard risked his life and fortune in stopping the epidemic.
(WSJ, 1/2/97, p.6)(Econ, 5/14/16, p.52)

1793 Alexander Mackenzie, Scottish-born fur trader, reached the Pacific coast completing his crossing of North America. He began the trip in 1789. He raised Britain’s claims to the pacific Northwest.
(SFEC, 5/25/97, Z1 p.7)(SFC, 1/31/04, p.D12)

1793 The British took over the island of St. Vincent and a series of wars ensued against the black Caribs.
(SFC, 7/25/07, p.E2)

1793 China’s Emperor Qianlong accepted gifts from Lord George Macartney, but turned away the British fleet under his command with the declaration that China had all things in abundance and had no interest in “foreign manufactures.”
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R51)(Econ, 9/16/06, p.13)(Econ, 8/23/14, p.43)

1793 The courthouse at the St. Maarten Island Dutch capital of Philipsburg was built.
(SFEC,2/16/97, p.T7)

1793 The Minton dishware company was established in Stoke, Staffordshire, England.
(SFC,11/5/97, Z.1 p.3)(SFC, 3/19/08, p.G6)

1793-1795 The British engaged in the ill-fated Flanders Campaign.
(SSFM, 4/1/01, p.42)

1793-1801 In Afghanistan Zaman Shah ruled. Constant internal revolts continued.

1793-1835 Felicia Dorothea Browne Hemans, English poet: “Though the past haunt me as a spirit, I do not ask to forget.”
(AP, 12/31/98)


Timeline of the Eighteenth Century: 1775-1799 3

1793-1860 Thomas Addison, English physician, discovered Addison’s disease, a usually fatal disease caused by the failure of the adrenal cortex to function and marked by a bronze-like skin pigmentation, anemia, and prostration.
(AHD, 1971, p.15)

1793-1863 Sam Houston, US soldier and political leader. He was president of the Republic of Texas from 1836-1838.
(WUD, 1994, p.689)

1794 Jan 13, President Washington approved a measure adding two stars and two stripes to the American flag, following the admission of Vermont and Kentucky to the union. The number of stripes was later reduced to the original 13.
(AP, 1/13/01)

1794 Jan 14, Dr. Jessee Bennet of Edom, Va., performed the 1st successful Cesarean section operation on his wife.
(MC, 1/14/02)

1794 Feb 4, France’s First Republic (Convention) voted for the abolition of slavery in all French colonies. The abolition decree stated that “the Convention declares the slavery of the Blacks abolished in all the colonies; consequently, all men, irrespective of color, living in the colonies are French citizens and will enjoy all the rights provided by the Constitution.” Slavery was restored by the Consulate in 1802, and was definitively abolished in 1848 by the Second Republic, on Victor Schoelcher’s initiative.
1794 Feb 4, Slaves in Haiti won emancipation.
(AP, 4/7/03)(WSJ, 3/1/04, p.A16)

1794 Feb 10, Joseph Haydn’s 99th Symphony in E, premiered.
(MC, 2/10/02)

1794 Feb 11, A session of US Senate was 1st opened to the public.
(MC, 2/11/02)

1794 Feb 14, 1st US textile machinery patent was granted, to James Davenport in Phila.
(MC, 2/14/02)

1794 Feb 21, Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, Mexican Revolutionary, was born.
(HN, 2/21/98)

1794 Mar 3, 1st performance of Joseph Haydn’s 101st Symphony in D.
(SC, 3/3/02)
1794 Mar 3, Richard Allen founded AME Church.
(SC, 3/3/02)

1794 Mar 14, Eli Whitney received a patent for his cotton gin, an invention that revolutionized America’s cotton industry. He paid substantial royalties to Catherine T. Greene and this makes his claim to the invention suspect.
(AP, 3/14/97)(SFC, 10/4/97, p.E3)

1794 Mar 22, Congress passed laws prohibiting slave trade with foreign countries, although slavery remained legal in the United States. Congress banned US vessels from supplying slaves to other countries.
(HN, 3/22/01)(MC, 3/22/02)

1794 Mar 23, Josiah Pierson patented a “cold-header” (rivet) machine.
(SS, 3/23/02)
1794 Mar 23, Lieutenant-General Tadeusz Kosciusko returned to Poland.
(SS, 3/23/02)

1794 Mar 24, In Cracow a revolutionary manifesto was proclaimed. The Lithuanian and Polish nobility under the leadership of Tadas Kasciuska revolted against Russian control.
(H of L, 1931, p. 81-82)(LHC, 3/23/03)

1794 Mar 27, The US Congress approved “An Act to provide a Naval Armament” of six armed ships. [see Oct 13, 1775]
(AP, 3/27/07)

1794 Mar 28, Marie-Joseph de Condorcet (b.1743), mathematician (Theory of Comets) and philosopher, died as a fugitive from French Revolution Terrorists.

1794 Apr 5, Georges-Jacques Danton (b.1759), French revolutionary leader, was guillotined along with Marie Jean Herault de Sechelles, French author, politician, and Camille Desmoullins, popular journalist. In 2009 Jonathan Cape authored “Danton: The Gentle Giant of Terror.”
(Econ, 7/18/09, p.80)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georges_Danton)

1794 Apr 7, In Poland at the battle of Raclawice the revolutionary forces of Tadeusz Kosciusko defeated the imperial armies.
(DrEE, 9/21/96, p.5)

1794 Apr 8, Marie-Jean-Antoine-Nicholas-Caritat, mathematician died.
(MC, 4/8/02)

1794 Apr 19, Tadeusz Kosciusko forced Russians out of Warsaw.
(HN, 4/19/97)

1794 Apr 10, Matthew Calbraith Perry, the American Navy Commodore who opened Japan, was born.
(HN, 4/10/98)

1794 Apr 11, Edward Everett, governor of Massachusetts, statesman and orator, was born.
(HN, 4/11/98)

1794 May 6, In Haiti Toussaint Louverture (L’Ouverture), Haitian rebel leader, ended his alliance with the Iberian monarchy and embraced the French Republicans. An order followed that led to the massacre of Spaniards.
(www.travelinghaiti.com/history_of_haiti/toussaint_louverture.asp)(WSJ, 1/19/07, p.W4)
1794 May 6, Jean-Jacques Beauvarget-Charpentier (59), composer, died.
(MC, 5/6/02)

1794 May 8, Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier, the father of modern chemistry (identified oxygen), was executed on the guillotine during France’s Reign of Terror. In 2005 Madison Smartt Bell authored “Lavoisier in the Year One: The Birth of a New Science in the Age of Revolution.”
(AP, 5/8/97)(SSFC, 7/3/05, p.E1)

1794 May 10, In France Elizabeth (30), the sister of King Louis XVI, was beheaded.
(HN, 5/10/99)(MC, 5/10/02)

1794 May 18, The 2nd battle of Bouvines was between France and Austria.
(SC, 5/18/02)

1794 May 27, Cornelius Vanderbilt (d.1877), owner of the B & O railroad, was born on Staten Island. He started running steamships in 1818 and shuttled passengers to the West coast across Nicaragua for the gold rush. At age 70 he entered the railroad business. He was never accepted into New York elite society and died with an estimated $105 million fortune.
(HN, 5/27/98)(WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R18)

1794 May, Richard Allen purchased a blacksmith shop in Philadelphia and had it moved near St. Thomas. There he founded an African Methodist Episcopal (AME) church he called Bethel, “House of God.” The Mother Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church in Philadelphia was founded by Richard Allen after he was pulled from his knees one Sunday by a white usher while praying at St. George Methodist Episcopal Church. It later stood as the oldest parcel of land continuously owned by African Americans. The Richard Allen Museum contains 19th century artifacts from the church. In 1997 it was the world’s oldest AME church. The church elected its first female bishop in 2000.
(SFC, 6/24/96, p.A19)(SFC, 7/12/00, p.A3)(www.pbs.org)

1794 Jun 1, English fleet under Richard Earl Howe defeated the French. (MC, 6/1/02)

1794 Jun 4, Congress passed a Neutrality Act that banned Americans from serving in armed forces of foreign powers.
(MC, 6/4/02)
1794 Jun 4, British troops captured Port-au-Prince, Haiti.
(HN, 6/4/98)
1794 Jun 4, Robespierre was unanimously elected president of the Convention in the French Revolution.
(MC, 6/4/02)

1794 Jun 5, Congress passed the Neutrality Act, which prohibited Americans from enlisting in the service of a foreign power.
(AP, 6/5/99)(HN, 6/5/98)

1794 Jun 8, Maximilian Robespierre, French Revolutionary leader, worried about the influence of French atheists and philosophers, staged the “Festival of the Supreme Being” in Paris.
(MC, 6/8/02)

1794 Jun 15, The Guillotine was moved to outskirts of Paris.
(MC, 6/15/02)

1794 Jun 18, George Grote, British historian, was born.
(MC, 6/18/02)

1794 Jun 23, Empress Catherine II granted Jews permission to settle in Kiev.
(MC, 6/23/02)

1794 Jun 26, French defeated an Austrian army at the Battle of Fleurus.
(HN, 6/26/98)

1794 Jul 5, Sylvester Graham, developed graham cracker, was born.
(MC, 7/5/02)

1794 Jul 8, French troops captured Brussels, Belgium.
(HN, 7/8/98)

1794 Jul 12, British Admiral Lord Nelson lost his right eye at the siege of Calvi, in Corsica.
(HN, 7/12/98)

1794 Jul 13, Robespierre boycotted the Committee of Public Safety and the National convention after being denounced as a dictator.
(MC, 7/13/02)
1794 Jul 13, James Lind (b.1716) Scottish doctor, died. He was a pioneer of naval hygiene in the Royal Navy. By conducting one of the first ever clinical trials, he developed the theory that citrus fruits cured scurvy. He argued for the health benefits of better ventilation aboard naval ships, the improved cleanliness of sailors’ bodies, clothing and bedding, and below-deck fumigation with sulfur and arsenic. He also proposed that fresh water could be obtained by distilling sea water. His work advanced the practice of preventive medicine and improved nutrition.

1794 Jul 17, In Philadelphia the African Episcopal Church of St. Thomas, one of the first black churches in the country, opened its doors.

1794 Jul 23, Chaos and anarchy were averted temporarily when Robespierre joined conciliation talks in Paris.
(MC, 7/23/02)

1794 Jul 26, After remaining uncharacteristically silent for several weeks, Robespierre demanded that the National Convention punish “traitors” without naming them.
(MC, 7/26/02)
1794 Jul 26, The French defeated an Austrian army at the Battle of Fleurus in France.
(HN, 7/26/98)

1794 Jul 27, French revolutionary leader Maximilien Robespierre was overthrown and placed under arrest; he was executed the following day.
(AP, 7/27/00)

1794 Jul 28, Maximilien Robespierre, a leading figure of the French Revolution, was sent to the guillotine. Robespierre had dominated the Committee of Public Safety during the “Reign of Terror.” He asserted the collective dictatorship of the revolutionary National Convention and attacked factions led by men such as Jacques-René Hébert which he felt threatened the government‘s power. Factions opposed to Robespierre gained momentum in the summer of 1794. Declared an outlaw of the National Convention, Robespierre and many of his followers were captured and he—along with 22 of his supporters—were guillotined before cheering crowds.
(AP, 7/28/97)(HN, 7/28/98)(HNQ, 11//00)

1794 Jul 29, Seventy of Robespierre’s followers were guillotined.
(MC, 7/29/02)

1794 Aug 7, George Washington issued a proclamation telling a group of Western Pennsylvania farmers to stop their Whiskey Rebellion. In the US in western Pennsylvania, angry farmers protested a new federal tax on whiskey makers. The protest flared into the open warfare known as the Whiskey Rebellion between US marshals and whiskey farmers.
(http://www.ttb.gov/public_info/whisky_rebellion.shtml)(A&IP, ESM, p.16)(HNQ, 10/14/99)

1794 Aug 20, American General “Mad Anthony” Wayne defeated the Ohio Indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in the Northwest territory, ending Indian resistance in the area.
(HN, 8/20/98)

1794 Aug 21, France surrendered the island of Corsica to the British.
(HN, 8/21/98)

1794 Sep 10, America’s first non-denominational college, Blount College (later the University of Tennessee), was chartered.
(AP, 9/10/97)

1794 Sep 28, The Anglo-Russian-Austrian Alliance of St. Petersburg, which was directed against France, was signed.
(HN, 9/28/98)

1794 Oct 10, The Russian Army under Gen’l. Alexander Suvorov took Warsaw and captured Tadeus Kosciusko at Maciejowice. T. Vavzeckis was became the new commander of the revolutionary forces.
(Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.5)(HN, 10/10/98)

1794 Oct 15, US moneymakers minted some 2,000 silver dollars of which 1,750 were deemed good enough to go into circulation. The press initially used was designed for a smaller coin and large scale production on a bigger press began a year later.
(SFC, 7/27/05, p.C8)

1794 Nov 3, William Cullen Bryant, poet and journalist, was born.
(HN, 11/3/00)
1794 Nov 3, Thomas Paine was released from a Parisian jail with help from the American ambassador James Monroe. He had been arrested in 1893 for not endorsing the execution of Louis XVI and thus offending the Robespierre faction. While in prison Paine began writing his “The Age of Reason” (1794-1796).
(HN, 11/3/99)(www.ushistory.org/Paine/index.htm)

1794 Nov 11, The Treaty of Canandaigua was signed at Canandaigua, New York, by fifty sachems and war chiefs representing the Grand Council of the Six Nations of the Iroquois (Haudenosaunee) Confederacy (including the Cayuga, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Seneca and Tuscarora tribes), and by Timothy Pickering, official agent of President George Washington. The Canandaigua Treaty, a Treaty Between the United States of America and the Tribes of Indians Called the Six Nations, was signed.

1794 Nov 16, Warsaw capitulated to the Russian Army and the revolution ended.
(Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.5)

1794 Nov 19, The United States and Britain signed the Jay Treaty, which resolved some issues left over from the Revolutionary War. This was the 1st US extradition treaty.
(AP, 11/19/97)(MC, 11/19/01)

1794 Nov 21, Honolulu Harbor was discovered.
(MC, 11/21/01)

1794 Nov 22, Strasbourg, Alsace-Lorraine, prohibited circumcision and the wearing of beards.
(MC, 11/22/01)

1794 Nov 28, Friedrich WLGA von Steuben (64), Prussian-US inspector-general of Washington’s army, died in Oneida, NY. Baron von Steuben, a former Prussian captain, had arrived in Portsmouth, New Hampshire in 1777, and despite false credentials, was hired to drill and train Washington’s Continental Army. His manual of arms, known as the “Blue Book,” shaped basic training for American recruits for generations to come. In 2008 Paul Lockhart authored “The Drillmaster of Valley Forge: The Baron de Steuben and the Making of the American Army.”
(WSJ, 11/8/08, p.W9)(WSJ, 11/8/08, p.W9)

1794 Dec 27, The Portuguese slave ship Sao Jose–Paquete de Africa sank off the coast of South Africa’s Cape Town. Some 400-500 African slaves from Mozambique were on board the vessel bound for Brazil. About half of them perished. Wreckage of the ship was found in 2015.
(http://tinyurl.com/q9xyg73)(AP, 6/2/15)

1794 William Blake painted “The Ancient of Days.” “He formed golden com-passes / And began to explore the Abyss.” From the epic “The First Book of Urizen.” Urizen is a pun and stands for “Your Reason.” On display at the Whitworth Art Gallery, Manchester, England.
(T&L, 10/1980, p.42)(WSJ, 4/2397, p.A16)
1794 “The Book of Thell” was printed by Blake in 14+ sets of 8 different designs.
(LSA, Spring 1995, p.18)

1794 Spanish painter Goya completed his painting “Yard With Lunatics,” the last in a series of uncommissioned small paintings executed during his convalescence from an illness that left him deaf.
(WSJ, 6/18/08, p.D7)

1794 French Azilum near Towanda, Pa., was planned as an asylum for Marie-Antoinette, her children and other loyalists of the monarchy seeking refuge from the French Revolution. Loyalists who kept their heads did come and settle.
(HT, 5/97, p.18)

1794 In the US Richard Allen was pulled from his knees one Sunday by a white usher while praying at St. George Methodist Episcopal Church in Philadelphia. He founded the African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church in 1787.
(SFC, 6/24/96, p.A19)(SFC, 7/12/00, p.A3)

1794 The St. Louis Cathedral in New Orleans was rebuilt. Two previous structures had burned down.
(Hem., 1/97, p.63)

1794 George Washington established the first national armory at Springfield, Mass. He also authorized the arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, Md., where the Shenandoah flows into the Potomac.
(WSJ, 9/12/97, p.A20)(SFEC, 4/25/99, p.T7)

1794 The first American silver dollar was minted. Congress decided in 1785 that the country‘s monetary system would be based on a silver coin called a dollar, similar to that of the Spanish dollar.
(HNQ, 1/5/00)

1794 Twenty horse soldiers were dispatched from the Presidio of San Francisco to quell an Ohlone rebellion in the Santa Cruz mountains.
(SFC, 9/29/14, p.A1)

1794 A French inventor mixed ground graphite with clay and water and fired it to make strong pencil leads. [see 1765]
(WSJ, 11/24/00, p.A1)

1794 Gov. Diego Borica took command of Alta California and remarked on the general fecundity of the Bay Area.
(Bay, 4/07, p.25)
1794 Archibald Menzies introduced the California poppy to England. The seed that he brought to Kew Gardens did not survive. [see 1792, 1816,1825-1833]
(NBJ, 2/96, p.12)

1794 British Admiral Earl Howe defeated the French fleet.
(SFEC,10/26/97, p.T4)

1794 Ernst Chladni, German scientist, proposed that meteorites were masses of iron-rich extraterrestrial rock, which occasionally penetrated the earth’s atmosphere to strike the surface.
(ON, 7/02, p.5)
1794 The Royal Bayreuth porcelain factory was founded in Bavaria. The factory stamped this date on dishes made after 1900.
(SFC,11/5/97, Z1 p.3)

1794 In Italy the Bourbon monarchy created the Banca Nazionale di Napoli bringing together eight public banks including the Banco dei Poveri, established in 1563. The Piedmontese monarchy settled on the name Banco di Napoli in 1861.
(Econ, 12/18/10, p.165)

1794 Napoleon’s occupying army in Maastricht, Netherlands, took back to France a giant dinosaur head that was found in a dark recess of St. Peter’s mountain in 1780. It was named the Mosasaurus and roamed the seas some 70 million years ago. The head was lugged to the home of Theodorus Godding, a canon at the local church. The French say that he swapped it to Napoleon for 600 bottles of wine. Records however seem to indicate otherwise.
(NYT, 6/7/96, p.A4)

1794 Scotland, parish of Kirkmichael, Banffshire, on the holy well of St. Michael. (Statistical Account of Scotland, vol. xii, p.464): Many a patient have its water restored to health and many more have attested the efficacies of their virtues. But as the presiding power is sometimes capricious and apt to desert his charge, it now lies neglected, choked with weeds, unhonored, and unfrequented. In better days it was not so; for the winged guardian, under the semblance of a fly, was never absent from his duty… Every movement of the sympathetic fly was regarded in silent awe…

1794 The Russian Orthodox mission was founded in Alaska. It led to the Orthodox Church in America with 600,000 members.
(WP, 6/29/96, p.B7)

1794 Ukraine’s port city of Odessa was founded.
(Econ, 12/18/04, p.86)

1794-1824 Matthias Schmutzer, artist, produced over 1000 large-format watercolors of specimens from the imperial gardens of Francis I. In 2006 H. Walter Lack authored “Florilegium Imperiale: Botanical Illustrations for Francis I of Austria.”
(WSJ, 5/27/06, p.P9)

1794-1815 An anthology of first hand reports on the naval war between France and Britain was edited by Dean King and John B. Hattendorf and published in 1997.
(SFEC,11/2/97, Par p.10)

1794-1872 Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld, German artist.
(WSJ, 7/16/98, p.A16)

1794-1925 The Kajar Dynasty ruled over Iran. The Gulistan Palace (constructed in this era), contains the much disputed Peacock Throne.
(NG, Sept. 1939, Baroness Ravensdale, p.326)

1795 Jan 3, The 3rd division of the Lithuanian Polish Republic was made between Russia and Austria.
(Voruta #27-28, Jul 1996, p.5)
1795 Jan 3, Josiah Wedgwood (b.1730), British ceramics manufacturer, died. His daughter, Susannah, was the mother of Charles Darwin. In 2004 Brian Dolan authored “Wedgwood: The First Tycoon.”
(SSFC, 12/5/04, p.E5)(www.wedgwoodmuseum.org.uk/wedgwood_chronology.htm)

1795 Jan 25, The Royal Chapel at Carmel, Ca., was dedicated with a Mass of Thanksgiving. A major renovation was undertaken in 1856.
(SSFC, 1/4/09, p.B3)

1795 Jan 26, Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach (62), composer, died.
(MC, 1/26/02)

1795 Feb 2, Joseph Haydn’s 102nd Symphony in B premiered.
(MC, 2/2/02)

1795 Feb 4, France abolished slavery in her territories and conferred slaves to citizens.
(HN, 2/4/99)

1795 Feb 7, The 11th Amendment to US Constitution was ratified.
(MC, 2/7/02)

1795 Feb 13, The University of North Carolina became the first US state university to admit students with the arrival of Hinton James, who was the only student on campus for two weeks.
(AP, 2/13/04)

1795 Feb 18, George Peabody, U.S. merchant and philanthropist, was born in South Danvers, Mass.
(HN, 2/18/98)(MC, 2/18/02)

1795 Feb 21, Francisco Manuel da Silva, composer, was born.
(MC, 2/21/02)
1795 Feb 21, Freedom of worship was established in France under constitution.
(MC, 2/21/02)

1795 Mar 11, Battle at Kurdla, India: Mahratten beat Moguls.
(MC, 3/12/02)

1795 Mar 22, A Lithuanian delegation under L. Tiskevicius went to Jekaterina II in Petersburg and declared that Lithuania’s union with Poland was ended.
(Voruta #27-28, Jul 1996, p.5)

1795 Mar 29, Beethoven (24) debuted as pianist in Vienna.
(MC, 3/29/02)

1795 Apr 7, The National Convention of Revolutionary France put into effect a new calendar system, similar to that of ancient Egypt. The year began with the autumn equinox, and had 360 days divided into twelve months of thirty days. Five extra days were placed at the end of the year. The months were divided into three 10 day groups. The day was divided into 10 new hours, each hour into 100 minutes, and each minute into 100 seconds.
(K.I.-365D, p.42)

1795 Apr 8, The Prince of Wales, later England’s King George IV, married his German cousin, Caroline, to produce an heir and increase his income. On their wedding night the drunken bridegroom spent the night “under the grate, where he fell, and where I left him.” The story is told by Flora Fraser in her book: “The Unruly Queen: The Life of Queen Caroline.” Masterpiece Theater made a TV presentation in 1997.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caroline_of_Brunswick)(SFC, 7/14/96, DB p.3)(WSJ, 1/9/97, p.A8)

1795 Apr 21, Vincenzo Pallotti, Italian saint, was born.
(MC, 4/21/02)

1795 Apr 23, In Britain the trial to impeach Warren Hastings, governor-general of India (1773-1785), on 21 charges for high crimes and misdemeanors ended after 7 years. Hastings was acquitted on all charges.
(SFEC, 11/1/98, BR p.11)(WSJ, 5/1/00, p.A24)(MC, 4/23/02)

1795 Apr 28, Charles Sturt (d.1869), explorer of Australia, was born in India. British explorer Charles Sturt is known as the “father of Australian exploration.” He was the first to penetrate deep into Australia’s interior from 1828 to 1845 during three hazardous expeditions. In 1828 he discovered the Darling River and in January 1830 the Murray River, which he followed until he reached present day Goolwa. His last expedition came to an end when his eyesight was impaired by exposure and illness. Scotsman John McDouall Stuart was part of Stuart’s final expedition and went on to become a major explorer, crossing the continent from Adelaide to Port Darwin in 1862.
(HN, 4/28/98)(HNQ, 5/26/98)

1795 Spring, Some 300 Indians fled Mission Dolores in San Francisco following a year of food shortages and disease that killed over 200. They sought refuge in the East Bay hills and Napa.
(SFC, 9/26/03, p.D15)

1795 May 4, Thousands of rioters entered jails in Lyons, France, and massacred 99 Jacobin prisoners.
(HN, 5/4/99)

1795 May 6, Dr. Pierre-Joseph Dessault visited the incarcerated 10-year-old dauphin, the heir to the French throne. He found the dying child in abject misery. The boy died June 8.
(WSJ, 10/18/02, p.W9)

1795 May 10, Jacques-Nicolas-Augustin Thierry, historian, was born.
(MC, 5/10/02)

1795 May 13, Joshua Ratoon Sands (d.1883), Commander (Union Navy), was born.
(MC, 5/13/02)

1795 May 15, Napoleon entered the Lombardian capital of Milan in triumph. After taking Milan he released his troops on the townspeople who became victims of an orgy of destroying, raping and killing. The events are described in the 1998 biography “Napoleon Bonaparte” by Alan Schom.
(SFEC, 1/18/98, BR p.9)(HN, 5/15/98)

1795 May 19, Johns Hopkins, founder of Johns Hopkins University, was born.
(HN, 5/19/98)
1795 May 19, James Boswell (54), friend and biographer of Samuel Johnson, died. His 1791 biography, the Life of Samuel Johnson,” changed the way biographies were written by its emphasis on character and careful research.
(ON, 11/06, p.10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Boswell)

1795 May 20, Ignac Martinovics, Hungarian physicist, revolutionary, was beheaded.
(MC, 5/20/02)

1795 May, Mungo Park, Scottish surgeon, sailed from England on behalf of the British African Association to search for the Niger River.
(ON, 7/00, p.10)

1795 Jun 8, In France the Dauphin (Louis XVII), son and sole survivor of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette, died at age 10 after succumbing to tuberculosis in the Temple prison. His heart was cut from his body when he died in prison, pickled, stolen, returned, and DNA-tested two centuries later. In 2002 Deborah Cadbury authored “The Lost King of France.”
(SFC, 4/20/00, p.A14)(WSJ, 10/18/02, p.W9)(AP, 6/3/04)

1795 Jul 7, Thomas Paine defended the principal of universal suffrage at the Constitutional Convention in Paris.
(HN, 7/7/98)

1795 Jul 9, James Swan paid off the $2,024,899 US national debt.
(MC, 7/9/02)

1795 Jul 14, “La Marseillais,” written in 1792, became the French national anthem.

1795 Jul 22, Spain signed the Peace of Basel, a treaty with France ending the War of the Pyrenees. The treaty ceded Santo Domingo to France.

1795 Aug 3, A defeated Indian coalition met with Gen. Anthony Wayne in a treaty council at Greenville, Ohio. The event is the subject of a painting by Howard Chandler Christy. From a review of 500 Nations by Alvin M. Josephy Jr., published by Knopf in 1995 to accompany an 8-hour television documentary.
(SFE Mag., 2/12/95, p. 18)

1795 Aug 15, Franz Joseph Haydn left England for the last time.
(MC, 8/15/02)

1795 Aug 20, Joseph Haydn returned to Vienna from England.
(MC, 8/20/02)

1795 Aug 31, Franxois-Andre Danican Philidor, composer, died at 68.
(MC, 8/31/01)

1795 Sep 1, James Gordon Bennet was born. He later served as the editor of the New York Sun, the first tabloid-sized daily newspaper.
(HN, 9/1/00)

1795 Sep 16, The Capitulation of Rustenburg: A Dutch garrison at the Cape of Good Hope surrendered to a British fleet under Adm. George Elphinstone.
(EWH, 4th ed, p.884)

1795 Sep 17, Giuseppi Saverio Rafaele Mercadante, composer, was born.
(MC, 9/17/01)

1795 Sep 23, A national plebiscite approved the new French constitution, but so many voters sustained that the results were suspect.
(HN, 9/23/99)
1795 Sep 23, Conseil of the Cinq-Cents (Council of 500), formed in Paris.
(MC, 9/23/01)

1795 Oct 4, General Napoleon Bonaparte led the rout of counterrevolutionaries in the streets of Paris, beginning his rise to power. France was in the midst of economic disaster—a factor that aided royalist counterrevolutionaries in their attempts to incite rebellion against the young republican government. Bonaparte, looking for a new command while on half pay in Paris, joined the defense of the Convention against overwhelming odds.
(HN, 10/4/99)(HNQ, 10/26/00)

1795 Oct 5, The day after he routed counterrevolutionaries in Paris, Napoleon Bonaparte accepted their formal surrender. Napoleon takes charge.
(HN, 10/5/99)

1795 Oct 11, In gratitude for putting down a rebellion in the streets of Paris, France’s National Convention appointed Napoleon Bonaparte second in command of the Army of the Interior.
(HN, 10/11/99)

1795 Oct 13, William Prescott, American Revolutionary soldier, died.
(MC, 10/13/01)

1795 Oct 24, Russia, Austria and Prussia held a convention in Petersburg to finalize the 3rd division of the Polish-Lithuanian Republic. Most of Lithuania with Vilnius went to Russia, Warsaw and the left bank of the Nemunas River went to Prussia and Cracow went to Austria. King Stanislovas Augustas of Poland was forced from his capital and moved to Grodno (Gardinas).
(Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.5)(MC, 10/24/01)

1795 Oct 26, Napoleon Bonaparte, second-in-command, became the army’s commander when General Paul Barras resigned his commission as head of France’s Army of the Interior to become head of the Directory.
(HN, 10/26/99)

1795 Oct 27, The United States and Spain signed the Treaty of San Lorenzo (also known as Pinckney’s Treaty), which provided for free navigation of the Mississippi River.
(AP, 10/27/97)

1795 Oct 31, John Keats (d.1821), English poet, was born in London.
(WUD, 1994, p.781)(AP, 10/31/97)(HN, 10/31/98)

1795 Nov 2, James Knox Polk, the 11th president of the United States, was born in Mecklenburg County, N.C.
(AP, 11/2/97)(HN, 11/2/98)

1795 Nov 28, US paid $800,000 and a frigate as tribute to Algiers and Tunis.
(MC, 11/28/01)

1795 Dec 3, Rowland Hill, introduced 1st adhesive postage stamp (1840), was born.
(MC, 12/3/01)

1795 Dec 4, Thomas Carlyle (d.1881), English (Scot) essayist, critic and historian, friend of Ralph Waldo Emerson, was born. His work included “The French Revolution” and “Sartor Resartus.” “A man doesn’t know what he knows, until he knows what he doesn’t know.” “No great man lives in vain. The history of the world is but the biography of great men.”
(V.D.-H.K.p.400)(SFEC, 6/28/98, Z1 p.8)(AP, 7/2/98)(HN, 12/4/00)

1795 Dec 14, John Bloomfield Jarvis, civil engineer, was born.
(HN, 12/14/00)

1795 William Blake painted his “Elohim Creating Adam.”
(SFC,1/21/97, p.A20)

c1795 Wilhelm von Kobell, German artist, made his watercolor “Staff Officers Listening to the Reading of the Day’s Orders.”
(WSJ, 7/16/98, p.A16)

1795 Charles Wilson Peale painted “The Staircase Group: Raphaelle and Titian Ramsay Peale.” He also did a portrait of Martha Washington. [see 1853]
(SFC, 1/25/97, p.E1)(SFEC, 7/27/97, DB p.35)

1795 Kitagawa Utamoro, Japanese artist, made his woodblock print “Oiran” about this time.
(WSJ, 4/24/96, A-12)

1795 Hutton’s “Theory of the Earth” appeared in book form, but did not impact the reading public due to his stiff style.
(RFH-MDHP, p.70)(DD-EVTT, p.17)

1795 Beethoven had a terrible bout of “continual diarrhea” while finishing his B-flat piano concerto.
(WSJ, 5/29/96, p.A1)

1795 Samuel Adams and Paul Revere laid the cornerstone for the Massachusetts State House in Boston. In 2014 crews removed a time capsule from the cornerstone.
(AH, 10/07, p.73)(SFC, 12/12/14, p.A11)

1795 The oldest tomato ketchup recipe, according to Andrew F. Smith author of “Pure Ketchup: A History of America’s National Condiment,” was written in Worcester, Mass.
(SFC, 7/3/96, zz-1,p.3)

1795 Jim Beam, US producer of fine Bourbon whiskey was founded.
(Hem., Dec. ’95, p.82)

1795 Franciscan priests first visited the site of San Ysabel in San Diego County.
(SFE, 9/16/96, p.A15)

1795 Britain reinforced its forces in St. Domingue. It was the largest expedition that had ever left England.
(SFCM, 5/30/04, p.12)
1795 Lime juice was issued to all British sailors to aid in prevention of scurvy. Captain James Cook (d.1779) had prepared a paper detailing his groundbreaking work against scurvy. He was awarded the gold Copley Medal-one of the highest honors of England’s Royal Society. Scurvy epidemics were once common among sailors on long voyages. Cook was the first to beat the problem, recognizing the need for an appropriate diet for his sailors.
(HNQ, 7/21/98)
1795 The British won a battle against the local Garifuna on St. Vincent’s Island.
(SFEC, 5/4/97, p.T11)
1795 In England the Coalport Porcelain Works began operations about this time.
(SFC, 5/28/08, p.G2)(www.thepotteries.org/allpotters/283.htm)

1795 In Nova Scotia, Canada, local youths on Oak Island stumbled on an unusual depression that appeared to lead to a shaft. For years treasure hunters dug down into what became known as the “Money Pit.”
(WSJ, 8/31/05, p.B1)

1795 A set of remains that the Spaniards believed to be of Christopher Columbus were dug up from behind the main altar in the newly built cathedral of Santo Domingo and shipped to a cathedral in Havana, where they remained until the Spanish-American War broke out in 1898, when Spain brought them to Seville. In 1877 workers digging inside the Santo Domingo cathedral unearthed a leaden box containing 13 large bone fragments and 28 small ones. It was inscribed “Illustrious and distinguished male, don Cristobal Colon.” The Dominicans said these were the real remains of Columbus and that the Spaniards must have taken the wrong remains.
(SFC, 1/18/05, p.A8)

1795 In Paris the Place de la Concorde, a public square designed by Ange-Jacques Gabriel in 1755, was renamed Place de la Revolution.
(WSJ, 10/26/99, p.A24)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Place_de_la_Concorde)
1795 France adopted the metric system. France had begun moving to base ten in the 16th century after using a vigesimal, base 20, system.
(Econ, 11/5/11, p.62)

1795 Georgia’s Narikala Fortress and the buildings of Old Tbilisi suffered at the hands of Persian invaders.
(Reuters, 6/2/17)

1795 Maruyama Okyo (b.1733), Japanese painter based in Kyoto, died. His work included a 50 mile scene in “Both Banks of the Yodo River.”
(WSJ, 12/1/98, p.A20)(SFC, 12/8/05, p.E1)

1795 The Loyal Orange Institution was established in Portadown to proclaim Protestant ascendancy. The Orange Order was founded as a force for uniting disparate Protestant denominations under one anti-Catholic banner. It was instrumental in creating Northern Ireland in 1921 shortly before the predominantly Catholic rest of Ireland won independence from Britain.
(SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1 p.6)(SFC, 7/12/99, p.A19)(AP, 7/12/13)

1795 Persians invaded Afghanistan’s Khurasan province.

1795 Stanislaus Augustus Poniatowski, the last king of Poland, was forced to abdicate.
(WSJ, 2/15/00, p.A24)
1795 Poland and Lithuania were partitioned for the last time by Russia, Prussia, and Austria.
(Compuserve, Online Encyclopedia)

1795 The South African Cape was first occupied by the British.
(NG, Oct. 1988, p. 563)

1795 In Tripoli Pasha Yusef Karamanli deposed his older brother Hamet in a bloodless coup.
(ON, 10/06, p.8)

1795-1805 Elias Boudinot served as the director of the US mint.
(WSJ, 8/7/98, p.W13)

1795-1818 The US flag had 15 stars and 15 stripes over this period.
(SFC, 7/22/97, p.A11)

1795-1818 Carl Phillip Fohr, German artist.
(WSJ, 7/16/98, p.A16)

1795-1825 Joshua Johnson, the first professional African-American portrait painter, plied his art in Baltimore.
(SFC, 5/26/96, T-7)

1795-1840 New York state and local governments entered into 26 treaties and several purchase agreements with the Oneida Indians to acquire all but 32 of 270,000 acres. Almost none of the transactions were approved by Congress as required by a 1790 law.
(SFC, 1/13/99, p.A9)

1795-1874 Peter Andreas Hansen, Danish astronomer.
(WUD, 1994, p.644)

1795-1875 Christian Gottfried Ehlenberg, German naturalist, known especially for his studies of infusoria, i.e. microscopic organisms.
(OAPOC-TH, p.71)

1795-1921 The state of Poland was gobbled up by Russia, the Austro-Hungarian Empire and Prussia.
(SFC, 7/10/97, p.A7)

1796 Jan 5, Samuel Huntington (64), US judge (signed Declaration of Independence), died.
(MC, 1/5/02)

1796 Jan 8, Jean-Marie Collot d’Herbois (46), French Revolution leader, died in exile. He was a member of the Committee of Public Safety that ruled during The Terror.
(MC, 1/8/02)

1796 Feb 8, China’s Emperor Qianlong (1711-1799) abdicated in favor of his son. Despite his voluntary abdication, from 1796 to 1799 Qianlong continued to hold on to power and the Jiaqing Emperor (d.1820) ruled only in name.
(Econ, 2/5/11, p.95)(Econ, 2/5/11, p.95)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qianlong_Emperor)

1796 Feb 17, Giovanni Pacini, composer, was born.
(MC, 2/17/02)
1796 Feb 17, James Macpherson (b.1736), Scottish poet, died. In 1761 he had announced the discovery of an epic on the subject of Fingal written by Ossian (based on Fionn’s son Oisín). He then published poems by Ossian, the alleged blind 3rd century poet, which became very popular and later exposed as a fraud.
(WSJ, 7/26/08, p.W8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Macpherson)

1796 Mar 1, The 1st National Meeting was held in the Hague.
(SC, 3/1/02)

1796 Mar 9, Napoleon Bonaparte (26) married Josephine Tascher de Beauharnais (32) in Paris.
(AP, 3/9/98)(HN, 3/9/98)

1796 Mar 19, Stephen Storace (33), composer, died.
(MC, 3/19/02)

1796 Mar 31, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe’s “Egmont,” premiered in Weimar.
(MC, 3/31/02)

1796 Apr 2, Haitian revolt leader Toussaint L’Ouverture commanded French forces at Santo Domingo.
(AP, 4/2/99)

1796 Apr 3, The 1st elephant was shipped to the US from Bengal, India, by Broadway showman Jacob Croninshield.
(SFC, 11/18/00, p.B3)

1796 Apr 13, The 1st elephant arrived in US from India.
(MC, 4/13/02)
1796 Apr 13, Battle at Millesimo, Italy: Napoleon beat the Austrians.
(MC, 4/13/02)

1796 Apr 22, Napoleon defeated the Piedmontese at Battle of Mondovi.
(MC, 4/22/02)

1796 May 4, Horace Mann, “the father of American Public Education” educator and author, was born.
(HN, 5/4/99)

1796 May 10, Napoleon Bonaparte won a brilliant victory against the Austrians at Lodi bridge in Italy.
(HN, 5/10/99)

1796 May 14, English physician Edward Jenner administered the first vaccination against smallpox to his gardener’s son, James Phipps (8). A single blister rose up on the spot, but James later demonstrated immunity to smallpox. Jenner actually used vaccinia, a close viral relation to smallpox. [see July 21, 1721]
(Econ, 11/22/03, p.77)(AP, 5/14/08)

1796 May 19, A game protection law was passed by Congress to restrict encroachment by whites on Indian hunting grounds.
(DTnet 5/19/97)

1796 May 27, James S. McLean patented his piano.
(MC, 5/27/02)

1796 Jun 1, Tennessee became the 16th state of the Union.
(AP, 6/1/97)
1796 Jun 1, In accordance with the Jay Treaty, all British troops were withdrawn from U.S. soil.
(DTnet 6/1/97)

1796 Jul 4, The 1st US Independence Day celebration was held.

1796 Jul 11, Captain Moses Porter led a party of American troops into Detroit. At noon, the Union Jack came down, and the flag of the United States was raised over Detroit for the first time. Under provisions of the Jay Treaty of 1794, the British had agreed to give up control of Michigan and other parts of the Northwest Territory they had occupied since the conclusion of the Revolutionary War.

1796 Jul 15, Thomas Bulfinch, historian and mythologist (The Age of Fable), was born.
(HN, 7/15/01)

1796 Jul 16, Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot (d.1875), French painter, was born. His work included “Madame Corot” (1833-1835) and “Interrupted Reading” (1870-1873). He led the way toward new forms of perspective and composition that was later mined by impressionism and photography.
(SFC, 6/4/96, p.E5)(WSJ, 10/25/96, p.A15)(WSJ, 3/25/97, p.A16)(MC, 7/16/02)

1796 Jul 21, Robert Burns (b.1759), Scottish poet and a lyricist (Auld Lang Syne), died. In 2009 Robert Crawford authored “The Bard: Robert Burns.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Burns)(SSFC, 1/25/09, Books p.3)

1796 Jul 22, Cleveland, Ohio, was founded by Gen. Moses Cleaveland. Moses Cleaveland came to where the city of Cleveland now sits and surveyed the land. After three months he returned to Connecticut. The city bears his name.
(SFC, 6/2/96, T10)(AP, 7/22/97)

1796 Jul 23, Franz Adolf Berwald, Sweden, composer, was born.
(MC, 7/23/02)

1796 Jul 26, George Catlin, American artist and author, was born.
(HN, 7/26/01)

1796 Jul, Mungo Park, Scottish surgeon, reached the Niger River at Segou, (Mali). Mansong, the African chief at Segou, gave Park enough money to return to the coast. Park described his journey in his book: “Travels in the Interior Districts of Africa” (1799).
(ON, 7/00, p.10)(Econ 5/13/17, p.74)

1796 Sep 17, President George Washington delivered his “Farewell Address” to Congress before concluding his second term in office. Washington counseled the republic in his farewell address to avoid “entangling alliances” and involvement in the “ordinary vicissitudes, combinations, and collision of European politics.” Also “we may safely trust to temporary alliances for extraordinary emergencies.”
(WSJ, 5/31/96, p.A10)(WSJ, 6/17/96, p.A15)(HN, 9/17/98)

1796 Sep 19, President Washington’s farewell address was published. In it, America’s first chief executive advised, “Observe good faith and justice toward all nations. Cultivate peace and harmony with all.”
(AP, 9/19/97)

1796 Nov 3, John Adams was elected president. [see Dec 7]
(MC, 11/3/01)

1796 Nov 7, Catharina II (67), “the Great”, tsarina of Russia (1762-96), died. [see Nov 17]
(MC, 11/7/01)

1796 Nov 17, Napoleon Bonaparte defeated an Italian army near the Alpone River, Italy, in the Battle of Arcole.
(HN, 11/17/98)(MC, 11/17/01)
1796 Nov 17, Catharine II (67), empress of Russia known as Catharine the Great (1762-96), died. Over her 69 years she had at least 12 lovers including Prince Potemkin. [see Nov 7]
(MC, 11/17/01)(WSJ, 2/14/02, p.A18)

1796 Dec 7, Electors chose John Adams to be the second president of the United States. [see Nov 3]
(AP, 12/7/97)

1796 Dec 18, The Baltimore Monitor appeared as the 1st US Sunday newspaper.
(MC, 12/18/01)

1796 Dec 30, Jean-Baptiste Lamoyne (45), composer, died.
(MC, 12/30/01)

1796 Pierre-Paul Prud’hon (1758-1823), French artist, painted “Marie-Anne-Celestine Pierre de Vellefrey,” the portrait of a little girl.
(WSJ, 4/8/98, p.A20)

1796 British writer Jane Austen (b.1775) began her novel “Pride and Prejudice.” Its initial title was “first Impressions.” It was finally published in 1830.
(Econ, 12/24/05, p.104)(ON, 12/09, p.8)

1796 George Owen’s “History of Pembrokeshire” was published. It was written in 1570 and sets forth the principle of geological stratigraphy.
(RFH-MDHP, p.7)

1796 Immanuel Kant wrote his “Perpetual Peace,” advocating a world government.

1796 The White House and Congress engaged in its 1st struggle over background documents. Pres. Washington denied a House request for documents on the Jay Treaty. The documents had already been shared with the Senate.
(WSJ, 2/26/02, p.A24)

1796 Supporters of John Adams in his victorious campaign against Thomas Jefferson, called Jefferson “an atheist, anarchist, demagogue, coward, mountebank, trickster, and Francomaniac.”
(WSJ, 10/8/96, p.A22)

1796 An Aleutian island named Bogoslof first appeared after an underwater eruption. Its base lay 5,500 down on the floor of the Bering Sea. By 2017 it measured 169 acres with a peak at 490 feet.
(SFC, 2/7/17, p.A6)

1796 Andrew Jackson was elected as Tennessee’s 1st congressman.
(SSFC, 10/30/05, p.M3)

1796 In [France] Michael Thonet was born in the Rhenish village of Boppard. He invented the classic bent wood chair.
(WSJ, 12/4/97, p.A20)

c1796 Austrian numbered bank accounts originated during the Hapsburg era.
(SFC, 6/13/96, p.C2)

1796 Harry Phillips (d.1840), a former clerk to James Christie, founded the Phillips auction house in London.
(Econ, 1/30/15, p.54)
1796 The British seized the island of Sri Lanka, then under the name of Ceylon.
(SFC, 6/20/96, p.A8)

c1796 The Orange Order was founded to commemorate the King William of Orange Protestant victory over Catholic King James II.
(SFC, 6/26/96, p.A8)

1796 Mary Lamb (31) killed her mother with a carving knife. England deemed her a lunatic and released into the custody of her brother Charles. In 1806 they published “Tales From Shakespeare.” In 2005 Susan Tyler Hitchcock authored “Mad Mary Lamb.”
(WSJ, 2/18/05, p.W6)

1796 Cuba exported Havana cigars to Britain.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

c1796 In Lithuania Elijah ben Solomon Zalmen, the Gaon of Vilna, urged Jews to study grammar, astronomy and other disciplines as well as the Torah. His writings survived and in 1996 were being stored under controversy in a Roman Catholic Church in Vilnius as property of the Lithuanian National Library.
(SFEC, 11/24/96, p.A15)

1796 Hacienda Santa Teresa began producing rum in Venezuela. In 1885 it was bought out by the Vollmer family.
(WSJ, 11/10/04, p.A8)

c1796 The Tutsi Banyamulenge arrived into Zaire.
(SFC, 10/10/96, p.A14)

1796-1797 Napoleon conquered northern Italy.
(SFEC, 1/18/98, BR p.9)

1796-1799 Brazilian Baroque sculptor Aleijadinho (Antonio Francisco Lisboa), completed his greatest work: the sculptures of Congonhas do Campo, 66 wooden images that include the 12 prophets.
(USA Today, OW, 4/22/96, p.10)

1796-1865 Thomas Chandler Haliburton, Canadian jurist and humorist: “When a man is wrong and won’t admit it, he always gets angry.”
(AP, 6/14/99)

1797 Jan 1, Albany became the capital of New York state, replacing New York City.
(AP, 1/1/98)

1797 Jan 11, Francis Lightfoot Lee (62), US farmer and signer Declaration of Independence, died.
(MC, 1/11/02)

1797 Jan 14, Napoleon Bonaparte defeated Austrians at Rivoli in northern Italy.
(HN, 1/14/99)

1797 Jan 31, Franz Schubert, Austrian composer, was born in Lichtenthal, Austria. His works included the C Major Symphony and The Unfinished Symphony.
(SFEC, 1/5/97, p.B11)(AP, 1/31/98)(HN, 1/31/99)(MC, 1/31/02)

1797 Feb 4, Earthquake in Quito, Ecuador, some killed 40,000 people. Riobamba was destroyed.

1797 Feb 9, John Quincy Adams’ (Sr.) emerged victorious from America’s first contested presidential election.
(HN, 2/9/97)

1797 Feb 12, Haydn’s song “Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser,” (popularized years later as “Deutschland Uber Alles,” by Nazis), premiered in Vienna.
(MC, 2/12/02)

1797 Feb 14, The Spanish fleet was destroyed by the British under Admiral Jervis (with Nelson in support) at the battle of Cape St. Vincent, off Portugal.
(HN, 2/14/99)

1797 Feb 15, Henry Steinway (d.1871), German-American piano maker, was born in Germany as Heinrich Steinweg. He move to the US in 1851. The name was anglicized in 1864.
(WSJ, 7/15/06, p.P8)(http://tinyurl.com/qn6dy)

1797 Feb 19, Pope Pius VI ceded papal territory to France in the Treaty of Tolentino.
(PC, 1992 ed, p.353)

1797 Feb 21, Trinidad, West Indies surrendered to the British.
(HN, 2/21/98)

1797 Feb 23, Antoine d’Auvergne (83), French opera composer (Coquette), died.
(MC, 2/23/02)

1797 Feb 26, Bank of England issued 1st £1-note.
(SC, 2/26/02)

1797 Mar 2, The Directory of Great Britain authorized vessels of war to board and seize neutral vessels, particularly if the ships were American.
(HN, 3/2/99)
1797 Mar 2, Horace [Horatio] Walpole (79), British horror writer, died.
(SC, 3/2/02)

1797 Mar 4, Vice-President John Adams, elected President on December 7, to replace George Washington, was sworn in. Adams soon selected Timothy Pickering as his secretary of state. Pickering extended aid to Haitian slaves in their ongoing revolt against French colonists. This policy was reversed under Jefferson.
(HN, 3/4/99)(SSFC, 11/2/03, p.M6)

1797 Mar 13, Cherubini’s opera “Medee,” premiered in Paris.
(MC, 3/13/02)

1797 Mar 22, Kaiser Wilhelm I, German Emperor (1871-88), was born.
(HN, 3/22/97)

1797 Mar 25, John Winebrenner, U.S. clergyman who founded the Church of God, was born.
(HN, 3/24/98)

1797 Mar 26, James Hutton, geologist, died.
(SS, 3/26/02)

1797 Mar 28, Nathaniel Briggs of New Hampshire patented a washing machine.
(AP, 3/28/97)

1797 Apr 14, Adolphe Thiers, 1st president of 3rd French Republic (1871-77), was born. [see Apr 18]
(MC, 4/14/02)

1797 Apr 18, Louis-Adolphe Thiers, president of France, was born. [see Apr 14]
(MC, 4/18/02)
1797 Apr 18, France and Austria signed a cease fire.
(MC, 4/18/02)

1797 Apr, A British armada of 68 vessels and 7,000 men under Scotsman Sir Ralph Abercromby attacked San Juan, Puerto Rico. The Spanish defenses held. A procession of women made up to look like soldiers caused the siege to be called off. An annual parade later commemorated this event.
(HT, 4/97, p.34)(SFEC, 2/13/00, p.T1)

1797 May 2, A mutiny in the British navy spread from Spithead to the rest of the fleet.
(HN, 5/2/99)

1797 May 10, The 1st American Navy ship, the “United States,” was launched.
(MC, 5/10/02)

1797 May 12, Johann Hermann Kufferath, composer, was born.
(MC, 5/12/02)
1797 May 12, George Washington addressed the Delaware chiefs and stated: “It is the duty of all nations to acknowledge the providence of almighty God, to obey his will, to be grateful for his benefits, and to humbly implore his protection and favor.”
(WSJ, 6/26/01, p.A23)

1797 May 18, Frederik Augustus II, King of Saxon (1836-54), was born.
(SC, 5/18/02)

1797 Jun 2, 1st ascent of “Great Mountain” (4,622′) in Adirondack, NY, was by C. Broadhead.
(SC, 6/2/02)

1797 Jun 11, Padre Fermin Francisco de Lasuen and a few Spanish soldiers established Mission San Jose on a little creek and grove of trees that they called Alameda. It was the 14th of 21 California missions. It was the end of a way of life for the local Ohlone Indians.
(SFC, 6/12/97, p.A17)

1797 Jun 17, Aga Mohammed Khan, cruel ruler of Persia, was castrated and killed.
(MC, 6/17/02)

1797 Jun 24, Mission San Juan Bautista, the 15th in California, was founded in the lands of the Mutsun Indians. Father Fermin de Lasuen blessed the future site of Mission San Juan Bautista in California.
(SFC, 6/21/97, p.A16)(SJSVB, 6/24/96, p.41)(SFC, 9/3/97, p.A17)

1797 Jun, In London, England, Hatchards bookstore on Piccadilly was founded.
(Hem., 5/97, p.99)

1797 Jul 7, The US House of Representatives exercised its constitutional power of impeachment, and voted to charge Senator William Blount of Tennessee with “a high misdemeanor, entirely inconsistent with his public duty and trust as a Senator.” Blount had financial problems which led him to enter into a conspiracy with British officers to enlist frontiersmen and Cherokee Indians to assist the British in conquering parts of Spanish Florida and Louisiana.
(MC, 7/7/02)

1797 Jul 9, Edmund Burke (b.1729), Irish-born British statesman, parliament leader, died. His writing included “Reflections on the Revolution in France” (1790). In 2013 Jesse Norman authored “Edmund Burke: The First Conservative.” In 2014 David Bromwich authored “The Intellectual Life of Edmund Burke: From the Sublime and Beautiful to American Independence.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Burke)(Econ, 5/25/13, p.85)(Econ, 7/5/14, p.69)

1797 Jul 10, 1st US frigate, the “United States,” was launched in Philadelphia.
(MC, 7/10/02)

1797 Jul 25, Presidente Fermin Francisco de Lasuen founded Mission San Miguel Archangel, the 16th California mission. He took possession of the land on behalf of Viceroy Branciforte. The mission facilitated travel between Mission San Luis Obispo and Mission San Antonio.
(SB, 3/28/02)

1797 Aug 30, Mary Wollstonecraft (Godwin) Shelley (d.1851), the creator of “Frankenstein,” or the Modern Prometheus, was born in London. Her mother died days later.
(AHD, p.1193)(AP, 8/30/97)(HN, 8/30/98)(Econ, 2/26/05, p.84)

1797 Sep 6, William “Extra Billy” Smith, Confederacy (Confederate Army), was born.
(MC, 9/6/01)

1797 Sep 10, Mary Wollstonecraft (b.1759), English writer, philosopher, advocate of women’s rights and the spouse of journalist William Godwin, died of septicemia. This was several days after the birth of her daughter, who later as Mary Shelley authored Frankenstein.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_Wollstonecraft)(Econ, 2/25/17, p.73)

1797 Sep 20, The US frigate Constitution (Old Ironsides) was launched in Boston. [see Oct 21]
(MC, 9/20/01)

1797 Oct 9, In Lithuania Elijahu ben Solomon Zalman (b.1720), the Great Gaon of Vilnius, died. He was one of the most influential Rabbinic authorities since the Middle Ages.

1797 Oct 16, Lord Cardigan, leader of the famed Light Brigade which was decimated in the Crimean War, who eventually had a jacket named after him, was born.
(HN, 10/16/98)

1797 Oct 21, The 44-gun 204-foot U.S. Navy frigate USS Constitution, also known as Old Ironsides, was launched in Boston’s harbor. It was never defeated in 42 battles. 216 crew members set sail again in 1997 for its 200th birthday. [see Sep 20]
(AP, 10/21/97)(SFC, 7/22/97, p.A1)(SFC,10/22/97, p.A6)

1797 Oct 22, French balloonist Andre-Jacques Garnerin made the first parachute descent, landing safely from a height of about 3,000 feet; at some 2,200 feet over Paris.
(AP, 10/22/97)(HN, 10/22/98)

1797 Nov 19, Sojourner Truth (d.1883), abolitionist and women’s rights advocate, was born. “Religion without humanity is a poor human stuff.”
(HN, 11/19/98)(AP, 10/29/00)

1797 Nov 29, Domenico Gaetano Maria Donizetti, composer (Lucia di Lamermoor, l’Elisir d’Amore), was born.
(MC, 11/29/01)

1797 Dec 13, Heinrich Heine (d.1856), German lyric poet, critic, satirist and journalist, was born. His works included “Trip to the Hartz Mountains” and “Germany, a Winter Tale.” “In these times we fight for ideas, and newspapers are our fortresses.”
(AHD, p.611)(AP, 7/18/97)(HN, 12/13/99)

1797 Dec 17, Joseph Henry, US scientist, inventor, pioneer of electromagnetism, was born. [see Dec 18]
(MC, 12/17/01)

1797 Dec 18, Joseph Henry, inventor, scientist and the first director of the Smithsonian Inst., was born. [see Dec 17]
(WSJ, 12/17/97, p.A20)

1797 Dec 29, John Wilkes (b.1725), British journalist and politician, died. He opposed King George’s policies in Massachusetts. In 1974 Audrey Williamson authored “Wilkes: A Friend to Liberty.”
(WSJ, 8/31/05, p.B1)(www.eastlondonhistory.com/wilkes.htm)(ON, 12/11, p.9)

1797 Franz Kruger (d.1857), German Biedermeier artist of cityscapes and rural genre scenes, was born.
(SSFC, 1/27/02, p.C7)

1797 Samuel Taylor Coleridge authored his “Rime of the Ancient Mariner.”
(CW, Winter 04, p.17)

1797 John Frere published his paper “The Beginnings of Paleolithic Archaeology.” It described his finding in 1790 Acheulean hand axes associated with the large bones of unknown animals (actually elephants).
(RFH-MDHP, p.81)

1797 Thomas Paine (1737-1809), English-American political activist, authored the pamphlet Agrarian Justice. Here he discussed the origins of property and introduced the concept of a guaranteed minimum income.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Paine)(Econ, 5/23/15, p.64)

1797 Mrs. Gannett of Mass. (1760-1827), born as Deborah Sampson, authored her memoir. She had fought in the American Revolution as a man under the alias Robert Shurtleff. In 2004 Alfred F. Young authored “Masquerade: The Life and Times of Deborah Sampson, Continental Soldier.”
(www.distinguishedwomen.com/biographies/sampson.html)(SSFC, 4/11/04, p.M4)

1797 The first recorded performance of an English-language drama, the tragedy Douglas, west of the Alleghenies took place here at Washington, Kentucky.
(HNQ, 8/8/99)

1797 In San Jose the first Juzgado (courthouse) was constructed. The Spanish Commandante Lt. Jose Moraga built a 1-story, 3-room adobe structure to house the jail, assembly hall and seat of government for the Pueblo de San Jose de Guadalupe that served until 1850.
(SFC, 7/14/97, p.A15,16)

1797 Father Juan Norberto de Santiago arrived in the area of Temecula in Riverside County, Ca., to build a mission and convert the Pechanga Indians (renamed Luiseno Indians by the Spanish).
(SSFC, 5/23/04, p.D5)

1797 James T. Callender, journalist, published charges concerning the alleged financial misdeeds of Alexander Hamilton. The information came from letters that Hamilton provided to interrogators around 1792 concerning funds paid to James Reynolds to keep quiet an affair with Reynold’s wife. The letters were passed from James Monroe to Thomas Jefferson, who passed them to Callender. Hamilton published a 28,000-word defense, Observations on Certain Documents, that revealed his relationship with Maria Reynolds and his payment of hush money.
(WSJ, 11/19/98, p.A12)(ON, 10/05, p.6)

1797 Thomas Jefferson (53) began serving as US Vice President. He was also elected president of the American Philosophical Society and continued to 1815.
1797 John Anderson, a Scottish farm manager, convinced George Washington that distilling whiskey would make money. In a six-week season each spring, Washington’s men netted about a million shad and herring from the Potomac River. The catch was then salted, packed in barrels, and exported. His diversified farming was less successful, largely because of his long absences from Mount Vernon.
(AM, 9/01, p.80)(HNQ, 8/30/02)

1797 A major fire in Savannah, Georgia destroyed two-thirds of the wood buildings from the pioneer period.
(SFC, 6/25/95, p.T-7)

1797 Australia’s first coal mining began at Newcastle.
(Econ, 6/6/09, p.39)

1797 A British publisher produced “The Young Man’s Valentine Writer,” a collection of writing and verses for men who couldn’t create their own.
(Econ, 2/15/14, p.54)(http://tinyurl.com/mp3582r)
1797 The Bank of England suspended the convertibility of its notes to gold in order to better finance Britain’s war with France. This continued to 1821.
(Econ, 11/5/11, p.92)

1797 Some 5,000 black Carib Indians, also known as Garifuna or Garinagu, were exiled from St. Vincent Island to Roatan Island off of Honduras. The Garifuna defined themselves not by country or territory but by language and culture.
(SFEC, 5/4/97, p.T11)(SFC, 4/27/98, p.A6)

1797 French forces attacked Britain at the port of Fishguard. The event was depicted in the tapestry “The Last Invasion of Brittain.”
(SFEC, 5/25/97, p.T5)
1797 In France Henry-Louis Pernod began to manufacture absinthe. The drink was made with fennel and aniseed and the oil of wormwood which contained thujone, a poisonous ketone.
(WSJ, 1/22/99, p.W8)
1797 The wine bottles of Chateau Lafite that date back to this year are recorked every 25 years to safeguard the wine and prevent deterioration caused by oxidation through decayed corks.
(WSJ, 11/26/97, p.A12)

1797 Switzerland began its the three-week “Fete des Vignerons,” a once-in-a-generation celebration of its winemakers. Its roots go back a century further when winemakers used to shame the country’s worst vineyard worker each year by crowning them in front of the church at Vevey, in the heart of the wine-producing canton of Vaud.
(Reuters, 7/18/19)

1797 Gammarelli was founded under Pope Pius VI as tailors to the clergy.
(SSFC, 12/28/03, p.I4)
1797 Venice, the city-state that liked to call itself La Serenissima, lost its independence and its empire. Ludovico Manin, the 120th doge of Venice, surrendered to Napoleon. A few months later Napoleon traded Venice to Austria which ruled it until 1866.
(WSJ, 1/9/97, p.A8)(SFEC, 8/24/97, p.T1)(WSJ, 9/19/97, p.A13)
1797 The Jewish ghetto in Venice was destroyed following the Napoleon’s invasion of Italy. This began the gradual liberation of the country’s ghettos.
(SFC, 12/2/08, p.E1)

1797 There was a naval battle at Cape St. Vincent off the SW tip of Portugal.
(WUD, 1994, p.1412)

1797-1801 John Adams, 2nd president of the US was in office. It was during his term that France and Britain, engaged in war with each other, insisted on the right to seize American ships. When the US protested French diplomats demanded bribes and a loan of $10 mil to stop the acts of piracy. Adams published the letters of the diplomats with the letters X,Y,Z (hence the X,Y,Z Affair) for the names of the diplomats. This enraged the populace and the country braced for war and called Washington in from Mt. Vernon to lead the army against France. Captain Thomas Truxtom captured a French frigate and defeated another French frigate in a sea battle and the French backed down. It was under Adams that the Alien and Sedition Acts were passed. These acts allowed the President sole discretion to banish aliens from the country and jail editors for writing against the President or Congress. This was vehemently opposed by Jefferson who led the Southern Republicans to adopt a resolution declaring that a state had the right to nullify a law believed to be unconstitutional.
(AHD, 1971, p.14)(A&IP, Miers, p.21)

1797-1815 Thomas Jefferson, the third president of the United States, served as president of the American Philosophical Society. A philosopher-statesman of the Enlightenment, Jefferson drafted the Declaration of Independence, was George Washington’s first Secretary of State and vice-president under John Adams. He was born in Virginia on April 13, 1743, and died on July 4, 1826.
(HNQ, 9/24/99)

1797-1849 Mary Lyon, American educator: “There is nothing in the universe that I fear but that I shall not know all my duty, or shall fail to do it.”
(AP, 4/27/98)

1797-1851 Mary Wollstonecraft (Godwin) Shelley (d.1851), English novelist, author of Frankenstein. Her mother, also Mary Wollstonecraft, died in childbirth of puerperal fever. Her death prompted Godwin to publish her memoirs.
(AHD, p.1193)(SFEM, 6/28/98, p.29)

1797-1856 Nicholas Marcellus Hentz, a pioneer collector of North American spiders. He was a skilled painter and has left some 90 intricately executed watercolors of spiders. He published descriptions in the Journal of the Boston Society of Natural History from 1842-1850.
(NH, 7/96, p.74,75)

1797-1858 Utagawa Hiroshige, Japanese artist, made numerous color woodblock prints.
(SFC, 12/26/98, p.C1)

1797-1863 Theophile Bra, French academic sculptor.
(SFC, 12/19/98, p.C18)

1797-1875 Sir Charles Lyell, British geologist. He wrote the “Principles of Geology” (1830-33) and had a profound influence upon the thinking of Charles Darwin.
(OAPOC-TH, p.71)

1798 Jan 1, Joseph Lancaster (19) opened his 1st low cost school in London, England, aimed at educating the children of poor. In 1803 he published the booklet “Improvements in Education, As It Respects The Industrious Classes Of the Community…”
(ON, 3/06, p.9)

1798 Jan 8, The 11th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was declared in effect by President John Adams nearly three years after its ratification by the states; it prohibited a citizen of one state from suing another state in federal court.
(AP, 1/8/08)

1798 Jan 11, Erekle II (b.~1720), Georgian monarch of the Bagrationi Dynasty, died. He had reigned as the king of Kakheti from 1744 to 1762, and of Kartli and Kakheti from 1762 until 1798. His name is frequently transliterated from the Latinized form Heraclius.

1798 Jan 22, Lewis Morris (71), US farmer (signed Declaration of Independence), died.
(MC, 1/22/02)

1798 Jan 30, A brawl broke out in the House of Representatives in Philadelphia. Matthew Lyon of Vermont spat in the face of Roger Griswold of Connecticut, who responded by attacking him with a hickory walking stick. Lyon was re-elected congressman while serving a jail sentence for violating the Sedition Acts of 1798.
(AP, 1/30/98)(SFC, 4/27/00, p.A5)(WSJ, 10/29/04, p.W10)

1798 Feb 15, The first serious fist fight occurred in Congress.
(HN, 2/15/98)

1798 Feb 20, Pope Pius VI fled Rome to Siena. He was later arrested and deported 1st to Florence and then to France.
(PTA, 1980, p.500)(www.zum.de/whkmla/region/italy/papalstate17891799.html)

1798 Mar 4, Catholic women were force to do penance for kindling a Sabbath fire for Jews.
(SC, 3/4/02)

1798 Mar 9, Dr. George Balfour became 1st naval surgeon in the US Navy.
(MC, 3/9/02)

1798 Mar 13, Abigail Powers Fillmore, First Lady, was born.
(HN, 3/13/98)

1798 Mar 26, Tunis, under the rule of Bey Hamuda Pasha, signed a treaty of peace and friendship with the US following negotiations with William Eaton. The American Revolutionary War veteran had been recently appointed consul to the North African kingdom.
(ON, 10/06, p.7)

1798 Mar 29, Republic of Switzerland formed.
(MC, 3/29/02)

1798 Apr 3, Charles B. Wilkes (d.1877), American rear admiral and explorer, was born. In Jan, 1840, Wilkes coasted along part of the Antarctic barrier from about 150 degrees east to 108 degrees east, the areas that was subsequently named Wilkes Land.
(WUD, 1994, p.1634)(HNQ, 1/12/99)

1798 Apr 7, Territory of Mississippi was organized.
(HN, 4/7/97)

1798 Apr 19, Franz Joseph Glaser, composer, was born.
(MC, 4/19/02)

1798 Apr 26, Ferdinand Eugene Delacroix (d.1863), French painter, lithograph, etcher (Journal), was born.

1798 Apr 28, Joseph Haydn’s oratorio “The Creation” was rehearsed in Vienna, Austria, before an invited audience.
(AP, 4/29/07)

1798 Apr 30, US Department of Navy formed.
(MC, 4/30/02)

1798 May 2, The black General Toussaint L’ouverture forced British troops to agree to evacuate the port of Santo Domingo. After 5 years of fighting over 60% of 20,000 British troops were buried on St. Domingue.
(HN, 5/2/99)(SFCM, 5/30/04, p.12)(AP, 5/30/04)

1798 May 10, George Vancouver (40), British explorer, (Voyage of Discovery), died.
(MC, 5/10/02)

1798 May 19, A French armada of 335 ships carrying nearly 40,000 men set sail for Alexandria, Egypt, which Napoleon planned to conquer. In 2008 Paul Strathern authored “Napoleon in Egypt.”
(WSJ, 11/17/08, p.A17)

1798 May 24, Believing that a French invasion of Ireland was imminent, Irish nationalists rose up against the British occupation. It was put down by the Orange yeomanry who were enlisted by the government to restore peace. The slogan “Croppies lie down” originated here after some of the rebel Catholics had their hair cropped in the French revolutionary manner.
(SFEC, 7/12/98, p.A15)(HN, 5/24/99)

1798 May 26, British killed about 500 Irish insurgents at the Battle of Tara.
(MC, 5/26/02)

1798 Jun 4, Giovanni Jacopo Casanova (b.1725), fabled Italian seducer, adventurer, spy, librarian, died of prostate cancer in Dux, Bohemia. While at Dux he authored his memoirs: “History of My Life.” The standard English edition runs over 3,600 pages. In 2008 Ian Kelly authored “Casanova: Actor, Lover, Priest, Spy.”
(www.1911encyclopedia.org/Giovanni_Jacopo_Casanova_de_Seingalt)(WSJ, 10/24/08, p.W5)

1798 Jun 11, Napoleon Bonaparte took the island of Malta.
(HN, 6/11/98)

1798 Jun 13, Mission San Luis Rey [in California] was founded.
(HFA, ’96, p.32)

1798 Jul 1, Napoleon Bonaparte took Alexandria, Egypt. In 1962 J.C. Herold authored “Bonaparte in Egypt.” A corps of 150 civilian artists and scientists traveled with Napoleon’s troops to Egypt. In 2007 Nina Burleigh authored “Mirage: Napoleon’s Scientists and the Unveiling of Egypt.”
(SFC, 9/11/97, p.E3)(HN, 7/1/98)(ON, 12/99, p.4)(SFC, 12/14/07, p.E3)

1798 Jul 2, John Fitch, American inventor, clockmaker, died.
(SC, 7/2/02)

1798 Jul 7, Napoleon Bonaparte’s army began its march towards Cairo, Egypt, from Alexandria.
(HN, 7/7/98)

1798 Jul 11, The US Marine Corps was formally re-established by a congressional act. US Pres. John Adams signed legislation that established the US Marine Band, composed of 32 drummers and fifers. Continental marines had existed during the Revolutionary War, but had since been discontinued.
(SFC, 5/20/96, p.A-3)(HNQ, 8/1/99)(AP, 7/11/08)

1798 Jul 13, English poet William Wordsworth visited the ruins of Tintern Abbey.
(HN, 7/13/01)

1798 Jul 14, The Sedition Act, the last of four pieces of legislation known as the Alien and Sedition Acts, was passed by Congress, making it unlawful to write, publish, or utter false or malicious statements about the U.S. president and the U.S. government, among other things. Violations were made punishable by up to 2 years in jail and a fine of $2,000.
(AP, 7/14/97)(HN, 7/14/98)(WSJ, 10/29/04, p.W10)
1798 Jul 14, 1st direct federal tax in US states took effect on dwellings, land and slaves.
(MC, 7/14/02)

1798 Jul 16, The Marine Hospital Service was established in the Department of the Treasury under provisions of an act (1 Stat. 605) authorizing marine hospitals for the care of American merchant seamen. In 1902 it was redesignated the Public Health and Marine Hospital Service by an act of July 1, 1902 (32 Stat. 712),
1798 Jul 16, US Public Health Service formed and a US Marine Hospital was authorized.
(MC, 7/16/02)

1798 Jul 21, Napoleon Bonaparte defeated Murad Bey and his Arab Mameluke warriors on the outskirts of Cairo at the Battle of the Pyramids, thus becoming the master of Egypt.
(WSJ, 11/17/08, p.A17)

1798 Jul 22, Napoleon captured Cairo, Egypt.
(PC, 1992, p.354)

1798 Aug 1, Admiral Horatio Nelson routed the French fleet in the Battle of the Nile at Aboukir Bay, Egypt. Nelson’s fleet of 14 ships led the attack on Napoleon’s fleet in Abu Qir Bay, capturing six and destroying seven of the 17 French vessels. The flagship of Napoleon’s fleet, L’Orient, sank in the battle. It was uncovered by a French team in 1998. More than 1,500 Frenchmen and 200 British soldiers reportedly died in the sea battle.
(AP, 4/19/05)

1798 Aug 21, Jules Michelet, French historian was born in Paris to a family with Huguenot traditions. He wrote the 24-volume “Historie de France”.

1798 Sep 2, The Maltese people revolted against the French occupation, forcing the French troops to take refuge in the citadel of Valetta in Malta.
(HN, 9/2/98)

1798 Sep 11, Franz E Neumann, German mineralogist, mathematician and physicist, was born.
(MC, 9/11/01)

1798 Oct 12, The play “Wallenstein’s Camp” by Friedrich von Schiller premiered in Weimar. It was set in 3 parts during the 30 Years War as Gen. Albrecht von Wallenstein fought for Catholic Emp. Ferdinand II.
(www.schillerinstitute.org/fid_02-06/2005/051-2_Schiller_friends.html)(Econ, 8/25/07, p.78)

1798 Nov 1, Benjamin Lee Guinness, Irish brewer and Dublin mayor, was born.
(HN, 11/1/00)(MC, 11/1/01)

1798 Nov 4, Congress agreed to pay a yearly tribute to Tripoli, considering it the only way to protect U.S. shipping.
(HN, 11/4/98)

1798 Nov 16, Kentucky became the 1st state to nullify an act of Congress.
(MC, 11/16/01)
1798 Nov 16, The British boarded the U.S. frigate Baltimore and impressed a number of crewmen as alleged deserters, a practice which contributed to the War of 1812.
(HN, 11/16/98)

1798 Nov 19, Theobald Wolfe Tone, Irish nationalist (United Irishmen), died.
(MC, 11/19/01)(WSJ, 9/12/02, p.D8)

1798 Nov 30, Friedrich Fleischmann (32), composer, died.
(MC, 11/30/01)

1798 Dec 4, Luigi Galvani (61), Italian anatomist and physicist, died.

1798 Dec 14, David Wilkinson of Rhode Island patented a nut and bolt machine.
(MC, 12/14/01)

1798 Dec 17, The 1st impeachment trial against a US senator, William Blount of Ten., began.
(MC, 12/17/01)

1798 Dec 24, Russia and England signed a Second anti-French Coalition.
(MC, 12/24/01)

1798 Eugene Delacroix (d.1863), French artist, was born. His work included the “Baron Schwiter.”
(WUD, 1994, p.381)(WSJ, 7/1/96, p.A11)

1798 Thomas Robert Malthus authored his “An Essay on the Principle of Population As it affects the future improvement of society with remarks on the speculations of Mr. Godwin, M. Condorcet, and other writers.” His forecast for a population crash was based on the calculation that it was impossible to improve wheat yields as fast as people make babies. His 2nd edition in 1803 introduced the idea of moral restraint.
(www.faculty.rsu.edu/~felwell/Theorists/Malthus/essay2.htm)(Econ, 12/24/05, p.29)(Econ, 5/17/08, p.94)

1798 Samuel Solomon published “Guide to Health or, advice to both sexes with an essay on a certain disease, seminal weakness, and a destructive habit of private nature. Also an address to parents, tutors, and guardians of youth. To which one added, observations on the use and abuse of cold bathing” gave advice on topics including abortion, onanism, asthma, barrenness and bleeding. The main remedy for all ailments was Dr Solomon’s “Cordial Balm of Gilead.”

1798 Judith Sargent Murray wrote “The Gleaner,” a collection of essays pleading for changes in women’s education and alternatives to marriage.
(SFEM, 6/28/98, p.29)

1798 Samuel Taylor Coleridge and William Wordsworth published “Lyrical Ballads.”
(WSJ, 4/15/99, p.A20)

1798 Beethoven completed his piano sonata, Op. 10, No 3, begun in 1796.
(WSJ, 8/17/00, p.A20)

1798 Pres. John Adams stated: “Our constitution was made only for a moral and religious people. It is wholly inadequate to the government of any other.
(WSJ, 6/26/01, p.A23)

1798 US Vice President Thomas Jefferson and Virginia Congressman James Madison secretly wrote the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions. Jefferson became the active head of Republican Party. The Virginia Senate agreed to the Virginia Resolution on Dec 24.
1798 In the Kentucky Resolutions Thomas Jefferson protested the Alien and Sedition Acts and maintained that “free government is founded in jealousy, not in confidence; it is jealousy and not confidence which prescribes limited constitutions, to bind down those whom we are obliged to trust with power.”
(WSJ, 5/18/95, p.A-14)

1798 America’s first national survey of the housing stock was completed by the federal government in order to set property values for taxation.
(AH, 4/07, p.48)

1798 The US Supreme Court ruled in the Calder vs. Bull case that Congress and the states could not pass any “ex post facto law.”
(SFC, 5/2/00, p.A3)

1798 Vermont Congressman Matthew Lyon (1749-1822), Irish-born former indentured servant, became the 1st person indicted under the Sedition Act of 1918. Lyon was convicted of sedition after he printed his honest opinion of Pres. John Adams. Vermont re-elected Lyon to Congress while he served his jail time. He later represented Kentucky (1803-1811) in the US House of Representatives.
(SFC, 3/24/00, p.B3)(WSJ, 10/29/04, p.W10)

1798 American seamen began paying 20 cents a month for a pension and hospitalization fund. US Navy service records date back to this time.
(AH, 2/06, p.12)(www.archives.gov/research/order/vets-records.html)

1798 The first big US bank robbery was at the Philadelphia Carpenter’s Hall, which was leased to the Bank of Philadelphia.
(SFEC, 2/20/00, Z1 p.2)

c1798 The Peabody Essex Museum was founded in Marblehead, Mass., by 22 sea captains to preserve the exotic treasures they brought back from their voyages. It is the oldest museum in the US.
(SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T9)

1798 Henry Cavendish, English chemist, came up with a reliable measure of the gravitational constant, G. His value was 0.000000000067 cubic meters per kilogram per second squared.
(NH, 11/1/04, p.20)

1798 Benjamin Thompson disproved the caloric theory of heat proposed by Antoine Lavoisier. Thompson went on to marry Lavoisier’s widow.
(WSJ, 12/10/99, p.W12)

1798 Edmund Fanning, an American explorer, 1st charted Tabuaeran coral atoll (part of the Gilbert Islands, Kiribati). Fanning Island Plantations Ltd. owned the island through the 1800s and exported coconuts.
(SSFC, 4/21/02, p.C22)

c1798 In Germany Aloys Hirt, founder of the Berlin Academy of Art, laid plans for an art museum to present art in a systematic fashion. This led to the 1830 Altes Museum.
(WSJ, 7/29/98, p.A13)

1798 Napoleon annexed Egypt.
(SFC, 9/11/97, p.E3)
1798 Ferdinand IV, King of Naples, fled in front of advancing French troops. He took with him some 20 art works from the Farnese collection, which included “Antea” by Parmigianino.
(Econ, 1/26/08, p.82)
1798 Napoleon expelled the Knights of Malta from their base in Malta. The Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem (SMOM), without citizens or territory, became a permanent observer at the UN in 1994.
(WSJ, 6/28/01, p.A1)
1798 The French National Assembly began sitting in the Palais Bourbon.
(Econ, 7/27/19, p.51)
1798 Henri Jomini (d.1869), began his military career volunteering his services to the French Army. With the peace of Amiens, he left the army and wrote his “Treatise of Grand Military Operations.” The book impressed Napoleon enough to have Jomini appointed a staff colonel in 1805, Jomini having volunteered again in 1804. Jomini rose to become chief of staff under Marshall Ney, but left the French army to fight for Russia in 1813 as a general and aide-de-camp of Alexander I.
(HNQ, 9/1/00)

1798 Oct, In Saint-Domingue (later Haiti) Gen. Toussaint L’Ouverture negotiated a secret peace agreement in which the British renounced all claim to the colony’s lands in exchange for the right to trade freely on an equal basis with France.
(ON, 2/10, p.7)

1798 Lord Edward Fitzgerald, an Irish rebel, was killed. He had fathered a daughter with Elizabeth Linley (d.1792), the wife of Richard Brinsley Sheridan.
(WSJ, 11/20/98, p.W6)

1798-1857 Auguste Comte, the French founder of the philosophical system of Positivism.
(WUD, 1994, p.303)(WSJ, 6/22/99, p.A22)

1798-1868 Jacques Boucher Crevecoeur de Perthes, French customs official, collected bones and chipped implements at Abbeville and Amiens that he recognized as the remains of man’s handiwork.
(RFH-MDHP, p.95)

1798-1993 Instances of use of US forces abroad, a report of 234 instances over this period other than peace time use.

1779 Jan 5, Stephen Decatur, U.S. naval hero during actions against the Barbary pirates and the War of 1812, was born.
(HN, 1/5/99)

1799 Jan 30, The US Logan Act was enacted. It prohibited citizens from working against the government’s foreign policy.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logan_Act)(Econ 7/15/17, p.24)

1799 Feb 9, The USS Constellation captured the French frigate Insurgente off the coast of Wisconsin.
(HN, 2/9/97)

1799 Feb 10, Napoleon Bonaparte left Cairo, Egypt, for Syria, at the head of 13,000 men.
(AP, 2/10/99)

1799 Jan 14, Eli Whitney received a government contract for 10,000 muskets.
(MC, 1/14/02)

1799 Jan 25, Eliakim Spooner of Vermont received the 1st US patent for a seeding machine.
(MC, 1/25/02)

1799 Feb 7, China’s Emperor Qianlong (b.1711) died. He was the sixth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing Dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China (1735-1796).

1799 Feb 15, The 1st US printed ballots were authorized in Pennsylvania.
(440 Int’l., 2/15/99)

1799 Feb 24, Georg Christoph Lichtenberg, German scientist, satirist, and Anglophile, died. He is remembered for his posthumously published notebooks, which he himself called Sudelbücher, a description modelled on the English bookkeeping term “scrapbooks”, and for his discovery of the strange tree-like patterns now called Lichtenberg figures. “It is almost impossible to carry the torch of truth through a crowd without singeing somebody’s beard.”

1799 Mar 2, Congress standardized US weights and measures.
(SC, 3/2/02)

1799 Mar 6, Napoleon captured Jaffa, Palestine.
(MC, 3/6/02)

1799 Mar 7, In Palestine, Napoleon captured the Turkish citadel at Jaffa and his men massacred more than 2,000 Albanian prisoners. [see Mar 26] The prisoners were massacred because Napoleon claimed that he could not feed them. About this time bubonic plague broke out among his troops.
(HN, 3/7/99)(ON, 12/99, p.2)

1799 Mar 8, Simon Cameron, political boss, was born.
(HN, 3/8/01)

1799 Mar 12, Austria declared war on France.
(MC, 3/12/02)

1799 Mar 17, Napoleon Bonaparte and his army reached the Mediterranean seaport of St. Jean d’Acra, only to find British warships ready to break his siege of the town.
(HN, 3/17/00)

1799 Mar 19, Joseph Haydn’s “Die Schopfung,” premiered in Vienna.
(MC, 3/19/02)
1799 Mar 19, Napoleon Bonaparte began the siege of Acre ( later Akko, Israel), which was defended by Turks.
(AP, 3/19/03)

1799 Mar 26, Napoleon Bonaparte captured Jaffa, Palestine. [see Mar 7]
(HN, 3/26/99)

1799 Mar 28, NY state abolished slavery.
(MC, 3/28/02)

1799 Mar, Napoleon moved on to the Turkish fortress at Acre. His 2 month siege was unsuccessful. In 1999 N. Schur authored Napoleon in the Holy Land.”
(ON, 12/99, p.2,4)

1799 Apr 1, Narciso Casanovas (52), composer, died.
(MC, 4/1/02)

1799 Apr 14, Napoleon called for establishing Jerusalem for Jews.
(MC, 4/14/02)

1799 Apr 20, Friedrich Schiller’s “Wallensteins Tod,” the third part of his Wallenstein trilogy, premiered in Weimar.
(MC, 4/20/02)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wallenstein_%28play%29)

1799 Apr 27, In Saint-Domingue (later Haiti) Gen. Toussaint L’Ouverture signed a treaty of friendship with the US under Pres. John Adams.
(ON, 2/10, p.8)

1799 Apr 28, Francois Giroust (62), composer, died.
(MC, 4/28/02)

1799 May 4, In India Tipu Sultan was killed in a battle against 5,000 British soldiers who stormed and razed his capital, Seringapatanam. British forces defeated the sultan of Mysore at the Battle of Seringapatam.
(www.ndtv.com/convergence/ndtv/story.aspx?id=NEWEN20080048779)(SSFM, 4/1/01, p.42)

1799 May 17, Napoleon’s army began its overland retreat from Acre. The march to Jaffa took one week.
(ON, 12/99, p.4)

1799 May 18, Pierre de Beaumarchais (b.1732), French inventor and dramatist, died. In 2007 Hugh Thomas authored “Beaumarchais in Seville.” In 2009 Susan Emanuel translated to English “Beaumarchais: A Biography” by Maurice Lever (d.2006).
(www.theatrehistory.com/french/beaumarchais001.html)(SFC, 5/30/09, p.E2)

1799 May 20, Honore de Balzac, French novelist, was born in Tours, France. He is considered the founder of the realistic school and wrote “The Human Comedy” and “Lost Illusions.”
(AP, 5/20/99)(HN, 5/20/99)
1799 May 20, Napoleon Bonaparte ordered a withdrawal from his siege of St. Jean d’Acre in Egypt. Plague had run through his besieging French forces, forcing a retreat. Napoleon, in pursuance of his scheme for raising a Syrian rebellion against Turkish domination, appeared before Acre, but after a siege of two months (March–May) was repulsed by the Turks.
(HN, 5/20/00)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acre,_Israel)

1799 May 23, Thomas Hood (d.1845), English poet, composer (Song of the Shirt), was born. “I saw old Autumn in the misty morn Stand shadowless like silence, listening To silence.”
(AP, 9/23/98)(MC, 5/23/02)

1799 May 26, Alexander Pushkin, Russian poet (d.1837), was born (OC). His bicentennial in Russia was celebrated Jun 6,1999. [see Jun 6]
(HFA, ’96, p.30)(AHD, p.1062)(SFC, 6/3/99, p.C2)

1799 May 28, Napoleon ordered the retreat of all troops back to Egypt from Jaffa. The march lasted 17 days with one week to cross the Sinai.
(ON, 12/99, p.4)

1799 May, In Saint-Domingue (later Haiti) Gen. Toussaint L’Ouverture signed a trade agreement with Britain. Certain elements were kept secret in order not to alienate France.
(ON, 2/10, p.8)

1799 Jun 6, Patrick Henry, American orator, died at Red Hill Plantation, Va. Henry urged the restoration of the property and rights of Loyalists after the Revolutionary War. He believed that Loyalists would make good citizens of the new republic. Henry also bitterly opposed the Constitution as a threat to the liberties of the people and rights of the states. He believed that once the war had been won, a central authority was no longer needed. In 1998 Henry Mayer (d.2000) authored a biography of Patrick Henry.
(SFC, 7/28/00, p.D5)(HN, 7/12/02)(AP, 6/6/08)
1799 Jun 6, Alexander Pushkin (d.1837), Russian poet and the founder of modern Russian literature, was born (NC). He was the descendant of an Abyssinian slave of royal blood who was given to Peter the Great as a gift. His works included “Boris Godunov,” “Eugene Onegin,” and “The Queen of Spades.” [see May 26]
(HFA, ’96, p.30)(AHD, p.1062)(SFC, 6/3/99, p.C2)(HN, 6/6/99)(WSJ, 7/15/99, p.A16)

1799 Jun 17, Napoleon Bonaparte incorporated Italy into his empire.
(HN, 6/17/98)

1799 Jun 22, In France a scientific congress adopted the length of the meter as one ten-millionth of the distance along the surface of the Earth from its equator to its pole, in a curved line of latitude passing through the center of Paris. The congress used data gathered by astronomers, Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Delambre and Pierre-François-André Mechain. The established meter proved to be .2 millimeters too short, due to incorrect latitude data gathered by Mechain.
(http://etherwave.wordpress.com/2009/01/21/hump-day-history-the-length-of-the-meter/)(ON, 2/09, p.9)

1799 Jul 3, In Saint-Domingue (later Haiti) Gen. Toussaint L’Ouverture formally declared Gen. Andre Rigaud, the leader of a revolutionary army in the south and west of Saint-Domingue, a rebel.
(ON, 2/10, p.8)

1799 Jul 11, An Anglo-Turkish armada bombarded Napoleon Bonaparte’s troops in Alexandria Egypt. The attack was ineffective.
(HN, 7/11/00)

1799 Jul 17, Ottoman forces, supported by the British, captured Aboukir, Egypt from the French.
(HN, 7/17/99)

1799 Jul 25, On his way back from Syria, Napoleon Bonaparte defeated the Ottomans at Aboukir, Egypt.
(HN, 7/25/98)

1800 Jul 29, In Saint-Domingue (later Haiti) Gen. Andre Rigaud, defeated by Gen. Dessalines, set sail for France.
(ON, 2/10, p.9)

1799 Jul 30, The French garrison at Mantua, Italy surrendered to the Austrians.
(HN, 7/30/98)

1799 Aug 2, Jacques-Etienne Montgolfier (54), balloonist, died.
(MC, 8/2/02)

1779 Aug 10, Louis XVI of France freed the last remaining serfs on royal land.
(HN, 8/10/98)

1799 Aug 16, Vincenzo Manfredini (b.1737), Italian composer, died.
(MC, 8/16/02)

1799 Aug 22, Napoleon slipped through the British blockade of the Egyptian coast and returned to France.
(ON, 12/99, p.4)

1799 Aug 29, Pope Pius VI (b.1717) died in Valence, France.

1799 Sep 1, Bank of Manhattan Company opened in NYC. It was the forerunner to Chase Manhattan.
(MC, 9/1/02)

1799 Oct 7, Napoleon landed at Saint Raphael, 50 miles east of Toulon.
(ON, 1/02, p.11)

1799 Oct 16, Napoleon arrived in Paris and met with government leaders.
(ON, 1/02, p.11)

1799 Oct 24, Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf (59), Austrian composer, died.
(MC, 10/24/01)

1799 Nov 5, The Danish ship Oldenborg was wrecked on her outward passage by being beached in the roadstead at Cape Town, South Africa, during a north-westerly gale, thus becoming one of the 127 ships that have been lost on this minuscule portion of the South African coast.

1799 Nov 9, Napoleon Bonaparte instigated coup of 18 Brumaire and declared himself dictator, 1st consul, of France.
(HN, 11/9/98)(Econ, 9/20/14, p.77)

1799 Nov 22, Baroness van Dorth, organist, was executed.
(MC, 11/22/01)

1799 Nov 29, Amos Bronson Alcott, US educator and poet (Concord Days), was born.
(MC, 11/29/01)

1799 Dec 10, The metric system was established in France.
(MC, 12/10/01)

1799 Dec 12, Two days before his death, George Washington composed his last letter, to Alexander Hamilton, his aide-de-camp during the Revolution and later his Secretary of the Treasury. In the letter he urged Hamilton to work for the establishment of a nationally military academy. Washington wrote that letter at the end of a long, cold day of snow, sleet and rain that he had spent out-of-doors. He remained outside for more than five hours, according to his secretary Tobias Lear, did not change out of his wet clothes or dry his hair when he returned home.
(HNQ, 10/25/02)

1799 Dec 13, Washington awoke the following morning with a sore throat.
(HNQ, 10/25/02)

1799 Dec 14, George Washington (b.1732), the first president of the United States, died at his Mount Vernon, Va., home. Richard Brookhiser authored “Founding Father: Rediscovering George Washington.” The Washingtons at this time had 317 slaves. His 5 stills in Virginia turned out some 12,000 gallons of corn whiskey a year. In 1993 Richard Norton Smith authored “George Washington and the New American Nation.” In 2010 Ron Chernow authored “Washington: A Life.”
(A&IP, ESM, p.16)(AP, 12/14/97)(WSJ, 11/6/98, p.W15)(SFEC, 5/2/99, Z1 p.8)(SFC, 12/11/99, p.B6)(WSJ, 2/22/00, p.A40)(Econ, 10/23/10, p.102)

1799 Dec 18, George Washington’s body was interred at Mount Vernon.
(MC, 12/18/01)

1799 Dec, 21, William Wordsworth (29) and his sister, Dorothy, returned from a year in Germany to Grasmere in the Lake District. His Lyrical Ballads written jointly with Samuel Taylor Coleridge (27) had just been published. The ballads launched the Great Romantic Period in English literature.
(Hem, Dec. 94, p.71)

1799 Dec 24, A Jacobin plot against Napoleon was uncovered.
(MC, 12/24/01)

1799 Dec 25, Napoleon’s new constitution went into effect. It gave him, as First Consul, powers to promulgate laws, nominate senior officials, control finances and conduct negotiations with foreign powers.
(ON, 1/02, p.12)
1799 Dec 25, Chevalier De Saint Georges (b.1739), violinist and composer, died in Paris, France.

1799 Dec 26, The late George Washington was eulogized by Col. Henry Lee as “first in war, first in peace and first in the hearts of his countrymen.”
(AP, 12/26/97)

1799 In England Richard Sheridan wrote his play “Pizzaro.” It implied an equivalence between persecuted Indians and the Irish.
(WSJ, 11/20/98, p.W6)

1799 Jacques-Louis David created his painting “Rape of the Sabines.”
(WSJ, 4/6/05, p.D11)
1799 In Paris, France, the Passage de Panoramas, a covered arcade, was built on the site of the former Hotel de Montmorency-Luxembourg. It was the first building in Paris equipped for gas lighting.
(SSFC, 2/23/14, p.M4)

1799 Goya (1746-1828) made his famous etching “The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters,” in which fluttering bats hover darkly above a man dozing at his desk.
(WSJ, 11/3/95, p.A-12)

1799 Antonio Salieri (1750-1825), Italian composer, wrote his opera “Falstaff.”
(WSJ, 1/14/04, p.D10)

1799 The Musun Indians built a chapel at the California Mission San Juan Bautista.
(SFC, 9/3/97, p.A17)

1799 Sitka, Alaska, was founded by Alexander Baranof of the Russian American Company.
(AH, 6/07, p.69)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sitka,_Alaska)

1799 In Pennsylvania the Lazaretto Quarantine Station was built in Tinicum Township to protect the Port of Philadelphia against the introduction of diseases that could lead to epidemics. The Lazaretto closed as a hospital in 1890 but then served as a resort and seaplane base before the start of World War I. In 2019 plans called for converting the structure into township offices.
(AP, 8/22/19)

1799 Lord Elgin was appointed British ambassador to Constantinople. He was responsible for taking down the Metopes, sculptured by Phidias, from the Parthenon, and transporting them to England.
(RFH-MDHP, p.218)

1799 Pierre Bouchard [Boussart], an officer in Napoleon‘s army, discovered the Rosetta Stone in the city of Rosetta [Rashid], Egypt. The Rosetta Stone is a tablet with hieroglyphic translations into Greek. The stone is black basalt… and bears three texts: the uppermost is in early Egyptian hieroglyphic; the middle one in the Neo-Egyptian demotic script often used in writing papyri; and the lowermost text is Greek. Deciphering the stone, the work of English physicist Thomas Young and then French archaeologist Jean-Francois Champollion, led to an understanding of Egyptian hieroglyphic writing. Champollion published memoirs on the decipherment in 1822.
(NG, May 1985, R. Caputo, p.584)(RFH-MDHP, p.182)(HN, 7/19/98)(HNQ, 7/7/00)

1799 A South African hunter shot the last blaauwboch, the blue antelope (Hippotragus leucophaeus). Its numbers had been severely reduced by the introduction of domestic sheep by native Africans as early as 400AD.
(NH, 11/96, p.24)

c1799 In China at the close of the 18th century the White Lotus Movement led a violent uprising in northeastern China.
(WSJ, 4/26/99, p.A6)

1799 In Jaipur, India, the Hawa Mahal (the palace of wind) a five-storied sandstone building, was built by a Hindu king for his queen.
(Reuters, 5/14/08)

1799 The Dutch East India Company liquidated and the Dutch government took control over the islands of Indonesia.
(SFC, 9/8/99, p.A17)

1799 In Naples, Italy, a massacre of innocents occurred that was blamed on British Admiral Horatio Nelson.
(WSJ, 11/5/99, p.W12)

1799 Nagasawa Rosetsu (b.1754), Japanese painter based in Kyoto, died. His work included “Monkey on a Rock.”
(SFC, 12/8/05, p.E1)(SFC, 1/14/06, p.E10)

1799 The Russian-American Co. was chartered by Tsar Paul I. It expanded into Spanish California (see 1812) when sea otter populations declined in Alaska.
(SFC, 6/15/01, WBb p.7)

1799 Some 70 ships were lost in the Scottish Firth of Tay.
(SFEC, 10/3/99, BR p.3)

1799 Pope Pius VI died.
(WSJ, 4/28/00, p.W8)

1799-1804 Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859), German explorer, and Aime Bonpland, botanist, led an expedition to South America. They collected over 60,000 plants.
(http://geography.about.com/library/weekly/aa020298.htm)(CW, Spring ‘99, p.49)

1799-1914 This period in France was covered by Robert Gildea in his 2008 book: Children of the Revolution: The French 1799-1914.”
(Econ, 8/2/08, p.87)


Timeline of the Eighteenth Century: 1750-1774

1750 Mar 5, The 1st American Shakespearean production, was an “altered” Richard III in NYC.
(MC, 3/5/02)

1750 Mar 16, Caroline Lucretia Herschel, 1st woman astronomer, was born in Hanover, Germany.
(MC, 3/16/02)

1750 May 20, Stephen Girard, rescued U.S. bonds during War of 1812, actor, was born.
(HN, 5/20/98)

1750 Mar 23, Johannes Matthias Sperger, composer, was born.
(SS, 3/23/02)

1750 May 23, Carlo Goldoni’s “Il Bugiardo,” premiered in Mantua.
(MC, 5/23/02)

1750 May 29, Giuseppe Porsile (70), composer, died.
(SC, 5/29/02)

1750 Jun 15, Marguerite De Launay, Baronne Staal, French writer, died.
(HT, 6/15/00)

1750 Jul 28, Philippe Fabre d’Eglantine, poet, satirist, politician, was born in France.
(SC, 7/28/02)
1750 Jul 28, Composer Johann Sebastian Bach (65) died in Leipzig, Germany. In 2000 Christoff Wolff authored the biography “Johann Sebastian Bach.” In 2005 James Gaines authored “Evening in the Palace of Reasoning,” a portrait of Bach in 1747. In 2013 John eliot Gardiner authored “Bach: Music in the Castle of Heaven.”
(AP, 7/28/00)(WSJ, 8/2/00, p.A12)(SC, 7/28/02)(WSJ, 3/1/08, p.W8)(Econ, 10/12/13, p.96)

1750 Aug 18, Antonio Salieri (d.1825), Italian composer (Tatare), was born.
(WSJ, 1/14/04, p.D10)(MC, 8/18/02)

1750 Aug 24, Laetitia Bonaparte-Ramolino, mother of Napoleon, was born.
(MC, 8/24/02)

1750 Sep 5, A decree issued in Paderborn, Prussia, allowed for annual search of all Jewish homes for stolen or “doubtful” goods.
(MC, 9/5/01)

1750 Sep 14, Carl T. Pachelbel (b.1690), German-born US organist and composer, died. He was the younger brother of Johann Pachelbel.

1750 Oct 5, Carlo Goldoni’s “Il Teatro Comica,” premiered in Venice.
(MC, 10/5/01)

1750 Oct 23, Nicolas Appert, the inventor of canning, was born. [see Oct 23, 1752]
(HN, 10/23/00)

1750 Nov 1, Giuseppe Sammartini (55), composer, died.
(MC, 11/1/01)

1750 Nov 23, Giuseppe Sammartini (55), composer, died.
(MC, 11/23/01)

1750 Nov 27, Anton Thadaus Johann Nepomuk Stamitz, composer, was born.
(MC, 11/27/01)

1750 Dec 17, Deborah Sampson, was born. She fought in the American Revolution as a man under the alias Robert Shurtleff. In 1797 she authored a memoir. In 2004 Alfred F. Young authored “Masquerade: The Life and Times of Deborah Sampson, Continental Soldier.
(MC, 12/17/01)(SSFC, 4/11/04, p.M4)

1750 By this year slavery was legal in all of the 13 colonies of America.
(SFC, 12/18/96, p.A25)

c1750 In Early America, sack, caraco, and mantua referred to styles of colonial dresses. The sack had a square-cut neckline and long trains hanging from the shoulders. A caraco was a middle-length gown that flared over panniers, which were hoops used to add fullness at the sides of a woman’s skirt. A mantua was a loose-fitting gown that was folded back around the hips and tied at the waist.
(HNQ, 2/3/99)

1750 Teedyuscung, a Lenape Indian, joined the Christian mission of Gnadenhutten, founded by Swiss Moravian settlers in the Lehigh Valley town of Bethlehem.
(ON, 1/03, p.6)

1750 Benjamin Franklin drew up plans for a “sentry box,” designed to prove his theory that lightning as an electrical phenomenon.
(ON, 2/12, p.11)

1750 Thomas Wright, English astronomer, put forward the idea that the appearance of the Milky Way is evidence that the stars near the solar system are arranged in a flat, disk-like structure. (galacticos means milky in Greek).
(JST-TMC,1983, p.7)

1750 The Jesuits at the Univ. of Graz in Austria assumed a leading role in the reception of the work of Isaac Newton.
(StuAus, April ’95, p.53)

1750 A Welshman opened the first modern shoe factory in Lynn, Mass.
(WSJ, 4/25/00, p.A24)

1750 The US population was about 18 million people.
(NOHY, 3/1990, p.222)

1750 The disparity in per capita income between the richest and poorest countries of the world was about 5 to 1. Between Western Europe and India it was about 1.5 to 1. By 1998 the ratio was about 400 to 1.
(SFEC, 3/22/98, BR p.8)

1750 The Ais Indians of Florida were wiped out. In 2004 a site on Hutchinson Island, inhabited by the Ais, revealed 2 thousand year old burials.
(Arch, 1/05, p.13)

c1750 The Blackfeet Indians were among the last Native American tribes to acquire horses.
(SFC, 9/2/96, p.A3)

c1750 A caldera erupted in the middle of Mono Lake, California.
(SFC, 8/20/01, p.A6)

c1750 In China’s northeastern Hebei province large wooden figures were built in Puning Temple following a military victory. A 50-foot Buddhist boy and dragon princess were built to guard the deity Avalokitesvara.
(SSFC, 11/9/03, p.C7)

1750 By this year Vienna, England, Italy and France all began producing porcelain.
(Hem, 6/96, p.112)

1750 Germany returned the island of Aero, which measures 22 by 6 miles, to Denmark.
(SSFC, 7/29/07, p.G3)

1750 The Mexican border town of Guerrero was founded. It became Guerrero Viejo in 1953 after a new dam and flood covered the old town and residents moved to the new Guerrero Nuevo.
(SFC, 6/4/98, p.C16)

1750 Acre, a former stronghold of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, was re-built by the Ottoman Turks around this time, effectively preserving the earlier town, which had been destroyed in 1291 and hidden for centuries under rubble.
(AP, 6/22/11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Acre_%281291%29)

1750 The Spanish treasure ship La Galga sank. It was later believed that the wild ponies of Chincoteague Island off the coast of Virginia came from this ship.
(USAT, 5/7/98, p.9A)(WSJ, 7/17/98, p.A1)

1750 Khurasan [was renamed] Afghanistan.

1750 The first African slaves arrived in Montevideo, Uruguay. They brought along what was later recognized as Candombe music.
(SFC, 8/17/00, p.A18)

1750-1753 The Wilton mansion on the James River in Virginia was built to house William Randolph III, his wife Anne Carter Harrison and their 8 children. It was later moved and reconstructed in West Richmond as the headquarters of the National Society of The Colonial Dames of America.
(SFC, 10/17/98, p.A8)

1750-1799 Ho-Shen rose to power in China as the confidante to Emperor Kao-tsung. He served as a customs superintendent and pocketed a fortune by prolonging military campaigns and pocketing sums allocated to the military. He was arrested when the emperor died and died in prison.
(WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R10)

1750-1831 Stephen Girard, French born American banker and philanthropist. He arrived in Philadelphia as a shipper and opened a grocery. His secret trade with the British made him a small fortune which he used to open a bank in 1812. He helped finance the War of 1812 for a 10% commission. He left most of his $7.5 million estate to a school for orphaned boys.
(WSJ, 1/2/97, p.6)(WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R10)

c1750-1880s In Scotland this was the period of the Clearances. The peasants were swept aside to allow clan chiefs to raise sheep on clan lands until protests on the isle of Skye led to legal reform for the Highlands.
(SFEC, 6/29/97, p.T9)

1751 Feb 16, Thomas Gray’s poem “Elegy Written in a Country Church Yard” was 1st published.
(MC, 2/16/02)

1751 Feb 25, The 1st performing monkey exhibited in America was in NYC.
(MC, 2/25/02)

1751 Mar 16, James Madison (d.1836), Jefferson’s successor as secretary of state and fourth president of the United States (1809-17), was born in Port Conway, Va. He invented the 1787 electoral college system “to break the tyranny of the majority.” “If men were angels, no government would be necessary.” Pierce Butler of South Carolina first proposed the electoral college system. [see 1787]
(V.D.-H.K.p.222)(SFEC, 11/24/96, Z1 p.2)(AP, 3/16/97)(AP, 10/27/97)(HN, 3/16/98)(SFC, 11/9/00, p.A14)(WSJ, 11/9/00, p.A26)

1751 Apr 3, Jean-Baptiste Lamoyne, composer, was born.
(MC, 4/3/02)

1751 May 11, The 1st US hospital was founded in Pennsylvania. [see Feb 11, 1752]
(MC, 5/11/02)

1751 Jun 10, The British Currency Act restricted New England colonies from creating paper money The colonies had issued paper fiat money known as “bills of credit” to help pay for the French and Indian Wars. The Act limited future issuance of bills of credit to certain circumstances (i.e. to pay public debts, such as taxes, but not private debts, such as to merchants).

1751 Jul 28, In France the 1st volume of the Encyclopedie, edited by Diderot and D’Alembert, was published with a print run of 1,625.
(ON, 4/05, p.8)

1751 Jul 30, Maria A. [Nannerl] Mozart, Austrian pianist, Wolfgang’s sister, was born.
(MC, 7/30/02)

1751 Aug 24, Thomas Colley was executed in England for drowning a supposed witch.
(MC, 8/24/02)

1751 Aug 30, Georg Friedrich Handel completed his last oratorio “Jephtha.”
(LGC-HCS, p.41)(MC, 8/30/01)

1751 Aug 31, English troops under sir Robert Clive occupied Arcot India.
(MC, 8/31/01)

1751 Sep 1, Emmanuel Johann Joseph Schikaneder, actor, librettist (The Magic Flute), was born.
(MC, 9/1/02)

1751 Sep 13, Henry Kobell, Dutch painter and cartoonist, was born.
(MC, 9/13/01)

1751 Sep 28, George Washington (19), accompanied his sick older half-brother Lawrence to Barbados. Lawrence had been advised that the island’s climate might help restore his ill health. The brothers left Virginia on September 28 and arrived at Bridgetown, Barbados, November 3. George, who survived the smallpox while in Barbados, left Lawrence on December 21 and arrived back in Virginia on January 28, 1752.
(HNQ, 12/16/99)

1751 Oct 30 Richard Brinsley Sheridan (d.1816), Irish-born statesman and dramatist, spent most of life in England. His plays included “The School for Scandal” with Georgiana Cavendish as Lady Teazle, “The Rivals” and “the Critic.” He also wrote the comic opera “The Duenna.” In 1998 Fintan O’Toole wrote the biography “A Traitor’s Kiss: The Life of Richard Brinsley.”
(SFEC, 11/1/98, BR p.4)(WSJ, 1/7/00, p.W4)(HN, 10/30/00)

1751 Dec 23, France set plans to tax clergymen.
(MC, 12/23/01)

1751 William Hogarth made his print series “The Four Stages of Cruelty.” It illustrated that indulgence in vice caused corruption and cruelty.
(SFC, 1/28/98, p.E1)
1751 Pietro Longhi painted “Exhibition of a Rhinocerous at Venice.” It depicted Clara, a touring Indian rhinoceros owned by Dutch sea captain Douwemout Van der Meer.
(SSFC, 3/27/05, p.E1)
1751 Benjamin Franklin published “Experiments and Observations on Electricity” in England.
(AH, 2/06, p.42)
1751 Voltaire published “Micromegas” in which he mentioned “aliens from outer space.” This is believed to be the first mention of such aliens in literature.
(SFEC, 1/25/98, Z1 p.8)

1751 Handel lost his sight.
(LGC-HCS, p.37)

1751 The Liu clan built its ancestral hall called Liu Man Shek Tong in Hong Kong.
(Hem., Dec. ’95, p.160)

1751 In England Henry Pelham’s Whig government created the 3% consol. It paid 3% and consolidated the terms on a variety of previous issues with no maturity date.
(Econ, 12/24/05, p.105)

1751 A treaty between Finland and Norway defined a strait-line border along the side of the Halti mountain, depriving the Fins of the crest. In 2016 Norway PM Erna Solberg suggested that her government might cede some 15,000 sq. meters of Halti mountain as a birthday gift to Finland in 2017, making it the highest point in Finland.
(Econ, 8/6/16, p.40)

1751 In Mexico on the Baha Peninsula the mission of St. Gertrude the Great was initiated and called “La Piedad” by Father Fernando Consag.
(WSJ, 12/26/97, p.A9)

1752 Jan 1, Betsy Ross (d.1836), flag maker who contributed to the design of the American flag, was born in Philadelphia as Elizabeth Griscom.

1752 Jan 23, Muzio Clementi, Italian composer, was born.
(MC, 1/23/02)

1752 Feb 7, Publication, sale and distribution of the 1st 2 volumes of the Encyclopedie were summarily forbidden by order of King Louis XV. Chretien de Malesherbes, the French director of publications, managed to broker a compromise that included a layer of censorship and a 3rd volume was published by the end of 1753.
(ON, 4/05, p.9)

1752 Feb 11, Pennsylvania Hospital, the 1st hospital in the US, opened.
(MC, 2/11/02)

1752 Mar 13, Josef Reicha, composer, was born.
(MC, 3/13/02)

1752 Mar 22, Johann Georg Joseph Spangler, composer, was born.
(MC, 3/22/02)

1752 Mar 23, Pope Stephen II was elected to succeed Zacharias. He died 2 days later.
(MC, 3/23/02)

1752 March 25 marked the first issue of the Halifax Gazette.
(CFA, ’96, p.42)

1752 Apr 4, Niccolo Antonio Zingarelli, composer (Andromeda), was born.
(MC, 4/4/02)

1752 May 4, Pieter Snyers (71), Flemish painter, engraver, died.
(MC, 5/4/02)

1752 May 11, The 1st US fire insurance policy issued in Philadelphia.
(MC, 5/11/02)

1752 May, Dutch botanist Thomas Francois Dalibard (1709-1799) successfully performed Benjamin Franklin’s “sentry box” experiment proving that lightning is an electrical phenomenon.
(ON, 2/12, p.12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas-Fran%C3%A7ois_Dalibard)

1752 Jun 13, Fanny Burney, English writer, was born.
(HN, 6/13/01)

1752 Jun 15, Benjamin Franklin and his son tested the relationship between electricity and lightning by flying a kite in a thunder storm. Some sources date this to June 10.

1752 Jul 7, Joseph Marie Jacquard, inventor of the first loom that could weave patterns, was born.
(HN, 7/7/98)

1752 Jul 20, John C. Pepusch (85), English composer (Beggar’s Opera), died.
(MC, 7/20/02)

1752 Sep 1, The Liberty Bell arrived in Philadelphia.
(MC, 9/1/02)

1752 Sep 3, The Gregorian Adjustment to the calendar was put into effect in Great Britain and the American colonies followed. At this point in time 11 days needed to be accounted for and Sept. 2 was selected to be followed by Sept. 14. People rioted thinking the government stole 11 days of their lives. [see Oct 5, 1582]
(K.I.-365D, p.97)(SFEC, 9/27/98, BR p.5)(MC, 9/3/01)

1752 Sep 18, Adrien-Marie Lagendre, mathematician, worked on elliptic integrals, was born.
(MC, 9/18/01)

1752 Oct 18, The opera “Le Devin du Village” by Jean-Jacques Rousseau premiered.
(MC, 10/18/01)

1752 Oct 23, Nicolas Appert, inventor (food canning, bouillon tablet), was born. [see Oct 23, 1750]
(MC, 10/23/01)

1752 Nov 3, Georg Friedrich Handel underwent eye surgery to remove a cataract by William Bromfield, Surgeon to the Princess of Wales, to restore his sight. The operation was only a short-term success.

1752 Nov 19, George Rogers Clark, frontier military leader in Revolutionary War, was born.
(MC, 11/19/01)

1752 Nov 20, Thomas Chatterton (d.1770), English poet (Christabel), was born. His early death marked him as the “prototype of the fragile poet withered by the hostility of philistines.”
(WSJ, 1/15/98, p.A17)(MC, 11/20/01)

1752 Gouverneur Morris (d.1816), chief writer of the US Constitution (1787), was born in NY. Morrisania, the family manor, stretched for 1,900 acres from the Harlem River to Long Island Sound in what later became the Bronx.
(WSJ, 5/28/03, p.D8)

1752 George Berkeley (1685-1753), Irish bishop and philosopher, wrote a poem that included the line “Westward the course of empire takes its way.” The line later inspired the founders of Berkeley, Ca., to name their city and university after Berkeley.
(SFEC, 4/18/99, Z1 p.2)

1752 In the summer of this year Benjamin Franklin installed the world’s 1st lightning rods at the Pennsylvania State House.
(WSJ, 8/15/05, p.D8)

1752 The first Mission at the town of Loreto on the Baha Peninsula was completed. Father George Retz moved north from Mission St. Ignatius, where he had studied the Cochimi language, and formally established “La Piedad” as the mission of St. Gertrude the Great.
(SFEC, 5/18/97, p.T5)(WSJ, 12/26/97, p.A9)

1752 James Ayscough advertised his invention of spectacles with double-hinged side pieces.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R21)

1752 In Colombia the village of San Agustin was founded Alejo Astudillo. Attacks by indigenous people destroyed it. A new village was founded in 1790 by Lucas de Herazo and Mendigana.

1752 In Russia Abram Petrovich Gannibal became a Major-General and was appointed in charge of all military engineering.

1752-1840 Fanny Burney, English writer. Her books included “Evelina.” In 1911 she underwent a mastectomy without anesthesia. In 2001 Claire Harman authored the biography: “Fanny Burney.”
(SSFC, 12/23/01, p.M5)

1753 Jan 11, Hans Sloane (b.1660), Anglo-Irish physician, naturalist and collector, died in London. He bequeathed his collection to the British nation, thus providing the foundation of the British Museum. In 2017 James Delbourgo authored “Collecting the World: The Life and Curiosity of Hans Sloane.”
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hans_Sloane)(Econ 6/10/17, p.82)

1753 May 8, Miguel Hidalgo y Castilla, the father of Mexican independence, was born.
(HN, 5/8/98)(MC, 5/8/02)

1753 Mar 9, Jean-Baptiste Kleber, French general, architect, was born.
(MC, 3/9/02)

1753 Mar 17, The 1st official St Patrick’s Day was celebrated.
(MC, 3/17/02)

1753 Mar 25, Voltaire left the court of Frederik II of Prussia.
(MC, 3/25/02)

1753 Mar 26, Benjamin Thompson (d.1814), Count Rumford, English physicist and diplomat, was born. He was a Tory spy in the American Revolution and discovered that heat equaled motion, which led to the 2nd law of thermodynamics.
(WUD, 1994, p.1477)(WSJ, 7/28/98, p.A16)(SS, 3/26/02)

1753 Apr 5, British Museum formed. It opened in 1759.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R53)(MC, 4/5/02)

1753 Apr 28, Franz K. Achard, German physicist, was born.
(MC, 4/28/02)

1753 May 6, French King Louis XV observed a transit of Mercury at Mendon Castle.
(MC, 5/6/02)

1753 May 9, King Louis XV disbanded the French parliament.
(MC, 5/9/02)

1753 May 29, Joseph Haydn’s “Krumme Teufel” premiered.
(SC, 5/29/02)

1753 May 31, Pierre V. Vergniaud, French politician, Girondin orator (guillotined in 1793), was born.
(MC, 5/31/02)

1753 Jun 7, Britain’s King George II gave his assent to an Act of Parliament establishing the British Museum [see Apr 5].
(AP, 6/7/04)

1753 Jul 4, Jean-Pierre-Francois Blanchard (d.1809), French balloonist, was born. He made the 1st balloon flights in England and US.

1753 Jul 7, English parliament granted Jews English citizenship.
(MC, 7/7/02)

1753 Jul 26, New style date is Aug 6. Georg Richmann (b.1711), German physicist, died of electrocution in St. Petersburg, Russia, during an attempt to duplicate Benjamin Franklin’s “sentry box” experiment. Reportedly, ball lightning traveled along the apparatus and was the cause of his death, apparently the first person in history to die while conducting electrical experiments.
(Econ, 3/29/08, p.104)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georg_Wilhelm_Richmann)(ON, 2/12, p.12)

1753 Aug 3, Charles Earl Stanhope, radical politician, scientist, was born in England.
(SC, 8/3/02)

1753 Aug 4, George Washington became a master mason.
(MC, 8/4/02)

1753 Aug 10, Edmund Jennings Randolph, governor of Virginia and first U.S. attorney general, was born.
(HN, 8/10/00)

1753 Aug 12, Thomas Bewick (d.1828), artist (British Birds, Aesop’s Fables) was born in England.

1753 Aug 19, [Johann] Balthasar Neumann (66), German architect, died.
(MC, 8/19/02)

1753 Oct 12, Sir Danvers Osborn (b.1715), British colonial governor of New York, hanged himself 5 days after arriving in NYC. His wife had recently died and the New York assembly refused to support him in the style he felt his rank deserved.
(Econ, 1/12/08, p.75)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Danvers_Osborn)

1753 Oct, Robert Dinwiddie, governor of Virginia, called a meeting to discuss the eviction of British settlers from homesteads west of the Appalachian Mountains by French soldiers from Canada. Major George Washington volunteered to deliver a letter of trespass to French authorities in the Ohio Valley.
(ON, 9/05, p.1)

1753 Nov 30, Johann Baptist Schenk, composer, was born.
(MC, 11/30/01)
1753 Nov 30, Benjamin Franklin received Godfrey Copley Penny (“A penny saved…!”).
(MC, 11/30/01)

1753 Dec 3, Samuel Crompton, English inventor (mule-jenny spinning machine), was born.
(MC, 12/3/01)

1753 Dec 12, George Washington, the adjutant of Virginia, delivered an ultimatum to the French forces at Fort Le Boeuf, south of Lake Erie, reiterating Britain’s claim to the entire Ohio river valley. Washington (22) was sent by Gov. Robert Dinwiddie to warn the French soldiers that they were trespassing on English territory.
(HN, 12/12/98)(WSJ, 2/10/00, p.A16)

1753 Dec 14, French Captain Jacques Le Gardeur rejected the pretensions of the English to ownership of the Ohio Valley, but promised to forward Virginia Gov. Dinwiddie’s letter of trespass to his superiors in Canada.
(ON, 9/05, p.2)

1753 The Georgian-style colonial legislature (later Pennsylvania State House) was completed at 520 Chestnut St. in Philadelphia for the Province of Pennsylvania. It became the location where both the Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution were debated and adopted and thus became known as Independence Hall.
(SSFC, 5/25/14, p.P5)
1753 Benjamin Franklin use the pages of his Poor Richard’s Almanac to make a case for using lightning rods atop tall structures making storms less dangerous.
(WSJ, 8/15/05, p.D8)

1753 In the Virginia Piedmont Boswell’s Tavern was built and for some 150 years served horseback riders flagons of spirit through a barred window. The ride-up window thus predates the drive-in window.
(SFEC, 1/25/98, Z1 p.8)

1753 The observation by Dr. James Lind, British naval surgeon, that fresh fruits and vegetables could cure scurvy marked the beginning of nutritional epidemiology. He conducted tests that showed the beneficial effects of lemons and oranges in treating the disease.
(MT, Fall ‘96, p.4)(ON, 4/01, p.8)

1753 Smallpox hit North America and a 38% infection rate was recorded in Boston. Benjamin Franklin lobbied for variolation.
(NW, 10/14/02, p.47)

1753 The British Crown appointed Benjamin Franklin postmaster of its American colonies.
(Econ, 11/21/15, p.29)

1753 In Sweden Linnaeus (1707-1778), father of systematics, authored “Species Plantarum,” a compilation of some 6,000 plants from around the world.
(NH, 4/1/04, p.39)
1753 Peter Kalm, Swedish-born naturalist, published the first of his 3 volumes of “Travels in North America,” which described his 1748-1751 trip there. It was Linnaeus and the Swedish Royal Academy that had sent Kalm to America. Kalm later spent much of his life as a professor at Turku, Finland. In 2007 Paula Ivaska Robbins authored “The Travels of Peter Kalm.
(WSJ, 11/17/07, p.W11)

1754 Jan 3, Joseph Black, a medical student at the Univ. of Edinburgh, rediscovered carbon dioxide after pouring acid into a tall glass containing some chalk Black had read Helmont’s memoirs and so knew of gas sylvestris. A candle near the glass was snuffed out due to the outpouring of carbon dioxide. He also found that carbon dioxide will precipitate out of limewater when exposed to a strong source of carbon dioxide gas. Black later attained a professorship and had James Watt, engine-builder, as one of his first assistants.
(NOHY, 3/90, p.5,42)

1754 Jan 4, Columbia University was founded as Kings College in NYC. [see July 7]
(MC, 1/4/02)

1754 Jan 6, Major George Washington, while returning to Virginia, encountered a party of English settlers and militiamen at Will’s Creek sent by Gov. Dinwiddie to establish a fort and trading post at the Forks of the Ohio.
(ON, 9/05, p.2)

1754 Feb 2, Charles Maurice de Tallyrand-Perigord (d.1838), minister of foreign affairs for Napoleon I, was born. He represented France brilliantly at the Congress of Vienna.
(WUD, 1994, p.1450)(HN, 2/2/99)

1754 Feb 13, Charles-Maurice duke of Talleyrand-Perigord, French bishop, Napoleon’s Foreign Minister, statesman (1815), was born.
(MC, 2/13/02)

1754 Apr 2, A small expeditionary force of 159 men under Lt. Col. George Washington arrived at Will’s Creek and learned that the French had taken over the new Fort Prince George at the Forks of the Ohio from British soldiers and frontiersmen and renamed it Fort Duquesne.
(ON, 9/05, p.2)

1754 Apr, Teedyuscung, a Lenape Indian, joined the Iraquois Indians in the Wyoming Valley along the banks of the Susquehanna River.
(ON, 1/03, p.6)

1754 May 9, The first American newspaper cartoon was published. The illustration in Benjamin Franklin’s Pennsylvania Gazette showed a snake cut into sections, each part representing an American colony; the caption read, “Join or die.”
(AP, 5/9/97)(HN, 5/9/98)

1754 May 12, Franz Anton Hoffmeister, composer, was born.
(MC, 5/12/02)

1754 May 28, Col. George Washington led a 40-man detachment that defeated French and Indian forces in a skirmish near Great Meadows, Pa.
(ON, 9/05, p.3)

1754 Jun 19, The Albany Congress opened. New York colonial Gov. George Clinton called for the meeting to discuss better relations with Indian tribes and common defensive measures against the French. The attendees included Indians and representatives from Connecticut, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Pennsylvania and Rhode Island. Benjamin Franklin attended and presented his Plan of Union, which was adopted by the conference. The meeting ended on July 11.
(AH, 2/06, p.45)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albany_Congress)

1754 Jul 3, George Washington surrendered the small, circular Fort Necessity (later Pittsburgh) in southwestern Pennsylvania to the French, leaving them in control of the Ohio Valley. This marked the beginning of the French and Indian War also called the 7 Years’ War. In 2005 Fred Anderson authored “The War That Made America: A Short History of the French and Indian War.”
(HN, 7/13/98)(Arch, 1/05, p.46)(WSJ, 12/14/05, p.D15)

1754 Jul 7, King’s College in New York City opened. The school was renamed Columbia College 30 years later. [see Jan 4]
(AP, 7/7/97)

1754 Jul 11, Thomas Bowdler, the famous prude who bowdlerized Shakespeare, was born.
(PGA, 12/9/98)

1754 Aug 2, Pierre Charles L’Enfant, French engineer who designed the layout of Washington, D.C. (1791), was born.
(HN, 8/2/98)

1754 Aug 23, Louis XVI (d.1793), King of France (1774-1793), was born at Versailles. During the French Revolution he met his fate at the guillotine. He was the grandson of Louis XV and married Marie Antoinette.
(AP, 8/23/97)(HN, 8/23/98)

1754 Sep 9, William Bligh, legendary captain of HMS Bounty, was born. [see Sep 10]
(MC, 9/9/01)

1754 Sep 10, William Bligh, was born. He was the British naval officer who was the victim of two mutinies, the most famous on the HMS Bounty which was taken over by Fletcher Christian in 1789. [see Sep 9]
(HN, 9/10/98)

1754 Oct 8, Henry Fielding (b.1707), English lawyer and author, died at 47. He wrote “Tom Jones” in 1749. A film based on the novel was made in 1963. A TV production premiered in 1998.
(SFEM, 11/24/96, p.59)(SFC, 4/2/98, p.E1)(MC, 10/8/01)

1754 Oct 13, American Revolutionary War heroine Molly Pitcher was born. During the American Revolution, at the Battle of Monmouth, NJ, Molly helped out as a water carrier, gaining her nickname, Molly Pitcher. Her husband, John, was wounded during the battle and Molly dropped the water pitcher, taking up her husband’s job of loading and firing a cannon. General George Washington appointed her a noncommissioned officer. [see Jun 28, 1778]
(MC, 10/13/01)

1754 Nov 29, The Gnadenhutten mission, Pa., was attacked by renegade Lenape Indians and 11 white people were killed.
(ON, 1/03, p.7)

1754 Dec, Lt. Col. George Washington resigned his commission.
(ON, 9/05, p.5)

1754 Joseph Goupy caricatured Handel as a fat pig playing the keyboard in his drawing: “The Charming Brute.” For this Handel struck Goupy from his will.
(LGC-HCS, p.41)

1754 Under instructions from Governor Dinwiddie, of Virginia, Col. Jas. Innes established a fort at Wills Creek (Maryland).

1754 Thomas Chippendale published the first English book on furniture designs. He was also an upholsterer and a cabinetmaker.
(SFC,12/17/97, Z1 p.16)
1754 The Royal Society of Arts was established in Britain. Its mission statement was: “the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce, in Great Britain, by bestowing Rewards, from Time to Time, for such Productions, Inventions, or Improvements, as shall tend to the Employing of the Poor, to the Increase of Trade, and to the Riches and Honour of this Kingdom, by the Promoting Industry and Emulation.”
1754 Thomas Mudge (1715-1794), English horologist, invented the lever escapement, which became used in watches ever since.
(Econ, 11/19/11, p.p.106)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Mudge_%28horologist%29)

1754 The Carouge area of Geneva was ceded to the Kingdom of Sardinia.
(SSFC, 1/7/01, p.T8)

1754 In Scotland the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews was founded.
(Econ, 12/20/14, p.110)

1754-1757 Osman III succeeded Mahmud I in the Ottoman House of Osman.
(Ot, 1993, xvii)

1754-1824 Joseph Joubert, French moralist. “Kindness consists in loving people more than they deserve.” “To be capable of respect is today almost as rare as to be worthy of it.”
(AP, 3/22/97)(AP, 1/22/99)

1755 Jan 12, Tsarina Elisabeth established the 1st Russian University.
(MC, 1/12/02)

1755 Feb 20, General Edward Braddock arrived from Great Britain to assume command of British forces in America and to lead the Virginia troops against the French and Indians in the Ohio Valley.
(PCh, 1992, p.303)

1755 Mar 12, The 1st steam engine in America was installed to pump water from a mine.
(MC, 3/12/02)

1755 Mar 14, Pierre-Louis Couperin, composer, was born.
(MC, 3/14/02)

1755 Mar 24, Rufus King, framer of the U.S. Constitution, was born.
(HN, 3/24/98)

1755 Apr 1, Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin, French lawyer (Fisiologia del Gusto), was born.
(MC, 4/1/02)

1755 Apr 10, Samuel Hahnemann, German physician, was born.
(MC, 4/10/02)

1755 Apr 11, James Parkinson, English physician, was born.
(HN, 4/11/01)

1755 Apr 15, Dr. Samuel Johnson, English writer, published his “Dictionary of the English Language,” a selective English dictionary, after 9 years of work. The 1st edition had 42,773 entries. In 2005 Henry Hitchings authored “Defining the World,” an account of Johnson’s work.
(WSJ, 9/14/98, p.A30)(HN, 4/15/01)(WSJ, 10/12/05, p.D13)

1755 Jun 6, Nathan Hale(1776), American patriot who said “My only regret is that I have but one life to give for my country,” was born. He was hanged by the British as a spy during the American Revolution
(CFA, ’96, p.48)(WUD, 1994, p.637)(HN, 6/6/98)

1755 Jun 14, In England the first edition of Dr. Johnson’s “Dictionary” was published.
(WSJ, 9/14/98, p.A30)(MC, 6/14/02)

1755 Jun 16, British captured Fort Beausejour and expelled the Acadians. The Accadians of Nova Scotia were uprooted by an English governor and forced to leave. Some 10,000 people moved to destinations like Maine and Louisiana. Some moved to Iles-de-la-Madeleine off Quebec. The Longfellow story “Evangeline” is based on this displacement.
(SFEC, 8/22/99, p.T8,9)(SSFC, 6/2/02, p.C7)(MC, 6/16/02)

1755 Jun 30, Philippines closed all non-Catholic Chinese restaurants.
(MC, 6/30/02)

1755 Jul 5, Sarah Siddons (d.1831), actress, was born at the Leg of Mutton Inn in Wales. She rose to fame as a protégée of Richard Brinsley Sheridan at the Drury Lane Theater and gained fame playing Lady Macbeth in Macbeth.
(HN, 7/5/98)(WSJ, 7/27/99, p.A21)

1755 Jul 6, John Flaxman, the English sculptor who designed much of Wedgwood’s original pottery, was born.
(MC, 7/6/02)

1755 Jul 8, Britain broke off diplomatic relations with France as their disputes in the New World intensified.
(HN, 7/8/98)

1755 Jul 9, General Edward Braddock was mortally wounded when French and Indian troops ambushed his force of British regulars and colonial militia, which was on its way to attack France’s Fort Duquesne (Pittsburgh). Gen. Braddock’s troops were decimated at Fort Duquesne, where he refused to accept George Washington’s advice on frontier style fighting. British Gen’l. Braddock gave his bloody sash to George Washington at Fort Necessity just before he died on Jul 13.
(A & IP, ESM, p.11)(HN, 7/9/98)(WSJ, 1/5/98, p.A20)

1755 Jul 13, Edward Braddock (60), British general, died following the July 9, 1755 battle at Fort Duquesne (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania). Out of the 1,400 British soldiers who were in involved in the battle, 900 of them died. Future President George Washington carried Braddock from the field and officiated at his burial ceremony. The general was buried in a road his men had built. The army then marched over the grave to obliterate any traces of it and continued to eastern Pennsylvania. After the French and Indian War (1754-1763), the Braddock Road remained a main road. In 1804, some workmen discovered human remains in the road near where Braddock was supposed to have been buried. The remains were re-interred on a small knoll adjacent to the road. In 1913 the marker was placed there. Braddock was born in Perthshire, Scotland, about 1695, the son of Major-General Edward Braddock (died 1725).

1755 Aug 23, Jean Baptiste Lislet-Geoffroy, French geographer, was born.
(HN, 8/23/98)

1755 Sep 8, British forces under William Johnson and 250 Indians defeated the French and their allied Indians at the Battle of Lake George, NY.
(HN, 9/8/98)(SSFC, 4/23/06, p.G6)

1755 Sep 13, Bertrand Barere, French Revolutionist, was born in Tarbes.
(MC, 9/13/01)

1755 Sep 18, Ft. Ticonderoga opened in NY.
(MC, 9/18/01)

1755 Sep 24, John Marshall, fourth chief justice of the Supreme Court (1801-35), and U.S. secretary of state, was born.
(HN, 9/24/98)(MC, 9/24/01)

1755 Sep 30, Francesco Durante, composer, died at 71.
(MC, 9/30/01)

1755 Oct 24, A British expedition against the French held Fort Niagara in Canada ended in failure.
(HN, 10/24/98)

1755 Nov 1, An 8.7 earthquake hit Lisbon, Portugal, and killed some 70,000 people. Heavy damage resulted from ensuing fires and tsunami flooding in Morocco and nearly a quarter of a million people were killed. In 2008 Nicholas Shrady authored “The Last Day: Wrath, Ruin and Reason in the Great Lisbon Earthquake.”
(http://neic.usgs.gov/neis/eqlists/eqsmosde.html)(Econ, 4/5/08, p.86)

1755 Nov 2, Marie Antoinette (d.1793), Queen of France, was born. She was the daughter of Maria Theresa and Francis I; and wife of Louis XVI in 1770 and thus Queen of France. She was arrested by the Revolutionary Tribunal and beheaded on Oct. 15, 1793.
(CFA, ’96, p.58)(HN, 11/2/98)

1755 Nov 12, Gerhard JD von Scharnhorst, Prussian military minister of War (1807-10), was born.
(MC, 11/12/01)

1755 Nov 17, Louis XVIII, 1st post-revolutionary king of France (1814-24), was born.
(HN, 11/17/98)(MC, 11/17/01)

1755 Nov 18, The Cape Ann (Boston) earthquake, estimated at 6.0-6.5, hit the east coast from the Chesapeake Bay to Nova Scotia.

1755 Dec 3, Gilbert Stewart, portrait painter, was born.
(HN, 12/3/00)

1755 Dec 31, Teedyuscung, a Lenape Indian, led 30 Lenape Indians on a raid against English plantations along the Delaware River. Over the next few days his band killed 7 men and took 5 prisoners.
(ON, 1/03, p.6)

1755 William Russell Birch (d.1834), artist, was born in Warwickshire. He settled in Philadelphia with his son in 1794 and in 1800 published 28 drawn and engraved hand-colored images of Philadelphia.
(SFC, 5/18/02, p.E6)

1755 Jean-Jacques Rousseau wrote his “Discourse on the Origin of Inequality,” in which he denounced private property as the root of all evil.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1755 Benjamin Franklin, a patriot of the American Revolution, served as a colonel of the Pennsylvania militia in the French and Indian War. Benjamin Franklin, at forty-nine, had already lived through two wars between the French and the English and their colonists. His face was puffy and smooth from gout, his once-powerful swimmer’s body overweight and rounded into a barrel shape. In recent years Benjamin had emerged as the pivot of power in Pennsylvania. His highly successful publishing business, coupled with his profitable post as deputy postmaster general for the six northern colonies, afforded him leisure time for scientific experiments as well as political activities.
(HNQ, 8/6/01)

1755 The “last specimen” of a dodo bird, a stuffed but rotted relic, was burned at the Ashmoleum Museum at Oxford, England. Fortunately, someone removed the head and the foot of the specimen and saved them. In 1996 by David Quammen authored The Song of the Dodo: Island Biogeography in an Age of Extinctions. In 2003 Clara Pinto-Correia authored “Return of the Crazy Bird.” The London Museum of natural History later displayed a mounted specimen of Raphus cucullatus.

1755 The sultanate of Yogyakarta was founded in central Java Island, Indonesia.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yogyakarta_Sultanate)(Econ, 8/27/19, p.28)

1755 Watanabe Shiko (b.1683), Japanese painter based in Kyoto, died.
(SFC, 12/8/05, p.E12)

1755 The annual 12-day Bergkirchweih beer festival began in Erlangen, Germany.
(SSFC, 4/30/06, p.G7)

1755 Arthur Guinness began brewing a dark-brown stout in the town of Leixlip, Ireland.
(WSJ, 9/12/08, p.B7)

1755 In Mexico the Holy Inquisition began using the dungeon at the fortress of San Juan de Ulua in Vera Cruz.
(SFEC, 5/17/98, p.T12)

1755-1758 The French and Indian Wars began in the US.
(A & IP, ESM, p.11)

1755-1828 Gilbert Stuart, American painter. He painted over 70 portraits of George Washington.
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1410)(WSJ, 2/4/00, p.W12)

1755-1831 Hannah Adams was the first American woman to make a living as a writer. Her work included “A Summary History of New England.”
(SFEC, 8/27/00, Z1 p.2)

1755-1835 Louis Zara (d.2001 at 91) covered this period of the Eastern Mississippi Valley in his 1940 historical novel “This Land Is Ours.”
(SFC, 10/24/01, p.C6)

1756 Jan 27, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (d.1791) was born on Gertreiderstrasse in Salzburg, Austria, the son of violinist and composer Leopold Mozart. He later played string quartets with Johan Baptist Vanhal, Haydn and Dittersdorf. The young Mozart began composing minuets at age 5 and, with his older sister Marianne, gave concerts in Munich and Vienna from age 6. At 13, Mozart became director of concerts for the archbishop of Salzburg and in 1782 he married Constanze Weber against her father’s wishes. Although Mozart gave piano concerts throughout Europe and composed more than 600 works, including 40 symphonies, he and his wife were plagued by debt. When Mozart died in 1791, probably of heart disease, he was buried in an unmarked pauper’s grave. It was not until his works were published, in many cases near the end of the 19th century, that Mozart’s genius became widely recognized. His works included “The Marriage of Figaro” and “The Magic Flute.” In 2005 Stanley Sadie authored “Mozart: The Early Years,” which chronicled Mozart’s life to age 25.
(SFEC, 9/8/96, Par p.11)(HNPD, 1/26/99)(HN, 1/27/99)(WSJ, 12/8/05, p.D8)

1756 Feb 6, America’s third vice president, Aaron Burr, was born in Newark, N.J.
(AP, 2/6/97)(HN, 2/6/99)

1756 Feb 7, In Brazil the Indian Chief Sepe Tiaraju was killed at the hands of Portuguese and Spanish soldiers.
(AP, 2/7/06)

1756 Mar 3, William Godwin (d.1836), English philosopher, novelist, essayist, political writer (Caleb Williams), was born. He was the husband of Mary Wollstonecraft. Wordsworth as a young man was a follower of the radical philosopher Godwin.
(WUD, 1994, p.606)(WSJ, 6/23/98, p.A18)(SC, 3/3/02)

1756 Mar 17, St. Patrick’s Day was 1st celebrated in NYC at Crown & Thistle Tavern.
(MC, 3/17/02)

1756 Apr 13, Johann T. Gottlieb Goldberg (29), German klavecinist, composer, died.
(MC, 4/13/02)

1756 Apr 14, Gov. Glen of South Carolina protested against 900 Acadia Indians.
(MC, 4/14/02)

1756 Apr 15, Jacques Cassini (b.1677), French astronomer and cartographer, died.

1756 May 17, After a year and a half of undeclared war Britain declared war on France, beginning the French and Indian War. England hoped to conquer Canada. The final defeat of the French came in 1763 with the British victory at the Battle of Quebec on the Plains of Abraham.
(HN, 5/17/98)(HNPD, 9/13/98)(http://tinyurl.com/afbze)

1756 May 19, The island of Minorca, one of the Balearic Islands located in the Mediterranean Sea and a British possession since 1708, fell to the French as the British garrison at Fort Philip capitulated.

1756 Jun 4, Quakers left the assembly of Pennsylvania.
(MC, 6/4/02)

1756 Jun 6, John Trumball, American painter, was born.
(HN, 6/6/01)

1756 Jun 20, In India rebels defeated the British army at Calcutta. British soldiers were imprisoned in a suffocating cell that gained notoriety as the “Black Hole of Calcutta.” Most of them died. The exact circumstances of this incident, such as the number of prisoners, originally put at 146, are disputed.
(HN, 6/20/98)(AP, 6/20/07)

1756 Aug 14, French commander Louis Montcalm took Fort Oswego, New England, from the British.
(HN, 8/14/98)

1756 Aug 31, The British at Fort William Henry, New England, surrendered to Louis Montcalm of France.
(HN, 8/31/98)

1756 Sep 21, John Loudon McAdam, engineer who invented and gave his name to macadamized roads, was born.
(HN, 9/21/98)

1756 Nov 4, Anthony van Hoboken, Rotterdam merchant-ship owner, was born.
(MC, 11/4/01)

1756 Nov 12, Teedyuscung, a Lenape Indian, spoke with Gov. Denny at Easton, Pa., to discuss grievances.
(ON, 1/03, p.6)

1756 Dec 6, British troops under Robert Clive occupied Fulta, India.
(MC, 12/6/01)

1756 German-speaking Moravians founded the town of Lititz, 35 miles southeast of Harrisburg, Pa. Non-Moravians were not allowed to live there until 1855.
(SSFC, 4/13/03, p.D6)

1756 At the outbreak of the war that was to settle the issue of control of North America between Britain and France, French colonists numbered only 55,000, the British colonists numbered about 1 million, and the Native Americans from coast to coast numbered about 600,000.
(WSJ, 5/16/96, p.A-12)

1756 The British government gave money to the London Foundling Hospital on condition that it accept all children under two months old, with no questions asked. Many unwanted babies soon began to arrive and some three-quarters of the 15,000 babies that reached the hospital died before the government ended its support in 1760.
(Econ, 10/17/09, p.99)

1756 Fussier French Sevres porcelain, under the patronage of King Louis XV, gained the upper hand in porcelain production over Meissen. Its trademark pictured cobalt-blue crossed swords.
(WSJ, 8/28/98, p.W10)

1756 In Queretaro, Mexico, a palatial home was built and later converted into the hotel Casa de la Marquesa.
(SSFC, 1/27/08, p.E5)

1756 Riedel Glass was founded in Bohemia.
(WSJ, 11/18/99, p.A24)

1756-1763 The Seven Years War. France and Great Britain clashed both in Europe and in North America. In 2000 “Crucible of War” by Fred Anderson was published. France, Russia, Austria, Saxony, Sweden and Spain stood against Britain, Prussia and Hanover. Britain financed Prussia to block France in Europe while her manpower was occupied in America.
(V.D.-H.K.p.223)(SFC, 7/7/96, BR p.7)(WSJ, 2/10/00, p.A16)

1756-1789 Johann Friedrich Doles, Bach’s pupil and successor as cantor at St. Thomas in Leipzig, continued to perform Bach’s music at the services.
(LGC-HCS, p.32)

1756-1815 The great war or series of wars that broke out between England and France.

1756-1818 Henry Lee, American governor. On the death of George Washington: “To the memory of the Man, first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen.”
(AP, 12/14/99)

1757 Jan 2, British troops occupied Calcutta, India.

1757 Jan 4, Robert Francois Damiens made an unsuccessful attempt to assassinate King Louis XV of France.
(HN, 1/4/01)

1757 Jan 11, Alexander Hamilton, first U.S. Secretary of Treasury, was born on St. Croix. After showing remarkable promise in finance, the young Hamilton was sent by a benefactor to King’s College in New York. In 1776, Hamilton joined the Continental Army, where he soon joined George Washington’s staff. After the war, Hamilton became active in New York politics, gaining a reputation as a supporter of a strong central government. In the struggle for the ratification of the Constitution, Hamilton collaborated with James Madison and John Jay in writing the Federalist Papers, which were instrumental in the passage of the Constitution. In 1789, newly elected President George Washington named Hamilton secretary of the treasury. During his tenure, Hamilton established the National Bank, introduced an excise tax, suppressed the Whiskey Rebellion and spearheaded the effort for the federal government to assume the debts of the states. In the presidential election of 1800, Hamilton broke the deadlock between Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr by supporting Jefferson. The enmity between Hamilton and his longtime political enemy Burr grew worse during the 1804 campaign for governor of New York. Finally, on July 11, at Weehawken, N.J., the two men fought a duel. Hamilton was shot and died the next day of his injuries.
(WUD, 1994 p.640)(AP, 1/11/98)(HN, 1/11/00)(HNPD, 1/11/00)

1757 Jan 16, Samuel McIntire, architect of Salem, Massachusetts, was born.
(HN, 1/16/99)

1757 Jan 28, Antonio Bartolomeo Bruni, composer, was born.
(MC, 1/28/02)
1757 Jan 28, Ahmed Shah, the first King of Afghanistan, occupied Delhi and annexed the Punjab.
(HN, 1/28/99)

1757 Feb 13, John C. Hespe, Dutch journalist, politician, was born.
(MC, 2/13/02)

1757 Mar 14, John Byng (52), British Admiral, was executed by a firing squad on board HMS Monarch for neglect of duty. Early in the Seven Years’ War (1756-1763), Byng was called on to relieve a British fort on the Mediterranean island of Minorca which was being attacked by French forces. He was sent with a small, undermanned fleet. Several ship were badly damaged in subsequent skirmishes with the French, prompting Byng to turn back to Gibraltar. The fort was eventually forced to capitulate. He was brought home, court-martialled and executed for breach of Articles of War. In 2007 his descendants sought a posthumous pardon.
(HN, 3/14/99)(Reuters, 3/15/07)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Byng)

1757 Mar 27, Johann Wenzel Anton Stamitz (39), composer, died.
(MC, 3/27/02)

1757 Apr 6, English king George II fired minister William Pitt, Sr.
(MC, 4/6/02)

1757 May 6, Battle at Prague: Frederik II of Prussia beat emperor’s army.
(MC, 5/6/02)

1757 Jun 1, Ignaz J. Pleyel, Austrian composer, piano builder (Piano method), was born. (MC, 6/1/02)

1757 Jun 18, Battle at Kolin, Bohemia: Austrian army beat Prussia.
(MC, 6/18/02)

1757 Jun 19, The Second Coming of Christ occurred, according to the followers of Emanuel Swedenborg (the Church of the New Jerusalem).
(DTnet 6/19/97)

1757 Jun 22, George Vancouver, surveyed America’s Pacific coast from San Francisco to Vancouver, was born.
(HN, 6/22/98)

1757 Jun 23, Forces of the East India Company led by Robert Clive (1725-1774) defeated Indians at Plassey and won control of Bengal. Lord Clive defeated Siraj-ud-daula, the Nawab of Bengal and exacted a payment of $140 million from Moghul ruler Mir Jafar and a Moghul title of nobility and rights to land around Calcutta. This effectively marked the beginning of British colonial rule in India. Clive served 2 terms as the governor of Bengal.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)(SSFM, 4/1/01, p.40)(AP, 6/23/07)

1757 Jul 23, Giuseppe Domenico Scarlatti (71), Italian composer (La Silvia), died.
(MC, 7/23/02)

1757 Jul 26, Benjamin Franklin (51) arrived in London and soon established himself at a house on Craven Street, which served as home, except for 2 intervals, for the next 16 years.
(Sm, 3/06, p.98)

1757 Aug 9, English Ft. William Henry, NY, surrendered to French and Indian troops.
(MC, 8/9/02)

1757 Sep 3, Charles X, Duke of Prussia, was born in Versailles, France.
(MC, 9/3/01)

1757 Sep 6, Marie Joseph du Motier, Marquis de LaFayette, French soldier and statesman who aided George Washington during the American Revolution, was born in Auvergne, France.
(AP, 9/6/07)

1757 Oct 9, Charles X, last Bourbon king of France (1824-30), was born.
(MC, 10/9/01)

1757 Nov 5, Frederick II of Prussia defeated the French at Rosbach in the Seven Years War.
(HN, 11/5/98)

1757 Nov 1, Antonio Canova (d.1822), Italian sculptor, was born.

1757 Nov 22, Austrians defeated Prussians at Breslau in the Seven Years War.
(HN, 11/22/98)

1757 Nov 28, William Blake (1757-1827), English artist-printer, was born in London. He wrote “Songs of Innocence” and “The Marriage of Heaven and Hell.” His last book was “Jerusalem,” of which he made only five copies. In 1996 Peter Ackroyd published: “Blake: A Biography.” [see 1827]
(LSA,Spg,1995,p.17)(WUD,1994,p.155)(WSJ,4/9/96,p.A16)(WSJ,4/2397,p.A16)(HN, 11/28/98)

1757 Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) helped set up America’s first street cleaning service in Philadelphia.
(Econ, 2/28/09, SR p.5)
1757 Benjamin Franklin sailed for England. He spent almost two decades there as colonial agent, a combination lobbyist, ambassador, and banker, for Pennsylvania and, eventually Georgia, New Jersey and Massachusetts. He lived in London at 36 Craven St.
(WSJ, 8/8/95, p. A12)(USAT, 9/22/03, p.16A)

1757 The Mission of San Javier was completed in San Javier on the Baha Peninsula.
(SFEC, 5/18/97, p.T5)

1757-1774 Mustafa III succeeded Osman III in the Ottoman House of Osman.
(Ot, 1993, xvii)

1758 Jan 2, The French began bombardment of Madras, India.
(HN, 1/2/99)

1758 Feb 15, The 1st mustard manufactured in America was advertised in Philadelphia.
(440 Int’l., 2/15/99)(HCB, 2003, p. 94)

1758 Mar 22, Jonathan Edwards (b.1703), US colonial theologian, philosopher (Great Awakening, Original Sin), died in New Jersey following an inoculation for smallpox.

1758 Apr 2, Johann Balthasar Konig (67), composer, died.
(MC, 4/2/02)

1758 Apr 17, Frances Williams, the first African-American to graduate for a college in the western hemisphere, published a collection of Latin poems.
(HN, 4/17/99)

1758 Apr 28, James Monroe (d.1831), later secretary of state and the fifth president of the United States (1817-1825), was born in Westmoreland County, Va. He created the Monroe Doctrine, warning Europe not to interfere in the Western Hemisphere.
(HFA, ‘96, p.28)(HNQ, 7/27/99)(HN, 4/28/02)

1758 May 6, Maximilien F.M.I. de Robespierre (d.1794), a leader of the French Revolution, was born. He was known as the “Sea-Green Incorruptible” from his sallow complexion. He decreed death for all those he considered enemies of the revolution.
(V.D.-H.K.p.231)(HN, 5/6/99)(SSFC, 10/28/01, p.C5)

1758 Jun 23, British and Hanoverian armies defeated the French at Krefeld in Germany.
(HN, 6/23/98)

1758 Jul 8, During the French and Indian War a British attack on Fort Carillon at Ticonderoga, New York, was foiled by the French. Some 3,500 Frenchmen defeated the British army of 15,000, which lost 2,000 men.
(HN, 7/8/98)(AH, 10/02, p.27)

1758 Jul 24, George Washington was admitted to Virginia House of Burgesses.
(MC, 7/24/02)

1758 Jul 26, British battle fleet under Gen. James Wolfe captured France’s Fortress of Louisbourg on Ile Royale (Capre Breton Island, Nova Scotia) after a 7-week siege, thus gaining control of the entrance to the Saint Lawrence River.
(HN, 7/26/98)(MC, 7/26/02)

1758 Aug 25, The Prussian army defeated the invading Russians at the Battle of Zorndorf. Thousands were killed.
(HN, 8/25/98)(chblue.com, 8/25/01)

1758 Aug 29, New Jersey Legislature formed the 1st Indian reservation.
(MC, 8/29/01)

1758 Sep 12, Charles Messier observed the Crab Nebula and began a catalog.
(MC, 9/12/01)

1758 Sep 18, James Abercromby was replaced as supreme commander of British forces after his defeat by French commander, the Marquis of Montcalm, at Fort Ticonderoga during the French and Indian War.
(HN, 9/18/98)

1758 Sep 29, Horatio Nelson (d.1805), British naval commander who defeated the French and her allies on numerous occasions during the age of Napoleon, was born in Burnham Thorpe, Norfolk. He was made post-captain at the young age of 21. Nelson died at the moment of his greatest victory at the Battle of Trafalgar. Although a national hero, he displayed common human frailty. His colorful private life, coupled with his genius and daring as a naval commander, seem to make the Nelson story irresistible to every generation.
(AP, 9/29/97)(HN, 9/29/98)(HNQ, 6/3/01)

1758 Oct 7, Paul Anton Wineberger, composer, was born.
(MC, 10/7/01)

1758 Oct 10, Jean Pierre Chouteau, French fur trader, early St. Louis settler and “father of Oklahoma” was born in New Orleans.
(AP, 10/10/08)

1758 Oct 16, Noah Webster (d.1843), US teacher lexicographer and publisher, was born in Hartford, Conn. He wrote the “American Dictionary of the English Language.”
(AHD, 1971, p.1452)(AP, 10/16/08)

1758 Nov 25, In the French and Indian War British forces under General John Forbes captured Fort Duquesne (the site of present day Pittsburgh, est. 1754). George Washington participated in the campaign. Forbes renamed the site Fort Pitt after William Pitt the Elder, who directed British military policy in the Seven Years’ War of 1756-’63. Before his arrival, the French had burned the fort and retreated.
(AP, 11/25/97)(ON, 9/05, p.5)(HNQ, 7/17/98)

1758 Dec 5, Johann Friedrich Fasch (70), composer, died.
(MC, 12/5/01)

1758 Benjamin Franklin ordered Newtown Pippin apples delivered to London while he worked there as Commissioner for the Colonies in America.
(T&L, 10/1980, p.42)

1758 Pompeo Batoni made his bravura Grand Tour portrait of an English milord.
(SFEC, 1/11/98, p.D7)

1758 A.Y. Goguet’s “The Origin of Laws, Arts, and Sciences, and their Progress among the Most Ancient Nations” was published in Paris.
(RFH-MDHP, 1969, p.13)

1758 Linnaeus, father of systematics, worked on his wasp specimens.
(PacDis, Winter/’96, p.43)

1758 Hawaii’s King Kamehameha was born on the big island about this time.

c1758 In Taxco, Mexico, the Santa Prisca Cathedral was built in thanks by Don Jose de la Borda, who made his fortune there.
(SFEC, 11/8/98, p.T6)

1758 In Peru Spanish naval Captain Antonio de Ulloa (1716-1795) began serving as governor of Huancavelica and the general manager of the quicksilver mines. He tried but failed to eradicate fraud there and held this position until 1764. In 1766 he began serving as governor of Louisiana.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_de_Ulloa)(Econ., 3/14/15, p.37)

1758 Pope Benedict XIV removed the blanket proscription against the works of Copernicus from the Index of Forbidden Books. He left Galileo on the Index because a Pope had participated in the condemnation of Galileo.
(WSJ, 10/22/99, p.W15)

1759 Jan 6, George Washington and Martha Dandridge Custis were married. George had 28 slaves and Martha had 109.
(AP, 1/6/98)(SFEC, 5/2/99, Z1 p.8)

1759 Jan 15, The British Museum opened in Montagu House, on the site of the current building, and proclaimed itself as the world’s first independent national museum. Its expansion over the following two and a half centuries was largely a result of expanding British colonization and has resulted in the creation of several branch institutions, the first being the British Museum of Natural History in South Kensington in 1881 (it is nowadays simply called the Natural History Museum, and is separate and independent).
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_Museum)(Econ, 12/21/13, SR p.4)

1759 Jan 25, Robert Burns (d.1796), poet and song writer, who wrote “Auld Lang Syne” and “Comin’ Thru the Rye,” was born in Alloway, Scotland. He took traditional Scottish songs and fiddle tunes, and improved upon existing words, or added verses where they had been lost. “Should auld acquaintance be forgot, and never brought to mind, should auld acquaintance be forgot, and auld lang syne. For old lang syne, my dear, for old lang syne, we’ll take a cup of kindness yet, for old lang syne.”
(EMN, 1/96, p.4,6)(HN, 1/25/99)(SFC, 12/30/99, p.A13)(MC, 1/25/02)

1759 Jan 31, Francois Devienne, composer, was born.
(MC, 1/31/02)

1759 Feb 28, Pope Clement XIII allowed the Bible to be translated into various languages.
(MC, 2/28/02)

1759 Mar 8, French King Louis XV revoked the license of the Encyclopedie as the 8th volume was about to be printed.
(ON, 4/05, p.9)

1759 Apr 8, Francois de La Croix (76), composer, died.
(MC, 4/8/02)

1759 Apr 13, The French defeated European Allies in Battle of Bergen.
(HN, 4/13/98)

1759 Apr 14, Georg Friedrich Handel (74), German-born composer, died in London. He had composed some 30 oratorios.
(LGC-HCS, p.41)(AP, 4/14/97)(SFC, 9/16/97, p.E1)

1759 Apr 23, British seized Basse-Terre and Guadeloupe in the Antilies from France.
(HN, 4/23/99)

1759 Apr 27, Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin (d.1797), English writer, feminist (Female Reader), was born. “The mind will ever be unstable that has only prejudices to rest on, and the current will run with destructive fury when there are no barriers to break its force.”
(AP, 11/10/97)(MC, 4/27/02)

1759 May 1, British fleet occupied Guadeloupe, in the West Indies. [see Apr 23]
(MC, 5/1/02)

1759 May 8, Hearing of his appointment in the west, General Napoleon Bonaparte left for Paris in order to obtain a different posting.
(HN, 5/8/99)

1759 May 15, Maria Theresia von Paradis, composer, was born.
(MC, 5/15/02)

1759 May 20, William Thornton, architect of the U.S. Capitol, actor, was born.
(HN, 5/20/98)

1759 May 28, William Pitt the Younger, PM of England from 1783-1801 and 1804-1806, was born. He has been considered England’s greatest PM.
(HN, 5/28/99)(MC, 5/28/02)

1759 Jul 23, Russians under Saltikov defeated Prussians at Kay in eastern Germany, and one-fourth of Prussian army of 27,000 was lost.
(AP, 7/23/97)

1759 Jul 24, Victor Emmanuel I, King of Sardinia (1802-21), was born.
(MC, 7/24/02)

1759 Jul 25, British forces defeated a French army at Fort Niagara in Canada. During their 7 Years’ War.
(HN, 7/25/98)(SC, 7/25/02)

1759 Jul 26, The French relinquished Fort Carillon in Ticonderoga, New York, to the British under General Jeffrey Amherst. The British changed the name to Fort Ticonderoga.
(HN, 7/26/98)(AH, 10/02, p.26)

1759 Aug 1, British and Hanoverian armies defeated the French at the Battle of Minden, Germany. The marquis de Lafayette was killed by a British cannonball and his son, Gilbert du Motier (2), inherited the title. In 1777 Lafayette joined the American Continental Army.
(HN, 8/1/98)(ON, 2/09, p.1)

1759 Aug 18, The French fleet was destroyed by the British under “Old Dreadnought” Boscawen at the battle of Lagos Bay.
(HN, 8/18/98)

1759 Aug 24, William Wilberforce (d.1833), was born in Hull, Yorkshire, England. He became best known for his efforts relating to the abolition of slavery in the British Empire.
(www.nndb.com/people/824/000049677/)(HNQ, 12/6/02)
1759 Aug 24, Ewald C. von Kleist (44), German poet, died.
(MC, 8/24/02)

1759 Sep 3, Pope Clement XIII officially placed the French Encyclopedie on the Vatican’s Index of Prohibited Books.
(ON, 4/05, p.9)

1759 Sep 13, During the final French and Indian War, the Battle of Quebec [Canada] was fought. British Gen. James Wolfe’s army defeated Commander Louis Joseph de Montcalm’s French forces on the Plains of Abraham overlooking Quebec City. An English fleet of 20 ships led by General James Wolfe landed 3,600 English troops near Quebec in the early hours of the day. The fleet was sent up the St. Lawrence River to take the region from the French. “Measured by the numbers engaged,” wrote historian Francis Parkman, the Battle of Quebec “was but a heavy skirmish; measured by results, it was one of the great battles of the world.” On this rainy morning the armies of England and France clashed outside the walls of Quebec City and altered the balance of power of an entire continent. The battle on the Plains of Abraham lasted less than half an hour. As French forces withered and an English victory became apparent, Wolfe was shot in the chest, his third wound of the battle. He said to a distraught soldier just before he died, “Do not weep, my dear. In a few minutes I shall be happy.” By the time the rain had washed away the blood, Quebec had surrendered to the British. Four years later, the Treaty of Paris gave England sole dominion over most of the land that Quebec City had governed, from Cape Breton Island in the Gulf of St. Lawrence to the Mississippi River.
(CFA, ’96, p.54)(SFC, 7/7/96, BR p.7)(AP, 9/13/97)(HNQ, 9/8/98)(HNPD, 9/19/98)

1759 Sep 14, Louis Joseph de Montcalm-Grozon, Marquis de Montcalm (b.1712) and chief of French forces, died at age 47 on the Plains of Abraham in Canada.

1759 Sep 18, Quebec surrendered to the British and the Battle of Quebec ended. The French surrendered to the British after their defeat on the Plains of Abraham.
(AP, 9/18/97)(HN, 9/18/98)
1759 Sep 18, British commander James Wolfe died at the Battle of Quebec.
(MC, 9/18/01)

1759 Oct 11, Mason Weems, preacher (Episcopalian clergyman), was born. He was a noted seller of books where he would fictionalize history in stories like the one he wrote of George Washington in the book, “Life of Washington”. People loved his fictionalized stories and often believed that they were true. One famous story which is not true is the story of Washington chopping down the cherry tree and the famous quote on not telling a lie.
(MC, 10/11/01)

1759 Oct 20, Marie Jean Herault de Sechelles, French author, politician, French Revolutionary, was born.
(MC, 10/20/01)

1759 Oct 26, Georges Jacques Danton, French Revolutionary leader, was born. He was an impassioned orator and minister of Justice. He was also the last hope of the moderates during the French Reign of Terror and his execution led directly to the overthrow of Robespierre in 1794.
(MC, 10/26/01)

1759 Nov 10, Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (d.1805), playwright, dramatist, historian and poet, was born. “A beautiful soul has no other merit than its own existence.” [He was a friend of Goethe.] “Die Weltgeschichte ist das Weltgericht.” (The history of the world is the verdict of the world).
(WUD, 1994, p.1277)(AP, 8/2/98)(AP, 3/13/99)(HN, 11/10/00)

1759 Nov 24, There was a destructive eruption of Vesuvius.
(MC, 11/24/01)

1759 Soga Shohaku (1730-1781), Japanese artist, created his “Hanshan and Shide” about this time.
(SFC, 1/14/06, p.E1)

1759 Samuel Johnson (1709-1784), English lexicographer, authored his novel “History of Rasselas,” on the elusive nature of happiness.
(WSJ, 9/18/08, p.A23)

1759 French philosopher Voltaire wrote his novel “Candide.”
(WUD, 1994, p.216)

1759 Economist Adam Smith (1723-1790), Glasgow professor on moral philosophy and pioneering economist, authored “The Theory of Moral Sentiments.”
(WSJ, 11/13/02, p.D10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Theory_of_Moral_Sentiments)

1759 Kedleston Hall was begun by Sir Nathaniel Curzon, who moved the entire village of Kedleston, except for the church, a half mile.
(NG, Nov. 1985, M. Girouard, p.686)

1759 John Smeaton built the Eddystone Lighthouse near Plymouth, England. It was the 3rd one erected at the site over 60 years.
(WSJ, 6/27/00, p.A28)(ON, 5/06, p.5)

1759 Oliver Goldsmith, English poet, remarked: “As writers become more numerous, it is natural for readers to become more indolent.”
(NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.44)

1759 Dr. Samuel Johnson denounced advertisements as over-exaggerated and false.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1759 Elizabeth Petrovna, the daughter of Peter the Great, and Empress of All the Russias, was noted for her beauty. She obtained a good bit of Finland from Sweden, and her forces crushed the Prussians at Kunersdorf in 1759. The opposing (and losing) general was Frederich the Great, who did not lose many.
(EHC, 5/12/98)

1759 Britain triumphed over France in the naval victory at Quiberon Bay.
(WSJ, 3/14/00, p.A28)
1759 Josiah Wedgwood opened his first factory in Stoke-on-Trent, central England. It began making bone china in the 19th century.
(SFC, 2/22/06, p.G6)(AP, 1/4/09)
1759 A group of 9 English merchants launched a new ironworks in Dowlais, Wales, using the regions abundant coal. It was managed from its earliest years by the Guest family. In 1900 it was purchased by a nuts and bolts company run by Arthur Keen. Shortly afterwards Keen bought Nettlefolds, a maker of screws and fasteners. By 1902 the firm, known as Guest, Keen & Nettlefolds Ltd., was the world’s largest producer of nails. In 1986 “Guest Keen and Nettlefolds” became GKN. In 1987 Edgar Jones authored “A History of GKN.” Volume 2 was published in 1990. By 2004 GKN PLC had become a major auto parts supplier and had a new aerospace division.
(WSJ, 3/16/04, p.A1,8)(Econ, 6/9/12, p.61)

1759 France eliminated the public practice of sitting on the stage during theater and opera performances.
(SFC, 3/9/07, p.E8)

1759 Arthur Guinness purchased Mark Rainsford’s Ale Brewery in Dublin, Ireland, and began producing his own recipe. In 2009 Guinness, owned by Diageo, launched its Arthur’s Day celebration in honor of its founder.
(SFEC, 7/2/00, p.T8)(AP, 9/26/13)

1759-1761 Jean-Honore Fragonard painted “The Lost Forfeit or Captured Kiss.”
(WSJ, 11/19/03, p.D12)

1759-1771 Emiland Gauthey, Burgundy canal engineer, remade Givry, France, over this period.
(SSFC, 12/5/04, p.F5)

1759-1788 Charles III ruled as King of Spain. After a plague killed thousands in Alamos, Mexico, Charles III ordered homes to be rebuilt with mutual walls to prevent ramshackle structures by squatters.
(WUD, 1994, p.249)

1759-1840 Pierre-Joseph Redoute, Flemish-born painter. He was one of the most celebrated flower painters and worked under the patronage of Empress Josephine Bonaparte. His 169 stipple engravings “Les Rose” were made in Paris between 1817-1824.
(2000 Taschen Calendar)

1760 Jan 20, Charles III, King of Spain, was born.
(HN, 1/20/99)

1760 Feb 14, Richard Allen (d.1831), 1st black ordained by a Methodist-Episcopal church, was born in Philadelphia.
(HN, 2/14/98)

1760 Feb 16, Cherokee Indians held hostage at Fort St. George, SC, were killed in revenge for Indian attacks on frontier settlements.
(HN, 2/16/99)(MC, 2/16/02)

1760 Mar 20, The great fire of Boston destroyed 349 buildings.
(HN, 3/20/98)

1760 Apr 6, Charlotte Charke (b.1713), actress and writer, died. In 2005 Kathryn Shevelow authored “Charlotte: Being a True Account of an Actress’s Flamboyant Adventures in Eighteenth-Century London’s Wild and Wicked Theatrical World.”
(SSFC, 4/3/05, p.F3)(http://tinyurl.com/5jnfh)

1760 Apr 16, In England Laurence, 4th Earl Ferrers, was executed for the murder of his steward. [see May 5]
(MC, 4/16/02)

1760 Apr 28, French forces besieging Quebec defeated the British in the second battle on the Plains of Abraham.
(HN, 4/28/98)

1760 May 5, The fourth Earl Ferrers was driven from the Tower of London to be hanged as a felon, the last English nobleman to be executed this way. [see Apr 16]
(HN, 5/5/99)

1760 May 10, Claude-Joseph Rouget de Lisle, soldier, author, composer (“La Marseillaise”), was born.
(MC, 5/10/02)

1760 Jun 23, Austrians defeated the Prussians at Landshut, Germany.
(HN, 6/23/98)

1760 Jul 31, Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick, foiled last French threat at Warburg and drove the French army back to Rhine River.
(HN, 7/31/98)

1760 Aug 7, Ft. Loudon, Tennessee, surrendered to Cherokee Indians.
(MC, 8/7/02)

1760 Aug 15, Frederick II (1712-1786), king of Prussia from 1740-1786, defeated the Austrians at the Battle of Liegnitz.
(HN, 8/15/98)

1760 Sep 8, The French surrendered the city of Montreal to British Gen. Jeffrey Amherst. [see Sep 18, 1759]
(HN, 9/8/98)(MC, 9/8/01)

1760 Sep 14, Luigi Cherubini (d.1842), Italian-born prodigy and French composer, was born.

1760 Oct 9, Austrian and Russian troops entered Berlin and began burning structures and looting.
(HN, 10/9/98)

1760 Oct 21, Katsushika Hokusai (d.1849), Japanese printmaker, was born. Hokusai was a master designer of color woodblock prints. His paintings included 36 views of Mt. Fuji done when he was 70.
(SFC, 9/24/98, p.E3)(WSJ, 11/3/98, p.A20)(Econ, 6/4/11, p.54)

1760 Oct 23, The 1st Jewish prayer books were printed in US.
(MC, 10/23/01)

1760 Oct 25, George II (August), king of Great-Britain (1727-60), died at 76.
(MC, 10/25/01)
1760 Oct 25, King George III of Britain was crowned. He succeeded his late grandfather, George II and ruled until 1820. With the rule of George III the civil list (government officers, judges, ambassadors and royal staff) was paid by the Parliament in return for the king’s surrender of the hereditary revenues of the crown.
(AHD, 1971, p.552)(AP, 10/25/97)(HN, 10/25/01)

1760 Nov 3, Following the Russian capture of Berlin, Frederick II of Prussia defeated the Austrians at the Battle of Torgau (Germany).

1760 Nov 9, Henri-Philippe Gerard, composer, was born.
(MC, 11/9/01)

1760 Nov 23, Gracchus Babeuf, French agrarian agitator, politician and writer, was born.
(MC, 11/23/01)

1760 Nov 29, Major Roger Rogers took possession of Detroit on behalf of Britain. French commandant Belotre surrendered Detroit.
(HN, 11/29/98)(MC, 12/29/01)

1760 Thomas Gainsborough (1727-1788), English artist, painted a portrait of Ann Ford playing a musical instrument with her legs crossed.
(WSJ, 12/19/02, p.D10)

1760 Juan Ruiz of Mexico painted “Christ Consoled by Angels.”
(WSJ, 3/3/98, p.A16)

1760 The book “The Life and Adventures of a Cat” was published and featured a cat named Tom, from whence all male cats began to be called Tom. Prior to this a male cat was called a ram.
(SFEC, 1/11/98, Z1 p.8)

1760 The Church of San Tomas in the village of Las Trampas was built. It has thick square towers and heavy walls and is one of the 6 adobe missions scattered along the western shoulder of the Sangre de Cristo mountains between Taos and Santa Fe, New Mexico.
(SFC, 5/12/96, p.T-5)

1760 The English settled in Maine following their victory in the French and Indian War.
(SFC, 7/21/96, p.T6)

1760 A Belgian created roller skates by replacing the blades of ice skates with wheels.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1760 Lancelot “Capability” Brown, English garden designer, landscaped the grounds of Longleat estate, Wiltshire, England.
(NG, Nov. 1985, M. Girouard, p.685)
1760 The British government ended its support for the London Foundling Hospital.
(Econ, 10/17/09, p.99)

1760 In Canada a treaty was made with the Mi’kmaq Indians. It was later interpreted to support fishing for profit rights in their traditional 4 Atlantic provinces.
(WSJ, 12/6/99, p.A27)

1760 Giovanni Battista Torre started a Paris shop selling books and prints. The shop was best know for its fireworks displays. In 1775 Torre’s son Anthony along with Paul Peter Colnaghi moved to London and established themselves as sellers and publishers of prints. In 2010 “Colnaghi: the History” was published as part of a 250 year anniversary celebration.
(Econ, 6/19/10, p.87)

1760s George Stubbs created a painting of a thoroughbred horse. In 2003 it was sold at auction for $3.15 million.
(AP, 7/10/03)

1760s Louis XV and Madame de Pompadour built the La Petit Trianon at Versailles as a retreat. She died before it was finished. Louis XVI later gave it to Marie Antoinette.
(SFEC, 8/9/98, p.26)

1760s-1770s John Cadwalader, Revolutionary War General, commissioned dozens of furniture pieces from the finest craftsmen in Pennsylvania. He had married Elizabeth Lloyd, the wealthiest woman in colonial America.
(WSJ, 9/24/99, p.W9)

1760-1820 George III ruled over Great Britain and Ireland. [see 1738-1820, George III]
(AHD, 1971, p.552)

1760-1830 The Industrial Revolution largely occurred in Britain. Realizing the economic advantages, Britain did not allow the export of any machinery, methods or skilled men that might blunt its technological edge. Eventually, the lure of new opportunities convinced continental entrepreneurs and British businessmen to evade England’s official edict. Englishmen William and John Cockerill brought the Industrial Revolution to continental Europe around 1807 by developing machine shops in Liege, Belgium, transforming the country’s coal, iron and textile industries much as it had done in Britain.
(HNQ, 5/16/01)

1761 Feb 3, Richard Nash (b.1674), the “Master of Ceremonies” for Bath, England, died. Celebrated author, Oliver Goldsmith wrote “The Life of Richard Nash” in 1762. In 2005 John Eglin authored “The Imaginary Autocrat: Beau Nash and the Invention of Bath.”
(Econ, 6/18/05, p.81)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beau_Nash)

1761 Mar 23, John W. de Winter, Dutch Vice-Admiral (Battle at Kamperduin), was born.
(SS, 3/23/02)

1761 Mar 27, Johann Ludwig Steiner (72), composer, died.
(MC, 3/27/02)

1761 Apr 17, Thomas Bayes (b.1702), English theologian and mathematician, died. He established a mathematical basis for probability inference based on sparse data. Sampling from a large population (the frequentist school) came to dominate the field in the modern era. In 2006 researchers suggested that the human brain might work in a Bayesian manner drawing strong inferences from sparse data.
(www.britannica.com)(Econ, 1/7/06, p.70)

1761 Apr 20, Johann Gottlieb Karl Spazier, composer, was born.
(MC, 4/20/02)

1761 May 13, Adrian Loosjes Pzn (1818, Dutch publisher, writer (Mauritius Lijnslager), was born.
(MC, 5/13/02)

1761 May 22, The first life insurance policy in the United States was issued, in Philadelphia.
(AP, 5/22/97)

1761 Jun 10, Puritan version of “Othello” opened in Newport, Rhode Island.
(MC, 6/10/02)

1761 Jul 4, Samuel Richardson, English novelist, died at 72 in London.
(WUD, 1994, p.1231)

1761 Jul 31, The French ship L’Utile, hit a coral reef near the Ile de Sable in the Indian Ocean. Nearly half of 160 slaves were killed. The French crew of 163 survived. On Sep 27 a white crew of 123 set sail on the Providence, built from the remains of L’Utile, and managed to reach Madagascar with just one death in four days. Fifteen years later a rescue ship found seven female survivors.
(Econ, 12/19/15, p.94)

1761 Sep 21, King George III of England was crowned. George was German and had been Elector of Hanover. Coincidentally, the composer Handel, who was working in London when King George was crowned, had gone to London after skipping out on his last job…working for George in Hanover. Fortunately for Handel, King George forgave him.
(MC, 9/21/01)

1761 Dec 1, Madame Tussaud (d.1850), Swiss-born modeler in wax, was born. She founded the world-famous exhibition in London’s Baker Street. [see Dec 7]
(HN, 12/1/99)(MC, 4/16/02)

1761 Dec 7, Madame Tussaud [Marie Grosholtz], creator of the wax museum, was born. [see Dec 1]
(MC, 12/7/01)

1761 Dec 25, Elisabeth Petrovna (~51), tsarina of Russia (1741-62), died.
(MC, 12/25/01)

1761 George-Louis Leclerc (1707-1788), Comte de Buffon, French naturalist and theoretical biologist published the 9th volume of his 35 volume work titled “Histoire Naturelle, Generale, et Particuliere,” an attempt to record all that was known of the world of nature. This volume expanded on his “theory of American degeneracy,” his view that all animals in America were smaller than their European counterparts.
(http://tinyurl.com/7yspryd)(ON, 4/12, p.9)

1761 St. Peter’s Episcopal Church was built in Philadelphia, Pa. The Protestant Episcopal Church of America was born with the Revolution and the break with the Anglican Church of Britain.
(Hem, 6/96, p.108)(WSJ, 2/19/99, p.W13)

1761 French and Indians forces in the Ohio Valley were defeated.
(ON, 1/03, p.7)
1761 In western North Carolina British soldiers razed Kituwha, the heart of the Cherokee Nation. Punitive raids here were repeated in 1776.
(Arch, 9/02, p.70)

1761 The town of Killington was chartered in New Hampshire.
(ST, 3/2/04, p.A1)

1761 Benjamin Franklin invented his glass armonica.
(WSJ, 1/15/04, p.D8)

1761 The Earl of Huntington and the Earl of Ashburnham had a violent quarrel over the bedside of George III over who would have the honor of putting on the king’s shirt.
(NG, Nov. 1985, M. Girouard, p.678)

1761 Monsignor Mario Guarnacci bequeathed his collection of Etruscan artifacts to the town of Volterra, in the hills of Tuscany, Italy. Most of the artifacts were dug from local tombs and are now displayed in chronological order in a museum.
(SFEC, 11/24/96, T6)

1761 In Germany A.W. Faber created its first pencil. In 1898 the company got the current name Faber-Castell. The ‘Castell 9000’ pencil was born in 1905, when count Alexander von Faber Castell decided to give it a hexagonal shape to avoid falling when rolling on a desk.
(Econ, 3/3/07, p.73)(www.designboom.com/contemporary/fabercastell.html)

1761 James Macpherson (1736-1796), Scottish poet, announced the discovery of an epic on the subject of Fingal (related to the Irish mythological character Fionn mac Cumhaill/Finn McCool) written by Ossian (based on Fionn’s son Oisín). He then published poems by Ossian, the blind 3rd century poet, which became very popular and later exposed as a fraud.
(WSJ, 7/26/08, p.W8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Macpherson)

1761 A transit of Venus occurred. Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon observed it from Cape Town, South Africa.
(Econ, 5/29/04, p.79)

1761-1845 Louis-Leopold Boilly, French painter. His work entailed a wide variety of subjects from genre paintings, gallants, historical canvasses, still lifes, formal and informal portraits. His work includes: Triumph of Marat (1794), Girl at a Window (1799), Game of Billiards (1807), Gallery du Palais Royal (1809), The Geography Lesson (1812). He produced some 500 genre paintings and some 5,000 small portraits along with a series of humorous lithographs.
(WSJ, 1/8/96, p.A-16) (WSJ, 3/31/00, p.W16)

1762 Jan, In France Diderot published the 1st volume of illustrations for his Encyclopedie.
(ON, 4/05, p.10)

1762 Feb 2, Thomas Arne’s opera “Ataxerxes,” premiered in London.
(MC, 2/2/02)

1762 Feb 5, Martinique, a major French base in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies, surrendered to the British.
(HN, 2/5/99)

1762 Mar 10, Jean Calas, a French protestant (Huguenot), was tortured and executed in Toulouse on the charge that he had killed his son in 1761 to prevent him from converting to Catholicism. Voltaire took up the case believing that Catholic judges were biased. He wrote pamphlets and letters to support his case and urged high-placed friends to place the case before the Great Council of Louis XV. On March 9, 1765, Jean Calas and his family were acquitted and the death of the son was ruled a suicide.
(ON, 4/06, p.10)(SFC, 3/9/07, p.E8)

1762 Mar 17, 1st St Patrick’s Day parade was held in NYC.
(MC, 3/17/02)

1762 May 19, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, German philosopher, was born. He developed ethical idealism out of Immanuel Kant’s work.
(HN, 5/19/99)

1762 Mar 25, Francesco Giuseppi Pollini, composer, was born.
(MC, 3/25/02)

1762 Apr 13, Karl Friedrich Horn, composer, was born.
(MC, 4/13/02)

1762 Apr 14, Giuseppe Valadier, Italian architect, archaeologist, was born.
(MC, 4/14/02)

1762 Jun 5, English parliamentarian John Wilkes began publishing his North Briton journal.

1762 Jun 28, Catharine II, Russian Tsarina, grabbed power. [see Jul 17]
(MC, 6/28/02)

1762 Jul 17, Peter III of Russia was murdered and his wife, Catherine II, took the throne.
(HN, 7/17/98)

1762 Aug 5, Russia, Prussia and Austria signed a treaty agreeing on the partition of Poland.
(HN, 8/5/98)

1762 Aug 12, George IV, King of England (1820-1830), was born. He was named Prince Regent in 1810 when his father was declared insane.
(HN, 8/12/98)(WSJ, 4/5/02, p.W12)
1762 Aug 12, The British captured Cuba from Spain after a two month siege.
(HN, 8/12/98)

1762 Aug 22, Ann Franklin became the first female editor of an American newspaper, the Newport, Rhode Island “Mercury.”
(AP, 8/22/00)

1762 Sep 17, Francesco Xaverio Geminiani, composer, died at 74.
(MC, 9/17/01)

1762 Oct 5, Gluck’s opera “Orfeo ed Euridice” had its premiere at Vienna’s Burgtheater on the namesday of Emp. Francis I. Gluck revised “Orpheus and Euridice” in 1774 for the Paris Royal Opera.
(WSJ, 4/11/96, p.A-16)(WSJ, 10/21/99, p.A20)(MC, 10/5/01)
1762 Oct 5, The British fleet bombarded and captured Spanish-held Manila in the Philippines.
(HN, 10/5/98)

1762 Oct 6, Francesco Onofrio Manfredini, composer, died at 78.
(MC, 10/6/01)

1762 Oct 15, Samuel Adams Holyoke, composer, was born.
(MC, 10/15/01)

1762 Oct 29, Andre-Marie Chenier, French poet (Elegies), was born.
(MC, 10/29/01)

1762 Nov 1, Spencer Perceval, British Prime Minister, was born.
(HN, 11/1/98)

1762 Nov 3, Spain acquired Louisiana. [see Dec 3]
(MC, 11/3/01)

1762 Dec 3, France ceded to Spain all lands west of the Mississippi- the territory known as Upper Louisiana. [see Nov 3]
(CO, Grolier’s, 11/10/95)(HN, 12/3/98)

1762 Dec 31, The Mozart family moved from Vienna to Salzburg.
(MC, 12/31/01)

c1762 Charles Joseph Natoire, artist, did a rendering of “The Cascade at the Villa Aldobrandini, Frascati.” It later became part of the collection of the Pierpont Morgan Library.
(SFEM, 4/6/97, p.16)

1762 The commedia dell’arte play “The King Stag” was written. It was about a good king who couldn’t find a wife after interviewing 2,000 candidates.
(SFEC, 6/1/97, DB p.31)

1762 Nathony Benezet published “A Short Account of That Part of Africa Inhabited by the Negroes,” and argued against slave trade. In 1994 the book was valued at $1800 as a collectors item.
(WSJ, 12/9/94, p.R-8)

1762 Jean-Jacques Rousseau published his didactic novel “Emile,” which spelled out his idea of his “natural system,” and his work of political philosophy “The Social Contract.” The books were banned in France and he was forced to leave.
(WSJ, 2/18/97, p.A18)(SSFC, 1/4/04, p.M2)

1762 Benjamin Franklin returned to Philadelphia from London and remained until 1764.

1762 The Nicholas Brothers Chair Manufactory operated in Westminster, Mass. In 1900 the firm moved to Gardner and around 1907 was renamed to Nicholas & Stone.
(SFC, 3/29/06, p.G6)

1762 The Harrison chronometer was invented. It allowed voyagers to calculate longitudinal distance.
(SFC, 1/31/04, p.A1)

1762 Barings PLC, a British banking firm was founded [1763 also given]. It later financed the Louisiana Purchase [1803] and provided economic counseling to Queen Elizabeth II. The operation went bust in 1995.
(WSJ, 2/27/95, p.A-10)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1762 Gosakuramachi ascended Japan’s throne. She ruled until 1770 and as of 2006 was Japan’s last woman ruler.
(AP, 9/6/06)(http://tinyurl.com/rcnhc)

1762 Abram Petrovich Gannibal (1696-1781), an African slave adopted by Peter the Great, was dismissed by Catherine the Great. He is the great-grandfather of Alexander Pushkin.
(Econ, 8/20/05, p.66)

1762-1763 James Boswell experienced his 1st extended trip to London. His “London Journal” later recounted his meeting with Samuel Johnson numerous amorous affairs.
(WSJ, 11/29/00, p.A24)

1762-1796 Catherine the Great ruled over Russia.
(WSJ, 4/13/99, p.A16)

1763 Feb 10, Britain, Spain and France signed the Treaty of Paris ending the Seven Years’ War, aka the French-Indian War. France ceded Canada to England and gave up all her territories in the New World except New Orleans and a few scattered islands including St. Pierre and Miquelon off the coast of Newfoundland.
(HN, 2/10/97)(AP, 2/10/97)(AP, 2/10/08)(AH, 2/06, p.55)

1763 Feb 12, Pierre de Mariveaux (b.1688), French novelist and playwright, died.
(SFC, 5/30/09, p.E2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_de_Marivaux)

1763 Mar 6, Jean Xavier Lefevre, composer, was born.
(MC, 3/6/02)

1763 Apr 2, Giacomo Gotifredo Ferrari, composer, was born.
(MC, 4/2/02)

1763 Apr 7, Domenico Dragonetti, composer, was born.
(MC, 4/7/02)

1763 Apr 19, Teedyuscung, a Lenape Indian leader, burned to death while sleeping in his cabin in the Wyoming Valley, Pa. The fire destroyed the whole Indian village. A few days later settlers from Connecticut arrived to resume their construction of a town.
(ON, 1/03, p.6)

1763 Apr 30, Britain’s King George II felt personally insulted and ordered general warrants to be issued for the arrest of John Wilkes, member of Parliament, and the publishers of The North Briton. Forty-nine people, including Wilkes, were arrested under the warrants. At his court hearing the Lord Chief Justice ruled that as an MP, Wilkes was protected by privilege from arrest on a charge of libel.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Wilkes)(ON, 12/11, p.7)

1763 May 7, Indian chief Pontiac began his attack on a British fort in present-day Detroit, Michigan. Ottawa Chief Pontiac led an uprising in the wild, distant lands that later became Michigan, Ohio and Pennsylvania.
(HN, 7/24/98)(HN, 5/7/99)

1763 May 16, The English lexicographer, author and wit Samuel Johnson first met his future biographer, James Boswell.
(AP, 5/16/97)

1763 Jun 20, Theobald Wolfe Tone, Irish nationalist, was born.
(MC, 6/20/02)

1763 Jun 23, Josephine Martinique, empress of France (1804-14), was born.
(HN, 6/23/98)(MC, 6/23/02)

1763 Jul 17, John Jacob Astor (d.1848), American fur trader who died the richest man in the country, was born as a butcher’s son in Germany. Astor arrived in New York in 1784 at age 20 and worked for a fur merchant. He built up his own fur business and invested in real estate. “Buy the acre, sell the lot.” He married into the Brevoort family and left $20 million when he died.
(HN, 7/17/98)(WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R18)(WSJ, 3/2/00, p.W10)

1763 Aug 5, Colonel Henry Bouquet decisively defeated the Indians at the Battle of Bushy Run in Pennsylvania during Pontiac’s rebellion.
(HN, 8/5/98)

1763 Aug 8, Charles Bulfinch, 1st US professional architect (Mass State House), was born in Boston, Mass.
(MC, 8/8/02)

1763 Sep 26, English poet John Byrom (b.1692) died. The words “Tweedle-dum and Tweedle-dee” made their first appearance in print in “one of the most celebrated and most frequently quoted epigrams,” satirizing the disagreements between George Frideric Handel and Giovanni Battista Bononcini, written by John Byrom. A nursery rhyme published in 1805 included the characters Tweedledum and Tweedledee as did Lewis Carroll’s “Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There” (1871).

1763 Oct 5, August III (b.1796), son of August II, died. He was crowned King of Lithuania and Poland in 1734.
(SSFC, 4/25/04, p.D12)(WSJ, 6/1/04, p.D8)

1763 Oct 7, George III of Great Britain issued a royal proclamation reserving for the crown the right to acquire land from western tribes. This closed lands in North America north and west of Alleghenies to white settlement and ended the acquisition efforts of colonial land syndicates. The Royal Proclamation of 1763 guaranteed Indian rights to land and self-government.
(www.bloorstreet.com/200block/rp1763.htm)(SSFC, 8/29/04, p.M5)(Econ, 9/16/06, p.46)

1763 Nov 15, Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon began surveying Mason-Dixon Line between Pennsylvania and Maryland. They surveyed 233 miles by 1767 when Indians of the Six nations told them they could not proceed any further west.
(MC, 11/15/01)(ON, 2/04, p.10)

1763 Nov 16, John Wilkes (b.1725), English journalist, MP, and friend of American Colonies, was injured in duel. His protest of the Treaty of Paris of 1763 had appeared in the April 23 issue of North Briton No. 45.
(ON, 12/11, p.8)

1763 Dec 2, Touro Shul, the oldest existing US synagogue, was dedicated in Newport, RI.
(MC, 12/2/01)

1763 Dec 6, The British government case against journalist John Wilkes was decided in favor of Wilkes and a general warrant for his arrest was declared illegal.
(ON, 12/11, p.8)

1763 Dec 28, John Molson, founder of the Montreal Molson brewery, was born.
(MC, 12/28/01)

1763 The “Jnaneshvari” manuscript, a commentary on the Bhagavad Gita, was completed in India. In this period Hindu books began to vie with Muslim texts in the perfection of their paper, calligraphy, illustration and binding.
(WSJ, 12/11/01, p.A17)

1763 A Crown grant was made to Henry Laurens of Georgia, who later succeeded John Hancock as president of the Continental Congress in 1777. Laurens obtained control of the South Altamaha river lands and named it New Hope Plantation.
(AP, 8/30/09)

1763 Pierre Laclede and stepson Auguste Chouteau notched a couple of trees that marked the site for Laclede’s Landing that became St. Louis.
(SFC, 10/12/97, p.T5)

1763 British forces, under orders from Sir Jeffrey Amherst (1717-1797), Colonial Gov. of Virginia (1759-1768), distributed smallpox-infected blankets among American Indians in the 1st known case of its use as a biological weapon.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jeffery_Amherst,_1st_Baron_Amherst)(SFC, 10/19/01, p.A17)

1763 The British proclaimed a law forbidding Americans to move farther west into the Mississippi Valley in order to avoid problems with the Indians.

1763 Sir George Baker, physician at the court of king George in England, published the treatisse: “Concerning the Cause of the Endemial Colic of Devonshire.” Cider presses with lead fittings proved to be the culprit.
(NH, 7/96, p.52)

1763 The capital of Brazil was changed from Salvador to Rio de Janeiro.
(USAT, OW, 4/22/96, p.3)(SFEC, 8/8/99, p.T8)

1763 A Chinese map drawn by Mo Yi Tong imitated a world chart made in 1418. It showed barbarians paying tribute to the Ming emperor Zhu Di. The map was unveiled to the public in Beijing in 2006.
(Econ, 1/14/06, p.80)

1763 France formally ceded possession of Dominica to Great Britain.

1763 Frederick the Great took over Die Konigliche Porzelan-Manufaktur. The royal porcelain factory was privatized by the state of Berlin in 2006.
(Econ, 5/23/09, p.65)

1763 Russia annexed the Crimea peninsula from Crimean Tartars and Ottoman Turks.
(SFC, 2/4/09, p.A5)

1763-1825 Jean Paul Richter, German author: “A timid person is frightened before a danger; a coward during the time; and a courageous person afterward.” “Spring makes everything young again except man.”
(AP, 7/3/97)(AP, 3/20/98)

1763-1864 The Circassians, residents of the northwest Caucasus, fought against the Russians in the Russian-Circassian War only succumbing to a scorched earth campaign initiated in 1862 under General Yevdokimov. Afterwards, large numbers of Circassians fled and were deported to the Ottoman Empire, others were resettled in Russia far from their home territories.

1763-1865 In 2003 Richard Clement authored “Books on the Frontier: Print culture in the American West 1763-1875.”
(SSFC, 1/4/04, p.M1)

1764 Jan 1, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (8) played for the Royal Family at Versailles, France.

1764 Jan 19, Bolle Willum Luxdorph, a Danish diarist, described what is believed to be the first successful parcel bomb.
(Econ, 11/6/10, p.74)

1764 Jan 20, John Wilkes was expelled from the English House of Commons. In February he was found guilty, in absentia, of seditious libel (for the North Briton) and of obscene and impious libel (for Essay on Woman, a parody on Pope which he had co-written with Thomas Potter years before, intended for a select group of friends).

1764 Jan 25, Harvard Hall in Cambridge, Mass., burned to the ground and destroyed most of the 5,000 volumes in its library.
(SFC, 5/10/97, p.A9)

1764 Feb 11, Marie-Joseph de Chenier, French poet (Cajus Graechus), was born.
(MC, 2/11/02)

1764 Feb 15, The city of St. Louis was established as a French trading post. Pierre Laclede Ligue and stepson Auguste Chouteau notched a couple of trees that marked the site for Laclede’s Landing that became St. Louis.
(SFC, 5/12/97, p.T5)(AP, 2/15/98)(440 Int’l., 2/15/99)

1764 Mar 13, Charles Earl Grey (Whig), British Prime Minister (1830-1834), was born.
(HN, 3/13/98)(MC, 3/13/02)

1764 Apr 3, John Abernethy, surgeon, was born in London.
(MC, 4/3/02)
1764 Apr 3, Austrian arch duke Jozef crowned himself Roman Catholic king.
(MC, 4/3/02)

1764 Apr 15, Jeanne-Antoinette-Poison LeNormant d’Etoiles, Marquis de Pomador, died.
(MC, 4/15/02)

1764 Apr 19, The English Parliament banned the American colonies from printing paper money.
(HN, 4/19/97)

1764 May 1, Benjamin Henry Latrobe, architect of the U.S. Capitol, was born.
(HN, 5/1/98)
1764 May 1, Gottfried Rieger, composer, was born.
(MC, 5/1/02)

1764 May 15, Johann Nepomuk Kalcher, composer, was born.
(MC, 5/15/02)

1764 May 24, Bostonian lawyer James Otis denounced “taxation without representation” and called for the colonies to unite in demonstrating their opposition to Britain’s new tax measures.
(HN, 5/24/99)

1764 Jun 21, William Sydney Smith, British seaman, was born. He bested Napoleon Bonaparte at the port of St. Jean d’Acre in the Mediterranean Sea.
(HN, 6/21/00)

1764 Jul 9, Ann Radcliffe, novelist who wrote Gothic romances set in Italy, was born.
(HN, 7/9/98)

1764 Jul 16, Ivan VI (23), Emperor of Russia (1740-41), was murdered.
(MC, 7/16/02)

1764 Sep 12, Jean Philippe Rameau, French composer (Castor en Pollux), died at 80.
(MC, 9/12/01)

1764 Oct 22, Jean Marie I’aine Leclair (67), composer, died.
(MC, 10/22/01)

1764 Oct 25, John Adams, future US president, wed Abigail Smith. He called her “a constant feast.” Their marriage lasted 54 years.
(AH, 10/04, p.15)

1764 Nov 16, Indians surrendered to British in Indian War of Chief Pontiac.
(MC, 11/16/01)

1764 Nov 26, France banned Jesuits.
(MC, 11/26/01)

c1764 Tiepolo painted his “Apotheosis of the Spanish Monarchy.” It was a study for a ceiling in Madrid.
(WSJ, 1/23/97, p.A12)

1764 Catherine the Great hired Etienne-Maurice Falconet (1716-1791) of France to create a statue of Peter the Great (d.1725). In 2003 Alexander M. Schenker authored “The Bronze Horseman: Falconet’s Monument to Peter the Great.”
(WSJ, 12/18/03, p.D6)

1764 Horace Walpole (1717-1797), son of Sir Robert Walpole and 4th earl of Orford, authored “The Castle of Otranto,” the 1st gothic novel.
(WUD, 1994 p.1607)(SSFC, 8/11/02, p.M1)

1764 Voltaire [Francois Marie Arouet] (1694-1778), French philosopher, historian, dramatist and essayist, authored the “Philosophical Dictionary.”
(HNQ, 10/11/01)

1764 Half the slaves aboard the ship Sally, owned by the Brown family, died enroute to Rhode Island.
(SSFC, 10/2/05, p.F3)

1764 Brown University was founded in Rhode Island by the Brown family.
(SFC, 11/9/00, p.A22)(SSFC, 10/2/05, p.F3)

1764 The French established the 1st settlement on the Falkland Islands.
(Econ, 7/15/06, p.36)

1764 In Mexico Ignacio de Jerusalem composed “Matins for Our Lady of Guadalupe.” It was first performed the Mexico City Cathedral.
(SFC, 6/24/97, p.B3)

1764 In Scotland the St. Andrew’s golf course remodeled and cut its hole number from 22 to 18. The 40 yard fairways were also enlarged.
(SFEC, 8/10/97, Z1 p.4)

1764-1822 William Pinkney, American diplomat: “A definition is no proof.”
(AP, 2/15/99)

1765 Feb 9, Elisabetta de Gambarini (33), composer, died.
(MC, 2/9/02)

1765 Mar 7, Joseph N. Niepce (d.1883), French lithographer, inventor (photography), was born. Photo etching was invented by Joseph Nicephore Niepce early in the 19th century. He also invented photography. His partner, L.J.M. Daguerre, perfected Niepce’s process and popularized daguerreotypes as the first commercial photographs.
(V.D.-H.K.p.273)(I&I, Penzias, p.114)(MC, 3/7/02)

1765 Mar 18, David H. Chass, Dutch baron, general (fought Napoleon at Waterloo), was born.
(MC, 3/18/02)

1765 Mar 22, Britain enacted the Stamp Act to raise money from the American Colonies. This was the first direct British tax on the colonists. The Act was repealed the following year. The tax covered just about everything produced by the American colonists and began the decade of crisis that led to the American Revolution. The Stamp Act taxed the legal documents of the American colonists and infuriated John Adams.
(AP, 3/22/97)(HN, 3/22/97)(A&IP, p.13,18)

1765 Mar 24, Austrian Empress Maria Theresa issued a decree to establish a School for Healing Animal Diseases.
(StuAus, April ’95, p.23)
1765 Mar 24, Britain enacted the Quartering Act, requiring American colonists to provide temporary housing to 10,000 British soldiers in public and private buildings.
(AP, 3/23/97)(HN, 3/24/98)

1765 Apr 5, Edward Young (81), English poet (Love of Fame), died.
(MC, 4/5/02)

1765 May 7, Adm. Nelson’s flagship HMS Victory ran aground.
(MC, 5/7/02)

1765 May 25, The Gambia was made a part of the British colony of SeneGambia with its headquarters at St. Louis.
1765 May 25, Pierre-Joseph Le Blan (53), composer, died.
(SC, 5/25/02)

1765 May 28, Jean Baptiste Cartier, composer, was born.
(MC, 5/28/02)

1765 May 29, Patrick Henry denounced the Stamp Act before Virginia’s House of Burgesses. It was during this speech that Henry supposedly responded to cries of “Treason!” by declaring, “If this be treason, make the most of it,” according to an 1817 biography of Henry by William Wirt, who wrote that he had confirmed the quote with former President Thomas Jefferson.
(AP, 5/29/08)

1765 Jul 16, Prime Minister of England Lord Greenville resigned and was replaced by Lord Rockingham.
(HN, 7/16/98)

1765 Aug 14, Massachusetts colonists challenged British rule by an Elm (Liberty Tree).
(MC, 8/14/02)

1765 Aug 21, William IV (d.1837), king of England (1830-37) the “sailor king,” was born.
(WSJ, 4/27/00, p.A24)(SC, 8/21/02)

1765 Aug 25, In protest over the stamp tax, American colonists sacked and burned the home of Massachusetts governor Thomas Hutchinson. In 1774 he was exiled to Britain. In 1974 Bernard Bailyn authored “The Ordeal of Thomas Hutchinson.”
(HN, 8/25/98)(WSJ, 8/25/07, p.P9)

1765 Sep, Printing of Diderot’s complete Encyclopedie was finished despite unauthorized edits by Le Breton, his chief publisher. The French government prohibited distribution in Paris or near Versailles.
(ON, 4/05, p.10)

1765 Oct 7, Delegates from nine of the American colonies met in New York to discuss the Stamp Act Crisis and colonial response to it. This “Stamp Act Congress” went on to draft resolutions condemning the Stamp and Sugar Acts, trial without jury and taxation without representation as contrary to their rights as Englishmen.
(AP, 10/7/97)(HN, 10/7/98)

1765 Oct 19, The Stamp Act Congress, meeting in New York, drew up a declaration of rights and liberties.
(AP, 10/19/97)

1765 Oct 20, William August (44) duke of Cumberland, English supreme commander, died. [see Oct 31]
(MC, 10/20/01)

1765 Oct 21, Giovanni Paolo Pannini (Panini), Italian painter and architect, died at 73.
(MC, 10/21/01)

1765 Oct 31, Duke of Cumberland, English politician and general, died. He butchered Scots at Culloden. [see Oct 20]
(MC, 10/31/01)

1765 Nov 1, The Stamp Act went into effect, prompting stiff resistance from American colonists.
(AP, 11/1/97)(HN, 11/1/98)

1765 Nov 14, Robert Fulton, inventor, was born. His steamboat, the Clermont, made its 1st voyage on Aug 17, 1807.
(HN, 11/14/98)(WSJ, 7/27/04, p.D10)

1765 Nov 20, Friedrich Heinrich Himmel, composer (Von Himmel Hoch), was born.
(MC, 11/20/01)

1765 Nov 23, Frederick County, Md., became the first colonial entity to repudiate the British Stamp Act.
(AP, 11/23/07)

1765 In his Dissertation on the Canon and Feudal Law, John Adams wrote that power had been pursued throughout history for two very different ends: for tyranny on the one hand and for the freedom of the individual or the community on the other.
(WSJ, 2/12/96, p.A-12)

1765 Carlo Cozzi (Gozzi), Italian fantasist, composed “The Green Bird.”
(WSJ, 12/15/95, p.A-16)(WSJ, 3/8/96, p. A-8)(SFC, 9/15/00, p.C1)

1765 In America the “Daughters of Liberty” was the first society of working women in the US and formed to boycott British products and woven goods.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1765 Shaw Furniture of Cambridge, Mass., was in business as early as this time and continued operating into the 1920s. During the 18th century Shaw made furniture using convict labor from Charleston State Prison.
(SFC, 10/29/08, p.G2)

1765 More than 100 Africans perished on the slave ship Sally in the voyage from Africa. Some hanged themselves or starved to death. Some rebelled and were shot dead or drowned. In 2007 the ship’s log book, detailing the deaths of slaves that occurred almost daily aboard the ship, was encased in glass in an exhibit at Brown University.
(Reuters, 3/29/07)

1765 James Smithson (d.1829), English scientist, was born. He later bequeathed his entire estate to the United States to found an establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowledge, to be named the Smithsonian Institution. Smithson had the mineral smithsonite (carbonate of zinc) named for him. Alexander Graham Bell, scientist and inventor, escorted the remains of James Smithson, founder of the Smithsonian Institution, to the United States in 1904 for interment in the original Smithsonian building.
1765 Bishop Thomas Percy, the first true collector of English ballads, published “Reliques of Ancient English Poetry.”
(Econ, 8/19/17, p.71)
1765 Britain also stationed a standing army of 6,000 in the colonies and required the colonists to provide for units in settled areas. Later evidence indicated that poor weather conditions led to poor crop seasons for 15 of 37 years prior to the Revolution.
(SFC, 11/29/96, p.A14)
1765 Joseph Priestley (1733-1804), English chemist and natural philosopher, created the innovation of the first timeline charts, in which individual bars were used to visualize the life span of a person, and the whole can be used to compare the life spans of multiple persons. “Priestley’s timelines proved a commercial success and a popular sensation, and went through dozens of editions”.
c1765 A group of men began meeting at one another’s houses in Birmingham, England, and helped develop over time new technologies that helped transform England to an industrial power; they included Josiah Wedgwood, Erasmus Darwin, Matthew Boulton, James Watt, and Joseph Priestley. In 2002 Jenny Uglow authored “The Lunar Men,” and account of their work.
(WSJ, 11/14/02, p.D6)
1765 John Taylor and Sampson Lloyd established a bank in Birmingham that grew to become Britain’s Lloyds TSB.
(Econ, 12/18/04, p.105)

1765 Richard Hennessey, an exile Ireland, founded a spirits export business in the Cognac region of France.
(SSFC, 10/16/11, p.N4)
1765 La Compagnie des Cristalleries de Baccarat, a glass factory, opened in France.
(SFC, 2/22/06, p.G6)

1765 K. Niebuhr, Danish visitor to Mesopotamia, made copies of cuneiform inscriptions at Persepolis, which were later used and deciphered by George Grotefund. He observed that there was three kinds of writing–those which we now recognize as Old Persian, Elamite, and Babylonian.
(RFH-MDHP, p.193)

1765 The Spanish King sent 92 rams and 128 ewes to Saxony. This led to the development of the German wool industry which set wool standards by the end of the century.
(NG, 5.1988, pp. 575)
1765 The Spanish Crown hired Irishmen Col. Thomas O’Daly and Field Marshall Alexander O’Reilly to upgrade the defenses of all of Spain’s Caribbean ports. They expanded and improved El Morro and San Cristobal.
(HT, 4/97, p.33)

1765 Eberhard put erasers on pencils. [see 1794]
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1765 Scotsman James Watt further refined Thomas Newcomen’s piston system steam engine innovation by adding a separate condenser. Watt took out a patent on his improved engine in 1769.
(HNQ, 1/18/01)

c1765-1770 Tiepolo painted his “Annunciation.”
(WSJ, 1/23/97, p.A12)

1765-1775 Ships from Salem, Mass., typically carried 12,000 quintals (220 lbs. per quintal) of salt cod to Europe and the same amount to the West Indies.
(NH, 5/96, p.59)

1766 Jan 1, James Francis Edward Stuart (b.1688), son of James III, died. The English prince was known as the Old Pretender.
(HN, 1/1/99)(WUD, 1994 ed., p.1410)

1766 Jan, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, philosopher and writer, arrived in London with Theresa Levasseur, his governess and mistress. He was able to receive a modest pension from George III.
(WSJ, 2/18/97, p.A18)

1766 Feb 11, The Stamp Act was declared unconstitutional in Virginia.
(MC, 2/11/02)

1766 Feb 13, Thomas Robert Malthus (d.1834), English economist, population expert (Law of Malthus), was born.

1766 Feb 24, Samuel Wesley (d.1837), composer, organist (Exultate Deo), was born in Bristol, England. He studied, played, and preached Bach.
(LGC-HCS, p.32)(MC, 2/24/02)

1766 Mar 5, Spanish official Antonio de Ulloa (1716-1795) arrived in Louisiana to take possession of the Louisiana Territory from the French. The French colonists refused to recognize Spanish rule and de Ulloa was expelled by a Creole uprising during the Louisiana Rebellion of 1768.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_de_Ulloa)(AP, 3/5/98)

1766 Mar 18, Britain repealed the Stamp Act of 1765.
(AP, 3/18/97)(PCh, 1992, p.311)

1766 Mar 28, Joseph Weigl, Austrian composer, conductor (Emmeline), was born.
(MC, 3/28/02)

1766 Apr 8, The 1st fire escape was patented: a wicker basket on a pulley and chain.
(MC, 4/8/02)

1766 Apr 24, Robert Bailey Thomas, founder of the Farmer’s Almanac, was born.
(HN, 4/24/98)

1766 Jul 9, J. Schopenhauer, writer, was born.
(MC, 7/9/02)

1766 Jul 11, Elisabeth Farnese (73), princess of Parma, queen of Spain, died.
(MC, 7/11/02)

1766 Jul 24, At Fort Ontario, Canada, Ottawa chief Pontiac and William Johnson signed a peace agreement.
(HN, 7/24/98)

1766 Sep 6, John Dalton, English scientist, was born. He developed the atomic theory of matter.
(HN, 9/6/00)

1766 Sep 17, Samuel Wilson, the future Uncle Sam, was born in Menotomy Mass. Menotomy later became Arlington. Samuel moved to Troy, New York, where he and his brother set up meat packing plants which later provided food for the US Army during the War of 1812.
(WC, Summer ‘97, p.3)

1766 Nov 16, Rudolphe Kreutzer (d.1831), a leading French composer and violinist. Beethoven’s “Kreutzer” Sonata was dedicated to him. His Stradivarius violin sold for $1.58 mil. in 1998.
(WUD, 1994, p.795)(SFC, 4/2/98, p.E4)(MC, 11/16/01)

1766 Nov 25, Pope Clement XIII warned of dangers of anti-Christian writings
(MC, 11/25/01)

1766 Dec 5, London auctioneers Christie’s held their 1st sale. The British auction house Christie’s was sold in 1998 to Francois Pinault, a French businessman and art collector.
(HT, 3/97, p.74)(WSJ, 5/15/98, p.W12)(WSJ, 5/19/98, p.B10)(MC, 12/5/01)

1766 The Beekman Arms of Rhinebeck, NY, began serving beer. In 2000 it was the oldest continuously operating tavern in the US.
(SFEC, 6/25/00, Z1 p.2)

1766 Jonathan Carver, an American-born British army officer, set out to cross the American continent, but was stopped in Minnesota by a war between the Sioux and Chippewa.
(SFC, 1/31/04, p.D12)

1766 The dentist Woofendale from England was the first dentist in the US.
(SFC, 8/14/99, p.B3)
1766 In London the first paved sidewalk was laid at Westminster.
(SFC, 7/14/99, p.3)
1766 Henry Cavendish isolated hydrogen during experiments with H2O in England.
(NH, 7/02, p.32)

1766 France handed its settlement on the Falkland Islands over to Spain.
(Econ, 7/15/06, p.36)

1766 Sweden guaranteed freedom of the press.
(Econ, 2/2/13, SR p.16)

1766-1769 The French expedition of Louis Antoine de Bougainville sailed on a voyage to circumnavigate the globe. Botanist Jeanne Baret, disguised as a man, likely collected a flower (bougainvillea) near Rio de Janeiro that was named after the captain.

1766-1817 Germaine de Stael, French author: “There are only two distinct classes of people on this earth: those who espouse enthusiasm and those who despise it.”
(AP, 7/10/00)

1766-1841 Thomas Bruce, the 7th Earl of Elgin. He arranged for the 5th century BC frieze sculpture of the Greek Parthenon, supposedly made under Phidias, to be sold to the British Museum for 35,000 pounds. This was arranged when Greece was under Ottoman rule. The marbles, originally painted, were unwittingly cleaned in the 1930s and their original patina removed.
(SFC, 6/19/98, p.A12)(WUD, 1994, p.463)

1766-1848 Isaac D’Israeli, English author: “The wise make proverbs and fools repeat them.”
(AP, 2/26/00)

1767 Mar 15, Andrew Jackson (d.1845), seventh President of the United States known as “Old Hickory,” was born in Waxhaw, South Carolina. The first American president to be born in a log cabin, Jackson was a hero of the War of 1812, an Indian fighter and a Tennessee lawyer. Neither a particularly intelligent man nor a wise one, Jackson became the symbol of his age by being the right man believing in the right things at the right time. Success was a race, Jackson believed, and the government’s primary responsibility was to guarantee that every man got a fair chance at winning. Jackson’s administration (1829-37) saw the development of modern-style political parties and changes in the voting laws that nearly tripled the electorate. Known for his strong will, Jackson was fond of saying: “When I mature my course I am immovable.” Jackson was the first congressman from Tennessee and later became a senator and state supreme court judge. Jackson was involved in a number of duels and killed a man in one. Personal feuds with Thomas Jefferson led him out of public life for some time. Jackson was elected president in 1828 and served until 1837. He initiated the spoils system and had the first “Kitchen Cabinet” of intimate advisers. Jackson died June 8, 1845. In 1997 Max Byrd wrote “Jackson,” a biographical novel.
(AP, 3/15/97)(WSJ, 5/14/97, p.A20)(HNQ, 4/30/99)(HNPD, 4/30/99)

1767 Mar 25, Joachim Murat (d.1815), Napoleon’s brother in law, was born in Labastide-Murat. He was a French marshal and became king of Naples (1808-1815).
(WUD, 1994, p.941)(HN, 3/25/99)(HN, 3/25/99)

1767 Mar 30, Jonas Kristupas Glaubicas, one of the founders of the Vilnius school of baroque architecture, died.
(LHC, 3/30/03)

1767 May 13, Mozart’s opera “Apollo et Hyacinthus,” premiered in Salzburg.
(MC, 5/13/02)

1767 May 14, British government disbanded the import duty on tea in America.
(MC, 5/14/02)

1767 May 18, Thaddaus Ferdinand Lipowsky (28), composer, died.
(SC, 5/18/02)

1767 May 25, Ferdinand Franzl, composer, was born.
(SC, 5/25/02)
1767 May 25, Friedrich Johann Eck, composer, was born.
(SC, 5/25/02)

1767 Jun 7, Daniel Boone sighted present-day Kentucky. [see Jun 7, 1769]
(HN, 6/7/01)

1767 Jun 15, Rachel Robards Jackson, U.S. first lady to Andrew Jackson, was born. She caused a scandal by marrying Jackson before divorcing her husband.
(HN, 6/15/98)

1767 Jun 25, Mexican Indians rioted as Jesuit priests were ordered home. Spain expelled the Jesuits from Mexico and their work was taken over by the Dominican Fathers.
(WSJ, 12/26/97, p.A9)(HN, 6/25/98)(Econ, 6/1/13, p.80)
1767 Jun 25, Georg Philipp Telemann (86), German composer, died.
(MC, 6/25/02)

1767 Jun 29, The British Parliament approved the Townshend Revenue Acts, sponsored by statesman Charles Townshend (1725-1767), which imposed import duties on glass, lead, paint, paper and tea shipped to America. Colonists bitterly protested, prompting Parliament in 1770 to repeal the duties on all goods, except tea.
(WUD, 1994, p.1499)(HN, 6/29/98)(AP, 6/29/07)

1767 Jul 11, John Quincy Adams (d.1848), son of John Adams and the sixth president of the United States, was born in Braintree, Mass.
(AHD, 1971, p.14)(AP, 7/11/97)(HN, 7/11/98)

1767 Oct 9, The survey party of Mason and Dixon came to a halt after 233 miles when Indians of the Six Nations said they had reached the end of their commission. [see Oct 18]
(ON, 2/04, p.10)

1767 Oct 18, The boundary between Maryland and Pennsylvania, the Mason-Dixon line, was agreed upon. It was first surveyed in 1763 to 1767 by two British astronomers, Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon, in order to settle a dispute between the Calvert and Penn families, the owners at that time of the two states in question. The survey, begun in 1763 and completed four years later, done by English surveyors Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon to resolve a land-grant boundary dispute between the families of Lord Baltimore and William Penn, resulted in the Mason-Dixon Line. The line, extended in 1784, came to be known as the dividing line between free-soil states and slave states.
(AP, 10/18/97)(HNQ, 9/8/99)

1767 Oct 23, H. Benjamin Constant, [de Rebeque], French politician and writer, was born.
(MC, 10/23/01)

1767 Dec 9, Benedetto Alfieri, Italian architect (San Giovanni Battista), died.
(MC, 12/9/01)

1767 Fragonard (1732-1806) painted “The Swing.”
(SFC, 2/7/03, p.D2)

1767 Phillis Wheatley’s (d.1784) poetry was published for the first time. She traveled to England in 1773, where her book “Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral” was hailed as the first published by an African American. In 1776 the African slave-born poet met with George Washington in Cambridge, just before the British evacuated Boston.
(HNPD, 2/20/99)(SSFC, 7/25/04, p.F3)

1767 Laurence Sterne authored his novel “Tristram Shandy.”
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1767 British explorer Jonathan Carver described petroglyph images of snakes and buffalo near a cave at bluffs in Minnesota called Wakan Tipi by the Dakota people.
(LP, Spring 2006, p.23)

1767 Christophe Willibald Gluck, Vienna court Kappellmeister, composed his opera “Alcestis.” It was revised in 1776 for the Royal Paris Opera.
(WSJ, 10/21/99, p.A20)

1767 Burmese invaded the port city of Ayutthaya (Siam-Thailand), sacked the city and left it in ruins. The capital was then moved to Bangkok.
(WSJ, 4/21/05, p.D7)

1767 Robert Clive returned from India to England with a huge fortune and was accused of embezzlement.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)
1767 George Hodgeson, British entrepreneur, cut a deal with the East India Company to start providing beer to the British Civil-service and merchant classes in the India colonies. He doubled the hop content to help preserve the beer on its long voyage.
(WSJ, 8/13/04, p.W6)
1767 The English found their way to Tahiti.
(SFEC, 3/2/97, p.T12)
1767 English slave traders captured 2 native nobles, Little Ephraim Robin John and Ancona Robin John on the west coast of Africa and took them in chains to Dominica. They soon escaped but were resold into slavery in Virginia. Some 4 years later they were taken to England and again resold and returned to Virginia. They later made it back to their home on the Calabar River (SE Nigeria) and became slave merchants themselves. In 2004 Randy J. Sparks authored “The Princes of Calabar.”
(WSJ, 5/21/04, p.W4)
1767 Kitty Fisher, a prominent British courtesan, died.
(Econ, 2/11/12, p.82)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kitty_Fisher)

1767 Louis Antoine de Bougainville of France sailed to the islands of New Guinea. He encountered the ritual of gift giving to one’s enemy, which obligated the enemy to give back even more.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R4)

1767 In Scandinavia military ski competitions began to offer prize money.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1767 Horace de Saussure, Swiss scientist, developed a solar cooker using the greenhouse effect, in the form of several glass boxes set inside one another and placed on a dark surface.
(SFC, 7/11/07, p.F5)

1767-1780 Bernardo Belotto (Il Canaletto), Italian topographical view painter, worked as court painter in Warsaw for Stanislaus II Augustus Poniatowski, the last King of Poland.
(WSJ, 9/13/01, p.A18)

1767-1849 Maria Edgeworth, English novelist: “A straight line is the shortest in morals as in mathematics.”
(AP, 6/25/99)

1768 Jan 9, English cavalry sergeant Philip Astley staged the first modern circus, performing elaborate feats on the backs of horses racing around a ring.
(MC, 1/9/02)

1768 Feb 11, A Samuel Adams letter, opposing Townshend Act taxes, was circulated among the American colonies.
(MC, 2/11/02)

1768 Feb 12, Francis II, the Last Holy Roman Emperor (1792-1806), was born.
(HN, 2/12/98)(MC, 2/12/02)

1768 Feb 24, Lithuania-Poland signed an eternal friendship treaty with Russia along with a guarantee of protection. Lithuania and Poland agreed not to change their state system.
(LHC, 2/23/03)

1768 Mar 14, Vigilio Blasio Faitello (58), composer, died.
(MC, 3/14/02)

1768 Mar 21, Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier (d.1830), French mathematician, physicist and Egyptologist, was born.
(HN, 3/21/98)(WUD, 1994, p.561)

1768 Apr 5, 1st US Chamber of Commerce formed in NYC.
(MC, 4/5/02)

1768 Apr 7, Michel Mathieu (78), composer, died.
(MC, 4/7/02)

1768 Apr 19, Canaletto (b.1697), Venetian printmaker and landscape painter, died.
(Economist, 10/13/12, p.101)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canaletto)

1768 Apr 27, John Wilkes (b.1725), English journalist, was arrested for seditious libel following his February return from exile in Europe.
(ON, 12/11, p.8)

1768 May 10, The imprisonment of the journalist John Wilkes as an outlaw provoked violence in London. Wilkes had returned to parliament as a member for Middlesex. The “Massacre of St. George’s Fields” left 6 people dead as soldiers fired on a mob cheering Wilkes.
(HN, 5/10/99)(ON, 12/11, p.9)

1768 May 15, By the Treaty of Versailles, France purchased Corsica from Genoa.
(SFC, 12/3/96, p.A1)(HN, 5/15/99)

1768 May 20, Dolley Madison, first lady of President James Madison, was born. She was famous as a Washington hostess while her husband was secretary of state and president.
(HN, 5/20/99)

1768 Jun 30, Elizabeth Kortright, later Elizabeth Monroe, first lady to U.S. President James Monroe, was born.
(HN, 6/30/01)

1768 Jul 27, Charlotte Corday, French patriot who assassinated Jean Paul Marat, was born.
(HN, 7/27/98)

1768 Aug 26, Capt James Cook departed from Plymouth with Endeavour to the Pacific Ocean. Daniel Solander and Joseph Banks accompanied Cook to catalog plants and animals of Australia and New Zealand on the 3-year journey.
(www.artstor.org/what-is-artstor/w-html/col-endeavour-london.shtml)(SSFC, 4/19/09, Books p.J7)

1768 Sep 4, Vicomte François René de Chateaubriand, French writer, novelist (Atala) and chef who gave his name to a style of steak, was born.
(HN, 9/4/98)(MC, 9/4/01)

1768 Oct 1, English troops under general Gage landed in Boston.
(MC, 10/1/01)

1768 Oct 28, Germans and Acadians joined French Creoles in their armed revolt against the Spanish governor of New Orleans.
(HN, 10/28/98)
1768 Oct 28, Michel Blavet (68), French court flautist and composer, died.
(MC, 10/28/01)

1768 Oct 30, 1st Methodist church in US was initiated at Wesley Chapel, NYC.
(MC, 10/30/01)

1768 Nov 5, William Johnson, the northern Indian Commissioner, signed a treaty with the Iroquois Indians to acquire much of the land between the Tennessee and Ohio rivers for future settlement.
(HN, 11/5/98)

1768 James Boswell (28) authored “Account of Corsica.”
(WSJ, 11/29/00, p.A24)

1768 John Dickinson (1732-1808) wrote “The Liberty Song.” The refrain included the words: “Then join hand in hand, brave Americans all! By uniting we stand, by dividing we fall.”
(SFC, 11/2/02, p.D2)

1768 Cornelius de Pauw wrote a book on America.
(WSJ, 8/28/97, p.A12)

1768 In Massachusetts the Jeremiah Lee Mansion was built in Marblehead. Lee later became a fatality of the Lexington-Concord battle.
(SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T9)
1768 The Massachusetts colonial assembly voted 92-17 to refuse British demands for repeal of the Massachusetts Circular Letter, which had been penned by Samuel Adams in protest of the Townshend Revenue Act. Silversmith and legendary Patriot Paul Revere later crafted his Liberty Bowl to commemorate the two “Patriotic numbers” 92 and 45. The bowl, which weighed 45 ounces and held 45 gills, was inscribed with “Ninety-Two.” The numbers had special significance to American Patriots, representing resistance to British taxation and the No. 45 issue of Wilkes’ North Briton newspaper.

1768 Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), US President (1801-1809), was elected to the Virginia House of Burgesses.

1768 The 1st four day royal meeting was held at the Royal Ascot track west of London. Horse racing there had begun in 1711.
(SFC, 6/21/06, p.A2)(www.icons.org.uk/nom/nominations/royal-ascot)
1768 Seamen in London formed a union and imposed a port strike that virtually halted all shipping.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R27)

1768 William Smellie, a young Edinburgh botanist, was given the task of editing the first edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica.
(NH, 5/96, p.3)(WSJ, 4/22/99, A1)

1768 Johan Friedrich Struensee, a German doctor, was appointed as personal physician to the insane young King Christian VII of Denmark. The doctor became lover to the queen, Caroline Mathilde, the younger sister of George III of England. Struensee was arrested and executed after 2 years.
(WSJ, 12/7/01, p.W16)

1768 In Guanajuato, Mexico, enslaved Indians struck a major silver vein in Guanajuato.
(SSFC, 5/4/03, p.D7)

1768 Prithvi Narayan Shah, the founder of Nepal, defeated the Malla rulers.
(AFP, 6/28/11)

1768 King Carlos III of Spain sent Father Junipero Serra from Mallorca to California.
(SFEC, 3/12/00, p.T4)

1768-1771 Capt. James Cook charted the coasts of both the north and south islands of New Zealand and Australia. Cook made his historic voyages in colliers, slow but strong ships designed primarily for carrying coal. His ship was named the Endeavour. Cook’s voyage to Australia kept a botanical record called the Banks Florilegium. The 738 original plates commissioned by Sir Joseph Banks was not printed until a 100 set limited edition in 1989.
(SFC, 6/18/96, p.D1)(WSJ, 10/5/99, p.A24)

1768-1774 The Russian and Ottoman War.
(HNQ, 5/6/02)

1768-1834 In India the brigand, Amir Khan Pindari, was finally bribed by the British to retire with a grant of sovereignty over 4 territories.
(SFC, 2/7/98, p.E8)

1769 Jan 10, Michel Ney, French marshal (Waterloo), was born.
(MC, 1/10/02)

1769 Feb 4, Journalist John Wilkes was expelled from the British Parliament.
(ON, 12/11, p.9)

1769 Mar 16, Journalist John Wilkes was elected unopposed to his former seat in the British Parliament.
(ON, 12/11, p.9)

1769 Mar 23, William Smith, geologist (Strata Identified by Organized Fossils), was born.
(SS, 3/23/02)

1769 Mar 27, Josef Antonin Gurecky (60), composer, died.
(MC, 3/27/02)

1769 Mar, King Carlos III of Spain chose Don Jose Galvez to protect interests in Mexico. Galvez sent Gaspar de Portola and Father Junipero Serra with 62 Spanish soldiers out to establish a settlement at San Diego and on a northerly journey from Loreto to found missions along the Baha Peninsula and into California. Jose Antonio Yorba was one of the 62 soldiers. For his loyalty he received 62,000 acres of land that included much of what later became Santa Ana, Tustin, Orange and Mosta Mesa.
(SFEC, 5/18/97, p.T5)(SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W34)(SFC, 6/17/98, p.C4)

1769 Mar, Captain Portola set out with a group of soldiers, priests, Christian Native Americans and muleteers. Their intention was to go as far as Monterey Bay but passed it. Gaspar de Portola led the first European land expedition to sight the San Francisco Bay from land. Captain Portola had been appointed governor of Baja and Alta California and sent on an expedition to explore and replace the Jesuits with Franciscans in the Baja missions and start new Franciscan missions in Alta.
(SFC, 5/19/96,City Guide, p.16)(Park, Spring/95)(SFC, 5/19/96,City Guide, p.16)

1769 Apr 12, Giovanni Agostino Perotti, composer, was born.
(MC, 4/12/02)


Timeline of the Eighteenth Century: 1750-1774 2

1769 Apr 20, Ottawa Chief Pontiac (bc1720) was murdered by an Indian in Cahokia.
(WUD, 1994, p.1117)(HN, 4/20/98)

1769 Apr 22, Madame du Barry became King Louis XV’s “official” mistress.
(MC, 4/22/02)

1769 Apr 24, Arthur Wellesley, general, Duke of Wellington, was born. [see May 1]
(HN, 4/24/98)

1769 May 1, Arthur Wellsley, Duke of Wellington “Iron Duke,” was born. He defeated Napoleon at Waterloo and later became the British prime minister (1828-30). [see Apr 24]
(HN, 5/1/99)(MC, 5/1/02)

1769 May 7, Giuseppe Farinelli, composer, singer, was born.
(MC, 5/7/02)

1769 Jun 3, British navigator, Captain James Cook, British astronomer Charles Green and Swedish naturalist Daniel Solander observed and recorded a transit of Venus across the sun on the island of Tahiti during Cook’s first voyage around the world.

1769 Jun 7, Daniel Boone first began to explore the present-day Bluegrass State as recognized by Kentucky’s Historical Society. [see June 7, 1767]
(AP, 6/7/97)

1769 Jun 11, Anne Newport Royall, American newspaper reporter, was born.
(HN, 6/11/01)

1769 Jul 14, Don Gaspar de Portola led 63 men north from San Diego in search of Monterey and arrived there in late September.
(SFC, 11/7/15, p.C2)

1769 Jul 16, Father Junipero Serra founded Mission San Diego de Alcala, the 1st mission in Calif. The Franciscan friars soon planted cuttings of olive trees. California’s first olive press was established in Ventura County in 1871. Serra went on to build nine missions along the coast and to take over tribal lands.
(http://missions.bgmm.com/sdiego.htm)(SSFC, 8/27/06, p.F2)(SFC, 1/23/15, p.A12)

1769 Aug 15, Napoleon Bonaparte (d.1821), Emperor of France (1804-1813, 1814-1815) and continental Europe, was born on the island of Corsica.
(WUD, 1994, p.950)(AP, 8/15/97)(HN, 8/15/02)(MC, 8/15/02)

1769 Aug 18, Gunpowder in Brescia, Italy, church exploded and some 3,000 were killed.
(MC, 8/18/02)

1769 Aug 29, Edmond Hoyle (b.1672), English games expert, died.
(MC, 8/29/01)

1769 Sep 14, Baron Freidrich von Humboldt (d.1859), German naturalist and explorer who made the first isothermic and isobaric maps, was born.
(HN, 9/14/98)

1769 Sep 18, John Harris built the 1st spinet piano in the US.
(MC, 9/18/01)

1769 Oct 30, Captain Portola and his party camped at what is now Linda Mar Beach, Pacifica. They climbed the ridge above Linda Mar and saw the Farallon Islands as well as the cliffs of Point Reyes. Portola camped in San Pedro Valley and sent Sergeant Jose Ortega out to survey what was ahead.
(SFC, 5/19/96, City Guide, p.16)(Ind, 6/13/00,16A)(SFC, 11/7/15, p.C2)

1769 Nov 1-1769 Nov 3, Sgt. Jose Francisco Ortega with his scouting party first looked upon SF Bay from the vicinity of Point Lobos.
(SFEC, 2/9/97, p.W4)

1769 Nov 4, Portola received reports of a large bay ahead and went to see for himself. He crossed Sweeney Ridge in San Mateo County and saw the SF bay. Francisco de Ulloa was a navigator and member of the party.
(SFC, 5/19/96,City Guide, p.16)(SFEC, 9/21/97, p.C7)

1769 Dec 13, Dartmouth College, in New Hampshire, received its charter.
(AP, 12/13/97)

1769 Los Angeles was born as El Pueblo de Nuestra de Los Angeles.
(SFEC,12/797, p.T3)

1769 Gluck completed his opera “Paride ed Elena.” It was the last of 3 collaborations with librettist Raniero de’ Calzabigi. It deals with the seduction of Helen by Paris.
(WSJ, 7/14/04, p.D14)

1769 Construction of Britain’s Kew Observatory, built within the Old Deer Park of the former Richmond Palace in Richmond, Surrey, was completed. It was an astronomical and terrestrial magnetic observatory founded by King George III.
(ON, 4/12, p.6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kew_Observatory)
1769 The Swinford toll bridge in Oxfordshire was built across the River Thames. In 2009 it was up for auction offering buyers a tax-free investment with a bit of historic charm. It has been free of income tax since the 18th century, when Parliament granted ownership of the bridge and its tolls to the Earl of Abingdon and “to his heirs and assignees for ever.”
(AP, 11/18/09)

1769 Wolfgang von Kempelen of Hungary invented the Automoton Chess Player. It was 1st demonstrated to the Austrian court in 1770. In 2001 the deception was analyzed by James W. Cook in his book “The Arts of Deception.” In 2002 Tom Standage authored “The Turk,” an examination of the 18th century fascination with automatons.
(WSJ, 7/12/01, p.A14)(WSJ, 4/12/02, p.W12)

1769 The Writer, built by Geneva watchmakers, was a crafted mechanical puppet that sits at a mahogany desk and is able to write a 40-word sentence with a quill pen.
(Hem., 2/96, p.112)

1769 Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot, a French military engineer, invented an ungainly, steam-powered tricycle and practical steam locomotives and steamboats appeared early in the next century, eventually superceded by the internal combustion engine.
(HNQ, 1/18/01)

1769 In Morocco the Sea Gate (Porte de la Marine) was built in Mogador, later renamed Essaouira, to link the harbor to the medina. About this time Sultan Sidi Mohammad Ibn Abdelah transformed Mogador into an open city and encouraged its growth as a commercial port.
(SFEC, 1/2/00, p.T4)

1769 Bhaktapur, Nepal, fell and the triumphant Gurkhas took Kathmandu as their capital.
(SSFC, 9/21/03, p.C8)

1769-1772 Samuel Hearne, explorer for the Hudson Bay Company, maintained an journal and his notes of the land are still a standard reference.
(NH, 5/96, p.30)
1769-1772 A handful of Russian troops of General Totleben battled against Turkish invaders in Imereti and Kartl-Kakheti.

1769-1775 Prithvi Narayan Shah, with whom we move into the modern period of Nepal’s history, was the ninth generation descendant of Dravya Shah (1559-1570), the founder of the ruling house of Gorkha.

1769-1821 Napoleon Bonaparte, self-crowned emperor of France.
(V.D.-H.K.p.232)(WSJ, 11/18/96, p.A10)

1769-1830 Sir Thomas Lawrence, English painter. He painted “Pinkie.”
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.812)

1769-1843 Howqua, aka Wu Bingjian, Chinese merchant. His father was permitted to trade silk and porcelain with foreigners. He lent large sums in silver dollars to foreign traders in exchange for a share of their shipments. He donated 1.1 million silver dollars toward reparations after the First Opium War.
(WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R18)

1769-1849 Mehemet Ali, viceroy of Egypt from 1805-1848.
(WUD, 1994, p.892)

1769-1852 Apr 29, The First Duke of Wellington was born. This was the title of Arthur Wellesley, also known as the Iron Duke. He was a British soldier and statesman and defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. He became Prime Minister and served from 1828-1830. [see 1815, Napoleon & 1828-1830, Wellington]
(CFA, ’96, p.44)(AHD, p.1454)

1770 Feb 22, Jan Matyas Nepomuk August Vitasek, composer, was born.
(MC, 2/22/02)

1770 March 5, British troops taunted by a crowd of colonists fired on an unruly mob in Boston and killed five citizens in what came to be known as the Boston Massacre. The fracas between a few angry Boston men and one British sentry ended with five men dead or dying in the icy street corner of King Street and Shrimton’s Lane. Captain Thomas Preston did not order the eight British soldiers under his command to fire into the hostile crowd. The nervous soldiers claimed to be confused by shouts of “Why do you not fire?” coming from all sides. Versions of the event rapidly circulated through the colonies, bolstering public support for the Patriot cause. The British Captain Preston and seven soldiers were defended by John Adams. The captain and five of the soldiers were acquitted, the other two soldiers were found guilty of manslaughter and were branded on the hand with a hot iron. The first colonist killed in the American Revolution was the former slave, Crispus Attucks, shot by the British at the Boston Massacre. The event was later illustrated by Boston engraver Paul Revere.
(HFA, ’96, p.26)(A&IP, Miers, p.18)(SFC, 12/18/96, p.A25)(AP, 3/5/98)(HN, 3/5/98)(HNPD, 3/5/99)(WSJ, 4/12/08, p.W14)

1770 Mar 27, Giovanni B. Tiepolo (73), Italian painter (Banquet of Cleopatra), died.
(MC, 3/27/02)

1770 Apr 7, William Wordsworth, English poet laureate, was born. He wrote “The Prelude” and “Lyrical Ballads.” In 1998 Kenneth R. Johnston published “The Hidden Wordsworth: Poet, Lover, Rebel, Spy.” The biography covered the first 30 years of the poet’s life. In 1896 Emile Legouis also published a biography of the poet’s youth. The poet was responsible for such phrases as: “love of nature,” “love of man,” and “emotion recollected in tranquility.”
(V.D.-H.K.p.230)(WSJ, 6/23/98, p.A18)(SFEC, 8/23/98, BR p.5)(HN, 4/7/99)

1770 Apr 9, Captain James Cook discovered Botany Bay on the Australian continent.
(HN, 4/9/98)

1770 Apr 11, George Canning, British prime minister (1827) , was born.
(HN, 4/11/98)

1770 Apr 12, British Parliament repealed the 1967 [Townshend] Townsend Acts that put duties on certain products imported to the US.
(WUD, 1994, p.1499)(HN, 4/12/98)

1770 Apr 19, Capt. James Cook first saw Australia. [see Apr 9]
(MC, 4/19/02)

1770 Apr 20, Captain Cook arrived in New South Wales, Australia.
(HN, 4/20/98)

1770 Apr 28, Marie AC de Camargo (60), Spanish-Italian-Belgian dancer, died.
(MC, 4/28/02)

1770 Apr, Cockfighting in Puerto Rico, introduced by Spain in the 16th century, was officially recognized for the first time.
(AP, 7/23/12)

1770 May 10, Charles Avison (61), composer, died.
(MC, 5/10/02)

1770 May 16, Marie Antoinette (14), married the future King Louis XVI of France (15).
(AP, 5/16/97)(HN, 5/16/98)

1770 Jun 3, Father Junipero Serra founded Mission San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo on the shores of Monterey Bay as a chapel for the new Spanish Presidio of Monterey. A year later he moved the mission to Carmel.
(SSFC, 11/25/01, p.C5)(www.sancarloscathedral.net/)

1770 Jun 7, Earl of Liverpool, (C) British PM (1812-27), was born.
(SC, 6/7/02)

1770 Jul 7, The entire Ottoman fleet was defeated and destroyed by the Russians at the 3-day battle of Chesme [Cesme] on the Aegean Sea. The Ottoman fleet was commanded by Kapudan Pasha Mandalzade Hüsameddin, in the fourth ship from the front (north end) of the line, with Hasan Pasha (1713-1790) in the first ship, Real Mustafa, and Cafer Bey in the seventh.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Chesma)(WSJ, 4/29/99, p.A24)

1770 Jun 11, Capt. James Cook, commander of the British ship Endeavour, discovered the Great Barrier Reef off Australia by running onto it.
(AP, 6/11/97)(HN, 6/11/98)

1770 Jul 18, Isabel Godin, having traveled from Ecuador the length of the Amazon, reunited with her husband Jean Godin in French Guiana.
(ON, 5/05, p.4)

1770 Aug 1, William Clark, American explorer, was born in Charlottsville, VA. He led the Corps of Discovery with Meriwether Lewis.
(HN, 8/1/00)(MC, 8/1/02)

1770 Aug 24, Thomas Chatterton (b.1752), English poet (Revenge), committed suicide.
(MC, 8/24/02)

1770 Aug 27, The German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831) was born in Stuttgart. He wrote “The Science of Logic.” Hegel greatly influenced Karl Marx. His method was to metaphysicize everything, that is, to discern in concrete reality the working of some Idea or Universal Mind. Hegel proposed that all change, all progress, is brought about by the conflict of vast forces. A world-historical figure or nation or event lays down a challenge. This thesis, as he called it, is opposed by an antithesis. The conflict between them is resolved, inevitably, by a synthesis of the two forces on a higher plane of being.
(V.D.-H.K.p.258)(AP, 8/27/97)(HN, 8/27/98)

1770 Nov 13, George Grenville (58), British premier (1763-65), Stamp Act, died.
(MC, 11/13/01)

1770 Nov 19, Albert Bertel Thorvaldsen, sculptor (Dying Lion), was born in Copenhagen, Denmark.
(MC, 11/19/01)

1770 Dec 9, Gottlieb Theophil Muffat (80), composer, died.
(MC, 12/9/01)

1770 Dec 12, The British soldiers responsible for the “Boston Massacre” were acquitted on murder charges.
(HN, 12/12/98)

1770 Dec 16, Ludwig Von Beethoven (d.1827), German composer best known for his 9th Symphony, was born in Bonn. His Sixth Symphony “Pastorale” was in F-Major. Locks of his hair were cut off after his death and preserved by a number of collectors.
(CFA, ’96, p.60)(WUD, 1994, p.134)(WSJ, 5/29/96, p.A1,5)(AP, 12/16/97)(SFC, 7/7/98, p.B3)(HN, 12/16/98)

1770 Dec 17, Johann Friedrich Schubert, composer, was born.
(MC, 12/17/01)

1770 Dec 26, Pierre earl de Cambronne, French general (Waterloo, Elba), was born.
(MC, 12/26/01)

1770 Thomas Gainsborough (1727-1788), English painter, exhibited his “Portrait of a Young Gentleman”, soon dubbed “Blue Boy,” at the Royal Academy Exhibition.
(SSFC, 9/23/18, p.A11)
1770 George Stubbs, Britain’s finest painter of animals, did a portrait of the Duke of Richmond’s imported yearling bull moose. It was commissioned by anatomist William Hunter (1718-1783) to see if the moose was related to the fossil Irish giant deer.
(NH, 8/96, p.17)

1770 The “New England Psalm-Singer” by William Billings was released.
(WSJ, 10/17/96, p.A20)

1770 Capt. George Cartwright, a British adventurer and entrepreneur, established the fishing village of Cartwright on the east coast of Labrador, Canada.
(NH, 6/96, p.56)

1770 In India a famine wiped out a third of the population of Bengal. This hardened opinion against the British East India Company.
(Econ, 12/17/11, p.111)

c1770 A monastery was built in Cartagena, Colombia, that served as the seat of the Inquisition Tribunal for Spain. It later became the Hotel Santa Clara.
(SSFC, 5/18/03, p.C12)

1770 Francois Boucher (b.1703), French painter, died. He painted “Diana.”
(Econ, 10/9/04, p.79)

1770-1772 John Copley painted the portrait of Samuel Adams in Boston.
(WSJ, 6/14/95, p.A-14)

1770-1779 William Addis invented the toothbrush in the 1770s while a prisoner in Newgate Prison.
(SFC, 7/14/99, Z1 p.3)
1770-1779 Blacks were 1st brought to Argentina in the 1770s to toil on large haciendas and work as domestic servants.
(SSFC, 11/27/05, p.A24)

1771 Apr 13, Richard Trevithick, inventor of the steam locomotive, was born in Cornwall, England.
(ON, 4/04, p.4)

1771 Apr 29, Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli (b.1700), Italian architect, died in St. Petersburg. He was born in Paris and spent his entire career in Russia. His work included the Winter Palace (1754-1762) in St. Petersburg, which later became the Hermitage Museum.

1771 May 14, Robert Owen (d.1858), English factory owner, socialist, was born in Newtown, Wales.
1771 May 14, Thomas Wedgwood, English physicist, was born. He is acknowledged as the first photographer.
(HN, 5/14/99)

1771 Jun 3, Sydney Smith, preacher, reformer, author, was born in Woodford, Essex.
(MC, 6/3/02)

1771 Jun 12, Patrick Gass, Sgt. of Lewis & Clark Expedition, was born in Falling Springs, PA.
(MC, 6/12/02)

1771 Jun 24, E.I. Du Pont, chemist, was born.
(HN, 6/24/98)

1771 Jul 12, James Cook sailed Endeavour back to Downs, England.
(MC, 7/12/02)

1771 Jul 14, Father Junipero Serra founded the Mission San Antonio de Padua in California.
(SFEC, 3/12/00, p.T4)(MC, 7/14/02)

1771 Jul 30, Thomas Gray (54), English poet, died. His work included “Elegy Written in a Country Church Yard” (1751).
(MC, 7/30/02)

1771 Aug 15, Sir Walter Scott (d.1832), Scottish novelist who wrote “Ivanhoe” and “Rob Roy,” was born.
(WUD, 1994, p.1281)(HN, 8/15/98)

1771 Sep 8, Mission San Gabriel Archangel was formed in California.
(MC, 9/8/01)

1771 Sep 10, The Scottish explorer Mungo Park (d.1806) was born. He settled the question as to the direction of flow of the Niger River as he traced the northern reaches of the African river in the 1790s. Park was one of the first explorers sponsored by England’s African Association. He died in 1806 on another expedition to determine if the Niger linked with the Congo River. He reportedly drowned while fleeing attackers near Bussa, which is in present-day Nigeria.
(HNQ, 6/6/98)

1771 Sep 17, Tobias George Smollett, novelist (Adventures of Roderick Random), died at 50.
(MC, 9/17/01)

1771 Nov 4, Carlo Goldoni’s “Le Bourru Bienfaisant,” premiered in Paris.
(MC, 11/4/01)

1771 Nov 6, Alois Senefelder, inventor (lithography), was born.
(MC, 11/6/01)

1771 Nov 11, Ephraim McDowell, surgeon (pioneered abdominal surgery), was born.
(MC, 11/11/01)

1771 Dec 26, Claude A. Helvétius (56), French encyclopedist (L’esprit), died.
(MC, 12/26/01)

1771 Fedot Ivanovich Choubine, Russian sculptor and painter, carved a bust of Catherine the Great.
(Econ, 12/23/06, p.126)(http://tinyurl.com/y4ydna)

1771 A color engraving from this year of the fish Acarauna is on display at the Mariner’s Museum Library in Newport News, Va., USA.
(Civil., Jul-Aug., ’95, p.97)
1771 Mark Catesby had his work: “The Natural History of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands” printed in London.
(WSJ, 7/7/98, p.A14)
1771 In California Father Junipero Serra moved the Mission San Carlos Borromeo de Rio Carmelo over from Monterey. The Carmel mission was his 7th.
(SFEC, 3/12/00, p.T5)
1771 Benjamin Banneker, black mathematician and surveyor, helped create the initial boundaries of Washington D.C.
(SFC, 5/26/96, T-7)

1771 By this time some 50,000 British convicts were dumped on American shores. Most of them came from Middlesex, the county that includes London.
(SFEC, 10/27/96, p.T9)
1771 A group of 79 underwriters established their Society of Lloyd’s, Lloyd’s of London, at the Lloyd’s coffee shop.
(Econ, 12/20/03, p.89)
1771 Britain’s Parliament named Benjamin Franklin to a committee to investigate how lightning rods might help protect gunpowder.
(WSJ, 8/15/05, p.D8)
1771 Joseph Priestley, English minister, grasped the rudiments of the carbon cycle after his experiments showed that mint in a sealed jar refreshed the air.
(NG, Feb, 04, p.28)

1771 Luigi Galvani (1737-1798), Italian physician and physicist, discovered that the muscles of dead frogs legs twitched when struck by a spark.
(Econ, 6/16/12, p.102)

1771 In Mexico Father Toribio Basterrechea, vicar of Huachinango, was convicted by the Inquisition of officiating at the marriage of two dogs. He was sentenced to 4 months of fasting and penance.
(SFC, 9/18/96, p.A11)

1771-1858 Johann Baptist Cramer, composer and pianist, played Bach in public before 1800.
(LGC-HCS, p.32)

1772 Feb 10, Louis Tocque (75), French painter, died.
(MC, 2/10/02)

1772 Apr 2, Father Juan Crespi looked out over a bay, later called Suisun Bay, and believed he had found the fabled Northwest Passage, a shortcut to the Colorado River. After Father Serra established a mission in Monterey, Ca, Pedro Fages and Father Juan Crespi had set out to explore the SF Bay by land.
(SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W34)(SFC, 5/3/13, p.D1)

1772 Mar 10, Friedrich Von Schlegel (d.1829) was born. He was a German romantic poet and critic whose books included “Philosophy of History” and “History of Literature.” “A historian is a prophet in reverse.”
(AP, 5/25/97)(HN, 3/10/99)

1772 Apr 11, Manuel Jose Quintana, Spanish author, poet (El Duque de Viseo), was born.
(MC, 4/11/02)

1772 May 10, British Parliament passed the Tea Act, taxing all tea in the colonies. [see Apr 27, 1973]
(HN, 5/10/98)

1772 May 11, Joseph Kerckhoff, Limburg surgeon, robber captain, was hanged.
(MC, 5/11/02)

1772 May 20, William Congreve, English officer (design fire rocket), was born.
(MC, 5/20/02)

1772 Jun 6, Haitian explorer Jean Baptiste-Pointe DuSable settled Chicago. [see Mar 12, 1773]
(MC, 6/6/02)

1772 Jun 9, The 1st naval attack of Revolutionary War took place when residents of Providence, RI., stormed the HMS Gaspee, burned it to the waterline and shot the captain. A Rhode Island ship captain lured the British schooner HMS Gaspee, sent to Narragansett Bay to enforce trade laws, into shallow waters a few miles south of Providence, where it ran aground. Colonists in Providence heard the news and rowed out to it. Later, no one would tell King George III who set fire to the ship.
(WSJ, 6/24/03, p.A1)(AP, 6/7/18)

1772 Jun 22, Slavery was in effect outlawed in England by Chief Justice William Murray, First Earl of Mansfield, following the trial of James Somersett. In 2005 Steven Wise authored “Though the Heavens May Fall: The Landmark Trial that Led to the End of Human Slavery.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Somersett%27s_Case)(Econ, 2/5/05, p.76)(ON, 12/08, p.9)

1772 Jul 13, Capt James Cook began a 2nd trip on the ship Resolution to South Seas.
(MC, 7/13/02)

1772 Aug 11, An explosive eruption blew 4,000 feet off Papandayan, Java, and 3,000 people were killed.
(MC, 8/11/02)

1772 Aug 19, Gustavus III of Sweden eliminated the rule of parties and establishes an absolute monarchy. It had been subordinate to parliament since 1720.
(HN, 8/19/98)(MC, 8/19/02)

1772 Sep 1, Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa formed in California. Father Junipero Serra held the 1st Mass at San Luis Obispo. He left Father Jose Cavalier the task of building the state’s 5th mission.
(SFEC, 10/11/98, p.T6)(MC, 9/1/02)(SSFC, 10/20/02, p.C1)

1772 Sep 26, New Jersey passed a bill requiring a license to practice medicine.
(MC, 9/26/01)

1772 Oct 4, Francois-Louis Pierne, composer, was born.
(MC, 10/4/01)

1772 Oct 21, Samuel Taylor Coleridge (d.1834), English poet and author, was born. His work included “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner” and “Kubla Khan”.
(AP, 9/12/97)(HN, 10/21/00)

1772 Oct 30, Capt. Cook arrived with ship Resolution in Capetown.
(MC, 10/30/01)

1772 Nov 2, The first Committees of Correspondence were formed in Massachusetts under Samuel Adams.
(HN, 11/2/98)

1772 Dec 22, A Moravian missionary constructed the 1st schoolhouse west of Allegheny.
(MC, 12/22/01)

1772 Beaumarchais wrote his “Barber” as an opera. Rossini later adopted it for his opera “Barber of Seville.”
(SFC, 8/13/96, p.B2)

1772 In Maryland Ellicott City was founded as a mill town.
(SFC, 8/1/16, p.A5)

1772 Sep 1, Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa formed in California. Father Junipero Serra held the 1st Mass at San Luis Obispo. He left Father Jose Cavalier the task of building the state’s 5th mission.
(SFEC, 10/11/98, p.T6)(MC, 9/1/02)(SSFC, 10/20/02, p.C1)

1772 Sep 26, New Jersey passed a bill requiring a license to practice medicine.
(MC, 9/26/01)

1772 Oct 4, Francois-Louis Pierne, composer, was born.
(MC, 10/4/01)

1772 Oct 21, Samuel Taylor Coleridge (d.1834), English poet and author, was born. His work included “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner” and “Kubla Khan”.
(AP, 9/12/97)(HN, 10/21/00)

1772 Oct 30, Capt. Cook arrived with ship Resolution in Capetown.
(MC, 10/30/01)

1772 Nov 2, The first Committees of Correspondence were formed in Massachusetts under Samuel Adams.
(HN, 11/2/98)

1772 Dec 22, A Moravian missionary constructed the 1st schoolhouse west of Allegheny.
(MC, 12/22/01)

1772 Beaumarchais wrote his “Barber” as an opera. Rossini later adopted it for his opera “Barber of Seville.”
(SFC, 8/13/96, p.B2)

1772 In Maryland Ellicott City was founded as a mill town.
(SFC, 8/1/16, p.A5)

1772 A group of merchants raised money for the Boston Pier. They owned the land together and shared the rent making this an early example of what later came to be know as a Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT)
(Econ, 9/17/16, p.69)

1772 Daniel Rutherford discovered nitrogen.
(Dr, 7/17/01, p.2)

1772 Shoelaces were invented in England.
(SFC, 8/28/98, p.B4)

1772 The Paris Faculty of Medicine declared potatoes to be an edible food.
(SSFC, 10/5/08, p.A15)
1772 The French Veuve Clicquot champagne was first produced, but the first bottles were laid down for ten years.
(AFP, 7/17/10)

1772 In Germany the silver and most of the silver-gilt in the Green Vault of Dresden was melted down and made into coin.
(Econ, 9/16/06, p.95)

1772 Calcutta became the capital of British India and continued until 1912 when the colonial rulers shifted their base to New Delhi in northern India.
(AFP, 2/18/12)

1772 Upon the partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, or simply Galicia, became the largest, most populous, and northernmost province of Austria where it remained until the dissolution of Austria-Hungary at the end of World War I. Jews accounted for 10% of the 2.6 million population of Galicia.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galicia_(Central_Europe))(Econ, 11/15/14, p.87)

1772-1801 Friedrich von Hardenberg, aka Novalis, visionary Romantic poet, novelist and political theorist. In 1997 a novel by English author Penelope Fitzgerald, “The Blue Flower,” gave an account of his life.
(WSJ, 4/8/97, p.A20)

1772-1811 Rabbi Nachman of Bratslav, the grandson of the founder of Hasidism, used storytelling to teach his followers.
(WSJ, 6/28/99, p.A24)

1772-1823 David Ricardo, English Economist and stockbroker. He postulated that landlords become rich at the expense of society.
(V.D.-H.K.p.253)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R20)

1773 Jan 12, The first public museum in America was established, in Charleston, S.C.
(AP, 1/12/98)

1773 Jan 17, Captain James Cook became the first person to cross the Antarctic Circle (66d 33′ S).
(HN, 1/17/99)(MC, 1/17/02)

1773 Feb 9, William Henry Harrison, the 9th president of the United States (March 4- April 4, 1841), was born in Charles City County, Va.
(HN, 2/9/97)(AP, 2/9/99)(MC, 2/9/02)

1773 Feb 26, Construction was authorized for Walnut St. jail in Philadelphia, (1st solitary).
(SC, 2/26/02)

1773 Mar 12, Jeanne Baptiste Pointe de Sable settled what is now known as Chicago. [see Jun 6, 1772]
(MC, 3/12/02)

1773 Mar 26, Nathaniel Bowditch (d.1838), mathematician, astronomer, polyglot, author (Marine Sextant), was born in Salem, Mass. In 1802 he published “The New American Practical Navigator.”
(SS, 3/26/02)(AH, 12/02, p.22)

1773 Apr 6, James Mill (d.1836), English philosopher, historian (Hist of British India) and economist, was born in Scotland.
(V.D.-H.K.p.253)(WUD, 1994 p.909)(MC, 4/6/02)

1773 Apr 27, British Parliament passed the Tea Act. [see May 10, 1772]
(HN, 4/27/98)

1773 May 10, To keep the troubled East India Company afloat, Parliament passed the Tea Act, taxing all tea in the American colonies.
(HN, 5/10/99)

1773 May 15, Prince Clemens Von Metternich (d.1859), Chancellor of Austria, was born in Coblenz. His policies dominated Europe after the Congress of Vienna.
(HN, 5/15/99)(WUD, 1994 ed., p.903)

1773 Jul 20, Scottish settlers arrived at Pictou, Nova Scotia (Canada).
(MC, 7/20/02)

1773 Jul 21, Pope Clement XIV abolished the Jesuit order. He disbanded, defrocked, and stripped them of their sustenance. They were ignored by other orders and denounced as schemers and plotters. The Jesuits finally regained respectability in 1814after flourishing underground.
(HN, 7/21/98)(MC, 7/21/02)

1773 Sep 1, Phillis Wheatley (d.1834), a slave from Boston, published a collection of poetry, “Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral,” in London. Although she received her freedom soon after, Wheatley’s last years saw only misery.
(HN, 9/1/99)(HNPD, 2/21/00)

1773 Sep 11, Benjamin Franklin wrote “There never was a good war or bad peace.”
(MC, 9/11/01)

1773 Sep 14, Russian forces under Aleksandr Suvorov successfully stormed a Turkish fort at Hirsov, Turkey.
(HN, 9/14/99)

1773 Oct 14, Britain’s East India Company tea ships’ cargo was burned at Annapolis, Md.
(HN, 10/14/98)

1773 Dec 16, Some 50-60 “Sons of Liberty” of revolutionary Samuel Adams disguised as Mohawks defied the 3 cents per pound tax on tea boarded a British East India Tea Company ship and dumped 342 chests of British tea into the Boston Harbor in what became known as the Boston Tea Party. Parliament had passed the 1773 Tea Act not to regulate trade or make the colonies pay their own administrative costs, but to save the nearly bankrupt British East India Tea Company. The Tea Act gave the company a monopoly over the American tea trade and authorized the sale of 17 million pounds of tea in America at prices cheaper than smuggled Dutch tea. In spite of the savings, Americans would not accept what they considered to be taxation without representation. Overreacting to the Boston Tea Party, the British attempted to punish Boston and the whole colony of Massachusetts with the Intolerable Acts of 1774–another in the series of events that ultimately led to American independence. A bill for the tea ($196) was paid Sep 30, 1961.
(HFA, ’96, p.44)(A&IP, Miers, p.18)(SFEC,11/23/97, Par p.14)(AP, 12/16/97)(HNPD, 12/16/98)(MC, 9/30/01)

1773 Dec 26, Expulsion of tea ships from Philadelphia.
(MC, 12/26/01)

1773 Dec 27, George Cayley, founder of the science of aerodynamics, was born in England.
(MC, 12/27/01)

1773 Dmitri Levitsky (1735-1822), Kiev born Russian-Ukrainian artist, painted a portrait of Katerina Khrouchtchova and princess Katerina Khonanskaia.
(Econ, 12/23/06, p.126)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dmitry_Levitsky)

1773 Augustin Pajou, French sculptor, completed his bust of Madame du Barry.
(WSJ, 3/18/98, p.A20)

1773 Thomas Day, English abolitionist, wrote a poem with his friend John Bicknell called “The Dying Negro.”
(Econ, 2/16/13, p.83)

1773 Phillis Wheatley, black poet, published “Poems on Various Subjects.”
(SFEC, 4/30/00, p.C12)

1773 America’s first chamber of commerce was founded in Charleston, South Carolina. In 1912 the Chamber of Commerce of the USA was established.
(Econ, 4/21/12, p.77)

1773 Thomas Jefferson planted Yellow Newtown Pippin apples at his home in Monticello.
(T&L, 10/1980, p.42)

1773 John Harrison (1693-1776) received a monetary award in the amount of £8,750 from the British Parliament for his achievements regarding the invention of the marine chronometer solving the problem of establishing the East-West position or longitude of a ship at sea. He never received the official award, proclaimed in 1714, which was never awarded to anyone.
(Econ, 5/1/10, p.80)(www.surveyhistory.org/john_harrison%27s_timepiece1.htm)
1773 In England Sir Robert Clive was acquitted of embezzlement.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)
1773 A group of English traders broke away from Jonathan’s coffee house and moved to a new building. This became the forerunner of the London Stock Exchange (f.1801).
(Econ, 12/20/03, p.89)
1773 The Samuel Deacon & Co. ad agency opened in London.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1773 A large earthquake destroyed so much of Antigua that the Spanish moved away and built a new capital on a plateau 30 miles away that became Guatemala City.
(NG, 6/1988, p.798) (SFEM, 6/13/99, p.33)

1773 The Royal Captain, a merchant ship of the British East India Co., was lost off a coral reef in the Philippines.
(WSJ, 7/21/00, p.W2)

1773 Iceland held its first census.
(Economist, 8/25/12, p.64)

1773 Captain James Cook found a group of islands 1800 miles northeast of New Zealand. They became known as the Cook Islands. “A couple of years ago, the Cook Islands hired a lawyer from the United States to draft an asset protection statute that instantly made the islands one of the best places in the world to protect assets from creditors.
(Hem, 8/95, p.38)

1773 In Russia the Cossack Yemelyan Pugachev, pretending to be the dead emperor Peter III, incited a widespread rebellion.
(SFC,10/28/97, p.A8)

1773 Samuel Johnson and James Boswell toured the countryside of Scotland.
(SFC, 6/25/95, p.T-1)

1773-1776 In Mexico a mid-sixteenth century church was abandoned in the Quechula locality of southern Chiapas state due to big plagues in the region.
(SSFC, 10/18/15, p.A5)

1773-1777 William Bartram, American Quaker naturalist, was commissioned by Dr. John Fothergill to travel through the American South to hunt plants. Bartram’s travels led to the publication in 1791 of his “Travels Through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and West Florida.”
(Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.10-12)

1773-1785 Warren Hastings served as the British governor-general of India. [see 1787]
(WSJ, 5/1/00, p.A24)(WSJ, 2/22/00, p.A20)

1773-1793 Rule of Timur Shah. The capital of Afghanistan was transferred from Kandahar to Kabul because of tribal opposition. Constant internal revolts occurred.

1773-1827 Elizabeth de Meulan Guizot, French author: “Much misconstruction and bitterness are spared to him who thinks naturally upon what he owes to others, rather than on what he ought to expect from them.”
(AP, 7/18/99)

1773-1833 John Randolph, state representative from Virginia. He said of Edward Livingston, a mayor of NY and later a senator from Louisiana and US Sec. Of State, that he “shines and stinks like rotten mackerel by moonlight.”
(WSJ, 11/4/98, p.A20)

1774 Feb 10, Andrew Becker demonstrated a diving suit.
(MC, 2/10/02)

1774 Feb 17, Raphaelle Peale, U.S. painter, was born.
(HN, 2/17/98)

1774 Feb 22, English House of Lords ruled that authors do not have perpetual copyright.
(MC, 2/22/02)

1774 Mar 4, The 1st sighting of the Orion nebula was made by William Herschel.
(SC, 3/4/02)

1774 Mar 7, A 2nd Boston tea party was held.
(SFEC,11/23/97, Par p.14)
1774 Mar 7, The British closed the port of Boston to all commerce.
(HN, 3/7/98)

1774 Mar 25, English Parliament passed the Boston Port Bill.
(MC, 3/25/02)

1774 Mar 28, Britain passed the Coercive Act against Massachusetts. [see May 20]
(HN, 3/28/98)

1774 Apr 4, Oliver Goldsmith, Irish poet (She Stoops to Conquer), died.
(MC, 4/4/02)

1774 Apr 19, Gluck’s opera “Iphigenia in Aulis,” premiered in Paris.
(MC, 4/19/02)

1774 Apr, NYC patriots dumped 18 chests of tea off Murray’s Wharf.
(WSJ, 10/16/02, p.D8)

1774 May 10, Louis XV (64), King of France (1715-74), died of smallpox and was succeeded by his grandson Louis XVI (19). Louis XVI soon appointed Charles Gravier, comte de Vergennes, as his new foreign minister.
(AP, 5/10/97)(HN, 5/10/99)(PCh, 1992, p.318)(AH, 2/06, p.55)

1774 May 19, Ann Lee and eight Shakers sailed from Liverpool to New York. The religious group originated in Quakerism and fled England due to religious persecution. They become the first conscientious objectors on religious grounds and were jailed during the American Revolution in 1776. In 1998 Suzanne Skees published “god Among the Shakers.” The United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Appearing is the full, proper name for the 19th-century religious group better known as the Shakers. Although they were the largest and best-known communal society a century ago, the Shakers were rarely referred to by their proper name. Outsiders dubbed them “Shakers” for the movements in their ritualistic dance.
(DTnet 5/19/97)(WSJ, 3/27/98, p.W10)(HNQ, 7/2/98)

1774 May 20, The British Parliament passed the Coercive Acts to punish the colonists for their increasingly anti-British behavior. The acts closed the port of Boston. [see Mar 28]
(HN, 5/20/99)

1774 May, The conjunction of the Moon, Mercury, Venus and Jupiter in the same constellation spread panic among the unenlightened in Europe.
(NH, 6/00, p.10)

1774 Jun 1, The Boston Port Bill, the first bill of the Intolerable Acts (called by the Colonists) became effective. It closed Boston harbor until restitution for the destroyed tea was made (passed Mar. 25, 1774).
(DTnet 6/1/97)(HN, 6/1/98)

1774 Jun 2, The Quartering Act, requiring American colonists to allow British soldiers into their houses, was reenacted.
(HN, 6/2/98)

1774 Jun 13, Rhode Island became the 1st colony to prohibit importation of slaves.
(MC, 6/13/02)

1774 Jul 11, Jews of Algiers escaped an attack of the Spanish Army. Jun 11 was also cited for this event.
(MC, 7/11/02)

1774 Jul 12, Citizens of Carlisle, Penn., passed a declaration of independence.
(MC, 7/12/02)

1774 Jul 16, Russia and the Ottoman Empire signed the treaty of Kuchuk-Kainardji, ending their six-year war. This brought Russia for the first time to the Mediterranean as the acknowledged protector of Orthodox Christians.
(HN, 7/16/98)(WSJ, 4/29/99, p.A24)

1774 Jul 17, Capt Cook arrived at New Hebrides (Vanuatu).
(MC, 7/17/02)

1774 Aug 1, British scientist Joseph Priestley succeeded in isolating oxygen from air in Calne, England. He called his new gas “dephlogisticated air.”
(ON, 10/05, p.2)(AP, 8/1/07)

1774 Aug 6, Mother Ann Lee, founder of the Shaker Movement, arrived in NY.
(MC, 8/6/02)

1774 Aug 12, Robert Southey, English poet laureate (1813-1843) and biographer of Nelson, was born.
(HN, 8/12/98)(SC, 8/12/02)

1774 Aug 18, Meriwether Lewis, American explorer, was born in Charlottsville, VA. He led the Corps of Discovery with William Clark.
(HN, 8/18/00)(MC, 8/18/02)

1774 Aug 28, Mother Elizabeth Ann Seton, the first American-born saint and the founder of the Sisters of St. Joseph, was born in New York City. She was canonized in 1975..
(AP, 8/28/97)(HN, 8/28/98)(RTH, 8/28/99)

1774 Sep 5, The first Continental Congress assembled in Philadelphia in a secret session in Carpenter’s Hall with representatives from every colony except Georgia. Tensions had been tearing at relations between the colonists and the government of King George III. The British taking singular exception to the 1773 shipboard tea party held in Boston harbor. The dispute convinced Britain to pass the “Intolerable Acts”- 4 of which were to punish Mass. for the Boston Tea Party. Peyton Randolph of Williamsburg, Va., chaired the 1st Continental Congress. Its first official act was a call to prayer.
(AP, 9/5/97)(HNQ, 6/25/00)(AH, 10/04, p.14)(AH, 4/07, p.31)

1774 Sep 13, Tugot, the new controller of finances, urged the king of France to restore the free circulation of grain in the kingdom.
(HN, 9/13/98)

1774 Sep 26, John Chapman (d.1845), later known as Johnny Appleseed, was born in Massachusetts. A pioneer agriculturalist of early America, Chapman began his trek in 1797, collecting apple seedlings from western Pennsylvania and establishing apple nurseries around the early American frontier. Chapman was a Swedenborgian missionary, a land speculator and an eccentric dresser (he hated shoes and seldom wore them. He planted orchards across western Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Indiana from seed.
(www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=94)(T&L, 10/1980, p.42)(ON, 4/09, p.10)

1774 Oct 14, Patrick Henry, in declaring his love of country in a speech during the First Continental Congress on October 14, 1774, proclaimed, “I am not a Virginian, but an American.”
(HN, 8/2/98)

1774 Oct 20, The Continental Congress ordered the discouragement of entertainment.
(MC, 10/20/01)

1774 Oct 26, The first Continental Congress, which protested British measures and called for civil disobedience, concluded in Philadelphia.
(AP, 10/26/97)(HN, 10/26/98)
1774 Oct 26, Minute Men were organized in the American colonies.
(MC, 10/26/01)

1774 Nov 14, Gaspare Luigi Pacifico Spontini, composer, was born.
(MC, 11/14/01)

1774 Nov 22, British officer and privateer Sir Robert Clive (b.1725), considered by some as the richest man ever, committed suicide.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Clive)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1774 Nov 26, A congress of colonial leaders criticized British influence in the colonies and affirmed their right to “Life, liberty and property.”
(HN, 11/26/98)

1774 Nov, Thomas Paine, English pamphleteer, arrived in Philadelphia. He had been urged to come to America by Ben Franklin.
(ON, 6/2011, p.1)

1774 Dec 2, Johann Friedrich Agricola (54), German court composer and organist, died.
(MC, 12/2/01)

1774 Dec 13, Some 400 colonists attacked Ft. William & Mary, NH.
(MC, 12/13/01)

1774 Dec 16, Francois Quesnay (b.1694), French economist, died. He was the first to think of the economy as a system of interacting parts to be judged by the necessities and conveniences it produces. Quesnay wrote his Tableau Économique (1758), renowned for its famous “zig-zag” depiction of income flows between economic sectors.
(Econ, 8/7/10, p.84)(www.economyprofessor.com/theorists/francoisquesnay.php)

1774 Dec 18, Empress Maria Theresa expelled Jews from Prague, Bohemia and Moravia.
(MC, 12/18/01)

1774 Dec, Capt. Fernando Rivera y Moncada and 4 soldiers climbed Mount Davidson and proceeded north to Lands End.
(GTP, 1973, p.126)(SFC, 12/6/14, p.C1)
1774 Dec, In Paris nearly 100 feet of the Rue d’Enfer (“street of Hell”) collapsed to a depth of 100 feet.
(Hem., 3/97, p.129)

1774 Sir Francis Beaufort (d.1857) hydrogapher, was born near Navan in Co. Meath, Ireland.
(NH, 11/1/04, p.51)

1774 Kaspar David Friedrich (d.1840), German painter and master of numinous landscapes, was born. He painted “Wreck of the Hope.”
(AAP, 1964)(WSJ, 7/16/98, p.A16)

1774 John Singleton Copley, painter, left for England. This allowed his student, Charles Willson Peale, to step in as the most fashionable colonial portraitist.
(SFC, 1/25/97, p.E3)

1774 Thomas Jefferson (31), US President (1801-1809), wrote the widely circulated “Summary View of the Rights of British America ” and retired from his law practice.

1774 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832) published his novel “The Sorrows of Young Werther.” In 1887 French composer Jules Massenet (1842-1912) turned into an opera. The opera premiered at the Imperial Theatre Hofoper in Vienna on February 16, 1892.
(SFC, 9/17/10, p.F1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Werther)

1774 Ann Lee, leader of the United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Appearing, arrived in the New World. She was a young Englishwoman and led the Shakers in their faith which is based on celibacy, confession of sin, and belief in human perfectibility. She never learned to read or write. They withdrew from the world into their own agricultural communities which spread to Ohio & Kentucky and produced a wealth of songs, as many as 10,000. One of the best known is Simple Gifts made famous by Aaron Copland in Appalachian Spring.
(WSJ, 10/16/95, p. A-12)(SFC, 9/21/96, p.E4)

1774 Nicholas Cresswell, Englishman, arrived in the US and spent 3 years traveling and meeting prominent Americans of the time including George Washington, Thomas Jefferson and British Gen. William Howe. Cresswell kept a journal and in 2009 it was published as “A Man Apart: The Journal of Nicholas Cresswell 1774-1781.”
(WSJ, 4/11/09, p.W9)
1774 Tadeusz Kosciusko came to America from Poland after an unsuccessful love affair. He became a hero fighting the British in the American war for Independence.
(SFEC, 11/24/96, T7)

1774 Captain Cook dropped anchor at the Marquesas Islands.
(SFEC, 8/25/96, p.T6)
1774 Capt. Cook discovered the 13-square-mile Norfolk Island 1,000 miles east of Sidney. It was later turned into a penal settlement from which the last prisoner left in 1855.
(AP, 8/12/02)
1774 Captain Cook discovered Norfolk Island, between new Caledonia and new Zealand, and dubbed it “paradise” in his log. The British later turned it into a penal colony and resettled the inhabitants of Pitcairn island there in 1856.
(SFEM, 3/12/00, p.66)

1774 English journalist John Wilkes (1725-1797 was elected Lord Mayor of London.
(ON, 12/11, p.9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Wilkes)
1774 In England Georgiana Spencer (1757-1806) married William Cavendish, the 5th Duke of Devonshire. Spencer was the great-great-great-great-aunt of Princess Diana. In 1999 Amanda Foreman authored “Georgiana,” a biography of Georgiana Spencer.
(WSJ, 1/7/00, p.W4)
1774 Ann Lee, a Manchester Quaker, left for the New World and founded the Shaker movement. The Shakers had originated in England as the United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Appearance.
(SFC, 6/21/01, p.C2)(Econ, 2/20/15, p.74)
1774 Britain banned tontines, a form of life insurance , under the Life Assurance Act 1774, also known as the Gambling Act 1774.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life_Assurance_Act_1774)(Econ 6/17/17, p.69)

1774 Mexico exported 600 tons of the cochineal shell, known as carmine, to Spain. The acid color was extracted from the shell of the tiny red beetle that grew on cactus leaves. It was used to manufacture a red dye that was used in British “redcoats” and by Betsy Ross to color the first US flag.
(WSJ, 10/7/98, p.B1)

1774 A Dutch merchant cobbled together the earliest mutual-style fund, Eendragt Maakt Magt (Unity creates Strength). The first modern mutual fund was launched in Boston in 1924.
(Econ, 4/21/07, p.83)

1774 In northwestern Russia the Dormition church was built on the shores of Lake Onega in the Kondopoga region of Karelia. It was broadly admired as one of the most remarkable examples of Northern Russia’s wooden architecture. On August 10, 2018 it was destroyed by fire.
(AP, 8/10/18)

1774 A Scottish printer finally overturned a copyright monopoly that had allowed English booksellers to lock up the works of Shakespeare and other authors for nearly 2 centuries.
(WSJ, 3/26/04, p.W6)

1774 Spain established a small settlement on the Falkland Islands, which lasted to 1811. An Argentine outpost was established in the 1820s.
(Econ, 4/7/07, p.36)

1774-1781 The British army occupied Manhattan, Staten Island and western Long Island for 7 years. In 2002 Richard M. Ketchum authored “Divided Loyalties,” an account of the Revolutionary spirit in NY; Barnet Schecter authored “The Battle for New York,” and Judith L. Van Buskirk authored “Generous Enemies,” an account of interactions between loyalists and rebels during the war.
(WSJ, 10/16/02, p.D8)

1774-1784 The 1997 film “Beaumarchais” by French director Edouard Molinaro focused on these years.
(SFEC,11/23/97, DB p.14)(SFC,11/28/97, p.C15)

1774-1789 Abdul Hamid I succeeded Mustafa III in the Ottoman House of Osman.
(Ot, 1993, xvii)

1774-1792 In France King Louis XIV ruled.
(WUD, 1994, p.848)

1774-1852 George Chinnery, English watercolorist. He lived and worked in Hong Kong, Macao and Canton.
(Hem., 3/97, p.92)



Timeline of the Eighteenth Century: 1725-1749

1725 Jan 28, Peter I “the Great” Romanov (52), Czar of Russia (1682-1725), died. [see Feb 8]
(MC, 1/28/02)

1725 Feb 8, Peter I (52) “the Great” Romanov, czar of Russia (1682-1725), died. [see Jan 28]
(MC, 2/8/02)

1725 Feb 20, New Hampshire militiamen partook in the first recorded scalping of Indians by whites in North America. 10 sleeping Indians were scalped by whites for scalp bounty.
(HN, 2/20/99)(MC, 2/20/02)

1725 Mar 2, Georg F. Handel’s opera “Giulio Cesare in Egitto” premiered in London.
(SC, 3/2/02)

1725 Apr 2, Giovanni Casanova, Italian adventurer, was born. [see Apr 5]
(HN, 4/2/01)

1725 Apr 5, Giacomo Casanova, Italian writer, philanderer, adventurer, was born. [see Apr 2]
(MC, 4/5/02)

1725 Apr 25, Mir Mahmud was mysteriously killed after going mad. Afghans started to lose control of Persia.

1725 Apr 30, Spain withdrew from the Quadruple Alliance.
(HN, 4/30/98)

1725 May 8, John Lovewell, US Indian fighter, died in battle.
(MC, 5/8/02)

1725 Oct 17, John Wilkes (d.1797), English journalist, was born. He became a MP, Lord Mayor of London and called for independence of Britain’s American colonies.

1725 Oct 22, Alessandro Scarlatti (65), composer, died.
(MC, 10/22/01)

1725 Nov 11, Georg F. Handel’s opera “Tamerlano,” premiered in London.
(MC, 11/11/01)

1725 Nov, William Bradford, an English-born Quaker, established the New York Gazette.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R43)

1725 Dec 11, George Mason (d.1792), American Revolutionary statesman, was born at Gunston Hall Plantation, situated on the Potomac River some 20 miles south of Washington D.C. Mason framed the Bill of Rights for the Virginia Convention in June 1776. This was the model for the first part of fellow Virginian Thomas Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence and the basis of the first 10 Amendments to the federal Constitution. Mason died at Gunston Hall on October 7, 1792.
(HNQ, 2/18/99)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Mason)

1725 Jean-Baptiste Greuze (d.1805), French artist, was born.
(WSJ, 1/15/98, p.W11)(WSJ, 5/14/02, p.D7)

1725 Handel composed his opera “Rodelinda.” The libretto by Francesco Haym told a tale of female constancy under great adversity.
(WSJ, 6/12/01, p.A18)

1725 John Law (d.1729) moved to Venice and made a modest living gambling.
(WSJ, 7/19/00, p.B4)

1725 The first fossil salamander was found in Germany. It was at first identified as human but later correctly identified as the extinct cryptobranchid named Andrias scheuchzeri and dated to 15 million years of age.
(PacDis, Winter ’97, p.36)

1725 August II, elector of Saxony and King of Poland, gifted a selection of Meissen porcelain from his own collection to the king of Sardinia.
(WSJ, 11/21/07, p.D10)

1725 Czar Peter the Great chose Vitus Bering (44), a Danish seaman in the Russian navy, to lead an expedition to discover whether or not Asia was connected to America.
(ON, 2/06, p.1)

1725-1774 Sir Robert Clive, soldier of fortune. Known as “Clive of India” he wrested Bengal away from the French on behalf of the British East India Co. [see 1757]
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1725-1809 Paul Sandby, considered to be the father of English watercolorists.
(Hem., 3/97, p.92)

1726 Jan 25, Guillaume Delisle (50), French geographer (Atlas geographique), died.
(MC, 1/25/02)

1726 Feb 15, Abraham Clark, Declaration of Independence signer, was born.
(HN, 2/15/98)

1726 Feb 20, William Prescott, U.S. Revolutionary War hero, was born.
(HN, 2/20/98)

1726 Feb 26, Maximilian II, M. Emanuel, elector of Bavaria, governor of Netherlands, died.
(SC, 2/26/02)

1726 Apr 8, Lewis Morris, signer of the Declaration of Independence), was born.
(HN, 4/8/98)

1726 Apr 26, Pasquale Paoli, Corsican freedom fighter, was born.
(MC, 4/26/02)

1726 May 14, Moshe Darshan, Rabbi, author (Torat Ahsam), died.
(MC, 5/14/02)

1726 May 25, Giuseppi Paolucci, composer, was born.
(SC, 5/25/02)

1726 Jun 3, James Hutton, Scottish geologist, was born. He founded the science of geology and wrote “A Theory of the Earth.”
(HN, 6/3/99)

1726 Jul, 10 Benjamin Colman preached an execution sermon to pirates in Boston.
(LSA., Fall 1995, p.19)

1726 Jul 23, Benjamin Franklin sailed back to Philadelphia.
(MC, 7/23/02)

1726 Sep 7, Francois-Andre Danican Philidor, French composer and chess champion, was born.
(MC, 9/7/01)

1726 Oct 11, Benjamin Franklin returned to Philadelphia from England.
(MC, 10/11/01)

1726 Nov 20, Oliver Wolcott, later Conn.-Gov. and signer of Declaration of Independence, was born.
(MC, 11/20/01)

1726 Bishop George Berkeley wrote his poem: On the Prospect of Planting Arts and Learning in America, which included the line “Westward the course of empire takes its way.” The poem was written on behalf of a plan to build an English college in Bermuda.
(SFC, 3/28/03, p.A3)
1726 Jonathan Swift (1667-1745), Irish born clergyman and English writer, authored Gulliver’s Travels.
(Econ, 3/2/13, p.14)
1726 Britain’s Admiralty Building was built on a block of the Middle East section of London.
(Econ, 6/21/14, p.58)

1726 In Paris the puppet show “La Grandmere amoureuse” by Fuzelier and Dorneval was a spoof on French opera based on Lully’s tragic 1676 opera “Atys.” It was revived in 1998 by the SF Bay Area team of Magnificat and the Carter Family Marionettes. It made reference to a current dispute between the physicians and surgeons of Paris.
(SFEC, 1/18/98, DB p.33)(PNM, 1/25/98)

1726 Telemann published his collection of 72 sacred cantatas: “Der Harmo-nischer Gottes-Dienst.” In it pietistic poetry or paraphrase of Biblical verse was set in the latest [musical] style. He wrote a sequel in 1731.
(EMN, 1/96, p.4)

1726 Francois Couperin composed his collection “Les Nations” with “La Francoise.”
(SFC, 6/8/96, p.E1)

1726 St. -Louis-en-l’Ile Church was built on the Ile St. -Louis on the Seine in Paris. It was vandalized during the French Revolution.
(SFEC, 6/22/97, p.T8)

1726 Montevideo, the capital city of Uruguay, was founded.
(Hem., 2/96, p.23)

1726 Michael-Richard de Lalande (b.1657), French composer, died. He served as the court composer for Louis XIV.
(SFC, 3/20/04, p.E1)(Internet)

1727 Jan 2, James Wolfe, commanded British Army (captured Quebec), was born.
(MC, 1/2/02)

1727 Feb 22, Francesco Gasparini (58), composer, died.
(MC, 2/22/02)

1727 Mar 14, Johann Gottlieb Goldberg, composer, was born.
(MC, 3/14/02)

1727 Mar 20, Sir Isaac Newton (b.1642), physicist, mathematician and astronomer, died in London. Michael White wrote the 1998 biography “Isaac Newton” in which he revealed Newton’s passion for alchemy. In 2003 James Gleick authored the biography “Isaac Newton.” In 2011 Edward Dolnick authored “The Clockwork Universe: Isaac Newton, Royal Society, and the Birth of the Modern World.” In 2014 Sarah Dry authored “The Newton Papers: The Strange and True Odyssey of Isaac Newton’s Manuscripts.”
(AP, 3/20/97)(WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)(SSFC, 6/1/03, p.M1)(Econ, 3/12/11, p.99)(Econ, 6/21/14, p.81)

1727 Apr 29, Jean-Georges Noverre, French dancer, choreographer (ballet d’action), was born.
(MC, 4/29/02)

1727 May 7, Jews were expelled from Ukraine by Empress Catherine I of Russia.
(MC, 5/7/02)

1727 May 10, Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot, French minister of Finance, was born.
(MC, 5/10/02)

1727 May 14, Thomas Gainsborough (d.1788), English painter, was baptized. His work included “The Blue Boy” (1770).
(HN, 5/14/01)(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.579)(SSFC, 9/23/18, p.A11)

1727 May 17, Catherine I (b.1683), Empress of Russia (1725-27), died.

1727 May 18, Peter II Alekseyevich (1715-1730) was proclaimed autocrat of Russia.

1727 Jun 6, Francesca Cuzzoni and Faustina Bordoni, female vocalists, attacked each other during a performance of Bononcini’s Astianatte in London.
(LGC-HCS, p.44)

1727 Jun 11, George I died on a journey to Hanover. George II became king of England.

1727 Aug 14, William Croft (b.1678), English composer, died.
(MC, 8/14/02)

1727 Aug 30, Giandomenico Tiepolo (d.1804), Venetian painter, was born. His subjects included troupes of traveling players from northern Italy.
(Econ, 4/10/04, p.72)(www.britannica.com)

1727 Oct 11, George II was crowned as king of England.

1727 Nov 15, NY General assembly permitted Jews to omit phrase “upon the faith of a Christian” from abjuration oath.
(MC, 11/15/01)

1727 Dec 22, William Ellery, US attorney and signer of the Declaration of Independence, was born.
(MC, 12/22/01)

1727 Brazil planted its first coffee.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1727 The 1st English-language recipe for “English Katchop” was published in “E. Smith’s Compleat Housewife, or Accomplished Gentlewoman’s Companion.”
(SFC, 8/27/03, p.E4)
1727 Georg Friedrich Handel, German-born composer, became by act of Parliament a naturalized British citizen.
(LGC-HCS, p.41)(AP, 4/14/97)(SFC, 9/16/97, p.E1)(Econ, 3/21/09, p.89)

1727 In Munich the “Die Andächtige Pilgerfahrt” (The Devout Pilgrimage) by Vincentius Briemle was published. The 2 illustrated volumes consisted of travel writing of journeys to Italy, Austria and the Holy Land.
(Econ, 1/20/07, p.93)(www.dartmouth.edu/~wessweb/nl/Fall05/pinews.html)

1727 An earthquake on Martinique devastated the local cocoa plantations. Landowners replanted fields with coffee from French Captain Gabriel Mathieu de Clieu.
(ON, 10/2010, p.12)

1727 Moulay Ismail the Bloodthirsty (b.~1645), Moroccan ruler, died. The Alaouite sultan is said to have fathered 888 children through a harem of 500 women. He ruled from 1672 to 1727 succeeding his half-brother Moulay Al-Rashid who died after a fall from his horse.
(Econ, 12/20/08, p.128)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moulay_Ismail)

1727 The Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS) was founded.
(Econ, 1/31/09, p.74)

1728 Jan 29, The Beggar’s Opera by John Gay (d.1732), with music arranged by John Christopher Pepusch, had its premier at the Lincoln’s Inn Fields in London. Gay intended it to be a parody of Italian opera and a satirization of the Walpole administration. He wrote new lyrics to popular tunes and his “ballad opera” was a great success.
(LGC-HCS, p.45)(ON, 2/04, p.11)

1728 Feb 10, Peter III Fyodorovich (d.1762), czar of Russia (1761-62), was born in Germany. He married Catherine, who succeeded him following a coup. [see Feb 21]
(WUD, 1994 p.1077)(WSJ, 2/14/02, p.A18)(MC, 2/10/02)

1728 Feb 21, Peter III, Russian Tsar (1762), husband of Catherine, was born in Kiel Germany. [see Feb 10]
(MC, 2/21/02)

1728 Feb 25, Peter II Alekseyevich (1715-1730) was crowned as czar of Russia.

1728 Feb 28, Georg F. Handel’s opera “Siroe, re di Persia,” premiered in London.
(MC, 2/28/02)

1728 Apr 2, Franz Asplmayr, composer, was born.
(MC, 4/2/02)

1728 Apr 13, Johann Christoph Schmidt (63), composer, died.
(MC, 4/13/02)

1728 Apr 16, Joseph Black, Scottish chemist and physicist, was born.
(HN, 4/16/01)

1728 May 4, Georg F. Handel’s opera “Tolomeo, re di Egitto,” premiered in London.
(MC, 5/4/02)

1728 May 7, Rosa Venerini (b.1656), Italian nun and founder of the Congregation of the Holy Venerini Teachers, died. In 2006 Pope Benedict XVI named her a saint.
(SFC, 10/16/06, p.A2)(www.korazym.org/news1.asp?Id=19552)

1728 Jul 16, Henri Moreau, composer, was born.
(MC, 7/16/02)

1728 Oct 3, Charles G. Chevalier d’Eon de Beaumont, French duelist, spy and transvestite, was born.
(MC, 10/3/01)

1728 Oct 7, Caesar Rodney (d.1784), Delaware, judge and signer (Declaration of Independence), was born in Dover, Delaware. He led opposition to British laws for many years while serving in the provincial assembly. He was elected to the Continental Congresses of 1774 and 1775. In 1777, he commanded the Delaware militia, and the next year he was elected president of the state for a three-year term. Rodney on horseback represents Delaware, the first of the original 13 states to ratify the Constitution, on a new .25-cent piece.
(HNQ, 2/24/99)(MC, 10/7/01)

1728 Oct 27, Captain James Cook (d.1779), explorer, was born in a small village near Middlesbrough, Yorkshire. His discoveries included the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii).

1728 Ephraim Chambers (1680-1740) produced his Cyclopedia, a popular British reference work. An expanded French translation began in 1746.
(WSJ, 6/29/05, p.D8)(www.nndb.com/people/027/000094742/)

1728 The French Count de Boulainvilliers wrote a life of Muhammad that described him as “an enlightened and wise lawgiver.”
(WSJ, 12/12/01, p.A15)

1728 The Muslim Kampung Hulu Mosque was built in Malacca, Malaysia.
(SFEC, 3/19/00, p.T8)

1728 The first diamonds found in Brazil reached Lisbon, Portugal.
(USA Today, OW, 4/22/96, p.13)

1728 Vitus Bering (47), Danish explorer in the Russian navy, discovered the Bering Strait between Asia and North America.
(PCh, 1992, p.286)(ON, 2/06, p.1)

1729 Jan 12, Edmund Burke (d.1797), British politician and author, was born in Dublin. Burke advocated consistent and sympathetic treatment of the American colonies: “A very great part of the mischiefs that vex this world arises from words.”
(V.D.-H.K.p.224)(AP, 7/20/97)(AP, 11/29/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Burke)

1729 Jan 19, William Congreve (58), English dramatist (Love for Love), died.
(MC, 1/19/02)

1729 Mar 21, John Law, Scottish gambler and financier (57 or 58), died in Venice. An inventory of his wealth included 488 paintings with works by Titian, Raphael, Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci. His story was told in 2000 by Cynthia Crossen in “The Rich and How They got That Way.”
(WSJ, 7/19/00, p.B4)(MC, 3/21/02)

1729 Apr 15, Johann S. Bach’s “Matthew Passion” premiered in Leipzig.
(MC, 4/15/02)

1729 Apr 21, Catharina II, the Great, writer, empress of Russia (1762-96), was born. [see May 2]
(MC, 4/21/02)

1729 May 2, Catherine the Great (d.1796), (Catherine II), empress (czarina) of Russia (1762-1796), was born. She succeeded her husband Peter III to the throne in 1762. “I am one of the people who love the why of things.” [see Apr 21]
(AP, 9/4/97)(HN, 5/2/99)(WSJ, 2/14/02, p.A18)

1729 May 13, Henry William Stiegel, early American glassmaker, was born.
(HN, 5/13/98)

1729 May 25, Jean de Neufville, Dutch-US merchant (started 4th English war), was born.
(SC, 5/25/02)

1729 Jul 25, North Carolina became a royal colony.
(SC, 7/25/02)

1729 Jul 30, The city of Baltimore was founded.
(AP, 7/30/97)

1729 Sep 6, Mozes Mendelssohn, German enlightened philosopher (Haksalah), was born. [see Sep 26]
(MC, 9/6/01)

1729 Sep 26, Moses Mendelssohn, German philosopher, critic, Bible translator, was born. [see Sep 6]
(MC, 9/26/01)

1729 Nov 28, Natchez Indians massacred most of the 300 French settlers and soldiers at Fort Rosalie, Louisiana.
(HN, 11/28/98)

1729 Dec 1, Giuseppe Sarti, composer, was born.
(MC, 12/1/01)

1729 Dec 3, Padre Antonio Francisco J. Jose Soler, composer (Fandango), was born in Olot, Spain.
(MC, 12/3/01)

1729 Newton’s “Principia Matematika” was published in English.

1729 The first constitution of American Presbyterianism was adopted.
(HNQ, 7/6/99)

1729 James Bradley discovered the aberration of starlight, an apparent shift in the position of a star caused by the finite speed of light and the motion of the Earth in orbit around the Sun. He uses this to determine the speed of light to be 308,3 00 km/sec, remarkably close to the modern value of 299,792 km/sec.

1729 Seborga was consolidated by sale within the Principality of Piedmont.
(SFEC, 3/30/97, p.T7)

1729 In China opium smoking was banned.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1729 Voltaire and Charles Marie de la Condamine engaged in a bond fund scheme to take advantage of bonds issued by the French government.
1729 Ruinart, a French Champagne house, was founded. In 2006 it remained the oldest Champagne house in the world.
(SFC, 10/13/06, p.F2)

1729 In Italy Filippo Juvarra designed the Palazzina di Caccia, a “little hunting palace” at Stupingi for King Vittorio Amedeo II.
(WSJ, 8/18/99, p.A17)

1729-1742 The building of the Cathedral at Zacateca, Mexico. It has been called the “Parthenon of the Mexican Baroque.”
(SFEC, 11/10/96, p.T3)

1729-1781 Gotthold Lessing, German writer, dramatist-critic, saw Faust’s pursuit of knowledge as noble, and in an unfinished play he arranged for a reconciliation between God and Faust. “Think wrongly if you please, but in all cases, think for yourself.”
(V.D.-H.K.p.239)(AP, 9/9/99)

1729-1801 The Danish East India Company was chartered to carry on trade in the East Indies.
(WUD, 1994, p.449)

1729-1814 William Howe, 5th Viscount, British general in the American Revolutionary War.
(WUD, 1994, p.689)

1730 Jan 14, William Whipple, Declaration of Independence signer, was born.
(HN, 1/14/99)

1730 Jan 23, Joseph Hewes, US merchant (Declaration of Independence signer), was born.
(MC, 1/23/02)

1730 Jan 30, Peter II Alekseyevich (1715-1730), czar of Russia, died.

1730 Apr 9, The 1st Jewish congregation in US formed the synagogue, “Sherith Israel, NYC.”

1730 May 10, George Ross, signer of the Declaration of Independence, was born.
(HN, 5/10/98)

1730 May 13, Marquess of Rockingham, British Prime Minister, was born.
(HN, 5/13/98)

1730 May 15, Robert Walpole became the sole minister in the English cabinet following the resignation of Lord Townshend.
(HN, 5/15/99)

1730 May 29, William Jackson, composer, was born.
(SC, 5/29/02)

1730 Jul 8, A magnitude 8.7 earthquake in Valparasio, Chile, killed at least 3,000 people.
(AP, 2/27/10)

1730 Jul 12, Josiah Wedgwood (d.1795), pottery designer, manufacturer (Wedgwood), was baptized in Burslem, England.

1730 Jul 21, States of Holland put a death penalty on “sodomy.”
(MC, 7/21/02)

1730 Aug 10, Sebastien de Brossard (74), French composer, died. He authored the “Dictionnaire de musique” (Paris, 1703).
(MC, 8/10/02)(Internet)

1730 Sep 1, Benjamin Franklin married Miss Read.
(MC, 9/1/02)

1730 Sep 17, Friedrich von Steuben, Prussian and US inspector-general of Washington’s army, was born.
(MC, 9/17/01)

1730 Nov 6, Hans Hermann von Katte, Prussian lieutenant, was beheaded.
(MC, 11/6/01)

1730 Nov 10, Oliver Goldsmith, playwright, was born. His work includes “She Stoops to Conquer.”
(HN, 11/10/00)

1730 Jean Baptiste Simeon Chardin (1699-1779), French painter, painted “Still Life With Plums.”
(WSJ, 12/5/96, p.A16)

1730 “Argippo,” the only opera Vivaldi (1678-1741) actually wrote for Prague, was staged just one time in Prague. The score was found in 2006 and another staging was set for 2008.
(AFP, 5/1/08)

1730 In Maryland William Fell, a Quaker ship’s carpenter, purchased a swampy promontory that became known as Baltimore’s Fell’s Point.
(WSJ, 12/1/07, p.W11)

1730 Benjamin Franklin became the official printer for Pennsylvania. He ultimately became the official printer for several colonial governments.
(AH, 2/06, p.48)

1730 Smallpox returned to Boston, but by this time inoculation was recognized as a viable means of preventing death from the disease.
(ON, 3/05, p.5)

1730 The French arrived in Swanton, Vermont, and the plague followed. The local Abenaki Indians faded into the woods.
(SFC, 12/13/02, p.J7)

1730 Jean Baptiste Oudry and Pierre-Josse Perrot, artists in the court of King Louis XV, created a drawing for the wall tapestry “Le Coq et Le Perle.” The tapestry was made by French weaving house Savonnerie and went on auction in 1997 for $300-400 thousand.
(WSJ, 2/21/97, p.B10)

1730 Jesuits founded San Jose del Cabo in Baha, Ca.
(SSFC, 2/6/05, p.F8)

1730 The monastery of Saint Serafim Sarofsky in the village of Deveyevo, Russia, was constructed. In 1927 the 266 year old complex was liquidated by the communists and used to store lumber and vegetables until 1991 when it was returned to the church.
(SFC, 5/18/96, p.A-11)

1730 Edward Scarlett, a London optician, began anchoring eyeglasses to the ears with rigid side pieces called temples.
(SFEC, 8/2/98, Z1 p.8)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R21)
1730 Britain’s Stephenson Clarke Shipping Ltd was established. The company was forced to liquidate in 2012.
(Reuters, 8/9/12)

1730 In Germany A. Ketterer invented the cuckoo clock.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1730 The first legally recognized futures market opened in Japan.
(Wired, 9/96, p.36)

1730 Diamonds were discovered in Brazil, which became the leading supplier until the 1866 discovery in South Africa. [see 1728]
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1730 Empress Anna Ivanovna, Peter the Great’s daughter, came to the Russian throne. She recalled Abram Petrovich Gannibal from exile and appointed him to a new post as a captain of military engineering.

1730 Makhtum Kuli, one of Turkmenistan’s greatest poets, was born. He died in the 1880s.

1730s Tiepolo painted “Alexander and Campaspe in the Studio of Apelles,” one of his 3 paintings on this theme.
(WSJ, 2/11/00, p.W6)

1730s The Hudson Bay Company built a stone fortress on the western shore of the Hudson Bay in Canada for the Chipewyan fur trade.
(NH, 7/96, p.4)

1730s In Buckinghamshire, England, the Palladian Bridge was built in the Stowe Landscape Gardens. Lancelot “Capability Brown did the landscaping.
(SSFC, 3/16/03, p.C6)

1730s German gun makers located in Pennsylvania began producing the Kentucky rifle, so named because it was intended for use on the Kentucky frontier. Its gunpowder was ignited with sparks struck when the hammer, containing a piece of flint, was released. The flintlock Kentucky rifle, with its extra long barrel and small caliber, was the most accurate rifle of its day and was used widely in the French and Indian Wars and American Revolution.
(HNQ, 12/21/99)

1730-1754 Mahmud I succeeded Ahmed III in the Ottoman House of Osman.
(Ot, 1993, xvii)

1730-1785 William Whipple (b. Jan 14, d. Nov 28) Judge/Jurist, Revolutionary, Declaration of Independence signer.
(DT internet 11/28/97)

1730-1820 The period of the third of four waves of rising prices over the last 800 years as described by David Hackett Fisher in his 1996 book: “The Great Wave: Price Revolutions and the Rhythm of History.”
(WSJ, 12/19/96, p.A16)

1731 Jan 20, Antonio Farnese (b.1679), the eighth and ultimate Farnese Duke of Parma and Piacenza, died. The Farnese art collection passed to Charles III, king of Naples.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_Farnese,_Duke_of_Parma)(Econ, 3/12/11, p.100)

1731 Mar 11, Robert Treat Paine, Declaration of Independence signer, was born.
(HN, 3/11/98)

1731 Apr 8, William Williams, signer of the Declaration of Independence, was born.
(HN, 4/8/98)

1731 Apr 26, Daniel Defoe (~70), English author, died. His work included the novels “Robinson Crusoe,” “Roxana” and the pamphlet “The Shortest Way With Dissenters.” In 1998 Richard West published the biography “Daniel Defoe: The Life and Strange Surprising Adventures.”
(WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A12)(MC, 4/24/02)(MC, 4/26/02)

1731 May 28, All Hebrew books in Papal State were confiscated.
(MC, 5/28/02)

1731 May 29, Orazio Mei composer, was born.
(SC, 5/29/02)

1731 Jun 2, Martha Dandridge, the first First Lady of the United States. Widow of Daniel Park Custis, she married George Washington in 1759.
(HN, 6/2/00)

1731 Jul 1, The “Instrument of Association” for the Library Company of Philadelphia was signed under the leadership of Benjamin Franklin. It was America’s first circulating library.
(www.librarycompany.org/Lemay1.pdf)(AH, 2/06, p.56)

1731 Sep 1, Pierre Danican Philidor (50), composer, died.
(MC, 9/1/02)

1731 Oct 10, Henry Cavendish, English physicist, was born. He later discovered hydrogen.
(HN, 10/10/98)(MC, 10/10/01)

1731 Nov 9, Benjamin Banneker was born in Maryland and grew up a free black man. From his farm near Baltimore, Banneker spent much of his time studying the stars. Although he lacked much of a formal education, he taught himself with borrowed books and became a noted mathematician, astronomer and inventor. Carving its gears with a pocket knife, he built a wooden clock in 1770 that was believed to have been the first built in America. Banneker began publishing scientific almanacs in 1791 after accurately predicting a solar eclipse. President George Washington appointed him to the District of Columbia Commission in 1789 to help survey the new capital city of Washington, D.C. Banneker, who died in 1806, also corresponded with Thomas Jefferson about his views against slavery.
(HNPD, 11/9/98)

1731 Nov 15, William Cowper, English lawyer and poet (John Gilpin), was born. [see Nov 26]
(MC, 11/15/01)

1731 Nov 26 William Cowper, English pre-romantic poet (His Task), was born. [see Nov 15]
(MC, 11/26/01)

1731 Dec 8, Frantisek Xaver Dusek, composer, was born.
(MC, 12/8/01)

1731 Dec 28, Christian Cannabich, German composer and royal chaplain master, was born.
(MC, 12/28/01)

1731 Luis Berrueco, Mexican painter, painted “The Martyrs of Gorkum,” a detailed work depicting the 1572 martyrdom of 19 Catholics in Gorinchem, Netherlands, during the Dutch war for independence.
(SFC, 3/5/11, p.E2)(http://tinyurl.com/5s8wnz2)

1731 Giovanni Paolo Panini, Italian artist, made his painting “Interior of St. Peter’s, Rome.”
(WSJ, 9/8/00, p.W2)

1731 A pioneering collection of graffiti appeared in London titled: “The Merry-Thought: or, the Glass-Window and Bog-House Miscellany.” The editor used the pseudonym Hurlo Thrumbo.
(Econ, 12/18/04, p.94)
1731 Henry Fielding wrote his ballad-opera “The Lottery.”
(Econ, 7/10/10, SR p.15)

1731 Telemann wrote a sequel to his 1726 collection: “Forsetzung des Harmonischen Gottesdienstes.”
(EMN, 1/96, p.4)

1731 Fort Vincennes, later Fort Sackville, was built by the French near present-day Vincennes, Indiana. It was captured by Colonel George Rogers Clark in 1779.
(HNQ, 7/24/00)

1731 In Malta the Manoel Theater was constructed.
(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.40)

1731-1795 Francis Marion, American Revolutionary General. Banastre Tarleton gave American partisan leader Francis Marion the nickname of “The Swamp Fox.” Tarleton, a young lieutenant colonel of British cavalry, had triumphed in a series of bold and lightning-fast attacks against Rebel forces. He was sent by Cornwallis to stop the increasingly troublesome Marion whose strikes on Tory patrols, British convoys and encampments had grown from a minor annoyance to a major problem for British supply lines. Given information on Marion‘s camp, Tarleton hunted the rebel general and his men through about 25 miles of barely passable terrain. Tarleton finally halted at a body of murky water called Ox Swamp and decided to give up the chase. “Come my boys!” he declared to his men. “Let us go back, as for this damned old fox, the devil himself could not catch him.” He spurred his horse and led his men away from the swamp leaving behind the nickname by which Marion is still remembered.
(WUD, 1994 p.877)(HNQ, 7/31/00)

1731-1800 William Cowper, English poet: “No man can be a patriot on an empty stomach.”
(AP, 11/28/99)

1731-1802 Erasmus Darwin, noted physician and grandfather of biologists Charles Darwin and Francis Galton, explored evolutionary concepts in his work “Zoonomia” or the “Laws of Organic Life” that were related to those of French biologist Jean Baptiste Lamarck. Darwin believed that species modified themselves to their environment in a purposeful way. Combining 18th Century values of materialism with simple observations, he is usually noted as a transitional figure in evolutionary theory.
(HNQ, 9/14/00)

1732 Jan 17, Stanislaw II August Poniatowski, last king of Poland (1764-95), was born.
(MC, 1/17/02)

1732 Jan 20, Richard Henry Lee, American Revolutionary patriot and signer of the Declaration of Independence, was born.
(HN, 1/20/99)

1732 Jan 24, Pierre Caron de Beaumarchais (d.1799), French dramatist, was born. He was best remembered for his plays “Barber of Civil” and “Marriage of Figaro.” He was a conduit for French gold and arms to American Revolution, persecuted by mob during French Rev. “It is not necessary to understand things in order to argue about them.”
(AP, 12/21/99)(www.theatrehistory.com/french/beaumarchais001.html)

1732 Feb 17, Louis Marchand (63), composer, died.
(MC, 2/17/02)

1732 Feb 22, George Washington (1732-1799), first U.S. President, was born in Westmoreland, Virginia. He is revered as the “Father of His Country” for the great services he rendered during America’s birth and infancy–a period of nearly 20 years. He spent most of his boyhood at Ferry Farm, across from the village of Fredericksburg. He later married Martha Custis, a widow with 2 sons. They had no children together. Martha Washington is credited with originating the first US bandanna. He held 317 slaves and once said: “To set the slaves afloat at once would… be productive of much inconvenience and mischief?”. Washington commanded the Continental Army that won American independence from Britain in 1783. In 1787, Washington was elected president of the Constitutional Convention that created the form of American democratic government that survives to this day. Washington was also elected in 1787 as the first president of the United States, serving two terms. One of his officers, “Light-horse Harry” Lee, summed up how Americans felt about George Washington: “First in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen.” George Washington died at his Mount Vernon home on December 14, 1799, at the age of 67.
(A & IP, ESM, p.10)(AHD, p.1446)(SFC, 3/8/96, p.A21)(Hem., 3/97, p.101) (SFC,12/897, p.A27)(HN, 2/22/98)(HNPD, 2/22/99)

1732 Feb 26, The 1st mass celebrated in American Catholic church was at St Joseph’s Church, Philadelphia.
(SC, 2/26/02)

1732 Mar 5, Joseph-Francois Salomon (82), composer, died.
(MC, 3/5/02)

1732 Mar 31, Joseph Haydn (d.1809), Austrian composer who helped develop the classical style, was born. In his career he composed 104 symphonies, 82 string quartets and 60 piano sonatas. He also wrote some 175 baritone pieces for his patron, the Hungarian prince Nickolaus Esterhazy, who played the complex stringed instrument. The Canadian scholar David Schroeder wrote: “Haydn and the Enlightenment.”
(CFA, ’96,Vol 179, p.42)(WUD, 1994, p.651)(WSJ, 8/26/97, p.A14)(HN, 3/31/98)

1732 Apr 5, Jean Honore Fragonard (d.1806), France, painter, was born. He painted “The Shady Grove.” Hubert Robert was a painter friend and the painting “La Jardinaire” was painted by one or the other.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean-Honor%C3%A9_Fragonard)(AAP, 1964)(WSJ, 2/19/99, p.W12)

1732 Apr 13, Frederick Lord North, British prime minister (1770-82) , was born.
(HN, 4/13/98)

1732 Apr 17, The 2nd Kamchatka Expedition was announced in the Russian Senate and Vitus Bering was named as captain commander. I.K. Kirilov, chief secretary of the senate, expanded Bering’s mandate to include astronomical and scientific observations, to explore the seas between Siberia and Japan and to establish trade relations with peoples encountered.
(ON, 2/06, p.1)

1732 May 13, Theodor Schwarzkopf (72), composer, died.
(MC, 5/13/02)

1732 Jun 3, Pieter Vuyst, Dutch gov-gen. of Ceylon, was executed.
(MC, 6/3/02)

1732 Jun 9, Royal charter for Georgia was granted to James Oglethorpe.
(MC, 6/9/02)

1732 Jun 21, Johann Christoph Frederic Bach (d.1795), composer, was born. He is known as the Buckeburg Bach for serving in that city his whole life.
(LGC-HCS, p.31)(MC, 6/21/02)

1732 Aug 13, Voltaire’s “Zaire,” premiered in Paris.
(MC, 8/13/02)

1732 Sep 2, Pope Clement XII renewed anti-Jewish laws of Rome.
(MC, 9/2/01)

1732 Sep 24, 21 homosexuals were burned in South Horn.
(MC, 9/24/01)

1732 Nov 8, John Dickinson (d.1808), US statesman and publicist, was born. He authored “The Liberty Song” in 1768.
(WUD, 1994 p.400)(SFC, 11/2/02, p.D2)

1732 Nov 14, 1st US professional librarian, Louis Timothee, was hired in Phila.
(MC, 11/14/01)

1732 Dec 4, John Gay (47), English poet (Beggar’s Opera), died.
(MC, 12/4/01)

1732 Dec 6, Warren Hastings, England, 1st governor-General of India (1773-84), was born.
(MC, 12/6/01)

1732 Dec 19, Benjamin Franklin began publishing “Poor Richard’s Almanack.” [see Dec 28]
(AP, 12/19/97)(MC, 12/19/01)

1732 Dec 23, Richard Arkwright (d.1792), English inventor (spinning frame) and industrialist, was born into a poor family in Preston. He amassed one of the first factory fortunes. He invented a water-powered cotton-spinning machine that became the basis for huge cotton mills.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R4,8)(MC, 12/23/01)

1732 Dec 28, The first Poor Richard’s Almanac was published along with the 1st known ad in the Pennsylvania Gazette. The Almanack was published by Richard Saunders (really Ben Franklin). [see Dec 19]
(HFA, ’96, p.20)(MC, 12/28/01)

1732 William Hogarth published his engravings of “The Harlot’s Progress.” They were wildly popular.
(Econ, 2/11/12, p.83)

1732 Marivaux, a French playwright, wrote the play “Le Triomphe de l’amour.” In 1997 it was redone as the musical “Triumph of Love.”
(WSJ, 10/29/97, p.A20)

1732 Handel composed his opera “Ezio.” It was about the hero Ezio, who returned to Rome after conquering Attila the Hun only to be wrongly condemned for treason. The libretto was by Metastasio and the work failed. It was stopped by Handel after 5 performances.
(SFC, 3/5/97, p.E3)(SFEC, 4/20/97, BR p.9)(SFC, 4/28/97, p.B3)

1732 The Kaiserbrunn (emperor’s brook) was discovered by Emperor Charles VI while on a hunting expedition. It later supplied over half of Vienna’s daily requirement of drinking water, through a 130-km-long, rock-cut tunnel called the First Vienna Mountain Spring Pipeline, constructed in 1873.

1732 In Scotland the Beggar’s Benison Club was founded by members of the upper middle-class. It was devoted to “the convivial celebration of male sexuality.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Beggar%27s_Benison)(Econ, 2/11/12, p.82)

1732-1762 Nicola Salvi, sculptor, spent 30 years on the Fontana de Trevi in Rome. It was the terminus of Agrippas Aqua Virgo.
(SFEC, 7/2/00, p.T4)

1733 Jan 13, James Oglethorpe and 130 English colonists arrived at Charleston, SC.
(MC, 1/13/02)

1733 Feb 1, Augustus the Strong, Elector of Saxony, Grand Duke of Lithuania (1697-1706) and twice King of Poland (1697-1706, 1709-1733), died in Warsaw.

1733 Feb 4, In England the widow Mrs Lydia Duncomb (80), her long term infirm companion Mrs Harrison (60), and servant Ann Price (26) were murdered during a robbery. The servant Sarah Malcolm (22) of County Durham was indicted. She strongly defended herself but was convicted and executed on Mar 7.
(Econ, 9/28/13, p.80)(http://tinyurl.com/kcbjla7)

1733 Feb 12, English colonists led by James Oglethorpe founded Savannah, Ga. Gen. James Edward Oglethorpe sailed up the Savannah River with 144 English men, women and children and in the name of King George II chartered the Georgia Crown Colony. He created the town of Savannah, to establish an ideal colony where silk and wine would be produced, based on a grid of streets around six large squares.
(SFC, 6/25/95, p.T-7)(SFEC,11/30/97, p.T4)(AP, 2/12/98)

1733 Feb 27, Johann Adam Birkenstock (46), composer and sandal designer, died.
(MC, 2/27/02)

1733 Mar 13, Joseph Priestly (d.1804), English chemist, author and clergyman, was born. He is credited with the discovery of oxygen.
(HN, 3/13/99)(WUD, 1994 p.1142)

1733 May 6, 1st international boxing match: Bob Whittaker beat Tito di Carni.
(MC, 5/6/02)

1733 May 12, Maria Theresa was crowned queen of Bohemia in Prague.
(MC, 5/12/02)

1733 May 17, England passed the Molasses Act, putting high tariffs on rum and molasses imported to the colonies from a country other than British possessions.
(MC, 5/17/02)

1733 May 18, Georg Bohm (71), German organist, composer, died.
(SC, 5/18/02)

1733 Jul 30, Society of Freemasons opened their 1st American lodge in Boston.
(MC, 7/30/02)

1733 Aug 24, David Traugott Nicolai (d.1799), composer, was born.
(MC, 8/24/02)

1733 Sep 11, Francois Couperin, French composer (Le Grand), died at 64. [see Sep 12]
(MC, 9/11/01)

1733 Sep 12, Francois Couperin “Le Grand”, French composer, died at 64. [see Sep 11]
(MC, 9/12/01)

1733 Oct 10, France declared war on Austria over the question of Polish succession.
(HN, 10/10/98)

1733 Nov 5, John Peter Zenger (b.1697), German-born immigrant, published the 1st issue of the New York Weekly Journal. Zenger, the partner of William Bradford, had left the Gazette to form the rival New York Weekly Journal. Attorney James Alexander hired Zenger in order to publish anonymously his criticism of NY Governor William Cosby.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R43)(ON, 11/04, p.9)

1733 Voltaire authored his “Lettres Anglaises” in which he hailed England as a “nation of philosophers” and recognized the English Enlightenment.
(WSJ, 12/5/00, p.A24)

1733 Handel’s opera “Orlando” was first performed. The libretto was drawn from Orlando Furioso, the 16th century epic by Ariosto that loosely translates as Orlando goes nuts. The tale follows the fortunes of the Christian warrior Roland, nephew of Charlemagne and defender of the faith against the Moors.
(WSJ, 2/28/96, p.A-16)
1733 The opera “Hippolyte et Aricie” by Rameau had its premiere. The libretto was by Abbe Simon-Joseph Pellegrin and was based on Racine’s 1677 drama Phèdre.
(WSJ, 5/21/97, p.A12)
1733 Vivaldi’s opera, “Motezuma” was first performed. The score came to light in 2002 when Hamburg-based musicologist Steffen Voss found a copy of the score in the archives of a Berlin-based choral society.
(AFP, 5/1/08)

1733 In New Mexico La Iglesia de Santa Cruz de la Canada was built. It is the oldest and most formal of the 6 adobe missions scattered along the western shoulder of the Sangre de Cristo mountains between Taos and Santa Fe. It features the art work of primitive artist Jose Rafael Aragon, who was buried here in 1862. The book “La Iglesia de Santa Cruz de la Canada, 1733-1983” covered this period. It was edited and published by poet and writer Jim Sagel (d.1998 at 50). Sagel received the Governor’s Award for the book in 1984.
(SFC, 5/12/96, p.T-5)(SFC, 4/9/98, p.C14)

1733 The Pennsylvania city of Reading became one of America’s first producers of iron and was for nearly a century the foremost in the country. Settled in 1733 by the sons of William Penn, the city is situated on the Schuylkill River in the southeastern part of the state. The Reading foundries furnished cannon for the American forces in the Revolutionary War and the Union during the Civil War.
(HNQ, 5/6/98)

1733 Gen. James Edward Oglethorpe sailed up the Savannah River with 144 English men, women and children and in the name of King George II chartered the Georgia Crown Colony. He created the town of Savannah, to establish an ideal colony where silk and wine would be produced, based on a grid of streets around six large squares.
(SFC, 6/25/95, p.T-7)(SFEC,11/30/97, p.T4)
1733 John Kay, a British weaver, invented the flying shuttle, allowing the production of wider pieces of cloth.
(Econ 7/1/17, p.15)
1733 Dr. W. Houston, British botanist, died.
(WUD, 1994, p.689)

1733 In Paris the pompiers began fighting fires on the initiative of Louis XV.
(Econ, 12/11/10, p.66)

1733 St. Croix island was purchased from the French by the Dutch West India and Guinea Company.
(NG, Jan, 1968, C. Mitchell, p. 84)

1733-1740 In Malta the Cathedral Museum in Mdina was built as a seminary opposite the Mdina Cathedral. Traces of the classical city of Melite were later found beneath it.
(AM, 7/97, p.48)

1733-1795 Maruyama Okyo, artist, pictured a 50 mile scene in “Both Banks of the Yodo River.”
(WSJ, 12/1/98, p.A20)

1733-1808 Hubert Robert, painter. He painted “The Old Bridge.”
(AAP, 1964)

1734 Jan 24, In Cracow the 2nd last king of Lithuania and Poland, August III, was crowned.
(LHC, 1/24/03)

1734 Jan 31, Julien-Amable Mathieu, composer, was born.
(MC, 1/31/02)
1734 Jan 31, Robert Morris, Declaration of Independence signer, was born.
(HN, 1/31/99)

1734 Mar 9, The Russians took Danzig (Gdansk) in Poland.
(HN, 3/9/99)

1734 Mar 10, Spanish army under Don Carlos (III) drew into Naples.
(MC, 3/10/02)

1734 Mar 21, Gunther Jacob Wenceslaus (48), composer, died.
(MC, 3/21/02)

1734 Apr 1, Louis Lully (69), French composer, died.
(MC, 4/1/02)

1734 May 23, Friedrich (Franz) Anton Mesmer (d.1815), physician and hypnotist, was born.
(HN, 5/23/98)(WSJ, 5/30/00, p.A24)

1734 Oct 14, Francis Lightfoot Lee, US farmer and signer of the Declaration of Independence), was born.
(MC, 10/14/01)

1734 Oct 22, NY Gov. William Cosby ordered the hangman and whipper of NY to burn 4 back issues of the New York Weekly Journal.
(ON, 11/04, p.9)

1734 Nov 2, Daniel Boone, American frontiersman, was born.
(HFA, ’96, p.18)(HN, 11/2/98)

1734 Nov 17, John Zenger was arrested for libel against NY colonial governor William Cosby. Zenger was later acquitted.
(ON, 11/04, p.9)

1734 Dec 18, Jean-Baptiste Rey, composer, was born.
(MC, 12/18/01)

1734 Filippo della Valle created his sculpture “Allegorical Figure of Temperament.” It was a smaller version of a larger marble statue.
(WSJ, 1/29/02, p.A18)

1734 In Canada a black slave named Marie-Joseph Angelique was hanged for setting fire to the Montreal home of her master. She became the title character in a 1999 play by Lorena Gale.
(WSJ, 6/22/99, p.A24)(SFC, 2/12/10, p.A18)

1734 Holkham Hall in Norfolk, England, was begun by Thomas Coke, later Earl of Leicester. He was a great agricultural reformer and pioneered farming techniques that increased yields from tenants nine fold in 40 years. He held sheep shearings where thousands of farmers also compared notes on new plows and seed.
(NG, Nov. 1985, p.689,691)

1734 Father Nicholas Tamaral attempted to enforce a ban polygamy among the Pericu Indians in Baha California. The Pericu beat him in return and apparently burned him alive.
(SSFC, 2/6/05, p.F8)

1734 Charles III was crowned King of the Two Sicilies. He ordered the island of Ponza rebuilt as part of his defenses. Major Winspeare of the British Royal Army Corp was the engineer of the project and the design was by Carpi, a Neapolitan architect.
(SFEC, 11/8/98, p.T12)

1734-1802 George Romney, English painter. He painted “Miss Willoughby.”
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1243)

1734-1823 Adam Czartoryski, a friend of Rousseau and Ben Franklin and luminary of the enlightenment in Poland, was an art collector and displayed his art at the family estate at Pulawy.
(WSJ, 7/30/97, p.A13)

1735 Jan 1, Paul Revere (d.1818), U.S. patriot who rode through the streets of Boston during the American Revolution, warning of the British landings, was born to Apollos Rivoire and Deborah Hitchbourne, one of 13 children.
(HN, 1/1/99)(HNQ, 6/27/02)

1735 Feb 18, The 1st opera performed in America, “Flora,” in Charleston, SC.
(MC, 2/18/02)

1735 Feb 27, Dr. John Arbuthnot (b.1667), English physician, satirist and polymath, died. In 1712 he invented the figure of John Bull, a national personification of Great Britain in general and England in particular, especially in political cartoons and similar graphic works.

1735 Jun 10, John Morgan, physician-in-chief of Continental Army, was born.
(HN, 6/10/98)

1735 Aug 4, A jury acquitted John Peter Zenger of the New York Weekly Journal of seditious libel.
(AP, 8/4/97)

1735 Aug 18, The Evening Post began publishing in Boston, Mass.
(MC, 8/18/02)

1735 Sep 5, Johann Christian Bach (d.1782), composer, son of JS Bach, was born. He is known as the London Bach. He traveled to Italy, became a Catholic, and went to England where he was mentor to the young Mozart. He also represented the Style Gallant.
(LGC-HCS, p.31)(MC, 9/5/01)

1735 Sep 22, Robert Walpole became the 1st British PM to live at 10 Downing Street.
(MC, 9/22/01)

1735 Oct 30, John Adams, second president of the United States (1797-1801), was born in Braintree (Quincy), Mass.
(AP, 10/30/97)(HN, 10/30/98)(MC, 10/30/01)

1735 William Hogarth made drawings for “The Rake’s Progress.”
(SFEC, 1/25/98, DB p.7)

1735 Samuel Johnson (1709-1784) translated a book on Abyssinia by a Portuguese Jesuit: “A Voyage to Abyssinia.” In 1759 Johnson authored his prose fiction “The History of Rasellas, Prince of Abissinia.” In the novel morality and happiness are shown not as matters of simple alternatives but sometimes impossible ones.

1735 Henry Fielding set up his own theater company at the Little Theater in London’s Haymarket. His 1st production was Pasquin.
(ON, 9/03, p.8)

1735 Handel composed his operas “Ariodante” and “Alcina.” The librettos were drawn from an episode of Orlando Furioso, the 16th century Italian epic by Ariosto.
(WSJ, 2/28/96, p.A-16)(WSJ, 12/8/98, p.A20)

1735 Jean-Philippe Rameau composed his rococo opera-ballet “Les Indes Galantes,” (The Amorous Indies).
(WSJ, 10/21/99, p.A20)

1735 Just-Aurele Meissonier, a royal silversmith, made a Rococo soup tureen for the Duke of Kingston. It later passed to J.P. Morgan and in 1998 was valued at over $8 million.
(WSJ, 5/8/98, p.W12)

1735 Antigua built a prison to hold 150 inmates. In 2016 it held some 400 inmates.
(Econ, 3/12/15, p.34)

1735 In London, England, Col. Sir Thomas De Veil began dispensing justice from a house on Bow Street. De Veil was succeeded by Henry Fielding.
(SFC, 7/14/06, p.A2)

1735 A French expedition to South America was led by Charles-Marie de la Condamine. It produced the earliest maps of the northern part of the continent and led to the introduction of platinum and rubber to Europe. In 2004 Robert Whitaker authored “The Mapmaker’s Wife: A True Tale of Love, Murder, and Survival in the Amazon.” It was an account of Jean Godin (d.1792), the expedition’s mapmaker, and his wife, Isabel Grameson. The couple married in Quito in 1741.
(Econ, 5/15/04, p.81)(ON, 5/05, p.1)

1735 Lady Hyegyong was born in Korea. At age 9-10 she married Crown Prince Sado (~10), who was murdered by his father, King Yongjo, in 1762. Hyegyônggung Hong Ssi later authored her memoir “Hanjungnok.”
(Econ, 9/11/04, p.79)(www.financial-book-review.com)

1735 Jehan-Jacques Blancpain started making watches in Villeret, Switzerland. The firm later became part of the Swatch Group.

c1735-1736 Jean Baptiste Simeon Chardin (1699-1779), French painter, painted “The Young Schoolmistress.”
(WSJ, 6/19/00, p.A42)

1735-1826 John Adams, 2nd president of the US from 1797-1801.
(AHD, 1971, p.14)(A&IP, Miers, p.17)

1736 Jan 19, James Watt, Scottish inventor of the steam engine who gave his name to a unit of power, was born. [see 1705]
(AP, 1/19/98)(HN, 1/19/99)

1736 Jan 27, Stanislaw Lesheinski gave up the Polish-Lithuanian throne.
(LHC, 1/27/03)

1736 Feb 19, Georg F. Handel’s “Alexander’s Feast,” premiered.
(MC, 2/19/02)

1736 Feb 29, Anna Lee, founder of the Shaker movement in America, was born.
(HN, 2/29/00)

1736 Mar 10, NY colonial Gov. William Cosby died. George Clarke became the new governor.
(ON, 11/04, p.10)(www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/zenger/chronology.html)

1736 Mar 16, Giovanni Battista Pergolesi (b.1710), Italian composer (Il Prigioniero Superbo, Stabat Mater), died. Marvin Paymer (d.2002), an expert on Pergolesi, later edited the 26-volume “The New Pergolesi Edition.”
(MC, 1/4/02)(SFC, 6/24/02, p.B6)(MC, 3/16/02)

1736 Mar 23, Iman Willem Falck, Dutch Governor of Ceylon (1765-83), was born.
(SS, 3/23/02)

1736 May 26, British and Chickasaw Indians defeated the French at the Battle of Ackia. In northwestern Mississippi the Chickasaw Indians, supported by the British, defeated a combined force of French soldiers and Chocktaw Indians, thus opening the region to English settlement.
(AHD, 1971, p.11)(HN, 5/26/98)

1736 May 29, Patrick Henry (d.1799), American Colonial patriot, orator and governor of Virginia, was born. He was a slave-owner and justified the fact by saying: “I am driven along by the general inconvenience of living here without them.” He later said “Give me liberty or give me death.”
(SFC,12/897, p.A27)(HN, 5/29/01)

1736 Aug 8, Mahomet Weyonomon, a Mohegan sachem or leader, died of smallpox while waiting to see King George II to complain directly about British settlers encroaching on tribal lands in the Connecticut colony. The tribal chief was buried in an unmarked grave in a south London churchyard.
(AP, 11/22/06)(http://tinyurl.com/ymbn3c)

1736 Sep 10, Carter Braxton, US farmer and signer of the Declaration of Independence, was born.
(MC, 9/10/01)

1736 Sep 16, Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit (b.1686), Gdansk-born German physicist, died in the Netherlands. He discovered that water boils at 212F and freezes at 32F.

1736 Nov 18, Carl Friedrich Christian Fasch, composer, was born.
(MC, 11/18/01)

1736 Nov 26, Charles-Joseph Panckoucke, French publisher (Mercure de France), was born.
(MC, 11/26/01)

1736 Gian Domenico Ferretti (1692-1767) created his painting “The Brazen Serpent.”

1736 Henry Fielding presented his play “The Historical Register for the Year 1736,” a pointed attack on the British government of PM Walpole.
(ON, 9/03, p.8)

1736 J.S. Bach played weekly concerts at Zimmerman’s coffeehouse in Leipzig on Friday evenings from 8 to 10.
(LGC-HCS, p.25)

1736 Jean Marie Leclair organized the Recreation de Musique.
(EMN, 1/96, p.4)

1736 Early expansion of American Presbyterianism was spurred by the founding of “log colleges,” especially the one formed in this year by Rev. William Tennent, Sr. at Neshaminy.
(HNQ, 7/6/99)

1736 Georgia’s founder, General James Edward Oglethorpe, established Fort Frederica on the northern tip of St. Simon Island off the coast of Georgia.
(SFC, 4/28/96, p.T-7)

1736 Britain’s Mortmain Act (literally meaning ‘dead hand’) was introduced to protect the rights of heirs and frustrate benefactors determined to disinherit their families. It invalidated charitable gifts of land or buildings unless they were made in the last year of the donor’s life.
1736 Samuel Baldwin of Hampshire, England, had his body cast into the ocean. He requested this so that his wife could not carry out her threat to dance on his grave.
(SFEC, 11/14/99, Z1 p.2)

1736 Filippo Juvarra (b.1678), Italian baroque architect, died in Madrid.

1736 Nadir Shah (head of Persia) occupied southwest Afghanistan, and southeast Persia.

1736-1795 The period of Emperor Qianlong’s (Ch’ien-lung) reign over China. Qianlong was a painter and calligrapher and showed an insatiable appetite for collecting art. His collection formed the core of the later National Palace Museum.
(SFEC, 10/6/96, DB p.36)(SFC, 10/14/96, p.B3)(WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)

1737 Jan 12, John Hancock, first signer of the Declaration of Independence, was born. [see Jan 23]
(HN, 1/12/99)

1737 Jan 21, Ethan Allen, American Revolutionary commander of the “Green Mountain Boys” who captured Fort Ticonderoga in 1775, was born.
(HN, 1/21/99)

1737 Jan 23, John Hancock (d.1793), American statesman and first Governor of Massachusetts, was born. He was governor twice: (1780-1785 and 1787-1793). His was the first signature in large script at the bottom of the US Declaration of Independence. [see Jan 12]
(HFA, ’96, p.22)(AHD, p.597)

1737 Jan 29, Thomas Paine, political essayist, was born in England and went on to write “The Rights of Man” and “The Age of Reason.” He lived his final years in poverty and obscurity, and died June 8, 1809.
(HN, 1/29/99)(HNQ, 9/21/99)

1737 Feb 20, French minister of Finance, Chauvelin, resigned.
(MC, 2/20/02)

1737 Mar 12, Galileo’s body was moved to Church of Santa Croce in Florence, Italy.
(MC, 3/12/02)

1737 Mar 28, Francesco Zanetti, composer, was born.
(MC, 3/28/02)

1737 Apr 27, Edward Gibbon (d.1794), historian, writer of “Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire,” was born. [see May 8, 1737]
(HN, 4/27/98)

1737 May 8, Edward Gibbon, English historian, author of “Decline and Fall of Roman Empire,” was born. [see April 27, 1737] “All that is human must be retrograde if it does not advance.”
(HN, 5/8/98)(AP, 2/27/00)

1737 May, Sir Robert Walpole argued for censorship of a play in the House of Commons of a satire called “The Golden Rump.” Walpole pressed through Parliament a Licensing Act that lasted over 200 years.
(WSJ, 10/14/97, p.A22)(ON, 9/03, p.8)

1737 Jul 9, Gian Gastone b.1671), the last Medici to rule Tuscany, died. With his death Florence ended its era as an independent state. Tuscany fell to Francis of Lorraine (later Holy Roman Emperor Francis I), husband of Maria Theresa of Austria, in exchange for Lorraine, which went to Stanislaus I of Poland.
(http://tinyurl.com/mylnlb)(SFEC,11/30/97, p.T3)(AM, 7/05, p.39)

1737 Jul 18, The Turkish army beat the Austrians in the Battle at Banja Luka.
(MC, 7/18/02)

1737 Sep 14, Johann Michael Haydn (d.1806), composer and younger brother of Franz Joseph, was born in Austria.

1737 Sep 19, In India’s Bay of Bengal a cyclone destroyed some 20,000 ships. It was estimated that more than 300,000 people died in the densely populated area called the Sundarbans. Later research indicated the population of Calcutta at the time to be around 20,000. An estimate of the number of deaths was revised down to about 3,000.

1737 Dec 18, Antonio Stradivari, the most renowned violin maker in history, died in Cremona, Italy. He made about 1200 violins of great quality of which half still survive. In 2006 Joseph Nagyvary, a Texas biochemist and violin maker, put forward evidence that the quality of sound in a Stradivari violin was due to chemicals used to protect the wood from wood-eating worms.
(WSJ, 10/17/94, p.1)(AP, 12/18/98)(SFC, 12/28/06, p.A20)

1737 Sep 19, Charles Carroll (d.1832), American patriot and legislator, was born. He was the only Roman Catholic signer of the Declaration and his signature read Charles Carroll of Carrollton. He lived in Maryland where, as a Roman Catholic he was forbidden from voting and holding public office. However, the wealthy Carrolls moved in the highest social circle and entertained George Washington and the Marquis de Lafayette at their estate.
(HNQ, 1/14/99)(MC, 9/19/01)

1737 Oct 2, Francis Hopkinson, US writer and lawyer, was born. He designed the Stars & Stripes.
(MC, 10/2/01)

1737 Oct 7, 40 foot waves sank 20,000 small craft and killed 300,000 in Bengal, India.
(MC, 10/7/01)

1737 Oct 22, Vincenzo Manfredini, composer, was born.
(MC, 10/22/01)

1737 The French annual art exhibition known as the Salon was inaugurated.
(WSJ, 11/19/03, p.D12)

1737 The English puppet opera “The Dragon of Wantley” was written with music by John Frederick Lampe and libretto by Henry Carey.
(ST, 5/20/04, p.C8)

1737 Frenchman Jacques de Vaucanson created a mechanical, flute playing “android.”
(Econ, 3/26/05, p.17)

1737 Handel experienced some mental turbulence after a stroke.
(LGC-HCS, p.46)

1737 Richmond, Virginia was founded.
(WSJ, 12/21/95, p.A-5)

1737 London officials worried about the large amount of British government bonds held by Dutch investors.
(WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-23)

1737 Rev. Andrew Le Mercier, a Huguenot living in Boston, set the first horses out to graze on Sable Island, 100 miles east of Nova Scotia. A few decades later Thomas Hancock of Boston plundered some 60 horses from Acadian settlers expelled from Nova Scotia by British overlords, and settled them on Sable Island. Hardy descendants of the horses still thrived in 1998.
(SFC, 7/23/98, p.C3)

1737 Florence ended its era as an independent state.
(SFEC,11/30/97, p.T3)

1737 French Captain Gabriel Mathieu de Clieu (1687-1774) was appointed governor of Martinique and the neighboring island of Guadeloupe.
(ON, 10/2010, p.12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gabriel_de_Clieu)

1738 Apr 15, The bottle opener was invented.
(MC, 4/15/02)

1738 May 9, John Pindar, [Peter], physician, poet, was born.
(MC, 5/9/02)

1738 May 24, The Methodist Church was established.
(HN, 5/24/98)

1738 May 28, Dr. Joseph Ignace Guillotine, French inventor of the guillotine, was born.
(HN, 5/28/98)

1738 Jun 4, George III was born (d.1820). He was the King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1760-1820, and the King of Hanover from 1815-1820. He was responsible for losing the American colonies. He passed the Royal Marriages Act, which made it unlawful for his children to marry without his consent.
(HFA, ’96, p.32)(AHD, 1971, p.552)(WSJ, 5/23/96, p.A-10)

1738 Jul 3, John Singleton Copley, finest colonial American artist, was born in Mass.
(MC, 7/3/02)

1738 Oct 10, Benjamin West, painter (Death of General Wolfe), was born.
(MC, 10/10/01)

1738 Nov 15, Sir William Hershel, British astronomer who discovered Uranus, was born.
(HN, 11/15/98)

1738 Dec 9, Jews were expelled from Breslau, Silesia.
(MC, 12/9/01)

1738 Dec 31, Charles Lord Cornwallis (d.1805), soldier and statesman, was born. “Fire when ready Gridley.”
(MC, 12/31/01)

1738 Benjamin Franklin wrote in Poor Richard’s Almanack “Sell not virtue to purchase wealth, nor Liberty to purchase power.”

1738 Handel composed his opera “Serse” and his oratorio “Saul.” Handel’s “Xerxes” was first performed. The original Italian libretto was by Nicolo Minato and Silvio Stampiglia.
(LGC-HCS, p.41,46)(WSJ, 3/25/96, p.A-15)

1738 French inventor Jacques de Vaucanson built a mechanical duck that could quack, flap,, paddle, drink, eat and “digest” grain.
(SFC, 1/23/15, p.A10)
1738 Jacques de Vaucanson exhibited a mechanical flute player that actually breathed.
(WSJ, 8/23/02, p.W8)

1738 Pope Clement XII issued a bull against the Freemasons forbidding Catholics to join under threat of excommunication.
(WSJ, 2/6/02, p.A16)

c1738 In Russia the Vaganova Ballet Academy was founded. It was later attached to St. Petersburg’s Kirov Ballet.
(WSJ, 3/10/98, p.A1)

1738 Robert Locklear was king of the Cheraw Indians. This tribe is thought by many to be ancestral to what is now called the Lumbee Indian Tribe of North Carolina. The Lumbees have been called Croatan Indians, the Indians of Robeson County, the Cherokee Indians of Robeson County, and since 1952, the Lumbee Indians.
(WSJ, 11/13/95, p.A-1, 5)

1738 Daniel Bernouilli (1700-1782), Swiss physicist and mathematician, son of Johan explained how lift is created, as in a backward spinning golf ball, by a difference of air pressures. He is known for the Bernouilli equation.
(WUD, 1994, p.141)(SFEC, 6/14/98, p.A12)

1738 Nadir Shah (head of Persia) took Kandahar.

1738-1789 Jan 10, Ethan Allen was born. He was the American Revolutionary commander of the Green Mountain Boys in Vermont.
(HFA, ’96, p.22)(AHD, p.34)

1738-1815 John Singleton Copley, American painter. He painted the elite of colonial Boston. His portraits lacked facility but he developed an exceedingly direct approach to his art. His paintings include portraits of Epes Sargent, Moses Gill, Nathaniel Sparhawk, Mary Royall and Samuel Adams.
(WSJ, 6/14/95, p.A-14)

1738-1822 Sir William Herschel, British astronomer, one of the first to formulate the hypothesis that the stellar system to which our Sun belongs occupies a lenticular volume, with the Sun located somewhere inside, near the plane of the lens.
(SCTS, p.136)

1739 Feb 7, Joseph Pouteau, composer, was born.
(MC, 2/7/02)

1739 Mar 16, George Clymer, US merchant (signed Declaration of Independence and Constitution), was born.
(MC, 3/16/02)

1739 Mar 20, Eligio Celestino, composer, was born.
(MC, 3/20/02)
1739 Mar 20, In India, Nadir Shah of Persia occupied Delhi and took possession of the Peacock thrown. King Nadir Shah later took the golden Peacock Throne back to Persia.
(HN, 3/20/99)(SFEC, 5/21/00, p.T8)

1739 Apr 10, Dick Turpin was executed in England for horse stealing.
(MC, 4/10/02)

1739 May 12, Johann Baptist Vanhal, composer, was born.
(MC, 5/12/02)

1739 Jul 24, Benedetto Marcello, composer, died on 53rd birthday.
(MC, 7/24/02)

1739 Sep 1, 35 Jews were sentenced to life in prison in Lisbon, Portugal.
(MC, 9/1/02)

1739 Sep 7, Joseph Legros, composer, was born.
(MC, 9/7/01)

1739 Sep 9, A slave revolt in Stono, SC, led by an Angolan slave named Jemmy, killed 20-25 whites. Three slave uprisings occurred in South Carolina in 1739. Whites soon passed black codes to regulate every aspect of slave life.
(SFC, 12/18/96, p.A25)(www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part1/1p284.html)(AH, 2/05, p.66)

1739 Sep 13, Grigory Potemkin (d.1791), Russian army officer, statesman, Catherine II’s lover, was born. [see Sep 24]
(MC, 9/13/01)

1739 Sep 18, Turkey and Austria signed peace treaty-Austria ceding Belgrade to Turks. [see Sep 23]
(MC, 9/18/01)

1739 Sep 23, The Austrians signed the Treaty of Belgrade after having lost the city to the Turks. [see Sep 18]
(HN, 9/23/98)

1739 Sep 24, Grigorij A. Potemkin (d.1791), Monarch of Tauris and friend of Catherine II, was born. [see Sep 13]
(MC, 9/24/01)(WSJ, 2/14/02, p.A18)

1739 Oct 3, Russia signed a treaty with the Turks, ending a three-year conflict between the two countries.
(HN, 10/3/98)

1739 Oct 17, King George II granted Thomas Coram, retired sea captain, a royal charter to establish “a hospital for the reception, maintenance and education of exposed and deserted young children.”
(ON, 9/02, p.8)

1739 Oct 19, England declared war on Spain over borderlines in Florida. The War is known as the War of Jenkins’ Ear because a member of Parliament waved a dried ear and demanded revenge for alleged mistreatment of British sailors. British seaman Robert Jenkins had his ear amputated following a 1731 barroom brawl with a Spanish Customs guard in Havana and saved the ear in his sea chest.
(EWH, 4th ed, p.555)(HN, 10/19/98)(PCh, 1992, p.292)

1739 Nov 2, Karl Ditters von Dittersdorf, composer, was born.
(MC, 11/2/01)

1739 Nov 22, Adm. Edward Vernon captured the Spanish city of Portobello, Panama, with a force of 6 British ships.
(PCh, 1992, p.292)

1739 Dec 25, Chevalier de Saint-Georges (d.1799) was born on the Caribbean island of Guadeloupe. He was the first African American musician to achieve international renown as a classical composer, violinist and conductor.

1739 Handel composed his oratorio “Israel in Egypt.” Text was taken from the books of Exodus and Psalms. The first of the 3 parts is actually a funeral ode written the previous year for Queen Caroline. The gender of the pronouns were changed to serve as a lament for the death of Joseph.
(LGC-HCS, p.46)(SFEC, 9/15/96, BR p.7)(SFC, 9/23/96, D3)
1739 Rameau composed his opera “Dardanus.”
(SFC,10/21/97, p.E3)
1739 In northern California and Oregon some sort of extreme climactic event slowed the growth of redwood and other trees according to later tree ring studies by researchers.
(SFC, 8/14/13, p.A9)

1739-1740 The Peacock Throne (containing parts of the famous royal Mogul seat) is supposed to have been brought by Nadir Shah to Iran from Delhi. Lord Curzona (father of Ms. Ravensdale) asserted that the throne was discovered in a broken and piecemeal condition by Aga Mohammed Shah, and that he had it made up into the throne of modern shape.
(NG, Sept. 1939, Baroness Ravensdale, p.326,331)

1739-1823 William Bartram, American Quaker naturalist. His work included: “Travels Through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and West Florida” (1791), “Observations on the Creek and Cherokee Indians” and “Some Account of the Late Mr. John Bartram of Pennsylvania.” “A Seminole chief named Cowkeeper… gave him the name of Puc Puggy or “flower hunter”.”
(Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.10-12)

1740 Feb 3, Charles de Bourbon, King of Naples, invited the Jews to return to Sicily.
(MC, 2/3/02)

1740 Feb 7, Adam-Philippe Custine, French earl, general, MP, was born.
(MC, 2/7/02)

1740 Feb 8, Clement XII (87), [Lorenzo Corsini], blind Pope (1730-40), died.
(MC, 2/8/02)

1740 Feb 16, Giambattista Bodoni, printer, typeface designer (Bodoni), was born in Saluzzo, Italy.
(MC, 2/16/02)

1740 May 6, John Penn, signer of the Declaration of Independence, was born.
(HN, 5/6/98)

1740 May 9, Giovanni Paisiello, Italian composer (Barber of Seville), was born.
(MC, 5/9/02)

1740 May 31, Frederick II (1712-1786) ascended to the throne as King of Prussia.

1740 Jun 2, Donatien Alphonse Francois, writer, Marquis de Sade, was born in Paris. He was the French nobleman who was imprisoned for holding orgies in which he whipped and sodomized prostitutes. He wrote “The 120 Days of Sodom” and “Justine.” In 1998 Francine du Plessix Gray authored “At Home With the Marquis de Sade.”
(http://www.geocities.com/SoHo/Atrium/3539/)(WUD, 1994, p.1259)(WSJ, 2/7/96, p.A-12)(WSJ, 11/5/98, p.A20)(WSJ, 2/7/96, p.A-12)(HN, 6/2/99)

1740 Jun 22, King Frederick II of Prussia ended torture and guaranteed religion and freedom of the press.
(MC, 6/22/02)

1740 Jul 8, Pierre Vigne (b.1670), Frenchman, died. He founded the Congregation of Sisters of the Most Holy Sacrament. In 2004 he was beatified by Pope John Paul VI.
(AP, 10/3/04)(www.catholic-forum.com)

1740 Aug 1, Thomas Arne’s song “Rule Britannia,” which celebrated Britain’s military and commercial prowess, was performed for the 1st time. It grew to become the unofficial anthem.
(HN, 8/1/98)(Econ, 2/3/07, SR p.3)

1740 Aug 26, Joseph-Michel Montgolfier, French inventor, born. He and his brother Jacques-Etienne invented the hot air balloon in 1783.
(RTH, 8/26/99)

1740 Sep 11, The first mention of an African American doctor or dentist in the colonies was made in the Pennsylvania Gazette.
(HN, 9/11/98)

1740 Oct 20, Maria Theresa became ruler of Austria, Hungary and Bohemia upon the death of her father, Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI.
(AP, 10/20/06)

1740 Oct 29, James Boswell, Samuel Johnson’s biographer, was born in Scotland.
(MC, 10/29/01)

1740 Dec 16, Prussia’s Frederick the Great seized Silesia from the newly crowned Archduchess of Austria. She sent troops to reconquer Silesia. A showdown battle occurred on April 10, 1741, in Silesia at Mollwitz. Most of Silesia was seized by King Frederick the Great of Prussia in the War of the Austrian Succession.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silesia)(Econ 6/3/17, p.48)

1740 Henry Fielding began working as a lawyer and read “Pamela or Virtue Rewarded” by Samuel Richardson. Fielding soon authored his satire “Shamela” in response.
(ON, 9/03, p.1)
1740 Boston merchant Peter Faneuil offered to build a public market house as a gift to the city on a site where slaves had previously been auctioned.
(SFC, 8/1/18, p.A6)
1740 A slave plot was uncovered in Charleston that resulted in the hanging of 50 blacks.
(HNQ, 6/10/98)
1740 The ignoring of the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 led to the War of the Austrian Succession in 1740. When Charles VI died in 1740, Maria Theresa’s claim was ignored by Elector Charles Albert of Bavaria, Augustus III of Saxony and Poland, and Philip V of Spain, igniting a general European war.
(HNQ, 7/29/99)
1740 The British sent a huge amphibious force to attack the Spanish in Santiago de Cuba as part of the War of Jenkin’s Ear. Of 28,000 men, 22,000 were dead within a year due to disease. Only about 1,000 perished in combat.
(Econ, 8/13/11, p.80)
1740 A dark oak room from Rouen, France, was later transferred to the Legion of Honor Art Museum in San Francisco, Ca.
(WSJ, 11/16/95, p.A-18)
1740 Frederick the Great awarded what is believed to be the first medal for combat bravery, the Pour le Merite, nicknamed the Blue Max.
(WSJ, 4/23/99, A1)

1740s Frederick the Great built a summer palace in Potsdam named Sans-souci (without worries).
(SFEC, 7/27/97, p.T11)

1740s Antonio de Solis, a Spanish priest, found the ruins of Palenque, Mexico, while planting a field.
(SSFC, 5/5/02, p.C5)

1740-1790 The period that approximates the years of the Scottish Enlightenment. It centered on the intellectual environment of Glasgow and Edinburgh, Scotland, where men such as Adam Smith and David Hume produced work that greatly influenced James Madison and Alexander Hamilton. This environment is well described in The Life of Adam Smith by Ian Simpson Ross in 1995.
(WSJ, 11/30/95, p.A-20)

1740-1794 Nicolas Chamford, French writer: “The public! the public! How many fools does it take to make up a public?”
(AP, 6/9/98)

1740-1807 John Frere, English archeologist, one of the earliest students of prehistory.
(OAPOC-TH, p.71)

1741 Jan 14, Benedict Arnold, U.S. General turned traitor, was born.

1741 Feb 8, Andre-Ernest-Modeste Gretry, composer, was born.
(MC, 2/8/02)

1741 Feb 9, Henri-Joseph Rigel, composer, was born.
(MC, 2/9/02)

1741 Feb 13, Andrew Bradford of Pennsylvania published the first American magazine. Titled “The American Magazine, or A Monthly View of the Political State of the British Colonies.” Bradford introduced his American Magazine just days before Benjamin Franklin founded his periodical called General Magazine in Philadelphia. Bradford’s survived 3 months while Franklin’s survived for 6 months.
(HFA, ’96, p.24)(HNQ, 9/3/98)(AP, 2/13/01)

1741 Feb 16, Benjamin Franklin’s General Magazine (2nd US Mag) began publishing.
(MC, 2/16/02)

1741 Mar 4, English fleet under Admiral Ogle reached Cartagena, Colombia.
(SC, 3/4/02)

1741 Mar 13, Jozef II, arch duke of Austria, Roman Catholic German emperor (1765-90), was born.
(MC, 3/13/02)

1741 Mar 25, The London Foundling Hospital opened in temporary accommodations in Hatton Garden following extensive efforts by former sea captain Thomas Coram (1668-1751).

1741 Apr 8, Jose B. da Gama, Portuguese poet (O Uraguai), was born.
(MC, 4/8/02)

1741 Apr 13, Dutch people protested the bad quality of bread.
(MC, 4/13/02)

1741 Apr 15, Charles Wilson Peale (d.1827), American portrait painter and inventor, was born. His 2nd teacher was John Singleton Copley.
(SFC, 1/25/97, p.E3)(HN, 4/15/98)

1741 Apr 11, A Russian commission found regent Count Biron guilty of treason and sentenced him to death by quartering. The sentence was commuted to banishment for life in Siberia.
(PCh, 1992, p.294)

1741 Apr 17, Samuel Chase, signer of the Declaration of Independence, was born.
(HN, 4/17/98)

1741 May 8, France and Bavaria signed the Covenant of Nymphenburg.
(MC, 5/8/02)

1741 May 10, Johann Michael Schmidt, composer, was born.
(MC, 5/10/02)

1741 May 29, Johann Gottfried Krebs, composer, was born.
(SC, 5/29/02)

1741 Jun 11, Austria ceded most of Silesia to Prussia by Treaty of Breslau.
(AP, 6/11/03)

1741 Jun 22, Alois Luigi Tomasini, composer, was born.
(MC, 6/22/02)

1741 Jul 15, George Steller, an observer with Vitus Bering (1680-1741), claimed to see the American mainland (Alaska). Bering, a Danish-born mariner, was on an exploratory mission on behalf of Russia.
(WSJ, 9/12/00, p.A24)(SFEC, 3/23/97, p.T5)(ON, 2/06, p.2)

1741 Jul 16, Vitus Bering (1680-1741) first sighted Mt. St. Elias, the second highest peak in Alaska at 18,008 feet.
(AAM, 3/96, p.84)(WUD, 1994 p.140)

1741 Aug 31, Johann Paul Aegidius Martini, composer, was born.
(MC, 8/31/01)

1741 Sep 14, George Frederick Handel (1685-1759) finished “Messiah” oratorio, after working on it in London non-stop for 23 days. Messiah premiered April 13, 1742.
(LGC-HCS, p.41)( http://www.gospelcom.net/chi/GLIMPSEF/Glimpses/glmps147.shtml)

1741 Sep 17, In Colombia Blas de Lezo (b.1689), Spanish admiral, died of typhus four months after leading Spaniards in resisting a siege by a combined British force under the command of Admiral Edward Vernon.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blas_de_Lezo)(SSFC, 10/18/15, p.P5)

1741 Oct, George Wilhelm Steller, German naturalist on the Bering voyage, discovered large sea cows (Hydrodamalis gigas) on Bering Island. Within 20 years the creatures were eaten to extinction.
(CW, Jun 03, p.13)

1741 Nov 20, Melchior de Polignac, French diplomat and clergyman, died.
(MC, 11/20/01)

1741 Nov 27, Jean-Pierre Duport, composer, was born.
(MC, 11/27/01)

1741 Dec 6, Russian princess Elisabeth Petrovna (1709-1762) seized power with the help of the Preobrazhensky Regiment. Petrovna (31), the daughter of Peter the Great, and her husband led a coup d’etat, deposed the infant Czar Ivan VI, had him imprisoned and reigned until her death in 1762.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth_of_Russia)(PCh, 1992, p.294)

1741 Dec 8, Vitus Bering, Danish-born explorer and commander in the Russian navy, died on an island off the Kamchatka Peninsula, later named Bering Island.
(ON, 2/06, p.4)

1741 Dec 25, Astronomer Anders Celcius introduced the Centigrade temperature scale.
(MC, 12/25/01)

1741 Dec 30, Bartolomeo Giacometti, composer, was born.
(MC, 12/30/01)

1741 Nathanael Greene (d.1786), American Revolutionary War General, was born.
(ON, 12/01, p.12)

1741 Voltaire (1694-1778), French playwright, wrote the play “Fanaticism, or Mahomet the Prophet.” He used the founder of Islam to lampoon all forms of religious frenzy and intolerance.
(WSJ, 3/6/06, p.A10)

1741 Rameau composed his “Pieces de clavecin en concerts.”
(SFC, 6/6/96, E3)

1741 Renowned New England theologian Jonathan Edwards delivered the famous sermon “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” at the height of the Great Awakening, a religious revival movement that swept the colonies during the mid-eighteenth century.
(HNQ, 8/5/98)

1741 A slave revolt in New York caused considerable property damage but left people unharmed. Rumors of a conspiracy among slaves and poor whites in New York City to seize control led to a panic that resulted in the conviction of 101 blacks, the hanging of 18 blacks and four whites, the burning alive of 13 blacks and the banishment from the city of 70. In 2005 Anne Farrow, Joel Lang and Jennifer Frank authored “Complicity: The North Promoted, Prolonged and Profited from Slavery,” which included a chapter on the 1941 NYC slave revolt.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York_Conspiracy_of_1741)(SFC, 12/18/96, p.A25)(SSFC, 10/2/05, p.F3)

1741 British troops briefly occupied Cuba’s Guantanamo Bay while warring against Spanish trade interests.
(SSFC, 1/20/02, p.A7)

1741 The Vieuxtemps Guarneri is a violin built about this time in Cremona by the renowned Italian instrument maker Giuseppe Guarneri. In 2012 it was auctioned for an estimated $16 million. The buyer later made the violin available for life to American violinist Anne Akiko Meyers.
(Econ 5/13/17, p.72)

1741 In Sweden Anders Berch became the first professor of economics in Uppsala.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1741-1801 Johann Kaspar Lavater, Swiss theologian: “I am prejudiced in favor of him who, without impudence, can ask boldly. He has faith in humanity, and faith in himself. No one who is not accustomed to give grandly can ask nobly and with boldness.”
(AP, 1/2/99)

1741-1825 (John) Henry Fuseli, English painter, illustrator and essayist. He was born in Switzerland. His work included The Nightmare (c.1790).
(WUD, 1994, p.576)(SFC, 10/31/96, p.E1)

1742 Jan 14, English astronomer Edmond Halley, who observed the comet that now bears his name, died at age 85. In 2005 Julie Wakefield authored “Halley’s Quest,” in which she covered Halley’s travels to Brazil to map the Atlantic’s magnetic declinations and hopefully solve the problem of calculating longitude.
(AP, 1/14/98)(WSJ, 12/20/05, p.D8)

1742 Jan 24, Charles VII was crowned Holy Roman Emperor during the War of the Austrian Succession.
(AP, 1/24/07)

1742 Apr 13, George Frideric Handel’s “Messiah” was first performed publicly, in Dublin, Ireland.
(AP, 4/13/97)
1742 Apr 13, Giovanni Veneziano (59), composer, died.
(MC, 4/13/02)

1742 May 11, Francesco Stradivari (70), Italian violin maker, son of Antonius, died.
(MC, 5/11/02)

1742 May 17, Frederick great (Emperor of Prussia) beat Austrians.
(MC, 5/17/02)

1742 May 28, 1st indoor swimming pool opened at Goodman’s Fields, London.
(MC, 5/28/02)

1742 Jun 17, William Hooper, signer of the Declaration of Independence, was born.
(HN, 6/17/98)

1742 Jun 26, Arthur Middleton, signer of the Declaration of Independence, was born.
(HN, 6/26/98)

1742 Jul 7, A Spanish force invading Georgia ran headlong into the colony’s British defenders. A handful of British and Spanish colonial troops faced each other on a Georgia coastal island and decided the fate of a colony.
(HN, 5/3/98)(HN, 7/7/99)

1742 Jul 11, Benjamin Franklin invented his Franklin stove.
(MC, 7/11/02)
1742 Jul 11, A papal decree was issued condemning the disciplining actions of the Jesuits in China.
(HN, 7/11/98)

1742 Aug 7, Nathanael Greene, American Revolutionary War General, was born.
(MC, 8/7/02)

1742 Aug 29, Edmond Hoyle (1672-1769) published his “Short Treatise” on the card game whist.
(MC, 8/29/01)

1742 Sep, Boston’s Faneuil Hall, a public market house gifted to the city by merchant and slave owner Peter Faneuil (1700-1743), opened to the public. On January 14, 1761, the building burned completely, leaving only its brick shell standing. It was rebuilt by the town in 1762.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faneuil_Hall)(SFC, 6/19/18, p.A7)

1742 Oct 12, Johan Peter Melchior, German sculptor, was born.
(MC, 10/12/01)

1742 Nov 12, The British warship Centurion, commanded by Commodore George Anson, sailed into Macao with a crew of some 200 sick with scurvy.
(ON, 4/01, p.7)

1742 Dec 1, Empress Elisabeth ordered the expulsion of all Jews from Russia.
(MC, 12/1/01)

1742 Dec 9, Carl W. Scheele, Swedish pharmacist and chemist (lemon acid), was born.
(MC, 12/9/01)

1742 Henry Fielding authored his novel “Joseph Andrews.” It dealt seriously with moral issues using a comic approach and was later regarded as a milestone in English literature.
(ON, 9/03, p.1)

1742 England’s “Compleat Housewife” cookbook was published in North America.
(SFC, 8/27/03, p.E4)
1742 Sir Robert Walpole resigned from his duties as British prime minister in order to avoid impeachment.

1742 In Italy Giuseppe Guarneri, aka Guarneri del Gesu, created the violin later dubbed “The Cannon” by Paganini.
(SFEC, 10/24/99, DB p.36)

1742 General James Edward Oglethorpe led a victory over the Spanish at Bloody Marsh on St. Simons Island off the coast of Georgia.
(SFC, 4/28/96, p.T-7)

1742 Edmund Hoyle popularized the card game later called bridge.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1742 Taylor-Wharton began operations as an American colonial iron forge. In 1953 it was absorbed into Harsco, an American engineering and industrial service company.
(Econ, 12/18/04, p.105)

1742 Russia’s Empress Elisaveta Petrovna presented lands south of Pskov to the A.P. Gannibal (1696-1781), an African who had been adopted by Peter the Great and served Peter in various important capacities including spy and privy councilor.
(http://gotorussia.vand.ru/19.phtml?gorod=19&id=11&num=235)(SSFC, 6/18/06, p.M3)

1742-1765 In Arabia Muhammad bin Saud Al Saud allied with Wahhabists and expanded the family domain.
(Econ, 1/7/06, Survey p.6)

1742-1803 Thomas Jones, amateur British painter.
(SFC, 6/4/96, p.E5)

1742-1823 William Combe, English writer. He wrote “The English Dance of Death” that discussed the vice of feasting.
(MT, 6/96, p.9)

1743 Jan 21, John Fitch, inventor (had a working steamboat years before Fulton), was born.
(MC, 1/21/02)

1743 Feb 7, Lodovico Giustini (57), composer, died.
(MC, 2/7/02)

1743 Feb 19, [Rodolfo] Luigi Boccherini, Italian composer, cellist (Minuet), was born.
(MC, 2/19/02)

1743 Feb 23, Meyer Amschel Rothschild, banker and founder of the Rothschild dynasty in Europe, was born.
(HN, 2/23/98)

1743 Mar 3, Peter Faneuil (b.1700), American colonial merchant, slave trader, and philanthropist, died in Boston of dropsy.

1743 Mar 14, The first recorded town meeting in America was held, at Faneuil Hall in Boston.
(AP, 3/14/97)

1743 Mar 23, George Frideric Handel’s oratorio “Messiah” had its London premiere. During the “Hallelujah Chorus,” Britain’s King George II, who was in attendance, stood up — followed by the entire audience.
(AP, 3/23/08)

1743 Apr 13, Thomas Jefferson (d.1826), the third president of the United States (1801-1809), was born in present-day Albemarle County, Va. He called slavery cruel but included 25 slaves in his daughter’s dowry, took enslaved children to market and had 10-year-old slaves working 12-hour days in his nail factory. He stated that blacks were “in reason inferior” and “in imagination they are dull, tasteless and anomalous.” “Were it left to me to decide whether we should have a government without newspapers, or newspapers without a government, I should not hesitate a moment to prefer the latter.” “History, in general, only informs us what bad government is.”
(AP, 4/13/97)(SFC,12/897, p.A27)(AP, 4/13/98)

1743 Apr 24, Edmund Cartwright, inventor of the power loom, was born.
(HN, 4/24/98)

1743 May 20, [Francois D] Toussaint L’Ouverture, leader (Haiti), was born.
(MC, 5/20/02)

1743 May 24, Jean-Paul Marat, French revolutionist, was born. He advocated extreme violence and was assassinated in his own bath.
(HN, 5/24/99)

1743 Jun 8, Alessandro Cagliostro, adventurer, was born in Palermo, Italy.
(MC, 6/8/02)

1743 Jun 20, The British warship Centurion under Commodore George Anson engaged and overcame the Spanish treasure galleon, Nuestra Senora de Covadonga, near the Philippines. 58 Spaniards were killed and 83 wounded. Anson captured over 1 million Spanish silver dollars and 500 pounds of native silver.
(ON, 4/01, p.7)

1743 Jun 27, King George of the English defeated the French at Dettingen, Bavaria. English armies were victorious over the French at Dettingen. This event was celebrated by Handel in his composition “Dettingen Te Deum.”
(BLW, Geiringer, 1963 ed. p. 317)(HN, 6/27/98)

1743 Aug 17, By the Treaty of Abo, Sweden ceded southeast Finland to Russia, ending Sweden’s failed war with Russia.
(HN, 8/17/98)

1743 Aug 19, Marie Jeanne Becu Comtesse du Barry (d.1793), last mistress of Louis XV, was born.
(MC, 8/19/02)

1743 Aug 26, Antoine Laurent Lavoisier, the father of modern chemistry, was born. He discovered “dephlogisticated air” which he called oxygen and was executed by the revolution in 1794.
(HN, 8/26/99)(RTH, 8/26/99)

1743 Sep 14, Nicolas Lancret, French artist, died. He was a brilliant depicter of light comedy which reflected the tastes and manners of French society under the regent Orleans. His work included “Study of a Woman Seated on the Ground” and “Study of a Man.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicolas_Lancret)(SFC, 7/13/13, p.E3)

1743 Sep 17, Marquis Marie Jean de Condorcet (d.1794), French mathematician and philosopher, a leading thinker in the Enlightenment, was born.
(HN, 9/17/98)(WSJ, 6/22/99, p.A22)

1743 Dec 6, Franz Nikolaus Novotny, composer, was born.
(MC, 12/6/01)

1743 Giovanni Battista Tiepolo painted “The Triumph of Flora.”
(SFEC, 6/7/98, Z1 p.2)

1743 Edward Pococke (1604-1691), English Orientalist, authored his travel book “Description of the East.”
(Econ, 12/21/13, p.127)

1743 Joseph Nicolas Pancrace Royer created the opera-ballet: “Le Pouvoir de l’Amour.” Royer was later remembered for his harpsichord works.
(WSJ, 3/12/02, p.A24)

1743 Benjamin Franklin and John Bartram founded the American Philosophical Society in Philadelphia as an American counterpart to the British Royal Society.
(WSJ, 4/25/09, p.W3)(www.amphilsoc.org/library/exhibits/nature/stork.htm)

1743 Huguenots in Spitalfields, England, who had fled persecution in France as Calvinists, built their Nueve Eglise place of worship at Fournier Street and Brick Lane. Their community lasted until 1809. The church was later inherited by Methodists. In 1898 it became a synagogue for Jews fleeing pogroms in Russia. In 1976 it was transformed into a mosque for the Bangladeshis and Pakistanis who escaped poverty in South Asia.
(Econ, 12/20/03, p.85)(Econ, 6/30/12, SR p.8)
1743 “Kitchup” was declared a kitchen staple in a British housekeeper’s guide. Fish, mushroom and walnut emerged as the 3 main ketchups.
(SFC, 8/27/03, p.A1)
1743 Gen’l. James Oglethorpe of England departed Georgia following some small scandal.
(SFEC,11/30/97, p.T4)

1743 British Commodore George Anson reached China in his man-of-war.
(WSJ, 9/4/98, p.W12)

1743 In France Louis XV commissioned an elevator installed at Versailles to link his apartment to that of his mistress.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)(SFC, 8/23/08, p.F4)
1743 French champagne maker Moet was founded.
(Econ, 3/6/04, Survey p.6)

1743 The Frauenkirche was built in Dresden, Germany. It was destroyed by allied bombs in 1945, but plans for rebuilding were scheduled for completion by 2006, the 800th birthday of Dresden. A reconstructed version was consecrated in 2005.
(SFEC, 7/27/97, p.T6)(SSFC, 10/30/05, p.A16)

1743 In Mosul as many as 150 monks who refused to convert to Islam were massacred at St. Elijah’s Monastery by a Persian general.
(AP, 1/20/16)

1743 In Mexico La Cathedral de Nuestra Senora de la Asuncion in Veracruz was dedicated.
(SFEC, 5/17/98, p.T12)

1743-1826 Thomas Jefferson was born in Virginia. Jefferson had his slave Sally Hemings as his lover for 38 years. He wrote the Northwest Ordnance that outlawed the spread of slavery into the trans-Appalachian territories.
(V.D.-H.K.p.224)(WSJ, 2/11/97, p.A18)

1744 Feb 9, Battle at Toulon: French-Spanish faced the English fleet of Adm. Matthews.
(MC, 2/9/02)

1744 Feb 15, John Hadley, inventor (sextant), died.
(MC, 2/15/02)

1744 Feb 21, The British blockade of Toulon was broken by 27 French and Spanish warships attacking 29 British ships.
(HN, 2/21/98)

1744 Mar 13, David Allan, Scottish painter, was born.
(MC, 3/13/02)

1744 Apr 4, Sarah Inglish was arrested and convicted at the Old Bailey for stealing a cloak, three linen aprons and about 7 yards of cloth from a home where she was babysitting. She was sentenced to transport for a term of 7 years.
(SFEC, 10/27/96, p.T9)

1744 May 11, In Britain Elizabeth Robinson of Middlesex and 2 other women were tried and convicted at the Old Bailey on charges of stealing 104 imported China oranges from a grocer’s warehouse with the intent to sell them. She was sentenced to transport for a term of 7 years. She was pregnant and gave birth on ship.
(SFEC, 10/27/96, p.T9)

1744 May, Jack Campbell, captain of the Justicia, transported convicted British criminals to the US and sold them as indentured servants.
(SFEC, 10/27/96, p.T10)

1744 Jun 15, The warship Centurion under British Commodore George Anson returned to England with a treasure valued at £800,000. In 1748 Anson authored “A voyage Around the World.”
(WSJ, 9/4/98, p.W12)

1744 Aug 1, Jean-Baptiste-Pierre-Antoine Monnet de Lamarck, French zoologist, was born.
(MC, 8/1/02)

1744 Aug 25, Johann G. von Herder, German philosopher, theologist, poet, was born.
(MC, 8/25/02)

1744 Oct 4, The HMS Victory sank in the English Channel with at least 900 men aboard. The 175-foot sailing ship had separated from its fleet during a storm. In 2009 Odyssey Marine Exploration reported finding the vessel about 330 feet beneath the surface and more than 50 miles from where anybody would have thought it went down.
(AP, 2/1/09)

1744 Nov 11, Abigail Smith Adams, 2nd 1st lady (1797-1801), was born.
(MC, 11/11/01)

1744 Nov 25, Austrian forces pillaged and killed Jews of Prague.
(MC, 11/25/01)

1744 Handel composed his opera “Semele” based on Ovid’s account of one of Jupiter’s tangled love affairs.
(WSJ, 12/21/00, p.A16)

1744 Rules for cricket set the wicket to wicket pitch at 22 yards. The 1727 Articles of Agreement had set the distance at 23 yards.

1744 The Iroquois sachem (chief) Cannasatego advised the American colonists to from a union like that of the Iroquois. Benjamin Franklin acknowledged the admonition in 1751 and applied it in his Albany Plan of 1754.
(WSJ, 4/10/97, p.A15)

1744 The title Lordship of Wimbledon was bestowed to the Spencer family of Britain.
(WP, 6/29/96, p.F3)

1744 This was the era of London’s gin fever.
(SFEC, 10/27/96, p.T9)

1744 Fort Richelieu was built in Sete on the French Mediterranean coast of the Languedoc region.
(SSFC, 6/17/01, p.T10)

1744 The Royal Porcelain Manufactory of Vienna began to use an upside down shield, resembling a beehive, as its emblem. Royal Vienna porcelain was made until 1864.
(SFEC, 10/9/96, Z1 p.8)(SFC, 10/17/07, p.G2)

1744 In Arabia Muhammad Ibn Saud, local ruler of Ad-Dar’ia forged a political and family alliance with Muslim scholar and reformer Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab. Abdul Aziz, the son of Ibn Saud, married the daughter of Imam Muhammad.
(NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)

1744-1812 Mayer Rothschild, banker, rose from a ghetto in Frankfurt to become the banker to Prince William of Prussia. His son, Nathan Rothschild, worked in London as a banker and invested Prussian money in the Napoleonic Wars and smuggled it to Wellington in Spain. His 4 other sons established banks in Vienna, Naples and Paris.
(WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R18)

1744-1818 Abigail Adams, American first lady, writer of letters and wife of John Adams: “These are times in which a genius would wish to live. It is not in the still calm of life, or the repose of a pacific station, that great characters are formed…. Great necessities call out great virtues.”
(AHD, 1971, p.14)(AP, 6/29/97)

1744-1840 Caspar David Friedrich, romantic painter. His work included “Coffin on a Grave.”
(SFC, 11/16/98, p.E3)

1745 Jan 7, Jacques Etienne Montgolfier (d.1799), French inventor, was born. He and his brother, Joseph (1740-1810), launched the first successful hot-air balloon in 1783.
(HN, 1/7/99)(WUD, 1994 p.928)

1745 Jan 8, England, Austria, Saxony and the Netherlands formed an alliance against Russia.
(HN, 1/8/99)

1745 Jan, Handel’s oratorio “Hercules,” written in 1744, premiered at the King’s Theater in London. The libretto was based on writings by Sophocles and Ovid.
(WSJ, 2/22/06, p.D12)(http://tinyurl.com/gdt6w)

1745 Feb 15, Colley Cibber’s “Papal Tyranny,” premiered in London.
(MC, 2/15/02)

1745 Feb 18, Count Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta (d.1827), Italian physicist, inventor (battery), was born.
(AHD, 1971 p.1436)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alessandro_Volta)
1745 Feb 18, Bonnie Prince Charlie’s troops occupied Inverness, Scotland.
(MC, 2/18/02)

1745 Feb 20, Johann Peter Salomon, composer, was born.
(MC, 2/20/02)
1745 Feb 20, Bonnie Prince Charlie’s troops occupied Fort August, Scotland.
(MC, 2/20/02)

1745 Mar 9, Bells for 1st American carillon were shipped from England to Boston.
(MC, 3/9/02)

1745 Mar 18, Robert Walpole (68), 1st British premier (1721-42), died. His children found that he had run up debts of over £50,000. In 2007 Edward Pearce authored “The Great Man – Sir Robert Walpole: Scoundrel, Genius and Britain’s First Prime Minister.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Walpole)(Econ, 2/10/07, p.89)(Econ, 5/18/13, p.89)

1745 Mar 31, Jews were expelled from Prague.
(MC, 3/31/02)

1745 Apr 20, Philippe Pinel (d.1826), French physician and founder of psychiatry, was born.
(WUD, 1994, p.)(HN, 4/20/98)

1745 Apr 22, Peace of Fussen was signed, restoring the status quo of Germany.
(HN, 4/22/98)

1745 Apr 29, Oliver Ellsworth, third Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, was born.
(HN, 4/29/98)

1745 May 9, Tomaso Antonio Vitali (82), composer, died.
(MC, 5/9/02)

1745 May 11, French forces defeated an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army at Fontenoy.
(HN, 5/11/98)

1745 Jun 4, Frederick the Great of Prussia defeated the Austrians & Saxons.
(MC, 6/4/02)

1745 Jun 16, English fleet occupied Cape Breton on St. Lawrence River.
(MC, 6/16/02)

1745 Jun 17, American New Englanders captured Louisburg, Cape Breton, from the French. The ragtag army captured France’s most imposing North American stronghold on Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia.
(HN, 5/17/98)(WSJ, 10/5/99, p.A24)(MC, 6/17/02)

1745 Jul 23, Charles Stuart (1720-1788), the Younger, and 7 companions landed at Eriskay Island, in the Hebrides.

1745 Aug 16, Skirmish at Laggan: Glengarry beat the Royal Scots.
(MC, 8/16/02)

1745 Aug 20, Bonnie Prince Charlie reached Blair Castle, Scotland.
(MC, 8/20/02)

1745 Sep 17, Edinburgh was occupied by Jacobites under Young Pretenders.
(MC, 9/17/01)

1745 Sep 21, A Scottish Jacobite army commanded by Lord George Murray routed the Royalist army of General Sir John Cope at Prestonpans.
(HN, 9/21/98)

1745 Sep 22, Bonnie Prince Charlie’s army returned to Edinburgh.
(MC, 9/22/01)

1745 Sep 28, Bonnie Prince Charlie became “king” of Scotland.
(MC, 9/28/01)

1745 Oct 19, Jonathan Swift (b.1667), Irish born clergyman and English writer (Gulliver’s Travels), died. In 1963 Prof. Edward Rosenheim (1918-2005) authored “Swift and the Satirist’s Art.” In 1998 Victoria Glendinning published the biography: “Jonathan Swift: A Portrait.” In 2017 John Stubbs authored “Jonathan Swift: The Reluctant Rebel”.
(WUD, 1994, p.1437)(SFEC, 8/1/99, BR p.8)(SFC, 12/1/05, p.B7)(Econ, 2/18/17, p.69)

1745 Nov 11, Bonnie Prince Charlie’s army entered England.
(MC, 11/11/01)

1745 Nov 18, Bonnie Prince Charlie’s troops occupied Carlisle. [see Nov 29]
(MC, 11/18/01)

1745 Nov 28-29, French troops attacked Indians at Saratoga, NY.
(MC, 11/28/01)

1745 Nov 29, Bonnie Prince Charlie’s army moved into Manchester and occupied Carlisle.
(MC, 11/29/01)

1745 Dec 4, Bonnie Prince Charles reached Derby.
(MC, 12/4/01)

1745 Dec 6, Bonnie Prince Charlie’s army retreated to Scotland.
(MC, 12/6/01)

1745 Dec 12, John Jay, first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, was born. He became a diplomat and governor of NY, served as the first Supreme Court Head Justice, and negotiated treaties for the United States
(HN, 12/12/98)(MC, 12/12/01)

1745 Dec 17, Bonnie Prince Charlie’s army retreated to Scotland. [see Dec 6]
(MC, 12/17/01)

1745 Dec 20, Bonnie Prince Charlie’s army met de Esk.
(MC, 12/20/01)

1745 Dec 22, Jan Dismas Zelenka (66), composer, died.
(MC, 12/22/01)

1745 Dec 24, Benjamin Rush, American medical pioneer and signer of the Declaration of Independence, was born in Byberry, Pa.
(HN, 12/24/98)(MC, 12/24/01)

1745 Dec 25, Prussia and Austria signed the Treaty of Dresden. This gave much of Silesia to the Prussians.
(MC, 12/25/01)

1745 Dec 31, Bonnie Prince Charlie’s army met with de Esk.
(MC, 12/31/01)

1745 Schneur Zalman Boruchovitch of Liadi (d.1813), founder of the Jewish Chabad-Lubavitch Chassidic Movement, was born. He labored for 20 years to complete the Tanya before it was printed in 1796. In 1814, the Rav’s Shulchan Aruch fast became regarded by all scholars of Jewish law as a major source and reference guide in the study and application of Jewish law. In 2003 Sue Fishkoff authored “The Rebbe’s Army,” a study of the sect.
(Internet, 7/18/03)(WSJ, 7/18/03, p.W17c)

1745 William Hogarth made his print series “Marriage A-la-Mode” in which he made fun of the new social mobility.
(SFC, 1/28/98, p.E1)

1745 French composer Jean-Philippe Rameau wrote the lyric comedy “Platee.” It was an amalgam of song, dance and spectacle based on a simple plot where Jupiter tries to cure Juno of her jealousy. It was a parody of late-Baroque opera. It was staged on the occasion of the Dauphin Louis’ marriage to Princess Maria Teresa of Spain. It was about a lovesick frog.
(WSJ, 10/1/97, p.A20)(SFC, 1/20/98, p.E1)(SFEM, 6/7/98, p.8)(WSJ, 6/16/98, p.A17)(WSJ, 10/30/01, p.A21)
1745 The French opera “Le Temple de la Gloire” (The Temple of Glory) by composer Jean-Philippe Rameau premiered at Versailles. The libretto was written by Voltaire.
(SFC, 4/27/17, p.E9)

1745 Georges Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, suggested that another body such as a giant comet had hit the sun, knocking from it the spinning gas and matter that became the planets.
(DD-EVTT, p.100)

1745 The Habeas Corpus Suspension Act 1745 was an Act of Parliament of the Parliament of Great Britain passed in 1745, and formally repealed in 1867.

1745 In France the renowned Champagne house of Moët & Chandon was established in the city of Epernay.
(SFEC,12/28/97, p.A12)
1745 Richard Hennessey arrived in France from Ireland as an exile from wars with England.
(SSFC, 10/16/11, p.N4)

1745 During the Jacobite uprising some prisoners captured by the Jacobites were kept at Doune Castle, Scotland. These included John Witherspoon, who later moved to the American colonies, became president of Princeton, a delegate to the Continental Congress and a signer of the American Declaration of Independence.
(SSFC, 11/23/03, p.C6)

1745-1796 Anthony Wayne, American General in the Revolutionary War, also known as Mad Anthony Wayne. [The HFA says he attacked Stony Point in 1799]
(HFA, ’96, p.34)(AHD, 1971, p.1450)

1745-c1806 Kim Hong-do, Korean artist, created genre paintings.
(WSJ, 8/10/98, p.A12)

1745-1829 John Jay, US statesman and jurist. He served as the governor of New York and was the first chief justice of the US Supreme Court (1789-1795).
(WUD, 1994, p.764)(WSJ, 8/7/98, p.W13)

1745-1833 Hannah More, English religious writer: “The world does not require so much to be informed as reminded.” “Obstacles are those frightful things you see when you take your eyes off the goal.”
(AP, 4/28/97)(AP, 9/9/97)

1746 Jan 8, Bonnie Prince Charlie’s troops occupied Stirling. [see Jan 19]
(MC, 1/8/02)

1746 Jan 17, Charles Edward Stuart, the young pretender, defeated the government forces at the battle of Falkirk in Scotland.
(HN, 1/17/99)

1746 Jan 19, Bonnie Prince Charlie’s troops occupied Stirling. [see Jan 8]
(MC, 1/19/02)

1746 Jan 24, Gustav III, king during Swedish Enlightenment (1771-92), was born.
(MC, 1/24/02)

1746 Feb 20, Bonnie Prince Charlie occupied the Castle of Inverness. [see Mar 3]
(MC, 2/20/02)

1746 Feb 27, Gian Francesco Fortunati, composer, was born.
(MC, 2/27/02)

1746 Mar 3, Bonnie Prince Charlie occupied the Castle of Inverness. [see Feb 20]
(SC, 3/3/02)

1746 Mar 5, Jacobin troops left Aberdeen, Scotland.
(MC, 3/5/02)

1746 Mar 8, Cumberland’s troops occupied Aberdeen, Scotland.
(MC, 3/8/02)

1746 Mar 27, Carlo Bonaparte, Corsican attorney, father of emperor Napoleon, was born.
(MC, 3/27/02)

1746 Apr 16, Bonnie Prince Charles was defeated at the battle of Culloden, the last pitched battle fought in Britain. King George II won the battle of Culloden. Bonnie Prince Charlie used English rifleman and virtually annihilated the sword-wielding, rebellious, Highlander clans of Scotland at Culloden. It was the last major land battle fought on British soil. The Battle of Culloden was a crushing defeat for Bonnie Prince Charlie and the Highlander clans that backed him.
(PCh, 1992, p.297)(SFC, 6/25/95, p.T-7)(SFC, 12/4/96, p.B1)(SFEC,12/797, p.T4)(HN, 4/16/99)

1746 Jul 28, Thomas Heyward, soldier, signed Declaration of Independence, was born.
(SC, 7/28/02)
1746 Jul 28, John Peter Zenger, journalist involved in 1st amendment fight, died.
(SC, 7/28/02)

1746 Jun 29, Bonnie Prince Charlie fled in disguise to Isle of Skye.
(PC, 1992, p.297)



Timeline of the Eighteenth Century: 1725-1749 2

1746 Sep 20, Bonnie Prince Charlie fled to France from Scotland. [see Oct 1]
(MC, 9/20/01)

1746 Sep 21, A French expeditionary army occupied Labourdonnais. Colonial governor Joseph Francois Dupleix occupied Madras.
(PCh, 1992, p.298)(MC, 9/21/01)

1746 Oct 1, Bonnie Prince Charlie fled to France. [see Sep 20]
(MC, 10/1/01)

1746 Oct 7, William Billings, hymn composer (Rose of Sharon), was born in Boston, Mass.
(HN, 10/7/00)(MC, 10/7/01)

1746 Oct 22, Princeton University in New Jersey received its charter as the College of New Jersey. The Univ. later established a reputation for its spring ritual of sophomores running naked at midnight after the first snowfall.
(SFEC, 3/22/98, p.A23)(AP, 10/22/08)

1746 Oct 28, A tsunami caused by the Lima–Callao earthquake destroyed the entire port of Callao. Lima was almost completely destroyed by the earthquake that killed 1,141. The tsunami killed 5-6 thousand people.

1746 Tadeusz Kosciusko (d1817), Polish patriot and general in the American Revolutionary army, was born in Lithuania. [see Feb 4, 1747]
(WUD, 1994 p.794)

1746 Francisco Jose de Goya y Lucientes (d.1828), Spanish painter, was born.
(WSJ, 11/3/95, p.A-12)(WSJ, 4/16/99, p.W2)

1746 Tiepolo painted his “Saint Catherine of Siena.”
(WSJ, 1/23/97, p.A12)

1746 Parisian book publisher Andre Francois Le Breton hired Denis Diderot (32) to work on a project called the Encyclopedie. The plan was to produce a French translation of Ephraim Chamber’s 1728 Cyclopedia. In 1747 he named Diderot co-editor with Jean D’Alembert.
(ON, 4/05, p.8)(WSJ, 6/29/05, p.D8)

1746 The American Presbyterian College of New Jersey was founded.
(HNQ, 7/6/99)

1746 The first lectures on electricity in the American colonies were given by John Winthrop IV at Harvard in 1746. Winthrop, born in 1714, was the professor of mathematics and natural philosophy at Harvard. Benjamin Franklin began his experiments in electricity in 1747.
(HNQ, 7/8/98)

1746 The solitaire of Reunion, a flightless pigeon, was gone by this year.
(NH, 11/96, p.24)

1746 A consortium of London publishers offered Samuel Johnson (36) a modest sum to compose a dictionary of the English Language. He promised to do the job in 3 years, but didn’t finish the 1st edition until 1755.
(WSJ, 10/12/05, p.D13)

1746 Nicholas de Largilliere (b.1656), French painter, died.
(WSJ, 10/30/03, p.D10)

1746 Elisha Nims (26) died from a musket ball at Fort Massachusetts during the French and Indian War. His grave was discovered in 1852 and his last remains were reburied in 2000.
(SFC, 11/11/00, p.A13)

1746 William, the Duke of Cumberland, led an English military force into Scotland to defeat the rebels there.
(SFC, 10/14/00, p.B3)

1746-1818 Gaspard Monge, Comte de Peluse, French mathematician. He served with Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier on the revolutionary commission to devise the metric system.
(WUD, 1994, p.924)(NH, 12/98, p.24)

1746-1828 Francisco Jose de Goya y Lucientes, Spanish painter. 128 of his paintings are at the Prado in Madrid, Spain. Among these are: “La Maja Desnuda,” “La Maja Vestida,” “El Dos de Mayo,” “El Tres de Mayo,” “The Witches Sabboth,” “Saturn eating one of his children,” “La Quinta del Sordo” (House of the Deaf Man) murals (1820-1823) that he applied to the walls of his Madrid rooms. Known as El Rapidisimo, he painted more than 600 works. Other works include: “Los Caprichos,” “Disasters of War,” “Family of Charles IV,” “Boys Climbing a Tree,” “The Kite,” “The Injured Workman,” “The Drunken Workman,” “The Wedding,” “The Duchess of Alba” and “Pinturas Negras.” Goya spent his last years in France.
(WSJ, 5/20/96, p.A-12)(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.612)(WSJ, 5/4/99, p.A20)

1747 Feb 4, Tadeusz Kosciusko, patriot, American Revolution hero (built West Point), was born in Poland. [see 1746]
(MC, 2/4/02)

1747 Mar 4, Casimir Pulaski (d.1779), Count, American Revolutionary War General, was born in Poland. Pulaski led troops in some of the bloodiest fighting of the Revolutionary War.
(HN, 3/4/98)(SC, 3/4/02)

1747 Mar 31, Johann Abraham Peter Schulz, German composer (Moon has Risen), was born.
(MC, 3/31/02)

1747 Apr 9, Simon Fraser, 12th baron Lovat (Jacobite), became the last man to be officially beheaded in England.
(MC, 4/9/02)

1747 Jun 19, Alessandro Marcello (77), composer, died.
(MC, 6/19/02)

1747 Jul 2, Marshall Saxe led the French forces to victory over an Anglo-Dutch force under the Duke of Cumberland at the Battle of Lauffeld.
(HN, 7/2/98)

1747 Jul 6, John Paul Jones, naval hero of the American Revolution, was born near Kirkcudbright, Scotland. As a US naval commander he invaded England during the American War of Independence.
(HN, 7/6/98)(MC, 7/6/02)

1747 Jul 9, Giovanni Battista Bononcini (76), Italian opera-composer, died.
(MC, 7/9/02)

1747 Jul 10, Persian ruler Nadir Shah was assassinated at Fathabad in Persia. The Afghans rise rose again in revolt under the leadership of Ahmad Shah Abdali and retook Kandahar to establish modern Afghanistan.
(www.afghan, 5/25/98)(HN, 7/10/98)

1747 Jul 30, Antonio Benedetto Maria Puccini, composer, was born.
(MC, 7/30/02)

1747 Sep 16, The French captured Bergen-op-Zoom, consolidating their occupation of Austrian Flanders in the Netherlands.
(HN, 9/16/98)

1747 Dec 9, England and Netherlands signed a military treaty.
(MC, 12/9/01)

1747 Mark Catesby, English naturalist, used his 220 watercolors for etchings in his work on the flora and fauna of North America. The paintings were purchased by George III in 1768 and preserved in the Royal Library. In 1997 they were reproduced in the book: “Mark Catesby’s Natural History of America: Watercolors from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle” by Henrietta McBurney.
(NH, 6/97, p.12)

1747 Thomas Gray wrote: “Where ignorance is bliss, tis folly to be wise.”
(SFC, 4/22/00, p.E3)

1747 Samuel Foote, an out of work actor, established himself as the first stand-up comedian.
(SFC, 4/22/00, p.E3)

1747 Nadir Shah (head of Persia) was assassinated, and the Afghans rose once again. Afghans, under the leadership of Ahmad Shah Abdali (Durrani) retook Kandahar, and established modern Afghanistan.
(NG, 10/1993, p. 66)(https://www.afghan-web.com/history/chronology/)
1747 Ahmad Shah Abdali (d.1773) consolidated and enlarged Afghanistan. He defeated the Moghuls in the west of the Indus, and he took Herat away from the Persians. Ahmad Shah Durrani’s empire extended from Central Asia to Delhi, from Kashmir to the Arabian sea. It became the greatest Muslim empire in the second half of the 18th century.

1747 The British government swiftly acted to break Scots’ resistance. The wearing of tartan, teaching Gaelic and even playing the bagpipes were outlawed by the Act of Proscription.
(Reuters, 2/16/12)
1747 In Britain a tax was imposed on carriages.
(SFC, 4/22/00, p.E3)

1747 Parisian book publisher Andre Francois Le Breton, producer of the Encyclopedie, named Denis Diderot co-editor with Jean D’Alembert. In 2005 Philipp Blom authored “Enlightening the World,” an account of the project.
(WSJ, 6/29/05, p.D8)
1747 In France the National School of Bridges and Roads was founded.
(Econ, 4/23/15, p.43)

c1747 In Germany man-made dykes were built in the Oderbruch region north of Frankfurt an der Oder around land that was drained and cleared for farming. The dykes faced disaster in 1997 during heavy July rains.
(SFC, 7/26/97, p.A12)

1747 Carlo Bergonzi, the last of the great Cremonese violin makers, died.
(Econ, 7/30/05, p.78)

1747 The Iglesia de Nuestra Senora de la Paz was built in Todos Santos on the southern Baja peninsula.
(SSFC, 11/4/01, p.T12)

1747 A Scottish chemist found out that beets contained sugar.
(SFC, 4/22/00, p.E3)

1747-1830 Madame Dorothee Deluzy, French actress: “We believe at once in evil, we only believe in good upon reflection. Is this not sad?”
(AP, 9/21/00)

1747-1838 Lorenzo Da Ponte, wrote the libretto for Mozart’s Don Giovanni.

1747-1773 Rule of Ahmad Shah Abdali (Durrani). Ahmad Shah consolidated and enlarged Afghanistan. He defeated the Moghuls in the west of the Indus, and he takes Herat away from the Persians. Ahmad Shah Durrani’s empire extended from Central Asia to Delhi, from Kashmir to the Arabian sea. It became the greatest Muslim empire in the second half of the 18th century.
(www.afghan, 5/25/98)

1748 Feb 5, Christian Gottlob Neefe, German composer, conductor, tutor of Beethoven, was born.
(MC, 2/5/02)

1748 Feb 15, Jeremy Bentham (d.1832), philosopher, originator (Utilitarian), was born in London, England.

1748 Mar 10, John Playfair, clergyman, geologist, mathematician, was born in Scotland.
(MC, 3/10/02)

1748 Mar 19, English Naturalization Act was passed granting Jews right to colonize US.
(MC, 3/19/02)

1748 Apr 1, The ruins of Pompeii were found. The city of Pompeii, buried in 79AD, was discovered.
(SFEC, 4/12/98, p.T3)(OTD)

1748 Apr 12, William Kent (b.c1685), English sculptor and architect (Kensington Palace), died. Kent introduced the Palladian style of architecture into England with the villa at Chiswick House.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Kent)(Econ, 3/22/14, p.83)

1748 Apr 28, Lorenz Justinian Ott, composer, was born.
(MC, 4/28/02)

1748 Jun 28, A riot followed a public execution in Amsterdam and over 200 were killed.
(MC, 6/28/02)

1748 Aug 15, United Lutheran Church of US was organized.
(MC, 8/15/02)

1748 Aug 30, Jacques-Louis David (d.1825), Neo-classical painter (Death of Marat), was born. He painted “Madame Hamelin.” He also painted a portrait of Napoleon crossing the St. Bernard Pass on a rearing horse. Jean Ingres began his career as a pupil of David.
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.369)(WSJ, 5/19/97, p.A16)(WSJ, 5/28/99, p.W12)(MC, 8/30/01)

1748 Sep 24, Philipp Meissner, composer, was born.
(MC, 9/24/01)

1748 Oct 18, The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle brought the war of Austrian Succession, which began in 1840, to an end and upheld the Pragmatic Sanction.
(HNQ, 7/29/99)(MC, 10/18/01)

1748 Nov 1, Christoph Rheineck, composer, was born.
(MC, 11/1/01)

1748 Robert Feke, American painter, created his portrait of “Mrs. Charles Apthorp.”
(SFC, 2/28/01, p.E3)

1748 Samuel Richardson wrote his novel “Clarissa.” In 1976 Robin Holloway composed a 2-act opera based on the novel that was premiered in 1990 by the English National Opera.
(SFEC, 12/6/98, DB p.35)

1748 British Commodore George Anson published an account of his trip to China.
(WSJ, 9/4/98, p.W12)

1748 Handel composed his oratorio “Solomon.”
(SFEC, 9/6/98, DB p.11)

1748 Lord Fairfax, Virginia land owner, commissioned a survey of the Patterson Creek Manor, which later became part of West Virginia. The surveyor was accompanied by the nephew of Lord Fairfax and the nephew’s best friend, George Washington (16). The survey was unusually erroneous.
(WSJ, 4/21/06, p.R8)

1748 In Denmark the Royal Theater was inaugurated.
(SFEC, 11/1/98, p.T3)

1748 Henri Francois d’Aguesseau, chancellor of France, granted an official license for the new Encyclopedie following a presentation by Denis Diderot.
(ON, 4/05, p.8)
1748 French police started a file on Voltaire (1694-1778).

1748 In Germany an oil painting by Elias Gottlob Haussmann showed bewigged composer Johann Sebastian Bach aged around 60 holding the score to one of his canons.
(AFP, 6/12/15)

1748 The city of Pompeii, buried in 79AD, was discovered.
(SFEC, 4/12/98, p.T3)

1748 Scottish economist David Hume wrote an essay setting out the first coherent theory of the links between money, inflation and growth.
(Econ, 9/13/14, p.84)

1748-1758 Santa Prisca church in Taxco, Mexico, was built by the wealthy miner Jose de la Borda. It has twin towers of pink stone and an adjacent tiled dome.
(SFEC, 11/10/96, p.T6)

1748-1813 Alexander Fraser Tytler. He wrote “The Decline and Fall of the Athenian Republic.” He stated that democracy collapses when voters begin selecting candidates who promise the most financial benefits.
(SFEC, 10/25/98, p.D6)

1748-1828 Henry Livingston, poet. He is alleged to have written “A Visit from St. Nicholas” better known as “The Night Before Christmas.” [see 12/23/1823]
(AH, 4/01, p.12)

1748-1979 In Chile the Cathedral of Santiago was built. The current structure replaced three earlier ones destroyed by fires or earthquakes.
(SFEC, 10/27/96, p.T8)

1749 Jan 16, Vittorio Alfieri (d.1803), Italian dramatist and tragic poet famous for Cleopatra and Parigi Shastigliata, was born. “Often the test of courage is not to die but to live.”
(HN, 1/16/99)

1749 Jan 19, Isaiah Thomas, US printer, editor, publisher, historian, was born.
(MC, 1/19/02)

1749 Feb 7, Andre Cardinal Destouches (76), composer, died.
(MC, 2/7/02)

1749 Feb 8, Jan van Huysum (66), Dutch still life painter, died.
(MC, 2/8/02)

1749 Feb 28, The 1st edition of “The History of Tom Jones: A foundling” was published. Henry Fielding (1707-1754) wrote the book and a film based on the novel was made in 1963. A TV production premiered in 1998.
(SFEM, 11/24/96, p.59)(SFC, 4/2/98, p.E1)(MC, 2/28/02)(ON, 9/03, p.9)

1749 Mar 23, Hugo Franz Karl Alexander von Kerpen, composer, was born.
(SS, 3/23/02)
1749 Mar 23, Pierre-Simon Laplace (d.1827), French mathematician, astronomer, physicist, was born.
(WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre-Simon_Laplace)

1749 Mar, Jean Godin, French geographer, left Quito, part of the Viceroyalty of Peru (later Ecuador), in an attempt to reach France to settle his family estate. He traveled by an eastern route across South America and became stranded in French Guiana for over 20 years. In 2004 Robert Whitaker authored “The Mapmaker’s Wife: A True Tale of Love, Murder, and Survival in the Amazon.” It was an account of Jean Godin (d.1792), French mapmaker, and his wife, Isabel Godin. They managed to reunite in 1770.
(Econ, 5/15/04, p.81)(ON, 5/05, p.4)

1749 May 19, George II granted a charter to the Ohio Company to settle Ohio Valley.
(DT internet 5/19/97)

1749 May 17, Edward Jenner, physician, discoverer of vaccination, was born.
(HN, 5/17/98)

1749 Jun 19, Jean-Marie Collot d’Herbois, French revolutionary (Committee of Public Safety), was born.
(MC, 6/19/02)

1749 Jul 20, Earl of Chesterfield said: “Idleness is only refuge of weak minds.”
(MC, 7/20/02)

1749 Jul 24, Denis Diderot was arrested in Paris during a government crackdown on writers and publishers of subversive books. He was released Nov 3 to continued his work on the Encyclopedie.
(ON, 4/05, p.8)

1749 Jun 25, Massachusetts residents were asked to fast due to a severe drought.
(SFC, 6/25/09, p.D8)

1749 Aug 28, German author Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (d.1832), “the master spirit of the German people,” was born at Frankfurt am Main. Scientist, philosopher, novelist, and critic as well as lyric, dramatic, and epic poet, he was the leading figure of his age after Napoleon. He had early pretensions in the visual arts and was an avid draftsman into old age. He is best known for “Faust.” : “True excellence is rarely found, even more rarely is it cherished.”
(V.D.-H.K.p.239)(AP, 8/28/97)(WSJ, 7/16/98, p.A16)(HN, 8/28/98) (AP, 9/4/98)

1749 Sep 10, Emilie du Chatelet (b.1706), writer and mathematician, died from an infection that followed a pregnancy. Her work included a translation of Newton’s Principia from Latin to French. She met Voltaire in 1733 and they soon began living together. In 1957 Nancy Mitford authored “Voltaire in Love.” In 2006 David Bodanis authored “Passionate Minds: The Great Enlightenment Love Affair” and Judith P. Zinsser authored “La Dame d’Esprit.”
(www.math.wichita.edu/history/women/chatelet.html)(WSJ, 12/9/06, p.P12)

1749 Oct 26, The Georgia Colony reversed itself and ruled slavery to be legal.
(MC, 10/26/01)

1749 Nov 2, The English Ohio Trade Company formed its 1st trade post.
(MC, 11/2/01)

1749 Nov 23, Edward Rutledge, (Gov-SC), attorney and signer of Declaration of Independence, was born.
(MC, 11/23/01)

1749 Nov 27, Balthasar Schmid (44), composer, died.
(MC, 11/27/01)
1749 Nov 27, Gottfried Heinrich Stolzel (59), composer, died.
(MC, 11/27/01)

1749 Giovanni Battista Piranesi began his painting “The Gothic Arch.’
(WSJ, 4/28/00, p.W8)

1749 King George commissioned Handel’s “Music for the Royal Fireworks” to highlight the end of the War of the Austrian Succession.
(WSJ, 6/25/97, p.A20)

1749 Rameau’s composition “Zoroastre,” a lyric tragedy, was first performed in Paris. It did not do well and the composer reworked it with his librettist, Louis de Cahusac, for a Les Arts performance in 1756.
(WSJ, 4/13/98, p.A20)

1749 Henry Fielding, novelist and magistrate, commissioned a half dozen constables known as the Bow Street Runners. The runners vanished in 1829 with the creation of the Metropolitan Police, who established their headquarters at Scotland Yard.
(SFC, 7/14/06, p.A2)

1749 Marie-Thérèse Geoffrin launched her weekly dinners and provided the Enlightenment Republic of Letters a ‘center of unity’. The Republic of Letters emerged in the 17th century as a self-proclaimed community of scholars and literary figures that stretched across national boundaries but respected differences in language and culture.

1749-1803 Vittorio Alfieri, Italian dramatist. “Often the test of courage is not to die but to live.”
(AP, 3/27/01)



Timeline 18th Century: 1700-1724

1700 Jan 1, Russia replaced the Byzantine with the Julian calendar, which remained in effect until the adoption of the Gregorian calendar in 1918.

1700 Jan 26, A magnitude 9.0 earthquake shook Northern California, Oregon, Washington and British Colombia. It triggered tsunami that damages villages in Japan.
(AP, 2/27/10)

1700 Jan 27, A tsunami hit Honshu Island, Japan. It was later estimated that wave was triggered by a 9.0 magnitude earthquake in California.
(CW, Spring ‘99, p.32)

1700 Jan 29, Daniel Bernoulli, mathematician (10 time French award), was born in Basel, Switzerland.
(MC, 1/29/02)

1700 Feb 22, Augustus II (the Strong), elector of Saxony (1694-1733) and King of Poland (1697-1706, 1709-1733), with the help of the Saxon army attacked Swedish controlled Riga. This began the Northern War (1700-1721).
(LHC, 2/22/03)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/August_II_the_Strong)

1700 Feb 27, The Pacific Island of New Britain was discovered. It is the largest of group of islands in the South Pacific, NE of New Guinea.
(HN, 2/27/98)(WUD, 1994, p.962)

1700 May 1, John Dryden (b.1631), English poet, playwright (Rival Ladies), died. He had written that repentance was virtue of weak minds and the want of power to sin.
(MC, 5/1/02)(Econ, 7/24/04, p.70)

1700 May 7, Gerard van Swieten, Dutch botanist, was born.
(MC, 5/7/02)
1700 May 7, William Penn began monthly meetings for Blacks advocating emancipation.
(MC, 5/7/02)

1700 Jun 23, Russia gave up its Black Sea fleet as part of a truce with the Ottoman Empire.
(HN, 6/23/98)

1700 Jul 15, Johann Christoph Richter, composer, was born.
(MC, 7/15/02)

1700 Sep 11, James Thomson, Scottish poet and songwriter, was born. He wrote the song “Rule Britannia.”
(HN, 9/11/00)(MC, 9/11/01)

1700 Sep, In Mexico Juan Bautista and Jacinto de los Angeles informed Spanish authorities of an Indian religious ceremony and were killed by fellow Indians. Christian officials decapitated and quartered 15 men and staked their body parts by the roadside as a warning. In 2002 Bautista and Angeles were beatified by Pope John Paul II.
(AP, 7/30/02)

1700 Nov 20, Sweden’s 17-year-old King Charles XII defeated the Russians at Narva.
(HN, 11/20/98)

1700 William Congreve, an Anglo-Irishman playwright, published his last play, “The Way of the World.”
(WSJ, 11/20/98, p.W6)

c1700 Richard Gough, an aged English lawyer, authored “History of Myddle.”
(SFC, 4/3/01, p.C3)

1700 Castle Howard, Yorkshire, England, designed by Sir John Vanbrugh as the baroque home of the earls of Carlisle was begun.
(NG, Nov. 1985, M. Girouard, p.665)

1700 Around 1700 during a 50-year period of brutal winters, the Thule abandoned Ellesmere Island in the Canadian Arctic for Greenland.
(NG, 6/1988, p.763)

1700 British settlers began arriving to the Cayman Islands.
(AP, 5/10/03)

c1700 The English slave ship Henrietta Marie sank near Key West.
(WSJ, 6/2/98, p.A20)

1700 Germany adopted the Gregorian calendar established in 1582.
(SFEC, 9/27/98, BR p.5)

1700 India, with a population of some 165 million, was the world’s biggest economy and leading cotton producer.
(Econ, 9/24/11, SR p.4)

1700 The inventory of Medici instruments for 1700 establishes that at least one piano, created by Bartolomeo Cristofori (1655-1731), had been completed by this date. Cristofori began work on the “harpsichord with soft and loud” in 1698.

1700 The Spanish crown monopolized the Aquardiente industry in Colombia.
(AP, 9/2/03)

1700-1750 The blunderbuss is a firearm with a short, large caliber barrel which is flared at the muzzle and frequently throughout the entire bore, and used with shot and other projectiles of relevant quantity and/or caliber. One source, describing arms from the early to middle 17th century, lists the barrel length of a wheel lock dragon at around 11 inches (28 cm), compared to a 16-inch (41 cm) length for a blunderbuss.

1700s In Senegal female slave traders, called signare, prospered by conducting business with European men.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1700s In Spain bullfighting emerged in its modern form.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

c1700-1800 Anton Graff, 18th cent. German painter.
(SFEC, 10/9/96, C2)

c1700-1800 Giuseppe Nogari, Italian artist, painted “Old Woman With a Cup.” In 1997 it became the focus of a sting operation on Sotheby’s auction house which arranged its illegal export from Italy to New York.
(SFC, 2/7/97, p.A18)

1700-1800 The expression “putting on the dog” derived from the fact that in the 18th century, the finest dancing shoes were made of dog skin, which could be worn out in one night of vigorous footwork.
(HNQ, 2/4/99)

1700-1800 The Kabala of Isaac Luria provided the inspiration for the revolutionary 18th century Jewish revivalist movement in Eastern Europe, Hasidism. It included the idea known as “tikkun olam” whereby the world is repaired by identifying the spark of God in every living thing.
(WSJ, 5/22/98, p.W11)

1700-1800 The Gaon of Vilna, Lithuania, excommunicated the Hasidic Jews after they cast aside the traditional Jewish prayer book, replacing it with one composed by Isaac Luria.
(WSJ, 5/22/98, p.W11)

c1700-1800 In Malaysia Monosopiad, an 18th cent. warrior, collected some 42 human skulls. His house near Sandakan is known as the House of Skulls.
(SFEC, 10/17/98, p.T11)

1700-1800 Mauritius was settled by the French in the18th cent. The island was seeded with sugar and slaves were brought from Africa to work the plantations.
(SFC, 6/24/96, p.A8)

1700s In England Thomas Sheraton invented twin beds in the late 1700s.
(SFEC, 3/15/98, Z1 p.8)

1701 Jan 18, Frederick III, the elector of Brandenburg, became the king of Prussia.
(HN, 1/18/99)

1701 Feb 19, Philip V of Spain made his ceremonial entry into Madrid.
(HN, 2/19/99)

1701 Mar 9, In Birzai Augustus II and Russia’s Czar Peter I signed a treaty.

1701 May 23, Scottish-born sea captain William Kidd was hanged on the banks of the Thames after being found guilty of piracy and murder. Kidd had reluctantly became a privateer for England in 1696 and was expected to fight pirates on the open sea, seize their cargoes, and provide a hefty share of the spoils to the Crown. According to his British accusers, Kidd turned to piracy himself as the deadline for reporting to his employers in New York approached and he had not taken enough booty to fulfill his commission. Kidd himself did not know he was a wanted man until he dropped anchor in the West Indies in April 1699. He chose to surrender to the authorities and submit to a London trial, believing to the end that he could clear his name. Important evidence in his favor was suppressed and he was hanged.
(AP, 5/23/97)(HNPD, 8/27/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Kidd)

1701 May 31, Alexander Cruden, compiler of a concordance to King James Bible, was born.
(HN, 5/31/98)

1701 Jul 6, William Kidd, English-US buccaneer, was hanged. [see May 23]
(MC, 7/6/02)(PC, 1992, p.272)

1701 Jul 24, Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac (d.1730), aged 43, established Fort Ponchartrain for France on the future site of the city of Detroit, Michigan, in an attempt to halt the advance of the English into the western Great Lakes region.
(HN, 7/24/98)(DFP, 7/24/01)

1701 Sep 6, James II [Stuart], king of England (1685-88), died at 68.
(MC, 9/6/01)

1701 Sep 7, England, Austria, and the Netherlands formed an Alliance against France.
(HN, 9/7/98)

1701 Oct 9, The Collegiate School of Connecticut — later Yale University — was chartered in New Haven, Conn. It was the first US school to award a doctorate degree. [see Oct 16]
(SFC, 5/25/96, p.A9)(SF C, 3/8/96, p.E3)(AP, 10/9/97)

1701 Oct 13, Andreas Anton Schmelzer, composer, died at 47.
(MC, 10/13/01)

1701 Oct 16, Yale University was founded as The Collegiate School of Kilingworth, Connecticut by Congregationalists who considered Harvard too liberal. [see Oct 9]
(HN, 10/16/00)

1701 Oct 28, William Penn presented a Charter of Privileges for the Province of Pennsylvania during his 2nd and last visit to the colony. Among its provisions was one establishing total religious freedom and tolerance to those who wanted to live in peace in the colony. It remained as Pennsylvania’s constitution until the outbreak of the American Revolution (1775-1783).

1701 Nov 27, Anders Celsius (d.1744), Swedish astronomer who devised the centigrade temperature scale, was born in Uppsala.
(WUD, 1994, p.238)(AP, 11/27/06)

1701 The Act of Settlement established the order of succession to the English throne.
1701 In England presiding Chief Justice Lord Hold (1642-1710) ruled that “As soon as a Negro comes into England, he becomes Free.”
(ON, 12/08, 8)(http://tinyurl.com/9jhg29)
1701 The English slave ship Henrietta Marie sank 35 miles off Key West, Florida, on its way back to Europe. It had delivered 188 captured Africans to a slave broker in Jamaica in exchange for sugar and other goods bound for England. The wreck was found in 1972.
(SFC, 8/12/96, p.C5)(WSJ, 6/2/98, p.A20)(SSFC, 2/8/04, p.C12)
1701 Jethro Tull (1674-1741), a farmer in Berkshire, England, created a horse-drawn mechanical drill to plant seeds in a row.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)(www.berkshirehistory.com/bios/jtull.html)

1701 German artisans created an amber room for King Frederick I of Prussia. He presented it as a gift to Peter the Great in 1712 [see 1712, 1716].
(SFC, 3/22/97, p.A16)(SFC, 4/30/98, p.E6)(WSJ, 1/20/00, p.A20)
1701 German alchemist Johann Friedrich Bottger (1682-1719) escaped from Berlin, where he faced arrest for claiming he could turn lead into gold. He was arrested in Wittenberg and sent to Dresden where Augustus the Strong, Elector of Saxony, ordered him to replicate his alleged feat. Bottger soon befriended Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus, who was interested in creating true white porcelain. In 1705 Augustus allowed Bottger to work with Tschirnhaus on making porcelain.
(ON, 8/10, p.8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johann_Friedrich_B%C3%B6ttger)

1701 Spain’s medieval kingdom of Aragon again rebelled against Madrid.
(Econ, 11/8/08, SR p.10)
1701 The War of Spanish Succession began and continued to 1714.

1702 Jan 17, Thomas Franklin, English smith and uncle of B. Franklin, died.
(MC, 1/17/02)

1702 Mar 8, William III of Orange (51), Dutch King of England (1689-1702), died after falling from his horse and catching a chill. Anne Stuart (37), his sister-in-law, succeeded to the throne of England, Scotland and Ireland and reigned until 1714.
(PCh, 1992, p.272)(MC, 3/8/02)(AP, 3/8/98)

1702 Mar 11, The Daily Courant, the first regular English newspaper was published.
(HN, 3/11/99)

1702 Mar 21, Queen Anne Stuart addressed the English parliament.
(MC, 3/21/02)

1702 Apr 27, Jean Bart (51), French captain, sea hero (Escape out of Plymouth), died.
(MC, 4/27/02)

1702 Oct 12, [British] Admiral Sir George Rooke defeated the French fleet off Vigo.
(HN, 10/12/98)

1702 Oct 27, English troops plundered St. Augustine, Florida.
(MC, 10/27/01)

1702 Nov 4, John Benbow, English vice-admiral (Santa Marta), died.
(MC, 11/4/01)

1702 Nov 26, Colley Cibber’s “King Imposter” made its premier.
(MC, 11/26/01)

1702 Dec 14, In Japan 47 samurai stormed the palace of a high-ranking lord in Edo and beheaded him. They were ordered to commit seppuku, a ritual suicide by disembowelment. Stone monuments at the Sengakuji temple marked the graves of the 47 ronin (samurai with no master).
(SFC, 1/14/15, p.A5)

1702 Lord Cornbury, Queen Anne’s cousin, was made governor of New York and gave Trinity Church some land.
(SFEC, 1/10/99, p.A13)

1702 Omori Yoshikiyo, Japanese ehon artist, created his work “Trailing Willows,” which depicted the working women in the government sanctioned pleasure quarter of Kyoto.
(WSJ, 1/4/07, p.B11)
1702 In Japan the Ozawa family began making sake at its Ozawa Shuzo Brewery in Ome.
(SSFC, 4/26/15, p.L4)
1702 Meijin Dosaku, go-master to the shogun of Japan, died. He was the 4th head of the Honimbo go school and is held by many Japanese to have been the game’s greatest player.
(Econ, 12/18/04, p.129)
1702 Basho Matsuo, Japanese poet, died.
(SFC, 11/28/96, p.C16)

1702 Georg Everhard Rumpf, German botanist, died. He was employed by the Dutch East India Company and compiled the “Ambonese Herbal,” even after going blind in 1670. The work was published in Amsterdam between 1741 and 1755.
(Econ, 9/25/04, p.94)

1702-1711 Old Mobile, Alabama, was the first French settlement at Mobile.
(AM, Vol. 48, No. 3)

1703 Apr 26, Georg Christoph Leuttner (58), composer, died.
(MC, 4/26/02)

1703 May 18, Dutch and English troops occupied Cologne.
(SC, 5/18/02)

1703 May 26, Samuel Pepys (b.1633), English diarist, died. In the 1930s Sir Arthur Bryant authored a 3-volume biography. In the 1970s Richard Ollard authored a single volume biography. In 2001 Stephen Coote authored “Samuel Pepys: A Life” and another was expected by Claire Tomalin. In 2002 Claire Tomalin authored “Samuel Pepys: The Unequaled Self.”
(WSJ, 6/2/99, p.A24)(HN, 2/23/01)(SSFC, 12/22/02, p.M3)(MC, 5/26/02)

1703 May 27, Peter the Great founded St. Petersburg (Leningrad) as the capital of Russia. It was built on a swampy settlement ceded by Sweden and occupied by about 150 people.
(WSJ, 1/28/97, p.A16)(www.worldpress.org/Europe/1938.cfm)(MT, Winter/03, p.12)

1703 Jun 17, John Wesley (d.1791), English evangelist and theologian, was born. He founded the Methodist movement. He spent a brief period in Georgia (1738) as a missionary.
(HN, 6/17/99)(WSJ, 6/13/03, p.W19)

1703 Jul 31, English novelist Daniel Defoe was made to stand in the pillory as punishment for offending the government and church with his satire “The Shortest Way With Dissenters.”
(HN, 7/31/01)

1703 Sep 23, Jean-Marie Leclair, composer, was born.
(MC, 9/23/01)

1703 Sep 30, The French, at Hochstadt in the War of the Spanish Succession, suffered only 1,000 casualties to the 11,000 of their opponents, the Austrians of Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I.
(HN, 9/30/98)

1703 Oct 5, Jonathan Edwards (d.1758), US, theologian and philosopher (Original Sin), was born. He helped promote the “Great Awakening” of religious fervor that broke out in Protestant churches in New Jersey in the 1720s and spread to New England in the 1730s.
(WUD, 1994, p.454)(SSFC, 7/8/01, p.B5)(MC, 10/5/01)

1703 Oct 23, In Malmesbury, England Hannah, Twynnoy (33) teased a tiger at a circus. The tiger broke loose and killed her.
(SFEC, 1/2/00, Z1 p.2)

1703 Nov 19, The “Man in the Iron Mask,” a prisoner in Bastille prison in Paris, died.
(MC, 11/19/01)

1703 Nov 26-27, Heavy storms hit England and 1000s were killed. Bristol, England, was damaged by the hurricane. The Royal Navy lost 15 warships.
(MC, 11/26/01)

1703 Dec 30, Tokyo was hit by Earthquake and some 37,000 people died.
(MC, 12/30/01)

1703 Francois Boucher, French painter, was born. He painted “Diana.”
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.174)

1703 Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (d.1792), Islamic theologian and founder of Wahhabism, was born in Arabia. He set out his ideas in “The Book of Unity” (1736). Wahhabism, a puritan branch of Sunni Islam, was founded by al-Wahhab in a poor part of Arabia called Najd. Saudi armies helped to spread Wahhabi Islamic reform. A Salafi, from the Arabic word Salaf (literally meaning predecessors or early generations), is an adherent of a contemporary movement in Sunni Islam that is sometimes called Salafism or Wahhabism. Salafis themselves insist that their beliefs are simply pure Islam as practiced by the first three generations of Muslims and that they should not be regarded as a sect. [see 1744]
(WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)(www.concise.britannica.com)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salafi)

1703 Sir Isaac Newton, English scientist, became president of the Royal Society.
(Econ, 1/9/10, p.57)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isaac_Newton)

1703 Johann Sebastian Bach obtained his first position as organist for the city of Arnstadt, Thuringia, Germany.
(Hem., Nov.’95, p.114)

1703 L’Aquila in central Italy was again devastated by an earthquake.
(Econ, 10/27/12, p.80)

1703 A pair of lovers committed suicide in Osaka. The story of the courtesan and young merchant was quickly depicted in the Kabuki play “The Love suicides at Sonexaki” by Chikamatsu Monzaemon (1653-1725).
(SFC, 6/20/05, p.C5)

1703-1730 Ahmed III succeeded Mustafa II in the Ottoman House of Osman.
(Ot, 1993, xvii)

1704 Feb 19, In Japan Kabuki actor Ichikawa Danjuro I (b.1660, the first of the Danjuro line, was murdered by a rival on stage.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ichikawa_Danj%C5%ABr%C5%8D_I)(Econ, 2/16/13, p.44)

1704 Feb 24, Marc-Antoine Charpentier, French composer (church music), died.
(MC, 2/24/02)

1704 Feb 28, Indians attacked Deerfield, Mass. killing 40 and kidnapping 100.
(HN, 2/28/98)

1704 Apr 24, The Boston News-Letter was established, first successful newspaper in U.S.
(HN, 4/24/98)

1704 May 1, Boston Newsletter published the 1st US newspaper ad.
(MC, 5/1/02)

1704 May 20, Elias Neau formed a school for slaves in NY.
(MC, 5/20/02)

1704 Jul 24, Admiral George Rooke took Gibraltar from the Spanish.
(HN, 7/24/98)

1704 Aug 4, In the War of Spanish Succession, an Anglo-Dutch fleet captured Gibraltar.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Gibraltar)(AP, 9/19/06)

1704 Aug 13, The Battle of Blenheim, Germany, was fought during the War of the Spanish Succession, resulting in a victory for English and Austrian forces. The Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene of Austria defeated the French Army at the Battle of Blenheim. In 1705 Joseph Addison wrote the poem “The Campaign” for the Duke of Marlborough to commemorate the military victory over France and Spain at the Battle of Blenheim: “Do you not think an angel rides in the whirlwind and directs this storm.”
(AP, 8/13/97)(HN, 8/13/98)(SSFC, 1/21/01, p.A6)

1704 Sep 28, Maryland allowed divorce if a wife displeased the clergyman or preacher.
(MC, 9/28/01)

1704 Oct 28, John Locke (b.1632), English philosopher, Oxford academic and medical researcher, died. He authored 2 treatises on government.

1704 Oct, Scottish buccaneer Alexander Selkirk (1676-1721) isolated himself on the desert island of Mas a Tierra off the coast of Chile to protest the irrational actions of the Captain Thomas Stradling of the English privateer Cinque Ports. He remained on the island until Feb 1, 1709, and his story inspired Daniel Defoe’s “Robinson Crusoe.”
(ON, 6/12, p.6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Selkirk)

1704 In England Daniel Defoe (1660-1731) began publishing “The Review.” Defoe in this year also authored “The Storm” in which he organized the winds into categories of scale.
(WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A12)(NH, 11/1/04, p.51)

1704 English forces attacked Apalachee Indians in Florida driving them into slavery and exile. Some 800 Apalachee fled west to French-held Mobile.
(WSJ, 3/9/05, p.A1)

1704 John Churchill, first duke of Marlborough, was victorious at Blenheim in Bavaria, and was rewarded with the Blenheim Palace in Oxfordshire, England.
(NG, Nov. 1985, M. Girouard, p.671)

1705 Jan 8, Georg F. Handel’s 1st opera “Almira,” premiered in Hamburg.
(MC, 1/8/02)

1705 Jan 17, John Ray (b.1627), British naturalist and theologian, died. He had spent three years traveling in Europe collecting material for his book “Historia Plantarum.” The classification in his 1682 book “Methodus Plantarum Nova” is based on overall morphology. Ray’s plant classification system was the first to divide flowering plants into monocots and dicots.
(www.1911encyclopedia.org/John_Ray)(WSJ, 5/10/08, p.W8)

1705 Feb 15, Charles A. Vanloo, French painter, was born.
(MC, 2/15/02)

1705 Apr 16, Queen Anne of England knighted Isaac Newton at Trinity College.
(HN, 4/16/98)(MC, 4/16/02)

1705 Apr 23, Richard Steele’s “Tender Husband,” premiered in London.
(MC, 4/23/02)

1705 May 5, Leopold I von Hapsburg (b.1640), Emperor of Holy Roman Empire, died.

1705 Aug 4, Vaclav Matyas Gurecky, composer, was born.
(MC, 8/4/02)

1705 Oct 14, The English Navy captured Barcelona in Spain.
(HN, 10/14/98)

1705 Nov 23, Nicholas Rowe’s “Ulysses,” premiered in London.
(MC, 11/23/01)

1705 Dec 29, Prosper Jolyot’s “Idomenee,” premiered in Paris.
(MC, 12/29/01)

1705 Joseph Addison wrote the poem “The Campaign” for the Duke of Marlborough to commemorate the military victory over France and Spain at the Battle of Blenheim.
(SSFC, 1/21/01, p.A6)

1705 The first steam engine was built.
(WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R18)

1705 Luca Giordano (b.1634), Neopolitan baroque painter, died. He had studied under Spanish-born teacher Jusepe de Ribera and late in life spent 10 years in Spain.
(WSJ, 1/15/02, p.A14)

c1705 Yodoya Tatsugora, Japanese merchant, died. He was a member of the 5th generation of a family that became rich as silk traders and rice merchants. The Shogunate claimed that his wealth was unbecoming and confiscated it. Many government officials owed him money.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1705-1782 Carlo Broschi (a.k.a. Farinelli), Italian castrato, said to be able to produce 250 notes in a single breath. A film depicting his life was made in 1995, directed by Gerard Corbiau and features Stefano Dionisi as Farinelli.
(SFC, 4/28/95, p.C-3)

1706 Jan 17, Benjamin Franklin (d.1790), American statesman, was born in Boston, the youngest boy in a family of 17 children. He helped draft the Declaration of Independence and wrote “Poor Richard’s Almanac.” Carl Van Doren portrays Franklin as a harmonious rationalist in his classic biography. David Morgan writes of Franklin’s darker side in: “The Devious Dr. Franklin, Colonial Agent.” And Robert Middlekauff describes Franklin as a trickster in his: “Benjamin Franklin and his Enemies.” Franklin believed in white superiority and said: “why increase the Sons of Africa by planting them in America, when we have so fair an opportunity, by excluding all the Blacks and Tawneys, of increasing the lovely white.?” “If you would not be forgotten, as soon as you are dead and rotten, either write things worth reading, or do things worth the writing.”
(WSJ, 8/8/95, p. A12)(SFC,12/897, p.A27)(AP, 1/17/98)(AP, 4/17/98)(HN, 1/17/99)(HNQ, 11/19/01)

1706 Jan 28, John Baskerville, English typographer and inventor of the “hot-pressing” method of printing. He also manufactured lacquered ware.
(HN, 1/28/00)(WUD, 1994 p.124)

1706 Feb 27, John Evelyn, diarist, died.
(MC, 2/27/02)

1706 Mar 3, Johann Pachelbel (b.1653), German organist and composer best remembered for his “Canon in D,” died Nuremberg at age 52.
(WUD, 1994 p.1034)(AP, 3/3/06)

1706 Mar 8, Vienna’s Wiener Stadtbank was established.
(MC, 3/8/02)

1706 Apr 23, Spanish Gov. Francisco Cuervo y Valdes founded a new villa consisting of 35 families and named it in honor of the viceroy of New Spain, who was also the Duke of Albuquerque, a town in southwestern Spain. The 1st r was later dropped and in 2006 Albuquerque, NM, celebrated its 300th anniversary.
(SSFC, 5/22/05, p.E12)

1706 Apr 24, Giovanni Battista Martini, composer (Padre Martini), was born.
(MC, 4/24/02)

1706 May 23, Battle of Ramillies: Marlborough defeated the French and 17,000 were killed.
(MC, 5/23/02)

1706 Jul 10, In Virginia Grace Sherwood (d.1740), aka the Witch of Pungo, was forced to undergo a trial by water under accusations of being a witch. She floated, a sign of guilt, and was imprisoned for nearly 8 years. In 2006 the governor of Virginia officially cleared her name.
(http://tinyurl.com/k42jq)(WSJ, 9/15/06, p.A1)(http://carolshouse.com/witch/)

1706 Dec 28, Pierre Bayle (59), French theologist (History of Criticism), died.
(MC, 12/28/01)

1706 Bishop White Kennet printed his “Complete History of England with the Lives of All the Kings and Queens Thereof, Vol. 3” in London.
(SFC, 5/10/97, p.A8)

1706 The First Presbyterian church was organized in Philadelphia. It had begun in Scotland and the British Isles by John Knox around 1560.
(SFC, 7/21/97, p.A11)

1706 Pi, the 16th letter of the Greek alphabet, was 1st used as a mathematical symbol by William Jones of Wales. Pi represents the approximate ratio of a circle’s circumference to its diameter.
(SFEC, 3/14/99, p.C5)(WSJ, 3/15/05, p.B1)

1706 Isaac Newton published the results of his 40 years of experiments with light in the “Opticks.”

1706 San Felipe Church in Albuquerque, N.M., was founded.
(WSJ, 12/15/95, p.A-1)

1706 The Treaty of Union between Scotland and England was set up. Daniel Defoe worked as a British agent in Scotland and sent back reports on agitation against the yielding of autonomy.
(WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A12)

1706 Thomas Twinings opened his tea shop in London.
(SFEC, 9/12/99, p.T2)

1707 Jan 16, Scotland ratified the Treaty of Union by a majority of 110 votes to 69. The Acts created a new state, the Kingdom of Great Britain, by merging the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland together.

1707 Feb 25, Italian playwright Carlo Goldoni (d.1793) was born in Venice. “He who talks much cannot always talk well.”
(AP, 6/1/98)(AP, 2/25/07)

1707 Mar 3, Aurangzeb (88), Emperor of India (1658-1707), died.
(SC, 3/3/02)

1707 Mar 7, Stephen Hopkins, signer of the Declaration of Independence, was born.
(HN, 3/7/98)

1707 Apr 6, Willem Van de Velde (b.1633) the Younger, Dutch marine painter, died. His work included “fishing Boats by the Shore in a Calm” (1660-1605).
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Willem_van_de_Velde_the_Younger)(SFC, 7/9/11, p.E1)

1707 Apr 22, Henry Fielding (d.1754), English novelist and essayist, was born in Sharpham Park, Somerset, England. His work included “Tom Jones.”
(WUD, 1994 p.528)(AP, 4/22/07)

1707 Apr 25, At the Battle of Almansa, Franco-Spanish forces defeated Anglo-Portuguese.
(HN, 4/25/98)

1707 Apr 29, English-Scottish parliament accepted Act of Union and formed Great Britain. [see May 1]
(MC, 4/29/02)

1707 May 1, Effective on this day Scotland and England were united by an act of Parliament. England, Wales and Scotland were united to form Great Britain.
(WSJ, 4/16/97, p.A13)(HN, 5/1/98)

1707 May 9, Dietrich Buxtehude (~69), German organist, composer, died.
(MC, 5/9/02)

1707 May 23, Carolus Linnaeus [Carl von Linné], Swedish botanist, was born.
(HN, 5/23/01)

1707 Aug 31, The Treaty or Convention of Altranstädt was signed between Charles XII of Sweden and Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor. It settled the rights of Protestants in Silesia and forced Augustus the Strong to yield the Polish throne to Stanis?aw Leszczy?ski (1677-1766).

1707 Sep 7, George-Louis Leclerc (d.1788), Comte de Buffon, French naturalist and theoretical biologist. He commented on the origins of marine invertebrate fossils in the hills of France. He also wrote a 35 volume work titled “Histoire Naturelle, Generale, et Particuliere,” that was an attempt to record all that was known of the world of nature.
(DD-EVTT, p.114)(WSJ, 8/28/97, p.A12)(MC, 9/7/01)

1707 Oct 17, German composer Johann S. Bach married his niece Maria Bach.
(MC, 10/17/01)

1707 Oct 23, The first Parliament of Great Britain, created by the Acts of Union between England and Scotland, held its first meeting.
(AP, 10/23/07)

1707 Dec 1, Jeremiah Clarke, composer, died.
(MC, 12/1/01)

1707 Dec 5, The Society of Antiquaries of London was founded at the Bear Tavern in the Strand by John Talman, the son of an architect, Humfrey Wanley, a student of ancient inscriptions and Anglo-Saxon, and John Bagford, an eccentric shoemaker and dealer in books. They met for the purposes of forming a Society for the study of British antiquities, whose agreed aim was to further the study of British history prior to the reign of James I.

1707 Dec 18, Charles Wesley, co-founder of the Methodist movement, was born.
(MC, 12/18/01)

1707 Moses Chaim Luzzato (d.1746), Hebrew playwright, was born in Padua. His work included the Mesillat Yesharim (1740), essentially an ethical treatise but with certain mystical underpinnings.

1707 Jonathan Swift, novelist, said: “Laws are like cobwebs, which may catch small flies, but let wasps and hornets break through.”
(SFEC, 5/14/00, Z1 p.2)

1707 Handel composed his first opera, “Almira.” He went to Rome and was nicknamed Il Sassone, the Saxon. Legend has it that he had a harpsichord and organ duel with Domenico Scarlatti at the house of Cardinal Ottoboni. They tied on the harpsichord but Handel won easily on the organ. Handel also composed “Dixit Dominus” in this year.
(LGC-HCS, p.38)(WSJ, 5/11/99, p.A20)

1707 England granted Scotland 400,000 pounds to clear debts from the Darien disaster.
(Reuters, 2/16/12)

1707 Kondraty Bulavin led a Cossack uprising.
(SFC,10/28/97, p.A8)

1707 Japan’s Mount Fuji erupted. It produced only 2% as much ash as the 1815 Mount Tambora eruption.
(SFC, 2/14/98, p.A12)(Econ., 4/11/15, p.23)

1708 Jan 5, German alchemist Johann Friedrich Bottger, under the tutelage of Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus, succeeded in creating samples resembling pure porcelain at the Jungfernbastei castle in Dresden. Augustus the Strong, Elector of Saxony, had ordered Bottger to re-create the formula for oriental porcelain. Bottger was imprisoned and joined physicist Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus in a search for the formula. Tschirnhaus died in Oct, 1708. Within 2 years a factory was established in Meissen’s Albrechtsburg and Meissenware became Europe’s first hard-paste porcelain.
(Hem, 6/96, p.111)(SSFC, 4/25/04, p.D12)(Econ, 4/3/10, p.88)(ON, 8/10, p.9)

1708 Feb 28, A slave revolt in Newton, Long Island, NY, left 11 dead.
(MC, 2/28/02)

1708 Mar 6, Francis de Laval (b.1623), the first bishop of Quebec, died. He was beatified in 1980 and canonized in 2014.

1708 Mar 23, English pretender to the throne James III landed at Firth of Forth.
(SS, 3/23/02)

1708 Apr 23, Friedrich von Hagedorn, German poet (Versuch einiger Poem), was born.
(MC, 4/23/02)

1708 Apr 30, Simon de Vries, book seller, writer (Unequal), died.
(MC, 4/30/02)

1708 Jun 8, The San Jose, a 62-gun, three-masted Spanish galleon, was trying to outrun a fleet of British warships off Colombia’s Baru peninsula, when a mysterious explosion sent it to the bottom of the sea with gold, silver, emeralds and 600 men. 14 men survived. In 1979 Sea Search signed a deal with Colombia giving Sea Search exclusive rights to search for the San Jose and 50 percent of whatever they find. In 1982 Sea Search announced to the world it had found the San Jose’s resting place 700 feet below the water’s surface, a few miles from the historic Caribbean port of Cartagena. In 1984 Colombian President Belisario Betancur signed a decree reducing Sea Search’s share from 50% to a 5% “finder’s fee.” By 2007 the treasure was valued at more than $2 billion. In July, 2007, Colombia’s highest court ruled that the ship must first be recovered before an international dispute over the fortune can be settled. In 2007 Carla Rahn Phillips authored “The Treasure of San Jose: Death at Sea in the War of the Spanish Succession.” In 2015 experts confirmed that they found the San Jose on November 27 in a place never before referenced by previous research. The Remus 6000, an underwater autonomous vehicle operated by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, assisted in the operation.
(AP, 6/3/07)(AP, 7/6/07)(WSJ, 1/31/07, p.D6)(AP, 12/6/15)(AP, 5/22/18)

1708 Jul 4, Swedish King Karel XII beat Russians.

1708 Jul 11, The French were defeated at Oudenarde, Malplaquet, in the Netherlands by the Duke of Marlborough and Eugene of Savoy.
(HN, 7/11/98)

1708 Aug 29, French Canadian and Indian forces attacked the village of Haverhill, Mass., killing 16 settlers.
(AP, 8/29/08)

1708 Sep 28, At the Battle at Lesnaya the Russian army captured a Swedish convoy.
(MC, 9/28/01)

1708 Oct 1, John Blow, composer (Venus & Adonis), died at 59.
(MC, 10/1/01)

1708 Oct 11, Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus (b.1651), German physicist, died. Three days after Von Tschirnhaus’s death, there was a burglary at his house and, according to a report by Böttger, a small piece of porcelain was stolen. This report suggests that Böttger himself recognized that Von Tschirnhaus already knew how to make porcelain, a key piece of evidence that Von Tschirnhaus and not Böttger was the inventor of white porcelain.
{Germany, Physics, Ceramics}
(ON, 8/10, p.9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ehrenfried_Walther_von_Tschirnhaus)

1708 Oct 16, Albrecht von Haller, Swiss experimental physiologist, was born.
(MC, 10/16/01)

1708 Oct, London’s St. Paul’s Cathedral, designed by Sir Christopher Wren, was completed. The “topping out” of the cathedral (when the final stone was placed on the lantern) took place. The cathedral was declared officially complete by Parliament on 25 December 1711 (Christmas Day). In 2008 Leo Hollis authored “The Phoenix: St Paul’s Cathedral and the Men Who Made Modern London.”
(Econ, 6/7/08, p.97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St_Paul%27s_Cathedral)

1708 Nov 15, William Pitt the Elder, Secretary of State of England whose strategies helped win the Seven Years War, was born. He served as Whig PM from 1756-61 and 66-68.
(HN, 11/15/98)(MC, 11/15/01)

1708 Dec 21, French forces seized control of the eastern shore of Newfoundland after winning a victory at St. John’s.
(HN, 12/21/98)

1708 Thomas Corneille mentioned Camembert cheese in his geographical dictionary.
(Econ, 7/26/03, p.79)

1708 A map was made that depicted Towasa Indian Lamhatty’s account of his enslavement in colonial America. It was one of 75 documents in the 1997 book “Another America” by Mark Warhus.
(NH, 5/97, p.11)

1708 Mir Wais, a forerunner of Afghan independence, made Kandahar independent of Safavid Persia that had ruled it since 1622.

1708 The German Baptist Brethren were founded as a band of Pietists in the village of Schwarzenau. Due to persecution they soon migrated to America. The Holy Spirit whispers to every believer but can only be heard by those who sacrifice self-will to god’s will. They observe the rite of the “holy kiss” and have no leaders.
(WSJ, 8/3/01, p.W13)

1708 The Great Buddha Hall at Nara’s Todaiji Temple, the world’s largest wooden structure, was rebuilt at two thirds of the original scale.
(Hem, 9/04, p.46)

1708 Gobind Singh, the 10th Sikh guru died in India. He named the “Granth Sahib” holy book as his eternal successor before his death.
(AP, 9/1/04)

1709 Jan 5, Sudden extreme cold killed 1000s of Europeans.
(MC, 1/5/02)

1709 Jan 10, Abraham Darby (1678-1717) in Coalbrookdale, England, began using coke to provide carbon for making iron. This led to the end of the use of charcoal for making iron.
(Econ, 8/29/09, p.69)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham_Darby_I)

1709 Feb 1, British sailor Alexander Selkirk was rescued after being marooned on a desert island for 5 years. His story inspired “Robinson Crusoe.”

1709 Feb 8, Giuseppi Torelli (50), Italian composer, died.
(MC, 2/8/02)

1709 Mar 8, William Cowper/Cooper (~62), English anatomist, died.
(MC, 3/8/02)

1709 Apr 12, The Tatler magazine in England published its 1st edition. It used the names of coffee houses as subject headings for articles.
(MC, 4/12/02)(Econ, 12/20/03, p.89)

1709 Jun 28, Russians defeated the Swedes and Cossacks at the Battle of Poltava. [see July 8]
(HN, 6/28/98)

1709 Jul 5, Etienne de Silhouette, French minister of finance, outline portrait artist, was born.
(HN, 7/5/98)

1709 Jul 8, Peter the Great defeated Charles XII at Poltava, in the Ukraine, effectively ending the Swedish empire. [see June 28]
(HN, 7/8/98)

1709 Sep 3, The 1st major group of Swiss and German colonists reached the Carolinas.
(MC, 9/3/01)

1709 Sep 11, John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough, won the bloodiest battle of the 18th century at great cost, against the French at Malplaquet.
(HN, 9/11/98)

1709 Sep 17, Samuel Johnson, lexicographer and writer (Boswell’s Tour Guide), was born. [see Sep 18]
(MC, 9/17/01)

1709 Sep 18, Samuel Johnson (d.1784), English lexicographer, essayist, poet and moralist best known for “The Dictionary of the English Language,” was born. “Patriotism is the last refuge of a scoundrel.” — (To which Ambrose Bierce replied, “I beg to submit that it is the first.”) Boswell wrote the celebrated “Life of Johnson.” In 1955 Walter Jackson Bate (d.1999 at 81) published “The Achievement of Samuel Johnson” and in 1977 the biography “Samuel Johnson.” “The lawyer has no business with the justice or injustice of a cause. The justice or injustice is to be decided by the judge.” [see Sep 17]
(AP, 10/8/97)(BS, 5/3/98, p.13E)(HN, 9/18/98)(SFEC, 1/10/99, Par p.10)(SFC, 7/27/99, p.A17)

1709 Oct 20, Marlborough and Eugene of Savoy took Mons in the Netherlands.
(HN, 10/20/98)

1709 Nov 22, Frantisek Benda, composer, was born.
(MC, 11/22/01)

1709 Dec 1, Franz Xaver Richter, composer, was born.
(MC, 12/1/01)

1709 Dec 8, Thomas Corneille (74), French dramatist, died.
(MC, 12/8/01)

1709 Dec 18, Elizabeth, empress of Russia (to Peter the Great & Catherine I), was born. [see Dec 29]
(MC, 12/18/01)

1709 Dec 29, Elisabeth Petrovna, daughter of Peter the Great and Catherine, was born. She became tsarina of Russia (1741-1762).

1709 Boston minister Thomas Bannister donated the book “Complete History of England with the Lives of All the Kings and Queens Thereof, Vol. 3” to Harvard Univ. It was written by Bishop White Kennet and printed in 1706 in London.
(SFC, 5/10/97, p.A8)

1709 Handel composed his opera “Agrippina.”
(WSJ, 4/17/02, p.D7)

1709 Britain passed its first copyright act [see April 10, 1710].
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1709 Qing emperor Qianlong built the gardens of Yuanmingyuan (the garden of perfection and light) on the outskirts of Beijing as the imperial summer palace. In 1860 Lord Elgin’s cavalry set fire and let the gardens burn for 3 days and nights.
(www.china.org.cn/english/features/beijng/31186.htm)(Econ, 11/26/05, p.18)

1709 In Paris representatives of the Comedie-Francaise tore down the loges at the Foire de Saint-Germain. The loges were quickly rebuilt and the Comedie-Francasie people came back enraged and burned them. The theaters were rebuilt in a week and plays resumed.
(PNM, 1/25/98, p.4)

1710 Jan 1, Cölln, a town on the Spree River, united with neighboring Berlin under the latter name.

1710 Jan 4, Giovanni Battista Pergolesi (d.1736), Italian composer (Il Prigioniero Superbo), was born.
(MC, 1/4/02)(SFC, 6/24/02, p.B6)

1710 Feb 4, August II with the support of the Russian army was recognized by the parliament in Warsaw as King of Lithuania and Poland.
(LHC, 2/4/03)

1710 Feb 7, William Boyce, English organist, composer of Cathedral music, was born.
(MC, 2/7/02)

1710 Feb 15, Louis XV (d.1774), King of France, was born. He ruled from 1715-1774.
(HN, 2/15/98)(WUD, 1994, p.848)

1710 Mar 27, Joseph Marie Clement dall’ Abaco, composer, was born.
(MC, 3/27/02)

1710 Apr 10, Britain’s Queen Anne gave her assent to an act “for the encouragement of learning.” It upheld Parliament’s 1709 copyright act, which set a limit of 21 years for books already in print and 14 years for new ones with an additional 14 years if the author was still alive when the first term ran out.
(Econ, 4/10/10, p.16)

1710 Oct 16, British troops occupied Port Royal, Nova Scotia.
(MC, 10/16/01)

1710 Nov 14, Gottfried W. Leibniz (b.1646-1716), German philosopher and theologian, authored “Theodicy” in which he tried to resolve the theological problem of evil.
(www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Leibniz.html)(WSJ, 12/15/05, p.D8)

1710 Nov 21, Barnardo Pasquini (72), composer, died.
(MC, 11/21/01)

1710 Nov 22, Wilhelm Friedemann Bach, composer, son of JS Bach (Sinfonias 64), was born.
(MC, 11/22/01)

1710 French artist Jean-Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) painted “The Fortune Teller” about this time.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean-Antoine_Watteau)(SFC, 5/26/18, p.E2)
1710 “The Narrow Road” by Basho Matsuo (d.1702), Japanese poet, was first published.
(SFC, 11/28/96, p.C16)

1710 Handel returned from Italy to Hanover and was appointed as court musician to the Elector of Hanover. Later that year he first went to London. He wrote opera in the Italian style and was very successful.
(LGC-HCS, p.35)(WSJ, 8/7/01, p.A12)
1710 Louis-Nicolas Clerambault composed his cantata “Medee.”
(SFC, 6/6/96, E3)
1710 The original Chapel of San Miguel in Santa Fe, New Mexico, was erected. (AWAM, Dec. 94, p.69)
1710 St. Peter’s Roman Catholic Church was built in Malacca, Malaysia.
(SFEC, 3/19/00, p.T8)
1710 The Elector of Hanover commissioned the Hanover Cistern and Fountain, a silver buffet service intended to cool wine. In 1997 it had an estimated value of $2-3 million.
(SFC, 10/8/97, Z1 p.4)
1710 In Germany Baron Johann Bottger invented the Meissen hard-paste porcelain at the Meissen factory on the river Elbe under the auspices of Augustus, King of Poland. [see 1709] Kandler was a virtuoso sculptor and brilliant artist at Meissen and was responsible for the figurine of Mazzetin and Columbine, 2 characters from the Italian comedia dell ‘arte. In 2008 Maureen Cassidy-Geiger edited “Fragile Diplomacy,” an illustrated look at Meissen porcelain.
(WSJ, 8/28/98, p.W10)(WSJ, 2/16/08, p.W11)
1710 Mohawk and Mohican chiefs from Canada visited Queen Anne in London on a diplomatic mission.
(Econ 7/1/17, p.29)
1710 Umbrellas became popular in London.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)
1710 Wazir Khan, governor of Sirhind, died. He administered a territory of the Mughal Empire between the Sutlej and Yamuna rivers. He had a Persian background and was amongst the most loyal vassals of Aurangzeb.

1710-1784 Wilhelm Friedemann Bach, oldest son of J.S. Bach.
(LGC-HCS, p.31)

1710-1895 Muslim rulers led the Kong Empire, also known as the Wattara or Outtara Empire, which spread across West Africa. It embraced a diversity of religious groups straddling what later became Burkina Faso and Ivory Coast.
(Econ, 4/23/11, p.51)

1711 Feb 14, Handel’s opera Rinaldo premiered. He composed his opera “Rinaldo,” with the Italian librettist Giacomo Rossi. It was his 1st opera for London.
(LGC-HCS, p.41)(WSJ, 11/13/00, p.A32)(MC, 2/14/02)

1711 Mar 1, “The Spectator” began publishing in London.
(SC, 3/1/02)

1711 Mar 19, War was declared between Russia and Turkey.
(AP, 3/19/03)

1711 Apr 26, David Hume (d.1776), Scottish historian and philosopher, was born. His work included the “Treatise of Human Nature” and the 6-volume “History of England.” Use of the new calendar puts his birthday on May 7.
1711 May 7, David Hume (d.1776), Scottish historian and philosopher, was born. His work included the “Treatise of Human Nature” and the 6-volume “History of England.” The old style calendar puts his birthday on April 26.

1711 May 18, Ruggiero G. Boscovich [Rudzer J Boskovic], Italian astronomer, was born.
(SC, 5/18/02)

1711 Jun 1, The Queen Anne Act, known as The British Post Office Act of 1710, took effect in North America on June 1, 1711. It created a formula that was used to improve the colonial postal system and remained in effect in North America until 1789. Colonists came to view the postal rates set forth in the act as an excessive and unwelcome form of taxation. The rates were revised by a later act, which took effect on October 10, 1765.

1711 Jul 21, Russia and Turkey signed the Treaty of Pruth, ending the year-long Russo-Turkish War.
(HN, 7/21/98)

1711 Aug 1, Czar Peter the Great fled Azov after being surrounded.
(MC, 8/1/02)

1711 Aug 23, A British attempt to invade Canada by sea failed.
(HN, 8/23/98)

1711 Sep 6, Heinrich Melchior Muhlenberg, founder of the US Lutheran church, was born.
(MC, 9/6/01)

1711 Sep 22, The Tuscarora Indian War began with a massacre of settlers in North Carolina, following white encroachment that included the enslaving of Indian children.
(HN, 9/22/98)
1711 Sep 22, A French corsair captured Rio de Janeiro following its surprise appearance in Rio’s harbor on 12 September. Four Portuguese ships of the line were lost, and the city had to pay a ransom to avoid destruction of its defenses.

1711 Nov 3, Ferdinand Tobias Richter (60), composer, died.
(MC, 11/3/01)

1711 Dec 25, London’s St. Paul’s Cathedral, designed by Sir Christopher Wren, was declared officially complete by Parliament. In fact construction was to continue for several years after that, with the statues on the roof only being added in the 1720s. In 2008 Leo Hollis authored “The Phoenix: St Paul’s Cathedral and the Men Who Made Modern London.”

1711 Dec 31, Duke of Marlborough was fired as English army commander.
(MC, 12/31/01)

1711 The city of Beaufort, SC, was founded. It was later hailed as the state’s 2nd oldest city.
(SSFC, 1/19/03, p.C12)

1711 Horse racing began at the Royal Ascot track west of London. The 1st four day royal meeting was held there in 1768.
(SFC, 6/21/06, p.A2)(www.icons.org.uk/nom/nominations/royal-ascot)
1711 Daniel Defoe, author and enthusiast of Latin America, persuaded the British government to set up the South Sea Company to trade with the region. Speculation fueled value in the company’s shares, but the bubble crashed in 1720. In 1960 Virginia Cowles authored “The Great Swindle: The Story of the South Sea bubble.”
(Econ, 11/13/10, p.87)
1711 English ships captured the Spanish galleon San Joaquin, part of a fleet returning to Spain from Portobelo under Don Miguel Augustin de Villanueva, who was mortally wounded. New World wealth was on another ship, which managed to return to Spain.
(WSJ, 1/31/07, p.D6)

1711 Marin Marais, a great French virtuoso on the viola da gamba, composed a pair of suites.
(SFC, 6/10/98, p.D1)

1712 Jan 24, Frederick II (d.1786), Frederick the Great, the Hohenzollern King of Prussia (1740-1786), was born. He was noted for his social reforms and leading Prussia in military victories.
(WUD, 1994, p.565)(HN, 1/24/99)(WSJ, 4/27/00, p.A24)(MC, 1/24/02)

1712 Feb 8, L. Joseph de Montcalm de Saint-Veran, French general in America, was born. [see Feb 29]
(MC, 2/8/02)

1712 Feb 29, Marquis Louis Joseph de Montcalm, Commander of French Forces in North America during French and Indian War, was born. [see Feb 8]
(HN, 2/29/00)

1712 Apr 7, There was a slave revolt in New York City. A slave insurrection in New York City was suppressed by the militia and ended with the execution of 21 blacks. [see Jul 4]
(HN, 4/7/97)(HNQ, 6/10/98)

1712 Jun 7, The Pennsylvania Assembly banned the importation of slaves.
(HN, 6/7/98)

1712 Jun 28, Jean-Jacques Rousseau (d.1778), writer and philosopher, was born in Geneva, Switzerland. His books include “The Social Contract” (1762) and Emile (1762).
(www.infed.org/thinkers/et-rous.htm)(HN, 6/28/99)

1712 Jul 4, Twelve slaves were executed for starting a slave uprising in New York that killed nine whites. [see Apr 7]
(HN, 7/4/98)(PCh, 1992, p.278)

1712 Jul 12, Richard Cromwell (85), English Lord Protector (1658-59), died.
(MC, 7/12/02)

1712 Jul 30, Abraham Elsevier, publisher, died.
(MC, 7/30/02)

1712 Oct 4, Utrecht banished poor Jews.
(MC, 10/4/01)

1712 Oct 30, Christian Wilhelm Ernst Dietrich, German painter, was born.
(MC, 10/30/01)

1712 Nov 4, The Bandbox Plot, an attempt to kill Robert Harley, Earl of Oxford and Lord Treasurer, was foiled by Jonathan Swift (the author of Gulliver’s Travels), who happened to be visiting Harley.
(Econ, 11/6/10, p.74)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bandbox_Plot)

1712 The poem “The Rape of the Lock” by English poet Alexander Pope (1688-1744) was anonymously published in Lintot’s Miscellany. It was revised, expanded and reissued under Pope’s name in 1714.

1712 The English tract “Onania; or the Heinous Sin of Self-Pollution, and All Its Frightful Consequences in Both Sexes, Considered, With Spiritual and Physical Advice to Those Who Have Already Injur’d Themselves by This Abominable Practice,” was published. It was later attributed to a quack doctor named John Marten.
(SSFC, 5/18/03, p.E7)

1712 Handel composed his operas “Il Pastor Fido” and “Teseo.”
(LGC-HCS, p.41)

1712 South Carolina law required church attendance and prohibited work or travel on Sundays.
(AH, 4/07, p.30)

1712 English Tories introduced a stamp tax, which taxed newspapers per sheet. Papers were then published as broadsheets, single sheets with huge pages
(Econ, 6/12/04, p.18)
1712 Robert Walpole, later British prime minister, served a spell in the Tower of London on charges of financial impropriety.
(Econ, 2/10/07, p.89)
1712 Englishman Thomas Newcomen created a piston system to separate the steam from the water.
(HNQ, 1/18/01)

1712 In Mexico Maria de Ortiz Espejo was convicted by the Inquisition of telling women that hummingbirds and earthquakes could help them get pregnant. She got off with a warning.
(SFC, 9/18/96, p.A11)

1712 In Russia Peter the Great married Catherine.
(WSJ, 6/28/99, p.A27)

1712-1793 Francesco Guardi, Italian painter. He painted “A Seaport and Classic Ruins in Italy.”
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.627)

1712-1862 England taxed soap with the declaration that it was a frivolous luxury of the aristocracy.
(SFC, 4/17/99, p.B3)

1713 Jan 8, Arcangelo Corelli (59), composer, violinist (Concerti Grossi), died.
(MC, 1/8/02)

1713 Feb 25, Frederik I (b.1657), King of Prussia (1701-13), died.

1713 Mar 15, Nicolas Louis de Lacaille, astronomer who mapped the Southern Hemisphere, was born.
(MC, 3/15/02)

1713 Apr 11, The Peace of Utrecht was signed, France ceded Maritime provinces to Britain. The French colony of Acadia, now Nova Scotia, was ceded to Great Britain. The Acadians had come from western France to fish and farm. Those who would not swear allegiance to the crown were deported. Many of these deportees went to the bayou country of Louisiana.
(WUD, 1994, p.7)(WSJ, 9/4/96, p.A12)(HN, 4/11/98)(WSJ, 11/29/99, p.A29)
1713 Apr 11, Spain ceded the 2.5-sq. mile Gibraltar in perpetuity to Britain under the Treaty of Utrecht.
(WSJ, 11/29/99, p.A29)(SFC, 2/19/02, p.A2)

1713 Apr 21, Louis Duke de Noailles, marshal of France, was born.
(MC, 4/21/02)

1713 May 25, John Stuart 3rd earl of Bute, English premier (1760-63), was born.
(SC, 5/25/02)

1713 Jul 7, The 1st performance of Georg F Handel’s “To Deum” & “Jubilate.”
(MC, 7/7/02)

1713 Jun 13, Arcangelo Corelli (~49), Italian violinist, composer, died.
(MC, 6/13/02)

1713 Oct 5, Denis Diderot (d.1784), French encyclopedist (Dictionnaire Encyclopedique), was born in Langres, Champagne, France. Age of Enlightenment philosopher, writer who with his friend Voltaire, scoffed at organized religion, ultimately bringing on the French Revolution. “The aims of the encyclopedia seem harmless enough to us. But authoritarian governments don’t like dictionaries. They live by lies and bamboozling abstractions, and can’t afford to have words accurately defined.”

1713 Oct 10, Johann Ludwig Krebs, composer, was born. [see Oct 12]
(MC, 10/10/01)

1713 Oct 12, Johann Ludwig Krebs, composer, was born. [see Oct 10]
(MC, 10/12/01)

1713 Nov 20, Thomas Tompion, English clock maker (cylinder tunnel), died.
(MC, 11/20/01)

1713 Nov 24, Junipero Serra (d.1784), Spanish Roman Catholic missionary to the Indians in California and Mexico was born on the Spanish isle of Palma de Mallorca. He came to the New World in 1749 accompanied by 14 other Mallorcans including the geographer Crespi and Father Francisco Palou, biographer of Serra and historian of the missions. Serra was beatified in 1988.
(SFC, Z1, 4/28/96, p.6)(SFEC, 9/14/97, p.A18)(www.beachcalifornia.com/carmel2.html)
1713 Nov 24, Laurence Sterne (d.1768), novelist and satirist (Tristram Shandy), was born in Ireland. “Free thinkers are generally those who never think at all.”
(MC, 11/24/01)(AP, 6/19/97)

1713 Joseph Addison, English writer, authored the play “Cato.”
(SFC, 12/1/00, p.A3)

1713 Bach composed his Brandenburg Concerto No. 3.
(WSJ, 10/5/98, p.A21)
1713 European white porcelain was put up for general sale for the first time at the Leipzig trade fair.
(ON, 8/10, p.10)

1713 Andrew Robinson built the first schooner. In New England “to scoon” meant “to skim.”
(SFC, 5/17/97, p.E3)

1713 Most European powers vowed to respect the 1713 royal pronouncement of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI, called the Pragmatic Sanction, in which he declared that if he had no direct male heir upon his death, his Austrian domains would go to his eldest daughter, Maria Theresa.
(HNQ, 7/29/99)

1713 The plague in Vienna ended. The Karlskirche Church, designed by Johann Bernard Fischer von Erlach was built to commemorate this event. It is considered to be Vienna’s greatest Baroque church.
(Hem., Dec. ’95, p.69)

1713-1791 Kang Se-hwang, Korean painter.
(SFC, 7/26/97, p.E1)

1714 Jan 7, A typewriter was patented by Englishman Henry Mill. It was built years later.
(MC, 1/7/02)

1714 Mar 6, the Treaty of Rastatt ended the war between Austria and Spain. It complemented the Treaty of Utrecht, which had, the previous year, ended hostilities with Britain and the Dutch Republic. The Spanish Netherlands became the Austrian Netherlands, and Spain gave up her possession in Italy, Luxembourg and Flanders. A third treaty, the Treaty of Baden (Sep 7, 1714), was required to end the hostilities between France and the Holy Roman Empire.
(PCh, ed. 1992, p.279)(http://tinyurl.com/b8uxbje)

1714 Mar 8, Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (d.1788), German composer, son of J.S. Bach, was born. He played keyboard at the court of Frederick the Great for 28 years, and succeeded Telemann at Hamburg. Because he was left-handed he did not play the violin. He represented the elegant, noncontrapuntal style gallant that was developed by the Mannheim composers and led into Haydn and Mozart.
(LGC-HCS, p.31)(MC, 3/8/02)

1714 Jul 2, Christoph Willibald Ritter von Gluck, composer, was born in Erasbach, Germany.
(SC, 7/2/02)

1714 Jul, Britain’s Parliament passed the Longitude Act. It established the Board of Longitude and offered monetary rewards (Longitude Prize) for anyone who could find a simple and practical methods for the precise determination of a ship’s longitude.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Longitude_Act)(Econ, 5/16/15, p.72)

1714 Aug 1, Queen Anne (1702-1714) of Britain died at age 48. By the 1701 Act of Settlement Prince George Louis (54) of Hanover succeeded her as King George I (d.1727).
(PCh, 1992, p.279)(www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon53.html)

1714 Sep 7, In Baden, Switzerland, Charles VI signed the Treaty of Baden, also called the Peace of Baden, on behalf of the Holy Roman Empire. It was one of the agreements that concluded the War of the Spanish Succession.

1714 Sep 11, The Bourbon monarchy suppressed Catalonia’s medieval institutions following the end of the War of Spanish Succession. The Kingdom of Aragon troops that fought in support of the Habsburg dynasty’s claim to the Spanish throne were finally defeated at the Siege of Barcelona by the army of the Borbon king Philip V of Spain after 14 months of siege. This became the National Day of Catalonia (Diada) first celebrated in 1886.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Day_of_Catalonia)(Econ, 11/24/12, p.25)

1714 Sep 25, Jean-Benoit Leclair, composer, was born.
(MC, 9/25/01)

1714 Oct 20, Georg Ludwig of Hanover was crowned as George I of England. Queen Anne of England died and was succeeded by the Elector of Hanover. The Hanoverian dynasty ruled to 1901.
(LGC-HCS, p.36)(HN, 10/20/98)(WUD, 1994, p.644)

1714 Nov 11, A highway in Bronx was laid out. It was later renamed East 233rd Street.
(MC, 11/11/01)

1714 Bernard de Mandeville, Dutch philosopher, achieved widespread fame with his lengthy poem “The Fable of the Bees: Private Vice, Publick Benefits.”
(NH, 7/02, p.74)

1714 Tobias Swinden (1659-1719), English vicar, authored “an Enquiry into the Nature and Place of Hell.”
(Econ, 12/22/12, p.26)
1714 A British comedy called “The Winder” was staged.
(Econ, 12/19/09, p.132)
1714 Henry Mill received the first recorded patent for a typewriter in England.
(SJSVB, 3/25/96, p.27)
1714 Henrietta Howard (b.1689-1767) traveled with her husband to Hanover to the court of George Louis, heir to the English throne. In 1720 she was appointed as Woman of the Bedchamber to Princess Caroline and in 1723 became a royal mistress. In 2007 Tracy Borman authored “Henrietta Howard: King’s Mistress, Queen’s Servant.”
(Econ, 10/6/07, p.99)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henrietta_Howard,_Countess_of_Suffolk)

1714 In France Dom Perignon invented champagne. [see 1688]
(SFEC, 2/1/98, Z1p.8)

1714 In Japan Ando Kaigetsudo (1671-1743) was banished to the island of Oshima. He was the founder of the Kaigetsudo school of ukiyo-e (scenes of the transient world of daily life) painters and print designers.
(www.ready-to-hang.com/LCP_ArtNotes/Kaigetsudo_Ando_Bio.htm)(SSFC, 11/20/05, p.M1)

1714 In Northern Russia the Church of the Transfiguration was built by the Kizhi community on an island on Lake Onega. The wooden church with 22 onion domes was built without nails.
(WSJ, 9/16/06, p.P18)
1714 Peter the Great instituted the Order of St. Catherine in honor of his wife, Catherine. It was the highest Russian honor awarded exclusively to women. Only 12 women outside the royal family could be members of the Order at a time.
(WSJ, 6/11/99, p.W14)(WSJ, 6/28/99, p.A27)
1714 Peter the Great of Russia founded Oktyabar, a pharmaceutical firm. In 1995 US ICN Pharmaceuticals increased its investment in the firm to 75% from 41%.
(ICN, 1995 An. Rep., p.11)

1715 Jan 26, Claude Helvétius, French philosopher, was born. He advanced the theory that sensation is the source of all intellectual activity.
(HN, 1/26/99)

1715 Mar 7, Ewald Christian von Kleist, German lyric poet (Der Freuhling), was born.
(MC, 3/7/02)

1715 Mar, William Dampier (b.1651), English explorer and privateer, died. In 2004 Diana and Michael Preston authored “A Pirate of Exquisite Mind: Explorer, Naturalist and Bucaneer,” a biography of Dampier.
(WSJ, 4/16/04, p.W8)

1715 Apr 15, Uprising of Yamasse Indians in South Carolina.
(MC, 4/15/02)

1715 Apr 20, Nicholas Rowe’s “Tragedy of Lady Jane Gray,” premiered in London.
(MC, 4/20/02)

1715 May 3, Edmund Halley observed a total eclipse phenomenon: “Baily’s Beads.”
(MC, 5/3/02)

1715 May 4, A French manufacturer debuted the first folding umbrella.
(HN, 5/4/98)

1715 Jul 20, The Riot Act went into effect in England.
(HFA, ’96, p.34)(HN, 7/20/01)

1715 Jul 30, Eleven of twelve Spanish ships carrying gold and silver disappeared in a hurricane near Vero Beach, Florida.

1715 Sep 1, Louis XIV (b.1638), “the Sun King,” king of France (1643-1715), died of gangrene. His wife was Madame de Maintenon, founder of the convent academy Maison St. Cyr. In 2006 Antonia Fraser authored “Love and Louis XIV.”
(THC, 12/3/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_XIV_of_France)(WSJ, 11/4/06, p.P10)

1715 Sep 6, A pro-James III uprising took place in Scotland.
(MC, 9/6/01)

1715 Sep 30, Etienne B. de Condillac, French philosopher (sensualism, Cours d’etudes), was born.
(MC, 9/30/01)

1715 Oct 2, Peter II, czar of Russia (1727-30), was born.
(MC, 10/2/01)

1715 Nov 12, Forces of King George I fought a rebel army at Preston, Lancashire. The rebels were defeated as government reinforcements arrived the next day. 1468 rebels, including over 1000 Scots, were taken prisoner. William Maxwell (36), Fifth Earl of Nithsdale, was soon condemned to death and taken to the Tower of London.
(ON, 8/20/11, p.9)(www.information-britain.co.uk/famdates.php?id=323)

1715 Nov 13, English and Scottish rebels supporting James Francis Edward Stuart surrendered following the battle at Preston, Lancashire.
1715 Nov 13, The English fought the Scots at the Battle of Sheriffmuir in Scotland. The battle was inconclusive with both sides claiming victory. However in strategic terms Argyll had halted the Jacobite advance.

1715 Nov 24, The Thames River froze.
(MC, 11/24/01)

1715 Nov 25, England granted the 1st patent to an American. It was for processing corn.
(MC, 11/25/01)

1715 Handel composed the opera “Amadigi di Gaula.” It was about the sorceress Melissa and her attempts to seduce the hero Amadigi.
(WSJ, 3/24/97, p.A16)
1715 Daniel Parker (~1700-1775), English violin maker, visited Stradivari’s workshop about this time in Cremona, Italy, and acquired an abundance of the master’s secrets in making violins.
(Econ, 1/2/10, p.11)(www.amacviolins.com/amac/gallery/doc/makers.htm)

1715 The Ottomans recaptured the Peloponnesus from the Venetians.
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.56)

1715 Mir Wais died peacefully, and lies in a mausoleum outside of Kandahar.

1715 In Russia Peter the Great held a funeral for his favorite court dwarf. Lines of ecclesiastics were followed by 24 pair of male and female dwarves.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R4)

1715-1721 Colen Campbell and William Kent built the Burlington House in London, England. In 1854 the Cavendish family sold it to the government. Lady Cavendish had complained that its rooms were too narrow for hooped-skirted ladies to waltz in.
(Econ, 10/6/07, p.19)

1715-1774 In France Louis XV, great-grandson of Louis XIV, ruled as king.
(WUD, 1994, p.848)(PCh, 1992, p.279)

1716 Jan 15, Philip Livingston, Declaration of Independence signer, was born.
(HN, 1/15/99)

1716 Feb 23, Lady Nithsdale (25) planned and executed the escape of her husband, William Maxwell (36), Fifth Earl of Nithsdale, as he awaited execution in the Tower of London. They both escaped to France and settled in Rome as members of James Francis Stuart’s court-in-exile.
(ON, 8/20/11, p.10)(http://tinyurl.com/7hdz7oe)

1716 Mar 13, Georg Gabriel Schutz (46), composer, died.
(MC, 3/13/02)

1716 Apr 4, John Evangelist Schreiber, composer, was born.
(MC, 4/4/02)

1716 Apr 12, Felice de’ Giardini, composer, was born.
(MC, 4/12/02)

1716 May 29, Louis J.M. Daubenton, French zoologist, was born.
(SC, 5/29/02)

1716 Jun 6, The 1st slaves arrived in Louisiana.
(MC, 6/6/02)

1716 Jul 18, A decree ordered all Jews expelled from Brussels.
(MC, 7/18/02)

1716 Sep 2, Johann Trier, composer, was born.
(MC, 9/2/01)

1716 Sep 14, The 1st lighthouse in the US was lit in Boston Harbor. It was blown up by the British in 1776 and was replaced in 1783.
(www.lighthouse.cc/boston/history.html)(Econ, 3/31/12, p.41)

1716 Sep 24, Medici Grand Duke Cosimo III passed a law limiting and regulating the area of wine production in Tuscany, thus creating the 1st “Appelation Controlee” wine.
(Carmignano, 1997)

1716 Nov 3, In the Pacification Treaty of Warsaw Czar Peter the Great (1672-1725) guaranteed Saxon monarch August I’s (1682-1718) Polish kingdom.
(DoW, 1999, p.373)

1716 Nov 14, Gottfried W. Leibniz (Leibnitz b.1646), German philosopher and theologian, died. In 2005 Matthew Stewart authored “The Courtier and the Heretic: Leibniz, Spinoza, and the Fate of God in the Modern World.
(www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Leibniz.html)(WSJ, 12/15/05, p.D8)

1716 Nov 26, The 1st lion exhibited in America was in Boston.
(MC, 11/26/01)

1716 Dec 26, Thomas Gray, English poet, was born: Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard: “The paths of glory lead but to the grave.”; also: “…where ignorance is bliss/’Tis folly to be wise.”

1716 Agostino Cornacchini created the porcelain version of his sculpture “Sleeping Endymion.”
(WSJ, 1/29/02, p.A18)

1716 In the summer of 1716, a Cornish cabin boy named Thomas Pellow (11) and fifty-one of his comrades were captured at sea by Barbary corsairs. Ali Hakem and his network of Islamic slave traders had declared war on the whole of Christendom. Thousands of Europeans had been snatched from their homes and taken in chains to the great slave markets of Algiers, Tunis, and Salé in Morocco, where they were sold at auction to the highest bidder. Pellow and his shipmates were bought by the sultan of Morocco, Moulay Ismail, who was constructing an imperial palace of such scale and grandeur that it would surpass every other building in the world. In 2005 Giles Milton authored “White Gold,” an account of the trade in white slaves.
(SSFC, 6/19/05, p.C3)(http://tinyurl.com/7wv2s)
1716 Thomas Fairchild brushed with a feather pollen from a sweet William over the stigma of a carnation, creating the first human-made hybrid plant.
(www.orangepippin.com/articles/yorkshireapples.aspx)(SSFC, 4/19/09, Books p.J7)

1716 John Law established a private bank in France called Law & Co. with the promise that his notes were redeemable on demand for coin. He had persuaded the regent of infant King Louis XV to establish a national bank , and to decree that all taxes and revenues be paid in its notes.
(WSJ, 7/19/00, p.B1)(Econ, 4/29/17, p.56)

1716 St. John Island in the West Indies was settled by the Danes.
(NG, Jan, 1968, C. Mitchell, p. 71)

1716 The Virginia Colonial Assembly passed a law that required every householder to plant at least ten grapevines.
(WSJ, 9/9/96, p.A16)

1716 Frederick William I of Prussia presented his amber room, made as a gift by German artisans in 1701, to Peter the Great. In exchange he received his wish: 55 very tall Russian soldiers. Catherine the Great later added four marble panels from Florence, that were inlaid with precious stones. German troops dismantled it in 1941 and moved it to Konigsberg in 1945, where it was lost during WW II. One of the marble panels turned up in Bremen in 1997. In 1979 the Soviet government initiated a reconstruction, which was unveiled in 2003.
(SFC, 3/22/97, p.A16)(SFC, 4/30/98, p.E6)(WSJ, 1/20/00, p.A20)(AP, 5/13/03)

1716-1788 Charles III, (Carlos III) king of Spain from 1759-1788, was born in Madrid. He was a member of the Bourbon-Parma dynasty. He was King of Naples from 1734-1759 and authorized expeditions from Mexico to California.
(WUD, 1994, p.249)(SFC, 6/7/00, p.A15)

1716-1800 Ito Jakuchu, Japanese artist. He created the “Vegetable Parinirvana,” a hanging scroll that recasts the Buddha as a languishing radish surrounded by other vegetable onlookers.
(WSJ, 12/1/98, p.A20)

1717 Jan 30, Surrounded by the Russian army the Lithuanian-Polish parliament reduced its army by half and acknowledged Russian protection.
(LHC, 1/30/03)

1717 Apr 26, Pirate Black Sam Bellamy died along with 143 others when their ship, the Whydah, sank off of Wellfleet, Cape Cod. 2 men on the Whydah survived as did 7 others aboard the Mary Anne, a smaller ship loaded with Madeira wine. The slave ship Whydah had just been captured by Bellamy in February as it left Ouidau, Benin, with a load of sugar and indigo as well as chests of silver and gold. 6 or the 9 survivors were later hanged for piracy in Boston. In 1984 the wreck of the ship was discovered by Barry Clifford.
(SFC, 3/4/96, p.A4)(WSJ, 9/12/07, p.D9)

1717 May 13, Maria Theresa was born in Vienna. She later became Archduchess of Austria, a Queen of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia, and a Holy Roman Empress.

1717 Jun 4, The Freemasons established their Grand Lodge in London. They had begun in the 13th century as a guild of masons, who worked in soft stone called freestone.
(HN, 6/4/98)(WSJ, 2/6/02, p.A16)

1717 Jun 19, Johann Wenzel Anton Stamitz, composer, was born.
(MC, 6/19/02)

1717 Jul 17, Handel’s “Water Music” was played for George I on the occasion of a royal barge trip on the Thames.
(LGC-HCS, p.40)(Internet)

1717 Aug 4, A friendship treaty was signed between France and Russia.
(HN, 8/4/98)

1717 Aug 22, The Austrian army forced the Turkish army out of Belgrade, ending the Turkish revival in the Balkans.
(HN, 8/22/98)

1717 Sep 24, Horace Walpole (1797), son of Robert Walpole, author and Fourth Earl of Orford, was born. He was a life time collector of bibelots and authored one of the first Gothic novels: “The Castle of Otranto” (1764). “The whole secret of life is to be interested in one thing profoundly and in a thousand things well.” Wilmarth Lewis (d.1979) later edited Yale’s 48-volume edition of Walpole’s correspondence. He created the Gothic novel genre.
(AP, 1/13/98)(WSJ, 10/19/99, p.A24)(HN, 9/24/00)

1717 Nov 17, Jean Le Rond d’Alembert (d.1783), French mathematician, philosopher and physicist, was born. He and Denis Diderot (1713-1784) designed and edited the “Encyclopedie,” a massive reference work and polemical attempt to reform French society. In 1998 Andrew Crumey authored the novel “D’Alembert’s Principle: A Novel in Three Panels.”
(SFEC, 12/27/98, BR p.5)(www.nndb.com/people/405/000087144/)

1717 Dec 9, Johann J. Winckelmann, German archaeologist (History of Ancient Art), was born.
(MC, 12/9/01)

1717 The 1st New Orleans levee, 3 feet tall, was built on the Mississippi River.
(WSJ, 8/31/05, p.B1)

1717 Isaac Newton, England’s master of the mint, recommended a temporary freeze on the value of the gold guinea to establish an appropriate ratio between the prices of gold and silver and their supply.
(WSJ, 11/9/00, p.A24)
1717 Thomas Coke, the first Earl of Leicester, purchased a manuscript made by Leonardo da Vinci that came to be know as the Codex Leicester. It was sold in 1980 to Armand Hammer.
(SFC, 10/29/96, p.F3)(NH, 5/97, p.11)

1717 Wang Hui (b.1632), Chinese master painter, died.
(WSJ, 10/29/08, p.D9)

1717 Louis Liger (b.1658), French writer, died. His 1700 book “Oeconomie Generale de la Campagne, ou Nouvelle Maison Rustique” included a chapter on French viticulture.
(SFC, 10/21/04, p.F3)(www.rappaport.it/catalogo.htm)
1717 The French notes of John Law’s bank were made receivable for taxes and other royal revenue.
(WSJ, 7/19/00, p.B4)
1717 In France John Law proposed a company with exclusive rights to trade with and exploit the resources of the Mississippi territory and to pay down the government’s debt from company profits. The regent and Parliament approved and the Companie d’Occident (Company of the West) was established.
(WSJ, 7/19/00, p.B4)(Econ, 8/15/09, p.63)

1717 Johann Martin Schubart, former student of JS Bach, succeeded Bach as organist at the court of Weimar.
(SFC, 9/1/06, p.E10)

1717 Ono Pharmaceutical was founded by Ichibei Fushimiya as an apothecary in Osaka, Japan. In 1947 Ono Pharmaceutical was established. Its shares listed on the Osaka Securities Exchange in 1962 and the Tokyo Stock Exchange in 1963.
(Econ, 2/12/11, p.72)

1717 Dzungar tribes of Mongolia invaded Tibet, and a period of internal strife and civil war followed. The Kangxi emperor sent armies into the area for 20 years, and local leaders were forced to pledge their allegiance to the Qing Empire. In 1724, the regions of Amdo and Kham were made into the province of Kokonor, with parts of Eastern Kham incorporated into neighboring Chinese provinces.

1717-1718 Voltaire (1694-1778), French writer, was imprisoned in the Bastille for his lampoons of the Regency.

1717-1723 J.S. Bach worked under Prince Leopold at Anhalt-Cothen. During this period he composed the 1st book of the Well-Tempered Clavier, the Brandenburg Concertos and the sonatas for solo violin. Bach likely composed his “Six Suites for Unaccompanied Cello” during this period, when he served as a Kapellmeister in Cothen. They were later acclaimed as some of the greatest works ever written for solo cello. In 2010 Eric Siblin authored “The Cello Suites: J.S. Bach, Pablo Casals and the Search for a Baroque Masterpiece.”
(WSJ, 8/3/00, p.A12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cello_Suites_%28Bach%29)(Econ, 1/9/10, p.82)

1718 Jan 7, Israel Putnam, American Revolutionary War hero, was born. He planned the fortifications at the Battle of Bunker Hill and told his men, “don’t fire until you see the whites of their eyes.”
(HN, 1/7/99)

1718 Apr 26, Esek Hopkins, first U.S. commander-in-chief, was born.
(HN, 4/26/98)

1718 May 7, La Nouvelle-Orleans (New Orleans) was founded by the French Mississippi Company, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, on land inhabited by the Chitimacha. It was named for Philippe II, Duke of Orleans, the Regent of France.

1718 May 15, James Puckle, a London lawyer, patented the world’s 1st machine gun.
(MC, 5/15/02)

1718 May 23, William Hunter (d.1783), obstetrician, surgeon, anatomy teacher, was born near Glasgow, Scotland. In 1768 he opened a medical school. The Glasgow Hunterian Museum opened in 1807.
(MC, 5/23/02)(http://www.hunterian.gla.ac.uk/index.html)

1718 May, Edward Teach, aka Blackbeard, used his 40-gun, captured French flagship (La Concorde), renamed as Queen Anne’s Revenge, to blockade the harbor at Charleston, S.C.
(www.qaronline.org/history/search.htm)(AM, May/Jun 97 p.21)

1718 Jun 5, Thomas Chippendale, English furniture maker was baptized.
(MC, 6/5/02)

1718 Jun 10, Blackbeard’s ship, the Queen Anne’s Revenge, ran aground about this time and soon sank off the coast of Beaufort, NC. In 1997 underwater archeologist raised a canon believed to be from this ship.
(SFC, 3/4/96, p.A4)(SFC,10/24/97, p.A3)(www.qaronline.org/history/search.htm)

1718 Jun 26, Alexius Petrovich (28), the son of Peter the Great, died in St. Petersburg from wounds inflicted for an imagined rebellion.
(PC, 1992 ed, p.281)

1718 Jul 21, The Turkish threat to Europe was eliminated with the signing of the Treaty of Passarowitz between Austria, Venice and the Ottoman Empire.
(HN, 7/21/98)

1718 Jul 30, William Penn, English Quaker, colonizer (No cross, no crown), died.
(MC, 7/30/02)

1718 Aug 25, Hundreds of French colonists arrived in Louisiana, with some of them settling in present-day New Orleans.
(AP, 8/25/97)

1718 Nov 13, John Montagu (d.1792), fourth Earl of Sandwich and purported inventor of the sandwich, was born. In 2012 the town of Sandwich staged a dramatic re-enactment of the moment when the earl was said to have invented the sandwich, to mark the 250th anniversary of the bread-based snack.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Montagu,_4th_Earl_of_Sandwich)(AFP, 5/13/12)

1718 Nov 18, Voltaire’s “Oedipe” premiered in Paris.
(MC, 11/18/01)

1718 Nov 22, A force of British troops under Lt. Robert Maynard captured English pirate Edward Teach (b.~1682), better known as “Blackbeard” (aka Captain Drummond), during a battle near Ocracoke Island, off the North Carolina coast. They beheaded him. The governor of Virginia had put a price of 100 pounds on his head.
(AP, 11/22/97)(www.outerbankschamber.com/relocation/history/ocracoke.cfm)

1718 Dec 11, Charles XII, King of Sweden (1697-1718), was shot dead.
(MC, 12/11/01)

1718 James Puckle patented a machine gun that utilized a revolving block for firing square bullets.

1718 Handel composed his opera “Silla.”
(LGC-HCS, p.41)

1718 Jean Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville, French-Canadian explorer, founded New Orleans.
(Hem., 1/97, p.63)

1718 The “Casket Girls” of New Orleans began to arrive from France with casket full of dowry articles to marry settlers.
(SFC, 1/24/98, p.E5)

1718 Edward Teach, aka Blackbeard, began to pillage settlements along the Atlantic coast and around the Caribbean.
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.21)

1718 In France John Law’s Bank was made the state-royal-bank. The Law bank bought the French tobacco monopoly.
(WSJ, 7/19/00, p.B4)
1718 The Paris Meridian was first plotted. It was recalculated in the early 1800s by Arago.
(SSFC, 1/25/04, p.C12)

1718 Dutch planters introduced coffee to their Suriname colony.
(ON, 10/2010, p.12)

1718 Czar Peter the Great imposed a tax on the entire male peasant population while exempting the wealthiest, the nobles and the merchants. Lords, villages and town officials were responsible for collecting the tax.
(SFC, 5/3/00, p.A12)

1718-1719 The French artist Watteau, known for his draftsmanship, created “Woman in Black” and “Head of a Man.”
(WSJ, 12/9/99, p.A24)

1718-1736 Russian Czar Peter the Great, having conquered Estonia in the Great Northern War, constructed the baroque, peach and white Kadriorg Palace on the outskirts of Tallinn.
(Hem, 4/96, p.23)(CNT, 3/04, p.145)

1718-1780 In Connecticut Colonel Samuel Browne operated his 30-square-mile New Salem plantation. Evidence of slave labor was later found.
(AM, 9/01, p.10)

1719 Jan 23, Principality of Liechtenstein was created within the Holy Roman Empire.

1719 Mar 13, German alchemist Johann Friedrich Bottger (b.1682) died. He was generally acknowledged as the inventor of European porcelain. Sources later ascribed this to Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus. Böttger is still credited with the industrial manufacturing process of Meißen porcelain.
(ON, 8/10, p.10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johann_Friedrich_B%C3%B6ttger)

1719 Mar 22, Frederick William abolished serfdom on crown property in Prussia.
(AP, 3/22/99)

1719 Mar 30, Sir John Hawkins, author of the first history of music, was born.
(HN, 3/30/98)

1719 Apr 7, Jean-Baptiste de la Salle (67), French priest, explorer, saint, died.
(MC, 4/7/02)

1719 Apr 15, In France Madame de Maintenon (b.1635), the wife of former King Louis XIV, died. In 1930 Maud Cruttwell authored the biography “Madame de Maintenon.” In 2008 Veronica Buckley authored “Madame de Maintenon: The Secret Wife of Louis XIV.”
(WSJ, 5/12/07, p.P10)(http://tinyurl.com/32xq5o)(Econ, 7/26/08, p.96)

1719 Apr 25, Daniel Defoe’s novel “Robinson Crusoe” was published in London. Crusoe was based on the story of Alexander Selkirk (167601721), a man who was voluntarily put ashore on a desert island (1704-1709).
(WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robinson_Crusoe)

1719 Jun 11, Scottish rebels, aided by Spanish troops, who are defeated at Glenshiels surrendered.
(AP, 6/11/03)

1719 Jun 17, Joseph Addison (47), English poet, writer, secretary of state, died.
(MC, 6/17/02)

1719 Sep 23, Liechtenstein declared independence from the German empire.
(MC, 9/23/01)

1719 Sep, John Law announced that he would buy the entire debt of France.
(WSJ, 7/19/00, p.B4)

1719 Nov 14, Johann Georg Leopold Mozart, composer, was born.
(MC, 11/14/01)

1719 Dec 2, Pasquier Quesnel (85), French theologian (La Foi), died.
(MC, 12/2/01)

1719 Dec 11, The first recorded sighting of the Aurora Borealis took place in New England.
(AP, 12/11/99)

1719 Dec 18, Thomas Fleet published “Mother Goose’s Melodies For Children.”
(MC, 12/18/01)

1719 Tiepolo painted “Scipio Africanus Freeing Massiva,” a 9 x 16 foot painting that now resides at Walters Art Gallery in Baltimore. The painting required much restoration after having fallen into New York Harbor and being dripped on from a leak in the Walters roof.
(WSJ, 5/21/96, p.A-16)

1719 The bawdy ballad “The Ball of Kirriemuir” was first published at least this far back. The poem was later used by T.S. Eliot.
(WSJ, 9/12/96, p.A14)

1719 Chikamatsu Monzaemon created his Kabuki Theater masterpiece ‘Shankun: The Exile on Devil’s Island.”
(SFEC, 9/8/96, DB p.7)

1719 In New Hampshire the first potato in America was planted in Londonderry Common Field.
(SFC, 1/29/00, p.E3)

1719 James Bradley, English astronomer, identified the star Castor (Alpha Geminorum) as a double star.
(SCTS, p.162)

1719 The Zwinger Palace was erected in Dresden, Germany.
(SSFC, 4/25/04, p.D12)

1719 The French government gave the Law company the right of coinage. By this time John Law controlled the mint, public finances, the bank, the sea trade, Louisiana, tobacco, and salt revenues.
(WSJ, 7/19/00, p.B4)
1719 In Paris, France, the fair theaters were closed through the intrigues of their enemies.
(PNM, 1/25/98, p.4)
1719 The French captured and burned the Spanish settlement Presidio Santa Maria de Galve (later Pensacola, Flordia), but handed Pensacola back to Spain three years later. Hurricanes forced the Spanish to repeatedly rebuild.
(AP, 3/24/06)

1720 Jan 26, Guilio Alberoni was ordered out of Spain after his abortive attempt to restore his country’s empire.
(HN, 1/26/99)

1720 Jan-1720 Aug, Speculators in London bid up the price of the South Sea Co., which had been granted a trading monopoly with South America and the Pacific. The South Sea Bubble burst and London markets crashed. Speculation in government chartered trading companies had led to artificially inflated equity prices with high leverage. The average stock dropped 98.5%. It reportedly took 100 years for markets to recover. In 1999 Edward Chancellor published “Devil Take the Hindmost: A History of Financial Speculation.” In 2002 Malcolm Balen authored “The Secret History of the South Sea Bubble.”
(SFEC, 8/16/98, p.B2)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(WSJ, 6/1/99, p.A20)(Econ, 1/3/04, p.42)

1720 Feb 10, Edmund Halley was appointed 2nd Astronomer Royal of England.
(MC, 2/10/02)

1720 Feb 17, Spain signed the Treaty of the Hague with the Quadruple Alliance ending a war that was begun in 1718.
(HN, 2/17/99)

1720 Mar 24, In Paris, banking houses closed in the wake of financial crisis. The “Mississippi Bubble” burst as panicked investors withdrew their money from John Law’s bank and Mississippi Company [see South Sea Bubble, Jan, 1720].
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)(HN, 3/24/99)(WSJ, 7/19/00, p.B4)

1720 May 21, The French government issued an edict that devalued all the notes and shares of the Law company and fixed their prices. The edict was repealed after a week but the economy was severely damaged and John Law resigned as comptroller general.
(WSJ, 7/19/00, p.B4)

1720 May 25, “Le Grand St. Antoine” reached Marseille, plague killed 80,000.
(SC, 5/25/02)

1720 Jun 9, The British Parliament passed the Bubble Act following the collapse of the South Sea Company. It is also known as the Royal Exchange and London Assurance Corporation Act 1719, because those companies were incorporated under it. It delayed the development of the joint-stock company by over a century.
(Econ, 3/2/13, p.66)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bubble_Act)

1720 Jun 10, Mrs. Clements of England marketed the 1st paste-style mustard.
(MC, 6/10/02)
1720 Jun 10, The French state bank reopened after a 10 day closure and some people were crushed to death in the rush to get in.
(WSJ, 7/19/00, p.B4)

1720 Jul 17, In France Barricades, placed at the state bank, incited a crowd and 12 people were killed.
(WSJ, 7/19/00, p.B4)

1720 Oct, A government sloop, commissioned by the governor of Jamaica to capture pirates, attacked and captured the pirate ship of Captain Calico Jack Rackham.
(ON, 12/01, p.12)

1720 Sep 12, Frederick Philipse III, NYC, land owner (Bronx, Westchester & Putnam), was born.
(MC, 9/12/01)

1720 Nov 17, Pirates Mary Read, Anne Bonny (b.~1700) and Captain Calico Jack Rackham were tried by an admiralty court in Jamaica. Rackham was found guilty and hanged the next day. Read and Bonny were also found guilty and sentenced to hang but pleaded pregnancy. Their sentences were commuted until they gave birth. Bonny was later pardoned but Read died in prison on Apr 28, 1721. Bonny, an Irish American pirate, had plied her trade in the Caribbean and died around 1782.
(ON, 12/01, p.12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anne_Bonny)

1720 Nov 18, John Rackham (b.1682), English pirate captain also known as Calico Jack, died in Port Royal, Jamaica. He had operated in the Bahamas and in Cuba during the early 18th century. His nickname was derived from the calico clothing that he wore. Jack is a nickname for “John”.

1720 Nov 27, In France John Law’s bank closed for the last time.
(WSJ, 7/19/00, p.B4)

1720 Dec 20, Charles Edward Stuart, [Bonnie Prince Charlie, Young Pretender], was born. [see Dec 31]
(MC, 12/20/01)

1720 Dec 31, Charles Edward Stuart, grandson of James II, known as the Young Pretender and Bonnie Prince Charlie, was born. [see Dec 20]
(HN, 12/31/98)

1720 Dec, John Law left France and returned to England.
(WSJ, 7/19/00, p.B4)

1720 J.S. Bach composed his Double Violin Concerto in D Minor.
(SI-WPC, 12/6/96)

1720 Handel composed his opera “Radamisto.” It dealt with the tyrant Tiridate, King of Armenia, and his insatiable pursuit of a woman who is not his wife.
(LGC-HCS, p.41)(WSJ, 7/5/00, p.A20)

1720 Handel composed his oratorio “Esther” based on the 1689 drama by Racine.
(WSJ, 5/12/98, p.A20)

1720 The time setting for “Moll Flanders.”
(SFC, 6/14/96, p. C3)

1720 England passed a law that prohibited the emigration of skilled craftsmen and the export of machinery, models and plans.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)

1720 Paris, France, had 380 coffee houses by this time. Due to strict curbs on the press handwritten newsletters were exchanged there and government spies were common.
(Econ, 12/20/03, p.90)
1720 French Captain Gabriel Mathieu de Clieu (33) was posted to Martinique. In 1723 he obtained coffee while traveling back to Paris and planted them on his return to Martinique. In 1725 he reaped almost 2 pounds and sowed them on his estate and those of some friends.
(ON, 10/2010, p.12)

1720 In Ireland the first yacht club appeared in Cork Harbor.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1720 The world’s 1st futures exchange began in Osaka, Japan, with trade in 3-months forward contracts in rice.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R51)

1720 The last major eruption of the Popocatepetl volcano outside Mexico City.
(SFC, 7/3/97, p.C5)

1720 On Dominica beginning in this year the island’s administration shifted between the French and the British until the early 19th century.
(SFEC, 2/15/98, p.T6)

1720 Sardinia, held by Catalan conquerors since 1354, was handed over to Piedmont’s Savoy Kingdom.
(SFEC, 1/30/00, p.T5)

1720 The Spanish quashed Chamorro resistance and forcibly evacuated to Guam all Chamorros on Saipan and the other Northern Marianas islands.
(SFEC, 3/7/99,Z1 p.4)

1720s The Ephrata Cloister communal society in Amish country near Philadelphia was founded by a former elder of the German Dunkers (German Baptists who later became the Church of the Brethren).
(Hem, 6/96, p.107)(http://www.cob-net.org/cloister.htm)

1720s Timothy Hanson took a seeds of a European perennial grass known as hay from New York to the Carolinas. The hay is called Timothy.
(SFEC, 11/17/96, zone 1 p.2)

1720-1778 Giovanni Battista Piranesi, Italian artist. His fame rests on fantastic and often nightmarish etchings of ruins and prisons. He restored the church of Santa Maria in Aventino.
(WSJ, 3/31/98, p.A20)

1720- 1790 The great period of Castrato singing. Singers such as Nicolo Grimaldi (Nicolini), Francesca Bernardi (Senesino), Gaetano Maiorano (Caffarelli), and the greatest Carlo Broschi (Farinelli).
(LGC-HCS, p.44)

1720-1800 The American counterpart to the religious movement in Europe known as Pietism and Quietism was known as the Great Awakening. The Great Awakening was a religious revival in the American colonies in the early 18th century. It was one of the first great movements to give colonists a sense of unity and special purpose in God’s providential plans. The Great Awakening was part of a religious ferment that swept across Western Europe that was know on the Continent among Protestants and Roman Catholics as Pietism and Quietism. In England it was referred to as Evangelicalism.
(HNQ, 8/31/98)

1720-1806 Carlo Gozzi, Italian fantasist, playwright.
(WSJ, 10/20/95, p. A-12)

1721 Jan 25, Czar Peter the Great ended the Russian orthodox patriarchy.
(MC, 1/25/02)

1721 Mar 19, Tobias George Smollett, Scottish satirical author and physician (Roderick Random, Humphrey Clinker), was born (baptized).
(HN, 3/19/01)(MC, 3/19/02)

1721 Mar 24, In Germany, the supremely talented Johann Sebastian Bach published the Six Brandenburg Concertos.
(HN, 3/24/99)

1721 Mar 29, Charles Vane (b.1680), English pirate, died at Port Royal, Jamaica. He operated in the Bahamas during the end of the Golden Age of Piracy.

1721 Apr 13, John Hanson, first U.S. President under the Articles of Confederation, was born in Maryland.
(HN, 4/13/98)(MC, 4/13/02)

1721 Apr 14, William Augustus duke of Cumberland, English army leader (“Butcher of Culloden”), was born.
(MC, 4/14/02)

1721 Apr 19, Roger Sherman (d.1793) of Connecticut, signer of the Declaration of Independence, was born in Newton, Massachusetts. Sherman was among the first to declare that Parliament had no right to legislate for the colonies. He was a delegate to the Continental Congress, served in the first U.S. House of Representatives and was a U.S. senator.
(HN, 4/19/97)(HNQ, 7/10/99)

1721 Apr 26, The smallpox vaccination was 1st administrated. Lady Mary Wortley Montegu had returned to England following a stay in Turkey with her ambassador husband. She had learned of a procedure to inoculate against smallpox and began a campaign to have the procedure established.
(ON, 9/01, p.1)(MC, 4/26/02)

1721 May 25, John Copson became America’s 1st insurance agent.
(SC, 5/25/02)

1721 May 29, South Carolina was formally incorporated as a royal colony.
(HN, 5/29/98)

1721 Jun 26, Dr. Zabdiel Boylston gave the 1st smallpox inoculation in Boston. The epidemic had arrived by ship from Barbados.
(ON, 3/05, p.4)

1721 Jul 18, Jean Antoine Watteau (b.1684), French rococo painter, died. His work included “Le Mezzetin.”
(WUD, 1994 p.1614)(MC, 10/10/01)(MC, 7/18/02)

1721 Jul 21, Doctors in Boston raised objections to a new practice of using live smallpox to inoculate patients against the disease. A smallpox epidemic had recently broken out in Boston and Cotton Mather (58), following some study, encouraged the inoculation technique to prevent death from the disease.
(ON, 3/05, p.4)

1721 Aug 3, Grinling Gibbons (b.1648), Dutch-British sculptor and wood carver, died. He was known for his work in England.

1721 Aug 30, The Peace of Nystad ended the Second Northern War between Sweden and Russia, giving Russia considerably more power in the Baltic region.
(HN, 8/30/98)

1721 Oct 6, Deaths from smallpox in Boston reached 203 with 2,757 people infected.
(ON, 3/05, p.5)

1721 Oct 22, Czar Peter the Great became “All-Russian Imperator.”
(MC, 10/22/01)

1721 Dec 29, Madam Jeanne Poisson de Pompadour, influential mistress of Louis XV, was born. She was later blamed for France’s defeat in the Seven Years’ War.
(HN, 12/29/00)

1721 Samuel Johnson published his “Dictionary of the English Language.” [good job for one only 12 years old]
(SFEC, 10/18/98, BR p.7)

1721 Handel composed his opera “Floridante. ”
(LGC-HCS, p.41)

1721 Abdul Qadir Bedil (b.1644), Afghanistan Sufi poet, died. In 2000 Afghan cab drivers in Washington DC began meeting to discuss his work in a program called “An Evening of Sufism.”
(WSJ, 7/10/06, p.A1)(http://devoted.to/bedil)

1721 Robert Walpole (1676-1745) began serving as England’s first lord of the treasury and chancellor of the exchequer. He shared power with John Carteret (later 1st Earl Granville) until 1724 and with Townshend, whom he left in charge of foreign affairs, until 1730. Thereafter his ascendancy was complete until 1742.

1721 In France the bandit Cartouche (The Cartridge) took refuge in a Belleville cabaret, Le Pistolet. He was captured while sleeping and was hung at the Place de Greve in the center of Paris.
(SFEC, 6/28/98, p.T8)

1721-1785 Reigen Eto, Japanese Zen painter. His work included “White-Robbed Kannon.”
(SSFC, 9/23/01, DB p.48)

1722 Jan 24, Czar Peter the Great capped his reforms in Russia with the “Table of Rank” which decreed a commoner could climb on merit to the highest positions.
(HN, 1/24/99)

1722 Feb 10, Black Bart (b.1682), Welsh pirate, died. He raided shipping off the Americas and West Africa between 1719 and 1722.

1722 Mar 8, Afghan monarch Mir Mahmud occupied Persia.
(MC, 3/8/02)

1722 Mar 29, Emanuel Swedenborg (b.1688), Swedish scientist and clairvoyant, died in London. In 1744 he entered into a spiritual phase in which he experienced dreams and visions. The foundation of Swedenborg’s theology was laid down in “Arcana Cœlestia” (Heavenly Secrets), published in eight volumes from 1749 to 1756.

1722 Apr 5, On Easter Sunday Dutch explorer Jacob Roggeveen discovered a Polynesian Island 1400 miles from the coast of South America and named it Easter Island. He noted that the island was treeless and wondered how its massive statues were erected. Much of the population was later wiped out and the island became a possession of Chile. An indigenous script called rongorongo survived but by 2002 was still not deciphered. In 2005 Steven Roger Fischer authored “Island at the End of the World: The Turbulent History of Easter Island.”
(WSJ, 1/7/05, p.W1)(http://islandheritage.org/eihistory.html)(Econ, 7/23/05, p.77)

1722 Apr 6, In Russia Peter the Great ended tax on men with beards.
(MC, 4/6/02)

1722 Apr 11, Christopher Smart, English journalist and poet, was born.
(HN, 4/11/01)(MC, 4/11/02)

1722 Apr 12, Pietro Nardini, composer, was born.
(MC, 4/12/02)

1722 Apr 22, In Batavia, Indonesia, 19 VOC “komplotteurs” were executed.
(MC, 4/22/02)

1722 Apr 30, Game of Billiards was mentioned in New England Courant.
(MC, 4/30/02)

1722 Jun 16, John Churchill (b.1650), first Duke of Marlborough, English military strategist, died. In 2008 Richard Holmes authored “Marlborough: England’s Fragile Genius.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Churchill%2C_1st_Duke_of_Marlborough)(Econ, 6/21/08, p.99)

1722 Sep 12, The Treaty of St. Petersburg put an end to the Russo-Persian War.
(HN, 9/12/98)

1722 Sep 27, Samuel Adams (d.1803), American propagandist, political figure, revolutionary patriot and statesman who helped to organize the Boston Tea Party, was born. He was Lt. Gov. of Mass. from 1789-94.
(AHD, 1971, p.14)(HN, 9/27/98)(MC, 9/27/01)

1722 Oct 12, Shah Sultan Husayn surrendered the Persian capital of Isfahan to Afghan rebels after a seven month siege. Mir Wais’ son, Mir Mahmud of Afghanistan, had invaded Persia and occupied Isfahan. At the same time, the Durranis revolted, and terminated the Persian occupation of Herat.
(www.afghan, 5/25/98)(HN, 10/12/98)

1722 Oct 19, French C. Hopffer patented the fire extinguisher.
(MC, 10/19/01)

1722 Nov 7, Richard Steele’s “Conscious Lovers,” premiered in London.
(MC, 11/7/01)

1722 Nov 24, Johann Adam Reincken (99), German organist and composer, died.
(MC, 11/24/01)

1722 Daniel Defoe wrote his novel “Moll Flanders.”
(SFC, 10/11/96, p.C1)
1722 Daniel Defoe published his novel “A Journal of the Plague Year.” The novel posed as a historical document and covered the London in 1665 as it was hit by bubonic plague.
(WSJ, 9/9/06, p.P8)

1722 Cotton Mather authored “An Account of the Method and Success of Inoculating the Small-Pox…” This followed work in support of inoculation trials in Boston.
(WSJ, 11/22/08, p.W11)

1722 John Hamilton Moore published “The Practical Navigator.”
(AH, 12/02, p.22)

1722 Legend has it that the Arkansas “Little Rock” rock was first discovered at this time by the French explorer Jean Baptiste Benard de La Harpe. It was the first outcropping of any size on a 118-mile stretch of the Arkansas River.

1722 The original Iroquois League, often known as the Five Nations (the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca nations) became the Six Nations after the Tuscarora nation joined the League.

1722 Jonathon Swift, author and pamphleteer, urged his fellow countrymen to boycott English goods and “burn everything that came from England, except their people and their Coals.”
(SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1 p.6)

1722 Yongzheng followed Kangxi and was the 2nd of three Qing emperors who reigned over China for 133 years (1662-1795). He was followed by Qianlong.
(Econ, 11/5/05, p.90)

1722 In Paris three disgruntled playwrights, Lesage, Fuzelier, and Dorneval, bought a dozen marionettes and set themselves up at the Foire de Saint-Germain to give plays of their own composition.
(PNM, 1/25/98, p.4)

1722 A French Jesuit got into the Jingdezhen, a gated porcelain producing city in China, and sent home detailed letters on porcelain production. Within decades France developed its own porcelain production plant at Sevres.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)

1722 Russia’s Peter the Great granted nobility status to the Stroganoff family.
(WSJ, 9/7/00, p.A24)
1722 Russian troops fought against Chechen tribes for the 1st time.
(SSFC, 11/10/02, p.A11)
1722 Peter the Great exploited the chaos in the Persian Empire to lead an expedition into Transcaucasia, he struck an alliance with Vakhtang VI, the Georgian ruler of Kartli.

1722-1735 Britain’s PM Walpole built his Palladian house in Norfolk.
(Econ, 2/10/07, p.89)

1722-1780 Bernardo Belotto (Il Canaletto), Italian topographical view painter. He was the nephew of Antonio Canal. He later worked as court painter in Dresden and Warsaw.
(WSJ, 9/13/01, p.A18)

1723 Feb 5, John Witherspoon, Declaration of Independence signer, was born.
(HN, 2/5/99)

1723 Apr 14, John Wainwright, composer, was born.
(MC, 4/14/02)

1723 Jun 5, Economist Adam Smith (d.1790) was baptized in Kirkcaldy, Scotland. He was the author of “An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations.” Smith studied at the Univ. of Glasgow, and then went to Balliol College, Oxford. He then returned to the Univ. of Glasgow as a Prof. of logic and then of moral philosophy. He promoted Laissez faire economics and wrote “An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations.” His most famous statement is: “It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer, or the baker, that we expect our dinner, but from their regard to their own interest. We address ourselves, not to their humanity, but to their self-love.” He also wrote the Theory of Moral Sentiments in 1759. In 1995 Ian Simpson Ross wrote a biography of Smith titled: The Life of Adam Smith. Smith also wrote “The Theory of Moral Sentiments.” In 1999 Charles L. Griswold wrote “Adam Smith and the Virtues of Enlightenment.
(WSJ, 11/30/95, p.A-20)(AP, 6/5/97)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R20)(WSJ, 2/09/99, p.A20)(MC, 6/5/02)

1723 Jun 20, Adam Ferguson, Scottish man of letters, philosopher, historian, and patriot, was born. He wrote “Principals of Moral and Political Science.”
(HN, 6/20/99)

1723 Jul 10, William Blackstone (d.1780), English jurist (Blackstone’s Commentaries), was born in England. He wrote that: “Husband and wife are one, and that one is the husband.” His “Commentaries on the Laws of England” were a dominant source for the men who ratified the US Constitution.
(WUD, 1994, p.155)(SFC, 7/18/98, p.A15)(WSJ, 1/25/99, p.A19)(MC, 7/10/02)

1723 Jul 16, Sir Joshua Reynolds, British portrait painter and first president of the royal Academy of Arts, was born.
(HN, 7/16/98)

1723 Aug 26, Anton van Leeuwenhoek (b.1632), Dutch biologist, inventor (microscope), died in Delft, Netherlands. [Aug 30 also given as a birthdate]

1723 Oct 31, Cosimo III de’ Medici (81), ruler of Florence (1670-1723), died.
(MC, 10/31/01)

1723 Handel composed his operas “Ottone ” and “Flavio.”
(LGC-HCS, p.41)(WSJ, 4/15/03, p.D8)

1723 Marivaux wrote his comedy play “La Double Inconstance” (The Inconstant Lovers).
(WSJ, 5/9/96, p.A-16)

1723 Dominicus Montagnana made a viola, later acquired by the Chicago Symphony, valued at $1 million. He was one of the greatest Venetian violin makers.
(SFC, 6/23/98, p.A3)

1723 Britain’s Black Act, under the government of PM Robert Walpole, directed that anyone convicted of blackening or disguising his face to hunt dear could be hanged.
(Econ, 2/10/07, p.89)
1723 Sir Christopher Wren (b.1632), British astronomer and architect, died. He designed the current St. Paul’s Cathedral in London. In 2003 Lisa Jardine authored “On a Grander Scale: The Outstanding Life of Sir Christopher Wren.”
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.14)(HN, 10/20/98)(SSFC, 2/2/03, p.M1)

1723 Augustus the Strong, ruler of Saxony and King of Poland, ordered the expansion of the Royal Residence Palace treasure chamber in Dresden, long called the Green Vault because of the color of its walls.
(http://tinyurl.com/gp7uy)(Econ, 9/16/06, p.95)

1723 Dimitrie Cantemir (b.1673), 2-time Prince of Moldavia (1693 & 1710-1711), died near Kharkov, Ukraine. He was born in what is now Romania and became a prolific man of letters with talents as a philosopher, historian, composer, musicologist, linguist, ethnographer, and geographer. Between 1687 and 1710 he lived in forced exile in Istanbul, where he learned Turkish and studied the history of the Ottoman Empire at the Patriarchate’s Greek Academy, where he also composed music.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dimitrie_Cantemir)(Econ, 9/15/07, p.104)

1723 Zanabazar (b.1635), Mongolia’s greatest sculptor, died.
(SSFC, 3/27/05, p.F4)

1724 Jan 10, King Philip V shocked all of Europe when he abdicated his throne in favor of his eldest son, Louis. Philip V (1683-1746) was King of Spain from 1700-1746.
(WUD, 1994, p.1081)(HN, 1/10/99)

1724 Apr 1, Jonathan Swift published Drapier’s letters.

1724 Apr 7, Johann S. Bach’s “St. John Passion” premiered in Leipzig.
(MC, 4/7/02)

1724 Apr 22, Immanuel Kant (d.1804), German philosopher (Critique of Pure Reason), was born in Konigsberg (Kaliningrad). He held that space is just a “form of sensibility” that our minds impose on experience to give it structure. His work included the essay “Perpetual Peace.”
(V.D.-H.K.p.40)(HN, 4/22/98)(WSJ, 8/21/98, p.W13)(WSJ, 1/7/98, p.A10)

1724 May 18, Johann K. Amman (54), Swiss-Dutch doctor for deaf-mutes, died.
(SC, 5/18/02)

1724 Jun 8, John Smeaton, English engineer, was born.
(HN, 6/8/01)

1724 Nov 16, Jack Sheppard, English robber, was hanged.
(MC, 11/16/01)

1724 Dec 9, Colley Cibber’s “Caesar in Aegypt,” premiered in London.
(MC, 12/9/01)

1724 Dec 24, Benjamin Franklin arrived in London.
(MC, 12/24/01)

1724 Captain Samuel Johnson’s “General History of the Pirates” was 1st published. “Johnson” may have been a pseudonym for journalist Daniel Defoe.
(ON, 12/01, p.12)

1724 Handel composed his operas “Giulio Cesare” and “Tamerlano.” The Julius Caesar opera premiered in London. [see Mar 2 and Nov 11, 1725]
(LGC-HCS, p.41)(WSJ, 4/15/99, p.A20)(WSJ, 3/1/00, p.A24)

1724 Brattleboro became the first permanent English settlement in Vermont.
(Reuters, 8/25/06)

1724 Malta passed a law that would send women, who procure an abortion, to prison for up to three years.
(Econ, 7/27/19, p.44)

1724 Jesuit padre Jaime Bravo set up a visiting mission in the southern Baja peninsula for the nomadic Guaicura Indians.
(SSFC, 11/4/01, p.T12)



Timeline Seventeenth Century: 1661-1699

1661 Feb 5, Kangxi ascended the throne of China as a child. He was the 1st of three Qing emperors who reigned for 133 years until 1795. Kangxi ruled over China until 1722. The film “Forbidden City: The Great Within,” depicts the period. Kangxi was followed by Yongzheng and Qianlong.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kangxi_Emperor)(WSJ, 11/2/95, p.A-12)(Econ, 11/5/05, p.90)

1661 Mar 9, Cardinal Jules Mazarin (58), the chief minister of France, died, leaving King Louis the 14th in full control.
(AP, 3/9/01)

1661 Mar 19, English occupied St. Andrew Island and other Courlander possessions in Gambia. They renamed the island James Island with administration by the Royal Adventurers in Africa Company.

1661 Mar 24, William Leddra became the last Quaker to be hanged in Boston. Quakers were last hanged on Boston Common. Charles II ordered the executions stopped.
(WSJ, 4/4/01, p.A18)(MC, 3/24/02)

1661 Apr 23, English king Charles II was crowned in London.
(MC, 4/23/02)

1661 Apr 29, Chinese Ming dynasty occupied Taiwan.
(HN, 4/29/98)

1661 May 25, King Charles II married Portuguese princess Catherina the Bragança. India’s city of Mumbai, formed from seven islands, was given by Portugal to Charels II of England as dowry for his marriage to Catherine of Braganza.
(SC, 5/25/02)(Econ, 12/22/12, p.119)

1661 May 27, Archibald Campbell (~53), Scottish politician, was beheaded.
(MC, 5/27/02)

1661 Jun 3, Gottfried Scheidt (67), composer, died.
(MC, 6/3/02)

1661 Jun 5, Isaac Newton was admitted as a student to Trinity College, Cambridge.

1661 Aug 6, Holland sold Brazil to Portugal for 8 million guilders.
(MC, 8/6/02)

1661 Aug 29, Louis Couperin (b.1626), French composer, died.

1661 Oct 1, A yacht race from Greenwich to Gravesend between King Charles and James, Duke of York, made the sport fashionable.

1661 Oct 11, Melchior de Polignac, French diplomat (Anti-Lucretius), was born.
(MC, 10/11/01)

1661 Oct 13, “I went to see Major General Harrison being drawn and quartered. He was looking as cheerful as any man could in that condition.” Harrison (b.1606) had sided with Parliament in the English Civil War. During the Interregnum he was a leader of the Fifth Monarchists. In 1649 he signed the death warrant of Charles I and in 1660, shortly after the Restoration, he was found guilty of regicide.
(Samuel Pepys Diary)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Harrison_%28soldier%29)

1661 Massachusetts merchant William Payne willed a spectacular 35-acre seafront property for the benefit of public school children, decreeing the land should never be sold or wasted. The land gift was intended to help Ipswich comply with a 1647 colonial law that required communities with more than 100 families to set up a grammar school to prepare students for admission to Harvard.
(AP, 2/24/12)

1661 White Virginians who wanted to keep their servants legalized the enslavement of African immigrants.
(SFC, 12/18/96, p.A25)

1661 The Bourla Theatre of Antwerp, Belgium can be traced back to this date.
(Hem., 7/95, p.28)

1661 Robert Boyle (1627-1691), English chemist, authored “The Sceptical Chymist: or Chymico-Physical Doubts & Paradoxes.”
1661 Charles II appointed Christopher Wren (29) assistant to the surveyor general of the king’s works (assistant to the royal architect).
(NYTBR, 2/2/03, p.12)
1661 Henry Slingsby, master of the London Mint, proposed the “standard solution” a mix of fiat rules and free markets, to resolve the ongoing problem of money supply and coin value. Britain adopted the idea in 1816 and the US followed in 1853.
(WSJ, 4/2/02, p.A20)

1661 The Paris Opera Ballet was founded.
(WSJ, 7/10/96, p.A16)
1661 In France Nicolas Fouquet, treasurer to Louis XIV, invited the king to his new chateau Vaux le Vicomte. The king, peeved by the wealth of the nonroyal, ordered his arrest and had him imprisoned for embezzlement. The property was confiscated and Louis hired Fouquet’s architects and designers to build Versailles.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1661 In Japan the Takanoshi family started producing food seasonings and became known for its soy sauce.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1661 Sweden became the first European country to introduce bank notes.
(AP, 3/17/12)

1661-1714 Peter Strudel, Austrian painter. He was a court painter of the Habsburgs and founded an art school that later became the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna.
(StuAus, April ’95, p.47)

1661-1722 Di Zi Gui (Standards for being a Good Pupil and Child) was written in the Qing Dynasty during the reign of the Kangxi Emperor (r. 1661-1722) by Li Yuxiu.

1662 Jan 27, 1st American lime kiln began operation in Providence, RI.
(MC, 1/27/02)

1662 Feb 11, The Prins Willem, built in 1643 as flagship of the Dutch East India Company, sank off Madagascar. A replica, built in the 1980s, burned down at Den Helder in 2009.
(AP, 7/30/09)(http://tinyurl.com/mteqbf)

1662 Apr 20, Gerard Terborch, the elder, painter, died.
(MC, 4/20/02)

1662 Apr 23, Connecticut was chartered as an English colony.
(MC, 4/23/02)

1662 Apr 27, Netherlands and France signed a treaty of alliance in Paris.

1662 May 3, John Winthrop the Younger, the son of the first governor of Massachusetts was honored by being made a fellow of the Royal Society, England’s new scientific society. Winthrop gained a new charter from the king, uniting the colonies of Connecticut and New Haven.
(HN, 5/3/99)

1662 Jun, Mary Sanford (~39) of Hartford, Connecticut, was convicted of “familiarity with Satan.” Historians later surmised that she was hanged for her crimes. In 2006 a descendant of Sanford worked on legislation to clear her ancestor as well as a dozen or so other women and men convicted for witchcraft in Connecticut from 1647 to the 1660s.
(WSJ, 9/15/06, p.A1)

1662 Aug 24, An Act of Uniformity, a part of the Clarendon Code (1661-1665), was passed by the English Parliament and required that England’s college fellows and clergymen accept the newly published Book of Common Prayer. Charles II attempted to suspend the operation of the Clarendon Code by issuing a 2nd Declaration of Indulgence, but opposition from Parliament forced him to retract it in 1663.
(PC, 1992, p.249)(www.everything2.com/index.pl?node=the%20Clarendon%20Code)

1662 Sep 12, Gov. Berkley of Virginia was denied his attempts to repeal the Navigation Acts.
(HN, 9/12/98)

1662 Oct 26, Charles II of England sold Dunkirk to France.
(MC, 10/26/01)

1662 Moliere authored his satirical play “The School for Wives.”
(SFC, 8/17/05, p.G9)

1662 Edward Collier painted a still life that sold for $442,500 in 1999.
(WSJ, 6/4/99, p.W10)

1662 Rembrandt depicted himself in a painting as the fifth-century Greek painter Zeuxis. His work this year also included “The Syndics of the Clothmakers’ Guild.”
(WSJ, 8/11/99, p.A16)(Econ, 6/23/07, p.96)

1662 Cavalli composed his opera “Ercole Amante” (Hercules in Love). It was written to celebrate the marriage of Louis XIV and Maria Theresa of Austria.
(WSJ, 6/21/99, p.A24)

1662 John Bowne (34) was arrested in Vlissingen (later Flushing, Queens, NY) on orders from Gov. Peter Stuyvesant for aiding and abetting an “abomination” (Quakerism). In a hearing 19 months later Bowne invoked a 1657 declaration of religious freedom called the Flushing Remonstrance.
(SSFC, 4/17/05, Par p.12)

1662 The British Parliament approved the Licensing of the Press Act, which censored “seditious, treasonable and unlicensed Bookes and Pamphlets.” It failed renewal in 1695 and was repealed by the Statute Law Revision Act 1863.
1662 British law established that mourning clothes had to be made of English wool. [see 1667]
(NG, 5.1988, pp. 574)
1662 Englishman Christopher Merret presented a paper to the Royal Society on making sparkling wine. This was noted in the 1998 “World Encyclopedia of Champagne and Sparkling Wine” by Tom Stevenson.
(WSJ, 10/16/98, p.W13)
1662 London haberdasher John Graunt published the first quantitative account of death.
(Econ, 4/29/17, p.9)
1662 John Tradescant the younger (b.1608), English traveler, horticulturalist, collector and gardener to Queen Henrietta Maria, died. His home in South Lambeth, called The Ark, was filled with his Museum Tradescantianum, a collection of rarities which included birds, fish, shells, insects, minerals, coins, medals and unusual plants. After his death the collection went to Elias Ashmole, who subsequently presented it to Oxford University, where it formed the basis of the Ashmolean Museum. In 2008 Jennifer Potter authored “Strange Blooms: The Curious Lives and Adventures of the John Tradescants.
(www.npg.org.uk/live/search/person.asp?LinkID=mp04533)(WSJ, 4/3/08, p.B19)

1662 Dutch fortune seekers killed over 400 members of the Nayar warrior caste in Kerala, India.
(SFEM, 7/18/99, p.12)

1662-1938 This period is examined by Judy L. Klein in Statistical Visions in Time: a History of Time Series Analysis: 1662-1938, from Cambridge Univ. Press.
(WSJ, 9/28/95, p.A-18)

1663 Jan 6, There was a great earthquake in New England.
(MC, 1/6/02)

1663 Jan 10, King Charles II affirmed the charter of Royal African Company.
(MC, 1/10/02)

1663 Jan 29, Robert Sanderson, Bishop of Lincoln (1660-63), died.
(MC, 1/29/02)

1663 Feb 12, Cotton Mather (d.1728), American clergyman and witchcraft specialist, was born.
(WUD, 1994, p.884)(MC, 2/12/02)

1663 Feb 28, Thomas Newcomen, English co-inventor of the steam engine, was born.
(MC, 2/28/02)

1663 Mar 7, Tomaso Antonio Vitali, composer, was born.
(MC, 3/7/02)

1663 Mar 24, Charles II of England awarded lands known as Carolina in America to eight members of the nobility who assisted in his restoration. [see Apr 6]
(HN, 3/24/99)

1663 Apr 6, King Charles II signed the Carolina Charter. [see Mar 24]
(MC, 4/6/02)

1663 Apr 10, Samuel Pepys, London-based diarist, noted that he had enjoyed a French wine called Ho Bryan at the Royal Oak Tavern. This same year the Pontacs, a top wine-making family in Bordeaux, founded a fashionable London restaurant called Pontack’s Head. Ho Bryan later came to be called Chateau Haut Brion.
(Econ, 12/19/09, p.131)

1663 Apr 18, Osman declared war on Austria.
(MC, 4/18/02)

1663 May 7, Theatre Royal in Drury Lane, London, opened.
(MC, 5/7/02)

1663 May 20, William Bradford, printer, was born.
(HN, 5/20/01)

1663 Jul 15, King Charles II of England granted John Clarke a charter for the colony of Rhode Island guaranteeing freedom of worship. He granted the charter giving the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations an elected governor and legislature. Roger Williams (1603-1683) authored the Rhode Island and Providence Plantation Charter, which stated that religion and conscience should never be restrained by civil supremacy.
(http://avalon.law.yale.edu/17th_century/ri04.asp)(AH, 4/07, p.21)

1663 Jul 27, British Parliament passed a second Navigation Act, requiring all goods bound for the colonies be sent in British ships from British ports.
(HN, 7/27/98)

1663 Sep 13, The 1st serious American slave conspiracy occurred in Virginia.
(MC, 9/13/01)

1663 Dec 5, Severo Bonini (80), composer, died.
(MC, 12/5/01)

1663 Rembrandt depicted himself as a bit player in his painting “The Raising of the Cross.”
(WSJ, 8/11/99, p.A16)

1663 Reverend John Eliot (1604-1690) published the first Bible in North America in the Algonquian language. An English missionary in Massachusetts called the “Apostle to the Indians,” the Puritan Eliot learned the Algonquian language and preached to the Indians. He translated the Bible into Algonquian and published it in 1663.
(HNQ, 6/7/98)

1663 The 1998 historic thriller “An Instance of the Fingerpost” by Iain Pears was set in this year.
(WSJ, 3/18/98, p.A20)

1663 Robert Boyle (1627-1691), English chemist and author of “The Sceptical Chymist: or Chymico-Physical Doubts & Paradoxes” (1661), wrote an essay apologizing for his interest in chrysopoeia, the chemical pursuit of transmutation of base metals into gold.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Sceptical_Chymist)(Econ, 2/26/11, p.85)

1663 London featured 82 coffee houses.
(Econ, 12/20/03, p.89)

1663 The 1st turnpike was authorized to collect tolls in order to cover maintenance costs.
(Econ, 10/23/04, p.78)

1663 Quebec became the capital of New France.
(HNQ, 10/3/99)

1663 The Reichstag, the imperial parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, began sitting permanently.
(Econ, 4/16/15, p.72)

1663 Abraham Blauvelt, Dutch pirate, died about this time. In the early 1630’s He explored the coasts of Honduras and Nicaragua. Afterwards, he went to England and with a proposal for a settlement at site in Nicaragua, which is near the town and river of Bluefields, Nicaragua.

1663-1665 Jan Steen, Dutch painter, painted “The Drawing Lesson.”
(SFC, 6/4/96, p.E5)

1663-1742 Jean Baptiste Massillon, French clergyman: “To be proud and inaccessible is to be timid and weak.”
(AP, 7/23/97)

1663-1789 This period in US history is covered in the 1st volume of the Oxford History of the US by Robert Middlekauff titled: “The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution, 1663-1789.”
(WSJ, 6/7/96, p.A12)

1664 Jan 21, Count Miklos of Zrinyi set out to battle the Turkish invasion army.
(MC, 1/21/02)

1664 Mar 12, England’s King Charles II granted land in the New World, known as New Netherland (later New Jersey), to his brother James, the Duke of York.
(HN, 3/12/98)(AP, 3/12/08)

1664 Mar 22, Charles II gave large tracks of land from west of the Connecticut River to the east of Delaware Bay in North America to his brother James, the Duke of York and Albany. The entire Hudson Valley and New Amsterdam was given to James.
(AP, 3/22/99)(ON, 4/00, p.2)

1664 Apr 4, Adam Willaerts, Dutch seascape painter, died.
(MC, 4/4/02)

1664 May 28, 1st Baptist Church was organized (Boston).
(MC, 5/28/02)

1664 May, Benoit Rencorel, a shepherd girl in the French Alps, alleged that she began receiving apparitions of the Virgin Mary. Her apparitions continued to 1718. In 2008 the Vatican officially recognized the “supernatural origin” of the apparitions and made the site of Notre-Dame-du-Laus an official pilgrimage site.
(SFC, 5/5/08, p.A13)

1664 Jun 24, New Jersey, named after the Isle of Jersey, was founded.
(HN, 6/24/98)

1664 Jul 21, Matthew Prior, English poet, was born.
(MC, 7/21/02)

1664 Jul 23, Wealthy non-church members in Massachusetts were given the right to vote.
(HN, 7/23/98)
1664 Jul 23, 4 British ships arrived in Boston to drive the Dutch out of NY.
(MC, 7/23/02)

1664 Aug 1, The Turkish army was defeated by French and German troops at St. Gotthard, Hungary.
(HN, 8/1/98)

1664 Aug 4, Louis Lully, composer, was born.
(MC, 8/4/02)

1664 Aug 6, Johann Christoph Schmidt, composer, was born.
(MC, 8/6/02)

1664 Aug 28, Four English warships under Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into New Amsterdam. 450 English soldiers disembarked and took control of Brooklyn, a village of mostly English settlers.
(ON, 4/00, p.2)

1664 Aug 29, Adriaen Pieck/Gerrit de Ferry patented a wooden firespout in Amsterdam.
(MC, 8/29/01)

1664 Sep 5, After days of negotiation, the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam surrendered to the British, who would rename it New York. The citizens of New Amsterdam petitioned Peter Stuyvesant to surrender to the English. The “Articles of Capitulation” guaranteed free trade, religious liberty and a form of local representation. In 2004 Russell Shorto authored “The Island At the Center of the World,” a history of New York’s Dutch period.
(HN, 9/5/98)(ON, 4/00, p.3)(WSJ, 3/16/04, p.D6)

1664 Sep 8, The Dutch formally surrendered New Amsterdam to 300 English soldiers. The British soon renamed it New York.
(AP, 9/8/97)(ON, 4/00, p.3)

1664 Sep 20, Maryland passed the 1st anti-amalgamation law to stop intermarriage of English women and black men.
(MC, 9/20/01)

1664 Stephen Blake wrote “The Compleat Gardeners Practices.”
(WSJ, 7/7/98, p.A14)

1664 Moliere wrote Tartuffe, his satire on holier-than-thou hypocrites and their fatuous dupes.
(SFC, 8/16/96, p.D1)

1664 The Jesuit scholar Athanasius Kircher wrote the “Mundus subterraneus.” His work also included an ethnography of China and major treatises on music and magnetism. He also assembled in Rome a natural history collection.
(NH, 5/97, p.58)(NH, 6/00, p.32)

1664 There was no litigation in London, England due to the Black plague.
(SFC, 7/14/96, zone 1 p.2)

1664 Michael Sweerts (b.1618), Belgium-born artist, died in Goa, India. He did much of his important work in Rome, moved to the Netherlands, and traveled in Asia with a band of missionaries. His major work included a series depicting the Seven Acts of Mercy.
(WSJ, 7/2/02, p.D7)

1664-1667 The Second Anglo-Dutch War.
(HN, 6/21/98)

1664-1769 The French East India Company was chartered to carry on trade in the East Indies.
(WUD, 1994, p.449)

1665 Jan 12, Pierre de Fermat (b.1601), French lawyer, mathematician (Fermat’s Principle), died. His equation xn + yn = zn is called Fermat’s Last Theorem and remained unproven for many years. The history of its resolution and final proof by Andrew Wiles is told by Amir D. Aczel in his 1996 book Fermat’s Last Theorem. “Fermat’s Enigma: The Epic Quest to Solve the World’s Greatest Mathematical Problem” by Simon Singh was published in 1997. In 1905 Paul Wolfskehl, a German mathematician, bequeathed a reward of 100,000 marks to whoever could find a proof to Fermat’s “last theorem.” It stumped mathematicians until 1993, when Andrew John Wiles made a breakthrough.
(MC, 1/12/02)(SFC, 10/2/02, p.D7)

1665 Feb 6, Anne Stuart, queen of England (1702-14), was born.
(MC, 2/6/02)

1665 Feb 12, Rudolph J. Camerarius, German botanist, physician (sexuality plant), was born.
(MC, 2/12/02)

1665 Feb 20, Michel Dorigny (b.1617), French painter, died.

1665 Mar 4, English King Charles II declared war on Netherlands.
(SC, 3/4/02)

1665 Mar 6, Philosophical Transactions of Royal Society started publishing.
(MC, 3/6/02)

1665 Mar 11, A new legal code was approved for the Dutch and English towns, guaranteeing religious observances unhindered.
(HN, 3/11/99)

1665 May 15, Pope Alexander VII condemned Jansenism.
(MC, 5/15/02)

1665 May 31, Jerusalem’s rabbi Sjabtai Tswi proclaimed himself Messiah.
(MC, 5/31/02)

1665 Jun 12, England installed a municipal government in New York, formerly the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam.
(AP, 6/12/97)

1665 Aug 15-22, The London weekly “Bill of Mortality” recorded 5,568 fatalities with teeth holding the no. 5 spot. 4,237 were killed by the plague.
(SFEC, 8/2/98, BR p.7)

1665 Aug 27, “Ye Bare & Ye Cubb,” the 1st play performed in N. America, was performed at Acomac, Va.
(MC, 8/27/01)

1665 Sep 22, Moliere’s “L’amour Medecin,” premiered in Paris.
(MC, 9/22/01)

1665 Nov 7, The London Gazette, the oldest surviving journal, was first published.
(HN, 11/7/98)

1665 Dec 4, Jean Racine’s “Alexandre le Grand,” premiered in Paris.
(MC, 12/4/01)

c1665 Gerrit Dou, Dutch artist, painted “Woman at the Clavichord” and a “Self-Portrait” in which he resembled Rembrandt.
(WSJ, 5/24/00, p.A24)
1665 Jacob van Ochtervelt (1634-1682), Dutch artist, painted his “Street Musicians in the Doorway of a House.”
(WSJ, 1/30/09, p.W2)(http://wwar.com/masters/o/ochtervelt-jacob.html)

1665 Robert Hooke authored “Micrographia,” in which he described not only the microscopic world, but also astronomy, geology and the nature of light. This was the first great scientific book written in English.
(WSJ, 4/14/07, p.P10)

1665 The 1st horse racing track in America was laid out on Long Island.
(SFEC, 10/17/99, Z1 p.3)

1665 In France Louis XIV began to systematically hollow out formal guarantees to the Protestants until they became little more than scraps of paper.
(WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R23)
1665 French finance minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert founded the Saint Gobain company to replace imports of Venetian glass with home-made wares. The glass was to be used for the mirrors at the Palace of Versailles.
(Econ, 3/25/06, p.71)(Econ, 11/17/07, p.74)

1665 The villagers of Eyam in Derbyshire, England, voluntarily isolated themselves so as not to spread the plague. 250 of 350 people died and the town became known as the Plague Village.
(SFEM, 10/11/98, p.22)

1665 The British briefly recaptured the Banda Island of Run from the Dutch.
(WSJ, 5/21/99, p.W7)
1665 In London at least 68,000 people died of the plague this year. In 1722 Daniel Defoe published his novel “A Journal of the Plague Year.” The novel posed as a historical document covering the London plague. The Lord Mayor of London exterminated all the city’s cats and dogs, which allowed the rats, the real transmitters of the disease, to increase exponentially.
(NG, 5/88, p.684)(WSJ, 9/9/06, p.P8)(WSJ, 10/21/06, p.P8)

1665 Nicolas Poussin (b.1594), painter, known as the founder of French Classicism, died. He spent most of his career in Rome which he reached at age 30 in 1624. His Greco-Romanism work includes “The Death of Chione” (1622-1623) and “The Abduction of the Sabine Women.” [WUD ends his life in 1655] In 1997 Elizabeth Cropper and Charles Dempsey authored “Nicholas Poussin: Friendship and the Love of Painting.”
(WSJ, 2/26/96, p.A-10)(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1126)(SFC,11/22/97, p.D5)(WSJ, 11/6/02, p.D8)y

1665 Dutch artist Johannes Vermeer painted his “Girl With a Pearl Earring” about this time. [see Vermeer, 1632-1675] In 1999 Tracy Chevalier authored the novel “Girl With a Pearl Earring,” a fictionalization based on one of Vermeer’s models.
(WSJ, 11/15/95, p.A-20)(SFEC, 1/2/00, BR p.3)(SFC, 1/24/13, p.E1)

1665-1666 Over a span of 18 months Isaac Newton invented calculus, explained how gravity works, and discovered his laws of motion. This period came to be called his annus mirabilis.
(Econ, 1/1/05, p.59)

1666 Jan 22, Shah Jahan died. He had built the Taj Mahal.
(HT, 4/97, p.24)

1666 Feb 15, Antonio M. Valsalva, Italian anatomist (eardrums, glottis), was born.
(MC, 2/15/02)

1666 Apr 19, Sarah Kembel Knight, diarist, was born.
(HN, 4/1901)

1666 Aug 4, Johan Evertsen, Italian admiral of Zeeland, was lynched in Brielle.
(MC, 8/4/02)

1666 Sep 2, The Great Fire of London, having started at Pudding Lane, began to demolish about four-fifths of London. It started at the house of King Charles II’s baker, Thomas Farrinor, after he forgot to extinguish his oven. The flames raged uncontrollably for the next few days, helped along by the wind, as well as by warehouses full of oil and other flammable substances. Approximately 13,200 houses, 90 churches and 50 livery company halls burned down or exploded. But the fire claimed only 16 lives, and it actually helped impede the spread of the deadly Black Plague, as most of the disease-carrying rats were killed in the fire.
(CFA, ’96, p.54)(AP, 9/2/97)(HNPD, 9/2/98)(HNQ, 12/2/00)

1666 Sep 5, The great fire of London, begun on Sep 2, was extinguished. Old St. Paul’s was among the 87 churches burned down.
(HN, 9/5/98)(www.stpauls.co.uk)

1666 Nov 5, Attilio Ariosti, composer, was born.
(MC, 11/5/01)

1666 Nov 14, Samuel Pepys reported the on 1st blood transfusion, which was between dogs.
(HFA, ’96, p.42)(MC, 11/14/01)

1666 Dec 5, Francesco Antonio Nicola Scarlatti, composer, was born.
(MC, 12/5/01)

c1666 Sir Peter Lely painted Barbara Villiers 1640-1709, mistress to King Charles II, as a Shepherdess. Charles had raised her stature to Countess of Castlemaine and later Duchess of Cleveland.
(WSJ, 3/7/02, p.A22)

1666 Moliere wrote his play The Misanthrope. It condemned the falseness and intrigue of French aristocratic society.
(WSJ, 10/11/95, p. A-10)

1666 Pierre-Paul Riquet convinced French finance minister Colbert for a canal from the Mediterranean port of Sete to Toulouse and the River Garonne. He oversaw the Canal du Midi project for 15 years and died 6 months before it was completed.
(SSFC, 1/14/01, p.T9)

1666 John Locke met Sir Anthony Ashley Cooper, later the Earl of Shaftsbury, and served him as physician, secretary and counselor for the next 15 years.

1666 The plague decimated London and Isaac Newton moved to the country. He had already discovered the binomial theorem at Cambridge and was offered the post of professor of mathematics. Newton formulated his law of universal gravitation.
(V.D.-H.K.p.206)(JST-TMC,1983, p.70)

1666 The French Academy of Sciences was founded.
(Econ, 1/9/10, p.57)

1666 Giovanni Domenico Cassini (1625-1712), Italian-born French astronomer, discovered one of the polar ice caps of Mars.
1666 Giovanni Francesco Barbieri Guercino, Italian painter, died. His work included “Erminia finding the wounded Tancred.” In 1996 it was purchased by the Scottish National Gallery for $3.1 million.
(TOH, 1982, p.1591d)(SFC, 8/17/96, p.E4)
1666 Pier Francesco Mola (b.1612), Italian Baroque artist, died in Rome.

1666 Franz Hals (b.1581?), painter, died in the Oudemannenhuis almshouse in Haarlem. The almshouse later became the Frans Hals Museum.
(SFEC, 9/3/00, p.T7)

1666 In Cholula, Mexico, the chapel Nuestra de los Remedios was built atop a Teotihuacan pyramid.
(SFEC, 11/8/98, p.T10)

1666 Russia’s orthodox “Old Believers” split over liturgical reforms.
(Econ, 2/2/13, p.73)

1667 Jan 30, Lithuania, Poland and Russia signed a 13.5 year treaty at Andrusov, near Smolensk. Russia received Smolensk and Kiev.
(LHC, 1/30/03)

1667 Feb 20, David ben Samuel Halevi, rabbi, author (Shulchan Aruch), died.
(MC, 2/20/02)

1667 Apr 9, 1st public art exhibition (Palais Royale, Paris).
(MC, 4/9/02)

1667 Apr 29, John Arbuthnot (d.1735), Scottish mathematician, was born. With Alexander Pope, Jonathan Swift, John Gay and Thomas Parnell he founded the Scriblerus Club in 1714, whose purpose was to satirize bad poetry and pedantry. The club was short-lived.
(MC, 4/29/02)

1667 May 6, Johann Jacob Froberger (50), German singer, organist, composer, died.
(MC, 5/6/02)

1667 May 7, Johann Jakob Froberger (50), German organist, singer, composer, died.
(MC, 5/7/02)

1667 May 9, Marie Louise de Gonzague-Nevers, French Queen of Poland (1645-48), died.
(MC, 5/9/02)

1667 May 26, Abraham De Moivre, mathematician, was born.
(HN, 5/26/98)

1667 Jun 15, Dr. Jean-Baptiste Denys, French doctor, performed the 1st animal to human blood transfusion. He successfully transfused a few ounces of blood from a lamb into boy (15). Another experimental transfusion this year resulted in the patient’s death and Denys was accused of murder. In 2011 Holly Tucker authored “Blood Work: A Tale of Medicine and Murder in the Scientific Revolution.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_transfusion)(Econ, 3/19/11, p.95)

1667 Jun 18, The Dutch fleet sailed up the Thames and threatened London. They burned 3 ships and captured the English flagship in what came to be called the Glorious Revolution, in which William of Orange replaced James Stuart.
(HN, 6/18/98)(WSJ, 3/14/00, p.A28)

1667 Jul 21, The Peace of Breda ended the Second Anglo-Dutch War and ceded Dutch New Amsterdam to the English. The South American country of Surinam, formerly Dutch Guiana, including the nutmeg island of Run was ceded by England to the Dutch in exchange for New York in 1667 after the second Anglo-Dutch War.
(WUD, 1994, p.961)(HN, 7/21/98)(HNQ, 8/21/98)(WSJ, 5/21/99, p.W7)

1667 Aug 3, Francesco Borromini (b.1599), Italian Baroque architect and sculptor, died. He designed the San Ivo della Sapienza church in Rome. In 2005 Jake Morrissey authored “The Genius in the Design: Bernini, Borromini and the Rivalry that Transformed Rome.”
(www.bookrags.com/biography-francesco-borromini/)(Econ, 7/25/05, p.71)

1667 Aug 20, John Milton published “Paradise Lost,” an epic poem about the fall of Adam and Eve.
(HN, 8/20/98)

1667 Aug 31, Johann Rist, composer, died at 60.
(MC, 8/31/01)

1667 Sep 23, Slaves in Virginia were banned from obtaining their freedom by converting to Christianity.
(HN, 9/23/98)

1667 Sep 24, Jean-Louis Lully, composer, was born.
(MC, 9/24/01)

1667 Nov 7, Jean Racine’s “Andromaque,” premiered in Paris.
(MC, 11/7/01)

1667 Nov 30, Jonathan Swift (d.1745), English satirist who wrote “Gulliver’s Travels,” was born in Ireland. “We have enough religion to make us hate, but not enough to make us love one another.”
(WUD, 1994, p.1437)(HN, 11/30/98)(AP, 4/16/00)

1667 Connecticut adopted America’s first divorce law.
(SFC, 7/18/98, p.A15)

1667 British law required that everyone be buried in wool. [see 1662]
(NG, 5.1988, pp. 574)
1667 The first insurance company was formed in London.
(Econ, 2/25/12, SRp.4)

1667 A Baroque palace was built in Dubrovnik, Croatia. It later became a 400 student elementary school.
(Hem. 1/95, p. 67)

1667 In France Louis XIV opened the 1st stretch of the Champs-Elysees: a short extension of the Tuileries Gardens leading to the palace at Versailles.
(SSFC, 2/11/07, p.G3)

1667 Arequipa, Peru, was hit by an earthquake.
(SSFC, 6/24/01, p.A16)

1667 The Cossack Stench Razing led a peasant uprising.
(SFC,10/28/97, p.A8)

1667 Cassiopeia A, the gaseous remains of a supernova, would have been visible from Earth at about this time, but no record indicates that it was noticed. It was first detected in 1947 as a radio source.
(Econ, 9/2/06, p.72)

1667-1668 The War of Devolution was fought between France and Spain as a result of the claim by Louis XIV of France that the ownership of the Spanish Netherlands devolved to his wife, Marie Therese, upon the death of her father, Philip IV of Spain. France conquered the area, now Belgium, and also seized the Franche-Comte, a Spanish possession that bordered on Switzerland.
(HNQ, 2/7/00)

1667-1748 Johan Bernouilli, Swiss mathematician, brother of Jacob.
(WUD, 1994, p.141)

1668 Feb 7, English King William III danced in the premiere of “Ballet of Peace.”
(MC, 2/7/02)
1668 Feb 7, The Netherlands, England and Sweden concluded an alliance directed against Louis XIV of France.
(HN, 2/7/99)

1668 Mar 5, Francesco Gasparini, composer, was born.
(MC, 3/5/02)

1668 Mar 25, The first horse race in America took place.
(HN, 3/24/98)

1668 Mar 26, England took control of Bombay, India.
(SS, 3/26/02)

1668 Mar 27, English king Charles II gave Bombay to the East India Company.
(MC, 3/27/02)

1668 Apr 13, John Dryden (36) became 1st English poet laureate.
(MC, 4/13/02)

1668 May 2, Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle ended the War of Devolution in France.
(HN, 5/2/99)

1668 May 8, Alain Rene Lesage, French novelist and dramatist, was born. He is best known for his works “The Adventures of Gil Blas” and “Turcaret.”
(HN, 5/8/99)

1668 May 27, Three colonists were expelled from Massachusetts for being Baptists.
(HN, 5/27/99)

1668 Sep 16, King John Casimer II of Poland abdicated the throne.
(HN, 9/16/98)(PCh, 1992, p.241)

1668 Oct 23, Jews of Barbados were forbidden to engage in retail trade.
(MC, 10/23/01)

1668 Nov 10, Francois Couperin, composer and organist (Concerts Royaux), was born in Paris, France.
(MC, 11/10/01)

1668 Dec 22, Stephen Day, 1st British colonial printer, died.
(MC, 12/22/01)

1668 Bernini sculpted a terra cotta study for one of the angels of Rome’s Port Santa Angelo.
(WSJ, 10/22/96, p.A20)

1668 The British trading ship Nonsuch 1st sailed into Hudson Bay.
(SSFC, 12/22/02, p.C6)

1668 Louis XIV of France purchased the 112 carat blue diamond from John Baptiste Tavernier for 220,000 livre. Tavernier was also given a title of nobility.
(THC, 12/3/97)(EB, 1993, V6 p.51)
1668 Charles Alphonse Dufresnoy (b.1611), French artist, died. His work included the painting “The Death of Socrates” (1650).
(WSJ, 11/24/07, p.W8)

1668 The Spaniards established a permanent settlement on Guam. They forced the Chamorros to convert to Catholicism. Under Spanish rule the Chamorro numbers were reduced to some 2,000.
(SFEC, 3/7/99,Z1 p.4)

1668 A fortified wall was completed at Campeche, Mexico, to ward off pirate attacks.
(SSFC, 1/25/09, p.E4)

1668 Arequipa, Peru, was hit by another earthquake.
(SSFC, 6/24/01, p.A16)

1668 Sweden’s Sveriges Riksbank, the first central bank, was set up as a tool of government financial management.
(Econ, 2/25/12, SR p.4)(Econ, 4/29/17, p.56)

1669 Feb 1, French King Louis XIV limited the freedom of religion.
(MC, 2/1/02)

1669 Mar 11, Mount Etna in Sicily began erupting. Lava flows that destroyed at least 10 villages on its southern flank before reaching the city walls of the town of Catania five weeks later, on 15 April. Contemporaneous accounts written both in Italian and English mention no deaths related to this eruption (but give very precise figures of the number of buildings destroyed, the area of cultivated land lost, and the economic damage).

1669 Jul 6, LaSalle left Montreal to explore Ohio River.
(MC, 7/6/02)

1669 Jul 21, John Locke’s Constitution of English colony Carolina was approved.
(MC, 7/21/02)

1669 Aug 24, Alessandro Marcello (d.1747), composer, was born in Venice.
(MC, 8/24/02)

1669 Sep 26, The island of Crete fell to the Ottoman Turks after 465 years as a colony of Venice.
(WSJ, 7/21/08, p.A11)

1669 Oct 4, Rembrandt H. van Rijn (b.1606), painter and etcher (Steel Masters, Night Watch), died. In 1999 Simon Schama published the biography “Rembrandt’s Eyes.”
(WSJ, 11/24/99, p.A16)(MC, 10/4/01)

1669 Dec 20, The 1st American jury trial was held in Delaware. Marcus Jacobson was condemned for insurrection and sentenced to flogging, branding & slavery.
(MC, 12/20/01)

1669 Vermeer painted “The Art of Painting.” The 3′ by 4′ work was larger than most of his paintings.
(SFC, 11/24/99, p.E8)

1669 Nils Steensen’s “Prodromus” was first published in Italy and translated to English two years later. It explained the authors determination of the successive order of the earth strata.
(RFH-MDHP, p.7)

1669 The semicircular Sheldonian Theater at Oxford, England, designed by Christopher Wren, was completed.
(SSFC, 2/4/01, p.T8)

1669 Emperor Leopold I sanctioned the foundation of a higher school in Innsbruck, Austria. This is considered to mark the founding of the Univ. of Innsbruck.
(StuAus, April ’95, p.97)

1669 A French ordnance created a forest code.
(Econ, 9/2/17, p.46)

1669 While Mount Etna erupted, German scholar Athanasius Kircher was busy devising a machine that would clean out volcanoes the way a chimney sweep cleaned out clogged chimneys.
(PacDisc. Spring/’96, p.26)

1670 Jan 3, George Monck (61), English general (to the-sea), died.
(MC, 1/3/02)

1670 Feb 10, William Congreve, English writer (Old Bachelor, Way of the World), was born.
(MC, 2/10/02)

1670 Feb 14, Roman Catholic emperor Leopold I chased the Jews out of Vienna.
(MC, 2/14/02)

1670 Feb 27, Jews were expelled from Austria by order of Leopold I.
(MC, 2/27/02)

1670 Apr, Colonists landed on the western bank of the Ashley River, five miles from the sea, and named their settlement Charles Town in honor of Charles II, King of England.
(Hem., 1/95, p.70)

1670 May 2, The Company of Adventurers of England Trading into Hudson Bay (the Hudson Bay Co.) was chartered by England’s King Charles II to exploit the resources of the Hudson Bay area. By 2006 it had mutated into Canada’s largest non-food retailer.
(AP, 5/2/97)(HN, 5/2/98)(AH, 4/01, p.36)(Econ, 2/4/06, p.36)

1670 May 12, August II, the Strong One, King of Poland (355 children), was born.
(MC, 5/12/02)

1670 May 26, A treaty was signed in secret in Dover, England, between Charles II and Louis XIV ending hostilities between them.
(HN, 5/26/99)

1670 Jul 18, Giovanni Battista Bononcini, Italian (opera) composer, was born.
(MC, 7/18/02)

1670 Jul 25, Jews were expelled from Vienna, Austria.
(SC, 7/25/02)

1670 Oct 13, Virginia passed a law that blacks arriving in the colonies as Christians could not be used as slaves.
(HN, 10/13/98)

1670 Nov 28, Pierre Corneille’s “Tite et Berenice,” premiered in Paris.
(MC, 11/28/01)

1670 Vermeer painted his “A Young Woman Standing at a Virginal” and “A Young Woman Seated at a Virginal.” Estimates for auction in 2004 for the seated one reached $5.4 million.
(WSJ, 6/19/00, p.a42)(SFC, 4/1/04, p.E7)

1670 John Ray printed a book of aphorisms such as: “Blood is thicker than water…” and “Haste makes waste.”
(SFC, 11/23/96, p.E4)

1670 Spinoza (1632-1677), Dutch philosopher, authored “Tractatus Theologico-Politicus” an enlightened assessment of the Old Testament and a plea for religious toleration.
(WSJ, 12/15/05, p.D8)

1670 Cafe Procope, the first cafe in Paris, began serving ice cream.
(SFC, 11/23/96, p.E4)

1670 Le Notre, the royal landscaper of Louis XIV, laid out the Triumphal Way in Paris.
(SSFC, 1/25/04, p.C12)

1670 Minute hands on watches first appeared.
(SFC, 7/14/99, p.3)

1670 Ashanti, a West African chiefdom (later part of Ghana), prospered from trade of cola nuts, gold and slaves.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1670-1680 In Oman the Nizwa Fort was built 100 miles southwest of Muscat.
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.46)

1670-1712 Osei Tutu, ruler of the Ashanti Empire in what later became Ghana. He amassed a fortune by supplying slaves to British and Dutch traders in exchange for firearms.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1670-1752 In 2006 Jonathan I. Israel authored “Enlightenment Contested: Philosophy, Modernity, and the Emancipation of Man 1670-1752.”
(Econ, 12/2/06, p.85)

1670-1850 Daniel Cohen’s 1993 Pillars of Salt, Monuments of Grace is a book that follows the shifts in social authority and attitudes toward authority in New England as demonstrated by changes in the crime literature of this period.
(LSA., Fall 1995, p.19)

1670s French explorer Rene Robert Cavelier (LaSalle), Sieur de La Salle, explored the Great Lakes region of the New World.
(SFC, 11/30/96, p.A7)

1671 Jan 18, Pirate Henry Morgan defeated Spanish defenders and captured Panama.
(MC, 1/18/02)

1671 Jan 27, Welsh pirate Sir Henry Morgan (1635-1688) landed at Panama City.
(WUD, 1994 p.931)(MC, 1/27/02)

1671 Feb 19, Charles-Hubert Gervais, composer, was born.
(MC, 2/19/02)

1671 Apr 6, Jean-Baptiste Rousseau, French playwright, poet (Sacred Odes & Songs), was born.
(MC, 4/6/02)

1671 Apr 22, King Charles II sat in on English parliament after which he gave his Royal Assent to the several Bills that were presented to him, fourteen private Acts, and eighteen public, including an act for exporting “Beer, Ale, and Mum.”

1671 Apr 30, Peter Zrinyi (49), Hungarian banished to Croatia, was beheaded.
(MC, 4/30/02)

1671 May 9, Colonel Thomas Blood (1618-1680), Irish adventurer, attempted to steal the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London.
(MC, 5/9/02)(Reuters, 8/24/01)

1671 Jun 6 (OS), Stenka, Stepan Razin, Russian Cossack, was killed. [see Jun 16]
(MC, 6/6/02)

1671 Jun 8, Tomaso Albinoni, Italian composer (Adagio in G-minor), was born.
(MC, 6/8/02)

1671 Jun 16 (NS), Stenka Razin, Cossack rebel leader, was tortured & executed in Moscow. [see Jun 6]
(MC, 6/16/02)

1671 Nov 6, Colley Cibber, England, dramatist, poet laureate (Love’s Last Shift), was born.
(MC, 11/6/01)

1671 Dec 1, Francesco Stradivari, Italian violin maker and son of Antonius, was born.
(MC, 12/1/01)

1671 Vermeer painted his “Allegory of Faith.” [see Vermeer, 1632-1675]
(WSJ, 11/15/95, p.A-20)

1671 Moliere wrote his farce “Les Fourberies de Scapin” (The Wiles of Scapin or Scapin the Cheat).
(WSJ, 1/10/97, p.A9)(SFC, 6/15/98, p.D3)

1671 Rice arrived in South Carolina from Madagascar but nobody knew how to husk it for food.
(Hem., 12/96, p.82)

1671 Charles II banned anyone without property worth £100 a year from owning guns, bows or ferrets. Game stocks were the motive.
(Econ, 6/5/10, p.63)
1671 English Protestants became alarmed when they learned that James, Duke of York, had converted to Catholicism.
(ON, 7/06, p.8)

1671 In Germany Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz (Leibniz) devised a mechanical calculator to add, subtract, multiply and divide.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1671 Mar 7, In Scotland Rob Roy MacGregor (d.1734) was baptized. He was later forced to become a highland fugitive.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rob_Roy_MacGregor)(SFC, 8/19/96, p.D7)(Econ, 12/22/12, p.109)

1671-1743 Kaigetsudo Ando (d.1743), Japanese artist, was born. He is also called Okazaki Genshichi.

1671-1729 John Law, Scotsman and financier for France. He controlled France’s foreign trade, mints, revenue, national debt and the Louisiana territory. [see 1694]
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1672 Jan 1, The beginning of the current Dionysian Period, named for the monk Dionysius Exiguous who, in the AD 500s, introduced the present custom of reckoning time by counting the years from the birth of Christ.
(CFA, ’96, p.22)

1672 Feb 8, Isaac Newton read his 1st optics paper before Royal Society in London.
(MC, 2/8/02)

1672 Mar 15, England’s King Charles II enacted a 3rd Declaration of Indulgence.

1672 Apr 2, Pedro Calungsod (b.1654), a Filipino teenager, was killed in Tumon, Guam, along with Diego Luis de San Vitores, his Jesuit missionary priest, by natives resisting their conversion efforts. In 2012 Pedro was named a saint in the Catholic church.
(AP, 10/20/12)( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pedro_Calungsod)

1672 Apr 6, Andre Ardinal Destouches, composer, was born.
(MC, 4/6/02)

1672 Apr 29, King Louis XIV of France invaded the Netherlands.
(HN, 4/29/99)

1672 Apr 30, Marie of the Incarnation (b.1599, French Ursuline nun and the leader of the group of nuns sent to establish the Ursuline Order in New France, died in Quebec City. She was canonized a saint on April 2, 2014.

1672 May 1, Joseph Addison (d.1719), English essayist (Spectator) and poet, was born. “We are always doing, says he, something for posterity, but I would fain see posterity do something for us.” “A man must be both stupid and uncharitable who believes there is no virtue or truth but on his own side.”
(AHD, 1971, p.14)(AP, 11/21/97)(AP, 7/14/98)(MC, 5/1/02)

1672 May 15, 1st copyright law was enacted by Massachusetts.
(MC, 5/15/02)

1672 May 17, Frontenac became governor of New France (Canada).
(MC, 5/17/02)

1672 May 30, Peter I (the Great) Romanov, great czar (tsar) of Russia (1682-1725), was born. [see Jun 9]
(HN, 5/30/98)(MC, 5/30/02)

1672 Jun 9, Peter I (d.1725), “The Great,” was born. He grew to be almost 7 feet tall and was the Russian Czar from 1682 to 1725 and modernized Russia with sweeping reforms. He moved the Russian capital to the new city he built, St. Petersburg. [see May 30]
(CFA, ’96, p.48)(WUD, 1994, p.1077)(HN, 6/9/99)(SFC, 12/25/99, p.C3)

1672 Jun 15, The Sluices were opened in Holland to save Amsterdam from the French.
(HT, 6/15/00)

1672 Jun 25, 1st recorded monthly Quaker meeting in US was held at Sandwich, Mass.
(MC, 6/25/02)

1672 Jul 4, States of Holland declared “Eternal Edict” void.

1672 Aug 9, Jose Ximenez (70), Spanish composer, died.
(MC, 8/9/02)

1672 Aug 20, Jan de Witt, Dutch politician and mathematician, was assassinated by a carefully organized lynch “mob” after visiting his brother Cornelis de Witt in prison. He was killed by a shot in the neck; his naked body was hanged and mutilated and the heart was carved out to be exhibited.

1672 Nov 1, Heinrich Schutz (87), composer, died. Pupil of Giovanni Gabrielli from 1609-1672, he was employed by the Elector of Saxony in 1615 and became Kapellmeister two years later. While employed by the Elector, Schütz made several visits to Italy and served three two-year terms as guest court conductor in Copenhagen. Schütz’s works include one opera (a first in the German language), Easter and Christmas oratorios, three passions, numerous polychoral Psalm settings in the style of his teacher, Gabrielli, other sacred concerted works in Latin and German, and Italian madrigals.

1672 Dec 10, Gov. Lovelace announced monthly mail service between NY and Boston.
(MC, 12/10/01)

1672 Peter Stuyvesant died on his farm in NY. In 1959 Henry H. Kessler and Eugene Rachlis authored “Peter Stuyvesant and his New York.” In 1970 Adele de Leeuw authored “Peter Stuyvesant.”
(ON, 4/00, p.3)

1672 In Bolivia the Royal Mint in Potosi was established. It required the construction of reservoirs, dams and a canal system to deliver water used in the minting process.

1672 Gerhard Altzenbach (b.1609), German artist, died.
(SFC, 9/23/06, p.E2)

1672 Christian Huygens of Holland discovered the southern polar caps on Mars.

1672 The Royal African Co. was granted a charter to expand the slave trade and its stockholders included philosopher John Locke. The operation supplied English sugar colonies with 3,000 slaves annually.
(SFC, 10/19/98, p.D3)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1673 Feb 17, Moliere, [Jean Baptiste Poquelin], French author (Tartuffe, Le Malade Imaginaire), died.
(MC, 2/17/02)

1673 Feb 20, The 1st recorded wine auction was held in London.
(MC, 2/20/02)

1673 Mar 28, Adam Pijnacker (51), Dutch landscape painter, etcher, was buried.
(MC, 3/28/02)

1673 Mar 29, The English Parliament passed the Test Act. It in effect excluded Roman Catholics from public functions. King Charles II was unable to stop the action.

1673 Apr 5, Francois Caron (~72), admiral, governor (Formosa), drowned.
(MC, 4/5/02)

1673 May 17, Louis Joliet and Jacques Marquette began exploring the Mississippi.
(MC, 5/17/02)

1673 May 29, Cornelis van Bijnkershoek, lawyer, president of High Council, was born.
(SC, 5/29/02)

1673 Jun 25, In France Charles de Batz (b.1611), a commander known as D’Artagnan, was slain in the service of Louis XIV. He died at the Siege of Maastricht in the Franco-Dutch War and was one of the musketeers who inspired Dumas’ fiction.
(SSFC, 4/13/08, p.E4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/D’Artagnan)

1673 Jul 24, Edmund Halley entered Queen’s College, Oxford, as an undergraduate.
(MC, 7/24/02)

1673 Aug 9, Dutch recapture NY from English. It was regained by English in 1674.
(MC, 8/9/02)

1673 Sep 21, James Needham returned to Virginia after exploring the land to the west, which would become Tennessee.
(HN, 9/21/98)

1673 Dec 28, Joan Blaeu (77), Dutch cartographer, publisher (Atlas Major), died.
(MC, 12/28/01)

1673 In London the Worshipful Society of Apothecaries started the Chelsea Physic Garden as an educational tool for apprentices learning to grow medicinal plants.
(SFC, 3/26/08, p.G1)

1673 Cuba began a program of scientific research.
(SFC, 3/17/99, p.A14)

1673 The most important of Christian Huygens’ written works, the “Horologium Oscillatorium,” was published in Paris. It discussed the mathematics surrounding pendulum motion and the law of centrifugal force for uniform circular motion.
1673 The French Blue Diamond was recut to a 67 carat stone.
(EB, 1993, V6 p.51)

1673 In Japan the Mitsukoshi store introduced fixed prices.
(Econ, 8/25/07, p.58)

1674 Feb 9, English reconquered NY from Netherlands.
(MC, 2/9/02)

1674 Feb 19, Netherlands and England signed the Peace of Westminster. NYC became English.
(MC, 2/19/02)

1674 Feb 21, Johann Augustin Kobelius, composer, was born.
(MC, 2/21/02)

1674 Mar 6, Johann Paul Schor (58), German baroque painter, died.
(MC, 3/6/02)

1674 May 20, John Sobieski became Poland’s first King. [see May 11, 1573]
(HN, 5/20/98)

1674 May 21, Gen. Jan Sobieski was chosen King of Poland. [see May 20]
(MC, 5/21/02)

1674 Jun 6, Sivaji crowned himself King of India.
(HN, 6/6/98)

1674 Jun 20, Nicholas Rowe, poet laureate of England, was born.
(HN, 6/20/98)

1674 Jul 17, Isaac Watts, English minister and hymn writer, was born.
(HN, 7/17/01)

1674 Aug 18, Jean Racine’s “Iphigenie,” premiered in Versailles.
(MC, 8/18/02)

1674 Oct 15, Robert Herrick, British poet (Together), was born in Mass.
(MC, 10/15/01)

1674 Nov 8, John Milton (65), English poet (Paradise Lost), died. His work included “Paradise Lost,” Paradise Regained,” and “Samson Agonistes.” Milton lost one eye at 36 and the other when he was 44. In 1952 Prof. Sensabaugh (d.2002 at 95) authored “In That Grand Whig, Milton,” an examination of Milton’s political tracts. In 1996 Paul West wrote a novel: “Sporting with Amaryllis,” that begins in 1626 and gives a fictional account of his life. In 1997 Peter Levy wrote a biography of Milton titled: “Eden Renewed.”
(WUD, ’94, p.911)(WSJ, 5/6/97, p.A20)(AP, 12/9/97)(MC, 11/8/01)(SFC, 2/28/02, p.A20)

1674 Nov 10, Dutch formally ceded New Netherlands (NY) to English.
(MC, 11/10/01)

1674 Nov 24, Franciscus van Enden (72), Flemish Jesuit and free thinker, was executed.
(MC, 11/24/01)

1674 Dec 4, Father Marquette built the 1st dwelling at what is now Chicago.
(MC, 12/4/01)

1675 Jan 20, Christian Huygens, Dutch scientist, transformed a theoretical insight on springs into a practical mechanism with the 1st sketch of a watch balance regulated by a coiled spring.
(www.princeton.edu/~mike/articles/huygens/timelong/timelong.html)(Econ, 2/4/06, p.73)

1675 Jan 31, Cornelia Dina Olfaarts was found not guilty of witchcraft.
(MC, 1/31/02)

1675 Mar 2, Prince William III was installed as Governor of Overijssel.
(SC, 3/2/02)

1675 Mar 4, John Flamsteed was appointed 1st Astronomer Royal of England.
(SC, 3/4/02)

1675 May 18, Jacques Marquette (37), Jesuit, missionary in Chicago, died.
(SC, 5/18/02)

1675 Jun 8, Three Wampanoag Indians were hanged in Plymouth, Massachusetts. On the testimony of a Native American witness, Plymouth Colony arrested three Wampanoags, including a counselor to Metacom, a Pokanoket sachem. A jury among whom were some Indian members convicted them of the recent murder of John Sassamon, an advisor to Metacom.

1675 Jun 11, France and Poland formed an alliance.
(AP, 6/11/03)

1675 Jun 20, King Philip’s War began when Indians–retaliating for the execution of three of their people who had been charged with murder by the English–massacred colonists at Swansea, Plymouth colony. Abenaki, Massachusetts, Mohegan & Wampanoag Indians formed an anti English front. Wampanoag warriors attacked livestock and looted farms.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King_Philip%27s_War)(AH, 6/02, p.46)

1675 Jun 21, Sir Christopher Wren (1632-1723) began to rebuild St Paul’s Cathedral in London, replacing the old building which had been destroyed by the Great fire. St Paul’s Cathedral was dedicated in 1708 but work continued.
(Econ, 6/7/08, p.98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St_Paul%27s_Cathedral)

1675 Jun 22, Royal Greenwich Observatory was established in England by Charles II.
(YarraNet, 6/22/00)

1675 Jun 23, An English youth shot a Marauding Wampanoag warrior.
(AH, 6/02, p.46)

1675 Jun 28, Frederick William of Brandenburg crushed the Swedes.
(HN, 6/28/98)

1675 Aug 6, Russian Czar Aleksei banned foreign haircuts.
(MC, 8/6/02)

1675 Aug 10, King Charles II laid the foundation stone of Royal Observatory, Greenwich. [see Jun 22]
(MC, 8/10/02)

1675 Aug 27, The Strasbourg Agreement, signed between France and the Holy Roman Empire, banned the use of poison bullets in conflict.
(AP, 12/4/12)

1675 Sep 9, New England colonial authorities officially declared war on the Wampanoag Indians. The war soon spread to include the Abenaki, Norwottock, Pocumtuck and Agawam warriors.
(MC, 9/9/01)(AH, 6/02, p.47)

1675 Nov 22, English king Charles II adjourned parliament.
(MC, 11/22/01)

1675 Dec 19, Some 1,000 colonial troops attacked the Narragansett winter village in Rhode Island. The Great Swamp Fight ended with some 80 English killed and 600 Indians dead, mostly women and children. Wakefield, Rhode Island, USA, The Great Swamp Memorial marks the site where 4,000 Indians died in defense of a secret fort.
(Postcard, Wakefield Chamber of Commerce)(AH, 6/02, p.48)

1675 Lely painted a portrait of Nell Gwynn, the favorite mistress of Charles II. It is now in the London National Gallery. Charles II acknowledged 14 illegitimate children and historians identified 13 mistresses.
(SFEC, 2/1/98, p.T8)(SFC, 7/22/00, p.E4)

1675 In Boston, Mass., a law forbade American Indians from setting foot in the city, as settlers warred with area tribes. In 2005 although the law wasn’t enforced for centuries it was a lingering source of anger for American Indians.
(AP, 5/20/05)

1675 English king Charles II issued a proclamation deploring the “evil and dangerous effects” of coffee houses.
(Econ, 12/20/03, p.90)

1675 In France Lully composed “Thesee.” The librettist was Philippe Quinault. This work established the tragedie lyrique operatic form.
(WSJ, 7/5/01, p.A10)
1675 In France taxes imposed by Louis XIV led to an uprising in Brittany. Protesters wore bonnets rouges (red wooly hats).
(Econ, 11/30/13, p.50)

1675 The 9th Sikh guru was executed in Delhi, India. His son, Gobind Rai, took up arms and organized a new fraternity called the Khalsa (the pure), and gave them the common surname Singh (lion), and changed his own name to Gobind Singh.
(WSJ, 10/12/01, p.W17)

1675 Wojciech Bobowski (b.1610), Polish-Jewish musician and dragoman, died. He had been taken prisoner by Crimean Tartars and was sold to the Ottoman court where he converted to Islam and served as an interpreter, treasurer and musician. He translated the Bible into Turkish and composed Turkish psalms.
(Econ, 9/15/07, p.104)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wojciech_Bobowski)

1675 Johannes Vermeer (b.1632), Dutch painter, died in poverty. In 2001 Anthony Bailey authored “Vermeer: A View of Delft.”
(WSJ, 11/15/95, p.A-20)(SSFC, 3/25/01, BR p.5)

1675 In northern Russia Solovki monks resisted church reforms. Tsarist forces broke through, but only following a 7-year siege.
(Econ, 12/18/04, p.83)

1675-1710 In London Old St. Paul’s Cathedral was replaced with a new design by Sir Christopher Wren.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.14)

c1675-1741 Antonio Vivaldi, Italian violinist and composer. [see 1678]
(WUD, 1994, p.1598)

1675-1900 McDade’s Annals of Murder is an annotated bibliography that provides a list and description of individual items and identifies multiple accounts of the same crimes over this time period by career FBI man McDade.
(LSA., Fall 1995, p.17)

1676 Feb 10, In King Philip’s War Narragansett and Nipmuck Indians raided Lancaster, Mass. Over 35 villagers were killed and 24 were taken captive including Mary Rowlandson (1637-1711) and her 3 children. Rowlandson was freed after 11 weeks and an account of her captivity was published posthumously in 1682.
(AH, 6/02, p.48)(Econ, 2/21/09, p.83)(http://tinyurl.com/cvrhcv)

1676 Feb, Mohawk Indians attacked and killed all but 40 Wampanoag Indians under Philip. NY Gov. Edmund Andros had urged the Mohawks to attack the Wampanoags.
(AH, 6/02, p.48)

1676 Mar 29, Wampanoag allies including Narragansetts destroyed Providence, Rhode Island. The house of Roger Williams was destroyed as he negotiated with Indian leaders on the outskirts of town.
(AH, 6/02, p.48)(AH, 4/07, p.29)

1676 Apr 14, Ernst Christian Hesse, composer, was born in Thuringian town of Gros sengottern.

1676 Apr 17, Frederick I, king of Sweden, was born.
(HN, 4/17/98)

1676 Apr 18, Sudbury, Massachusetts was attacked by Indians.
(HN, 4/18/98)

1676 Apr 29, Michiel A. de Ruyter (69), Dutch rear-admiral, (Newport), was killed.
(MC, 4/29/02)

1676 May 10, Bacon’s Rebellion began. It pitted frontiersmen against the government. Bacon’s Rebellion in Virginia involved an attack on a local Indian community and the sacking of the colonial capital in Jamestown. It is described by Catherine McNicol Stock in her 1997 book “Rural Radicals; Righteous Rage in the American Grain.”
(SFEC, 2/2/97, BR. p.8)(HN, 5/10/98)

1676 Jul 21, Anthony Collins, English philosopher (A discourse on free-thinking), was born.
(MC, 7/21/02)

1676 Jul 29, Nathaniel Bacon was declared a rebel for assembling frontiersmen to protect settlers from Indians. [see May 10, Sep 1]
(MC, 7/29/02)

1676 Aug 12, Indian chief King Philip, also known as Metacom, was killed by a Pocasset Indian named Alderman in the swamps of Rhode Island. This ended the King Philip’s War. Benjamin Church, a Plymouth volunteer, ordered that Philip be beheaded and quartered. [see Aug 28]
(AH, 6/02, p.50)

1676 Aug 26, Sir Robert Walpole (d.1745), the first and longest serving prime minister of England, was born. He was not then called the prime minister as the king held all honors. He collected a large number of paintings by old masters at his Houghton Hall home in Norfolk.
(WSJ, 3/3/97, p.A16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Walpole)

1676 Aug 28, Indian chief King Philip, also known as Metacom, was killed by English soldiers, ending the war between Indians and colonists. [see Aug 12]
(HN, 8/28/98)

1676 Sep 1, Nathaniel Bacon led an uprising against English Governor William Berkeley at Jamestown, Virginia, resulting in the settlement being burned to the ground. Bacon’s Rebellion came in response to the governor’s repeated refusal to defend the colonists against the Indians. [see May 10, Sep 19]
(HN, 9/1/99)

1676 Sep 19, Rebels under Nathaniel Bacon set Jamestown, Va., on fire. [see Sep 1]
(MC, 9/19/01)

1676 Sep 21, Benedetto Odescalchi was elected as Pope Innocent XI.
(MC, 9/21/01)

1676 Oct 18, Nathaniel Bacon, who rallied against Virginian government, was killed at 29.
(MC, 10/18/01)

1676 Nov 16, 1st colonial prison was organized at Nantucket Mass.
(MC, 11/16/01)

1676 Roger Williams published “George Fox Digg’d Out of His Burrowes.” It was an account of his debates with the Quakers in Newport and Providence.
(AH, 4/07, p.28)

1676 Canonchet, the Narragansett sachem, was executed.
(AH, 6/02, p.48)

1676 Lully composed his tragic opera “Atys.”
(SFEC, 1/18/98, DB p.33)

1676 Isaac Newton wrote: “If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of Giants.”
(Econ, 8/7/04, p.64)

1676 Jean-Domenique Cassini, director of the Paris Observatory, reported that there were 2 rings around Saturn separated by a gap that came to be called the Cassini Division.
(NH, 10/1/04, p.29)

1676 Ole Christensen Romer (Roemer), Danish astronomer, derived a speed of light of 130,000 miles per second based on his observations of Io, the innermost moon of Jupiter.
(http://inkido.indiana.edu/a100/timeline2.html)(NH, 2/05, p.19)

1676 Geminiamo Montanari, Italian astronomer, documented a meteor with a sound “like the rattling of a great Cart running over Stones.” It was later understood that meteors can detectable generate radio waves.
(NH, 7/02, p.38)

1676 Jeong Seon (d.1759), Korean landscape painter, was born.

1676 King Carlos II of Spain, having successfully outlawed a drink suspected of leading to homicides, inattentiveness at church and moral turpitude, warned his colonial rulers in Bogota of a drink “that is, beyond all comparison, more dangerous and which goes by the name of aguardiente.” In 1988 Gilma Mora de Tovar’s authored, “Aguardiente and Social Conflicts in 18th Century New Granada,”
(AP, 9/2/03)

1676-1759 Chong Son, Korean painter. His work included “Pine Tree at Sajik Altar” and “Landscape.”
(SFC, 7/26/97, p.E1)

1677 Feb 15, King Charles II reported an anti-French covenant with Netherlands.
(MC, 2/15/02)

1677 Feb 16, Earl of Shaftesbury was arrested and confined to the London Tower. [see Oct 24, 1681]
(MC, 2/16/02)

1677 Feb 21, [Benedictus] Baruch Spinoza (b.1632), Dutch philosopher, died. In 2003 Antonio Damasio authored “Looking for Spinoza,” a look at contemporary neurological research in contrast with the opposing philosophical views of Spinoza and Descartes. In 2005 Matthew Stewart authored “The Courtier and the Heretic: Leibniz, Spinoza, and the Fate of God in the Modern World.”
(WUD, 1994 p.1371)(SSFC, 2/2/03, p.M4)(WSJ, 12/15/05, p.D8)

1677 Mar 13, Massachusetts gained title to Maine for $6,000.
(MC, 3/13/02)

1677 Apr 27, Colonel Jeffreys became the governor of Virginia.
(HN, 4/27/98)

1677 May 29, King Charles II and 12 Virginia Indian chiefs signed a treaty that established a 3-mile non-encroachment zone around Indian land. The Mattaponi Indians in 1997 invoked this treaty to protect against encroachment.
(SFC, 6/2/97, p.A3)

1677 Sep 21, John and Nicolaas van der Heyden patented a fire extinguisher.
(MC, 9/21/01)

1677 Nov 4, William and Mary were married in England on William’s birthday. William of Orange married his cousin Mary (daughter to James, Duke of York and the same James II who fled in 1688).
(HNQ, 12/28/00)(HN, 11/4/02)

1677 Racine wrote his drama Phedre in alexandrine meter. It was based on Euripides’ tragic Greek tale of Phaedra’s love for her stepson Hippolytus, son of Theseus.
(WSJ, 5/21/97, p.A12)(Econ, 6/20/09, p.89)(Econ, 6/27/09, p.92)

1677 Pope Innocent XII confirmed the imperial foundation of the Univ. of Innsbruck in a papal bull that emphasized the Catholic character of the Univ. and decreed that the important chairs of the Faculty of Theology be filled by members of the Jesuit order.
(StuAus, April ’95, p.97)

1677 The Episcopal Parish called St. Michaels was established on the east coast of the Chesapeake Bay. The town of St. Michaels derives its name after the parish.
(SMBA, 1996)

1677 Christopher Wren redesigned the burned Church of St. Mary the Virgin in Aldermanbury, England. His monument at St. Paul’s Cathedral in London reads: “Si monumentum requires circumspice” (If you seek his monument, look around you).
(SFC, 3/30/97, p.T5)(WSJ, 5/21/97, p.A15)

1678 Feb 18, John Bunyan’s “Pilgrim’s Progress” was published. [see Sep 28]
(MC, 2/18/02)

1678 Mar 4, Antonio Vivaldi (d.1741), Italian Baroque composer (4 Seasons) and violinist, was born in Venice. [see 1675]
(HN, 3/4/01)(SC, 3/4/02)

1678 May 31, The Godiva procession, commemorating Lady Godiva’s legendary ride while naked, became part of the Coventry Fair.
(HN, 5/31/01)

1678 Jun 17, Giacomo Torelli (69), composer, died.
(MC, 6/17/02)

1678 Jul 26, Joseph I Habsburg, German king, Roman catholic emperor (1705-11), was born.
(MC, 7/26/02)

1678 Aug 3, Robert LaSalle built the 1st ship in America, Griffon.
(SC, 8/3/02)(AP, 12/10/03)

1678 Aug 16, Andrew Marvell (b.1621), English poet (Definition of Love), died.
(MC, 8/16/02)

1678 Sep 28, “Pilgrim’s Progress” by John Bunyan (b.1628) was published. [see Feb 18]
(MC, 9/28/01)

1678 Nov 18, Giovanni Maria Bononcini (36), composer, died.
(MC, 11/18/01)

1678 Nov 28, England’s King Charles II accused his wife, Catherine of Braganza, of treason. Her crime? She had yet to bear him children.
(DTnet, 11/28/97)

1678 Nov 30, Roman Catholics were banned from English parliament.
(MC, 11/30/01)

1678 Dec 3, Edmund Halley received an MA from Queen’s College, Oxford.
(MC, 12/3/01)

1678 Titus Oates (b.1649), failed Catholic seminarian, and Israel Tonge concocted the Popish Plot. They alleged that plotters planned to raise a Catholic army, massacre Protestants, and poison Charles II in order to get James on the throne. 9 Jesuit priests were executed. In 1681 it was revealed to be a fabrication.
(www.newadvent.org/cathen/11173c.htm)(ON, 7/06, p.9)

1678 Anthony Ashley Cooper, the Earl of Shaftesbury and Protestant Parliamentary leader formed the County Party, later known as the Whigs, to prevent James from becoming king of England.
(ON, 7/06, p.9)

1678 Louis XIV claimed the region of Alsace from Germany.
(SFEC, 1/31/99, p.T4)

1678 Frederick William, Brandenburg’s Great Elector, gave Bielefeld the privilege of certifying the quality of local linen. This cemented its position as a center for the textile trade.
(Econ, 4/14/12, p.30)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brandenburg)

1678-1707 Georg Farquhar, Anglo-Irish dramatist.
(WSJ, 10/3/96, p.A12)
1678-1707 Aurangzeb was the 1st Muslim ruler to fire his cannon at the giant Buddhas at Bamiyan, Afghanistan.
(WSJ, 11/16/01, p.W12)

1679 Jan 24, King Charles II disbanded the English parliament.
(MC, 1/24/02)

1679 Jan 31, Jean-Baptiste Lully’s opera “Bellerophon” premiered in Paris.
(MC, 1/31/02)

1679 Mar, King Charles II sent his brother James to the Netherlands for safety.
(ON, 7/06, p.9)

1679 Apr 3, Edmund Halley met Johannes Hevelius in Danzig.
(MC, 4/3/02)

1679 Apr 17, John van Kessel (53), Flemish painter, died.
(MC, 4/17/02)

1679 May 12, Giovanni Antonio Ricieri, composer, was born.
(MC, 5/12/02)

1679 May 14, Peder [Nielsen] Horrebow, Danish astronomer, was born.
(MC, 5/14/02)

1679 May 15, The Earl of Shaftesbury introduced his Exclusion Bill into Parliament proposing that James, the Catholic brother of King Charles II, be permanently barred from the line of succession to the English throne.
(ON, 7/06, p.9)

1679 May 27, England’s House of Lords passed the Habeas Corpus Act (have the body) to prevent false arrest and imprisonment. King Charles adjourned Parliament before the final reading of Shaftesbury’s Exclusion Bill.
(WUD, 1994 p.634)(www.british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=11707)(ON, 7/06, p.9)

1679 Jun 1, Battle at Bothwell Bridge on Clyde: Duke of Monmouth beat the Scottish. (MC, 6/1/02)

1679 Jul 10, The British crown claimed New Hampshire as a royal colony.
(HN, 7/10/98)

1679 Jul 12, Britain’s King Charles II ratified Habeas Corpus Act.
(MC, 7/12/02)

1679 Sep 18, New Hampshire became a county Massachusetts Bay Colony.
(MC, 9/18/01)

1679 Oct 16, Jan Dismas Zelenka, composer, was born.
(MC, 10/16/01)

1679 Oct 23, The Meal Tub Plot took place against James II of England.
(MC, 10/23/01)

1679 Nov 3, A great panic occurred in Europe over the close approach of a comet.
(MC, 11/3/01)

1679 Dec 4, Thomas Hobbes (b.1588), English philosopher, died. “The reputation of power IS power.” Hobbes sought to separate politics from religion. In his book “Leviathan” he argues that the only way to secure civil society is through universal submission to the absolute authority of a sovereign.
(www.thefreedictionary.com/Hobbesian)(WSJ, 7/30/03, p.A12)(WSJ, 9/15/07, p.W10)

1679 Dec 17, Don Juan, ruler of Spain, died.
(MC, 12/17/01)

1679 Louis Hennepin, a Catholic priest, sailed up the Detroit River aboard the Griffon, through Lake St. Clair, which he named, and into Lake Huron and beyond. The French ship Le Griffon, built by explorer Rene-Robert Sieur de La Salle disappeared during its maiden voyage.
(DFP, 7/24/01, p.5A)(SFC, 6/5/13, p.A6)
1679 Elections in England produced a new House of Commons, but King Charles II declined to let it assemble.
(ON, 7/06, p.9)

1679-1947 Some 8,500 vessels have been lost in Lake Michigan over this period.
(Hem., 7/96, p.25)

1680 Apr 3, Shivaji Raje Bhosle (b.1627), warrior king and founder of the Maratha empire of western India, died.
(Econ, 7/12/08, p.73)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shivaji)

1680 May 5, Giuseppe Porsile, composer, was born.
(MC, 5/5/02)

1680 May 29, Abraham Megerle (73), composer, died.
(SC, 5/29/02)

1680 Jul 26, John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester, poet, courtier, died.
(MC, 7/26/02)

1680 Aug 13, War started when the Spanish were expelled from Santa Fe, New Mexico, by Indians under Chief Pope.
(HN, 8/13/98)

1680 Aug 21, Pueblo Indians took possession of Santa Fe, N.M., after driving out the Spanish. They destroyed almost all of the Spanish churches in Taos and Santa Fe.
(AP, 8/21/97)(SFEC, 6/21/98, Z1 p.8)

1680 Aug 24, Colonel Thomas Blood, Irish adventurer who stole the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London in 1671, died. Captured after the theft, he insisted on seeing King Charles II, who pardoned him.
(Reuters, 8/24/01)

1680 Sep 25, Samuel Butler (b.1612), poet and satirist, died.
(MC, 9/25/01)

1680 Oct 13, Daniel Elsevier, book publisher and publisher, died at 54.
(MC, 10/13/01)

1680 Oct, King Charles II of England was forced to recall Parliament in order to ask for money to fortify the port of Tangier, Morocco, which was under assault by Moorish forces.
(ON, 7/06, p.9)

1680 Nov 18, Jean-Baptiste Loeillet, composer, was born.
(MC, 11/18/01)

1680 Nov 27, Athanasius Kircher, German Jesuit and inventor of a lantern, died.
(MC, 11/27/01)

1680 Nov 28 Giovanni “Gian” Lorenzo Bernini (b.Dec 7,1598), Sculptor, Painter, Architect, Italian, the greatest sculptor of the 17th century, died.
(DTnet, 11/28/97)

1680 Pierre Puget made his bronze sculpture of Herakles (Hercules) struggling in the burning tunic. Sophocles around 440-420 composed his tragedy “The Trachinian Women.” It described what happened when Hercules put on the robe woven by his wife Deianeira.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.55)

1680 John Locke completed two works requested by the Earl of Shaftsbury. “The First Treatise on Civil Government” was written to counter Robert Filmer’s old book “Patriarcha.” “The Second Treatise on Civil Government” was a more general approach. It concerns the interconnection of three great ideas: property, government, and revolution. Government comes into existence, said Locke, because of property. If there is no property, then government is not needed to protect it. For Locke the question revolved around whether property was legitimate.

1680 Kateri Tekakwitha (b.1656), known as the “Lily of the Mohawks,” died in Canada. She was born to a pagan Iroquois father and an Algonquin Christian mother in upstate New York. Her parents and only brother died when she was 4 during a smallpox epidemic that left her badly scarred and with impaired eyesight. She went to live with her uncle, a Mohawk, and was baptized Catholic by Jesuit missionaries. But she was ostracized and persecuted by other natives for her faith. In 2012 she was named a saint in the Catholic church.
(AP, 10/20/12)

1680 Benedetto Ferrari composed his oratorio “Il Sansone,” (Samson). It was later discovered that he wrote the text and probably the music for “Pur to miro,” the final duet for Monteverdi’s “L’Incoronazione di Poppea.”
(SFC, 1/20/98, p.E1)(SFC, 6/9/98, p.D1)

1680 In Hamburg, Germany, a cymbal was used for the 1st time in an orchestra.
(SFC, 9/18/99, p.B3)

1680 The original parish of the Nuestra Senora de la Purisima Concepcion church in Socorro, Texas, also known as San Miguel because it contains a statue of the archangel Michael, was founded.
(AWAM, Dec. 94, p.65)

1680 Maryland colonists ran out of supplies and survived starvation by eating oysters.
(SFC, 9/18/99, p.B3)

c1680 The first American tall case clock, later called a “grandfather clock,” was built.
(SFC,10/22/97, Z1 p.7)

1680 Chief Justice William Scroggs was impeached for, among other things, browbeating witnesses, cursing and drinking to excess.
(WSJ, 1/25/99, p.A19)

1680 An eclipse of the sun occurred in this year. The oral tradition of one African culture speaks of a strange darkness during chief Bo Kama Bomenchala’s reign.
(ATC, p.147)

1680 Light from the supernova of the star Cassiopeia A reached Earth. A remnant was observed by the Chandra X-ray Observatory in 1999.
(USAT, 8/27/99, p.14A)(Econ, 8/28/04, p.71)

1680 Kateri Tekakwitha, a Mohawk Indian, died. She became the first Native American to be beatified by the Catholic Church in 1980.
(SFEC, 9/14/97, p.A18)

1680 Leavened bread was developed in Egypt.
(SFC, 9/18/99, p.B3)

1680 Hykos tribesmen wore sandals and successfully overcame barefoot Egyptians.
(SFC, 9/18/99, p.B3)

1680 Portuguese founded Colonia del Sacramento (Uruguay) for smuggling contraband across the Rio de la Plata to Spanish-controlled Argentina.
(SSFC, 10/30/05, p.F7)

c1680-1685 Simon Pietesz, Verelst, painted a portrait of “Nell Gwyn,” Protestant mistress to Charles II.
(WSJ, 3/7/02, p.A22)

1680-1786 On Senegal it was estimated that over 2 million slaves passed through Goree Island on their way to the American colonies.
(SFC, 4/3/98, p.B3)

1681 Jan 6, 1st recorded boxing match was between the Duke of Albemarle’s butler and his butcher.
(MC, 1/6/02)

1681 Jan 8, The treaty of Radzin ended a five year war between the Turks and the allied countries of Russia and Poland.
(HN, 1/8/99)

1681 Jan 18, England’s King Charles II suspended Parliament and set its next meeting for March in Oxford.
(ON, 7/06, p.10)

1681 Mar 4, England’s King Charles II granted a charter to William Penn (37) for 48,000 square miles that later became Pennsylvania. Penn’s father had bequeathed him a claim of £15,000 against the king. Penn later laid out the city of Philadelphia as a gridiron about 2 miles long, east to west, and a mile wide.
(PCh, 1992, p.259)(AP, 3/4/98)(SFEC, 8/16/98, p.T1)

1681 Mar 14, Georg Philipp Telemann, late baroque composer, was born in Magdeburg, Germany.
(MC, 3/14/02)

1681 Apr 8, England’s King Charles II received the 1st installment of a 5-million livre subsidy from King Louis of France. This provided him independence from Parliament and he ruled without it until his death in 1685.
(ON, 7/06, p.10)

1681 Apr 11, Anne Danican Philidor, composer, was born.
(MC, 4/11/02)

1681 May 17, Louis XIV sent an expedition to aid James II in Ireland. As a result, England declared war on France.
(HN, 5/17/99)

1681 May 25, Caldéron de la Barca (b.1600), Spanish dramatist & poet, died.
(WUD, 1994 p.210)(SC, 5/25/02)

1681 Aug 22, Pierre Danican Philidor, composer, was born.
(MC, 8/22/02)

1681 Oct 24, Earl of Shaftesbury (d.1683) was accused of high treason in London. The Earl of Shaftesbury had challenged the king on the question of succession. The king dissolved Parliament and threw Shaftesbury into the Tower of London and charged him with treason. Shaftesbury was acquitted and went to Holland with John Locke.
(V.D.-H.K.p.220)(MC, 10/24/01)(PCh, 1992, p.260)

1681 Nov 9, Hungarian parliament promised Protestants freedom of religion.
(MC, 11/9/01)

1681 Fa Jo-chen, Chinese artist, created a 45-foot-long handscroll of a winding river with the land on both sides rolled up in round, furry lumps.
(WSJ, 5/15/02, p.AD7)

1681 Nehemiah Grew, the first scientist to call sloths by their common English name, described the animal in his catalog of specimens owned by the Royal Society of London.
(Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.20-21)

1681 The dodo bird was last seen on Mauritius. The dodo bird became extinct on Mauritius. In 2005 scientists reported the discovery of a complete skeleton of the bird on Mauritius.
(SFC, 7/7/96, BR p.5)(NH, 11/96, p.24)(SFEC, 6/21/98, Z1 p.8)(SSFC, 12/25/05, p.A2)

1681-1730 French Protestants, known as Huguenots, migrated in large numbers to England due to persecutions known as dragonnades wherein rowdy soldiers were billeted in their homes. They also lost a semblance of security in the 1685 revocation of the Edict of Nantes.
(Econ, 12/20/03, p.85)

1681-1764 Johann Mattheson, German composer, friend of Handel.
(LGC-HCS, p.38)

1682 Feb 13, Giovanni Piazzetta, painter, was born.
(HN, 2/13/98)

1682 Apr 3, Esteban Murillo (b.1617), Spanish painter, died. Some of his mid-century work in Seville portrayed the effects of the Plague that killed 50% of the population in 4 months.
(WSJ, 4/9/02, p.D19)(MC, 4/3/02)

1682 Apr 9, The French explorer Rene Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, reached the Mississippi River. La Salle claimed lower Mississippi River and all lands that touched it for France.
(AP, 4/9/97)(SFC, 11/30/96, p.A7)(HN, 4/9/98)

1682 Apr 11, Jean-Joseph Mouret, composer, was born.
(MC, 4/11/02)

1682 May 6, King Louis XIV moved his court to Versailles, France.
(HN, 5/6/98)

1682 Jun 10, The first tornado of record in colonial America hit New Haven, Conn.
(SFEC, 7/4/99, Z1 p.8)

1682 Jun 27, Charles XII (d.1718), King of Sweden (1697-1718), was born.
(WUD, 1994, p.249)(SFC, 8/17/96, p.E5)(HN, 6/27/98)

1682 Jul 14, Henry Purcell was appointed organist of Chapel Royal, London.
(MC, 7/14/02)

1682 Aug 24, Duke James of York gave Delaware to William Penn.
(MC, 8/24/02)

1682 Aug 30, William Penn left England to sail to New World. He took along an insurance policy.
(MC, 8/30/01)

1682 Sep 4, English astronomer Edmund Halley saw his namesake comet.
(MC, 9/4/01)

1682 Oct 26, William Penn accepted the area around Delaware River from Duke of York.
(MC, 10/26/01)

1682 Oct 29, The founder of Pennsylvania, William Penn, landed at what is now Chester, Pa. William Penn founded Philadelphia. Penn founded Pennsylvania as a “Holy Experiment” based on Quaker principles.
(AP, 10/29/97)(SFEC, 6/21/98, Z1 p.8)(SSFC, 8/5/01, p.C10)

1682 Nov 23, Claude Lorrain, French painter (also known as Claude Gelée), died. His birth is variously noted from 1600-1604.
(WSJ, 11/6/02, p.D8)(www.britannica.com/eb/article-9024243/Claude-Lorrain)

1682 Nehemiah Grew (1641-1712), English botanist and physician, postulated that plants reproduce sexually in his book “Anatomy of Plants.” His 1st book on plant anatomy was titled “The Anatomy of Vegetable Begun” (1672).
(www.britannica.com/eb/article-9038079)(Econ, 11/12/05, p.88)

1682 Thomas Otway wrote his Restoration tragedy “Venice Preserv’d.”
(WSJ, 2/6/97, p.A12)

1682 John Playford organized the Musick’s Recreation on the Viol.
(EMN, 1/96, p.4)

1682 Wren’s Royal Hospital Chelsea was founded by Charles II as a hostel for old soldiers.
(WSJ, 3/11/02, p.A16)

1682 William Penn established Bucks County as one of Pennsylvania’s 3 original counties.
(WSJ, 3/22/08, p.R7)

1682 Nicholas Wise founded Norfolk, Va.
(SFEC, 7/4/99, Z1 p.8)

1682 Pere Lachaise, a French Jesuit priest, was confessor to Louis XIV. His order built a house on the future site of the Paris cemetery named after him.
(SFC, 6/16/96, T-6)

1682 In Russia a rebellion by government Streltsy regiments killed the grandfather, aunts and other relatives of Peter the Great. The Monastery of Peter the Metropolitan was reconstructed and as served as the family necropolis.
(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.38)

1682 In Tibet the Fifth Dalai Lama (b.1617) died. His death kept hidden for 15 years by his prime minister and possible son Desi Sangay Gyatso in order that the Potala Palace could be finished and Tibet’s neighbors not take advantage of an interregnum in the succession.

1682-1725 The rule of Peter the Great. The original stone cathedral of the Monastery of the Epiphany in Moscow was built during this time. It was built over the remnants of an earlier wooden church.
(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.37)

1683 Feb 12, A Christian Army, led by Charles, the Duke of Lorraine and King John Sobieski of Poland, routed a huge Ottoman army surrounding Vienna.
(HN, 2/12/99)

1683 Feb 20, Philip V, first Bourbon King of Spain, was born. [see Dec 19]
(HN, 2/20/01)

1683 Apr 1, Roger Williams (b.1603) died in poverty in Rhode Island. Williams died at Providence between, his wife Mary having predeceased him in 1676. Williams was the first champion of complete religious toleration in America. In 2005 Edwin S. Gaustad authored the biography “Roger Williams.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_Williams_%28theologian%29)(WSJ, 6/21/05, p.D10)

1683 Apr 15, Catherine I (d.1727), empress of Russia (1725-1727), was born as Martha Skravonskaya in Jacobstadt, Latvia. Catherine was the daughter of Samuil Skavronski, a Lithuanian peasant.
(HN, 4/15/98)(www.arthistoryclub.com/art_history/Catherine_I_of_Russia)

1683 Jun 23, William Penn signed a friendship treaty with Lenni Lenape Indians in Pennsylvania. It became the only treaty “not sworn to, nor broken.”
(HN, 6/23/98)(MC, 6/23/02)

1683 Jul 3, Edward Young, English poet, dramatist and literary critic, was born. He wrote “Night Thoughts.”
(HN, 7/3/99)

1683 Jul 21, Lord William Russell, English plotter against Charles II, was beheaded.
(MC, 7/21/02)

1683 Jul 24, The 1st settlers from Germany to US left aboard the ship Concord.

1683 Sep 3, Turkish troops broke through the defense of Vienna.
(MC, 9/3/01)

1683 Sep 6, Jean-Baptiste Colbert (b.1619), French finance minister (1665-1683) under Louis XIV, died. He pioneered “dirigisme,” i.e. state control of the economy and state intervention in industry. “The art of taxation consists in so plucking the goose as to obtain the largest possible amount of feathers with the smallest possible amount of hissing.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean-Baptiste_Colbert)(Econ, 3/25/06, p.71)(Econ, 2/22/14, SR p.5)

1683 Sep 9, Algernon Sidney, English Whig politician and plotter, was beheaded.
(MC, 9/9/01)

1683 Sep 12, A combined Austrian and Polish army defeated the Ottoman Turks at Kahlenberg and lifted the siege on Vienna, Austria. Prince Eugene of Savoy helped repel an invasion of Vienna, Austria, by Turkish forces. Marco d’Aviano, sent by Pope Innocent XI to unite the outnumbered Christian troops, spurred them to victory. The Turks left behind sacks of coffee which the Christians found too bitter, so they sweetened it with honey and milk and named the drink cappuccino after the Capuchin order of monks to which d’Aviano belonged. An Austrian baker created a crescent-shaped roll, the Kipfel, to celebrate the victory. Empress Maria Theresa later took it to France where it became the croissant. In 2006 John Stoye authored “The Siege of Vienna.”
(Hem., Dec. ’95, p.69)(WSJ, 3/27/96, p.A-16)(HN, 9/12/98)(SFEC, 2/6/00, p.A1)(Reuters, 4/28/03)(WSJ, 6/3/03, p.D5) (WSJ, 12/6/06, p.D12)

1683 Sep 17, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek reported the existence of bacteria.
(MC, 9/17/01)

1683 Sep 24, King Louis XIV expelled all Jews from French possessions in America.
(MC, 9/24/01)

1683 Sep 25, Jean-Philippe Rameau, composer, was born in Dijon, France.
(MC, 9/25/01)

1683 Sep 29, A small armada sailed from the Mexican mainland across the Sea of Cortez to the Baha Peninsula. Hostile natives had forced them back to the mainland on a first landing and a storm forced them back on a 2nd attempt.
(SFEC, 5/18/97, p.T5)(WSJ, 12/26/97, p.A9)

1683 Oct 6, 13 Mennonite families from Krefeld, Germany, arrived in present-day Philadelphia to begin Germantown, one of America’s oldest settlements. They were encouraged by William Penn’s offer of 5,000 acres of land in the colony of Pennsylvania and the freedom to practice their religion.
(AP, 10/6/97)(www.ulib.iupui.edu/kade/germantown.html)
1683 Oct 6, The small armada from the Mexican mainland landed on their 3rd attempt at crossing to the Baha peninsula and settled at the mouth of a river that they named San Bruno. The site was abandoned after 2 years. Spanish settlement on the Baha was later described by Father James Donald Francez in “The Lost Treasures of Baha California.”
(SFEC, 5/18/97, p.T5)(WSJ, 12/26/97, p.A9)

1683 Oct 30, George II, King of Great Britain (1727-60), was born. [see Oct 30]
(MC, 10/30/01)

1683 Nov 10, George II, king of England (1727-60), was born. [see Nov 10]
(MC, 11/10/01)

1683 Nov 22, Purcell’s “Welcome to All the Pleasures,” premiered in London.
(MC, 11/22/01)

1683 Dec 19, Philip V, King of Spain (1700-24, 24-46), was born in Versailles, France. [see Feb 20]
(MC, 12/19/01)

1683 Dec 25, Kara Mustapha (b.~1634), chief of the Ottoman janissaries, appeared before the grand vizier in Belgrade. He was sentenced to death and executed for the military loss at Vienna.
(WSJ, 12/5/06, p.D12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kara_Mustafa)

1683 Giovanni Battista Foggini created his sculpture “The Mass of Saint Andrea Corsini.”
(WSJ, 1/29/02, p.A18)

1683 The Ashmolean Museum was built in Oxford to house natural-history artifacts. It was the first such public museum. It gained its name and its first collections from Elias Ashmole (1617-1692), whose own collections were derived in part from those of John Tradescant (1608-1662).
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)(http://myweb.tiscali.co.uk/speel//otherart/ashmole.htm)

1683 Alessandro Scarlatti (father of Domenico Scarlatti) wrote the score for his opera “L’Aldimiro.” The only know score extant was found in a library in Berkeley, Ca., in 1989.
(SFC, 5/26/96, DB p.26)

1683 Secatogue Indians deeded land on the South Shore of Long Island to William Nicoll.
(WSJ, 10/9/07, p.D6)

1683 French King Louis XIV married Madame de Maintenon (1635-1719), his mistress for the last 11 years, shortly after the death of his wife. The marriage was kept secret for the next 3 decades.
(Econ, 7/26/08, p.96)

1683 Taiwan was claimed by China’s Manchu dynasty after large-scale immigration from the Chinese mainland to the island.
(AP, 8/12/06)

1683-1707 Adriaen Coorte (b.1665), a Dutch Golden Age painter of still lifes, signed his work during this period. His work included “Still Life With Sea Shells” (1698).

1684 Jan 11, In Switzerland this day “was so frightfully cold that all of the communion wine froze,” said an entry by Brother Josef Dietrich, governor and “weatherman” of the Einsiedeln Monastery. The Einsiedeln abbots, princes within the Holy Roman Empire until 1798, were powerful leaders who ruled over large swaths of central Switzerland’s mountainous terrain.
(AP, 9/15/07)

1684 Apr 25, A patent was granted for the thimble.
(SS, 4/25/02)

1684 Jun 21, King Charles II revoked the 1629 Massachusetts Bay Colony charter. [see 1691]
(HNQ, 11/23/00)(MC, 6/21/02)

1684 Jun 22, Francesco Onofrio Manfredini, composer, was born.
(MC, 6/22/02)

1684 Oct 1, Pierre Corneille, French lawyer and dramatist (El Cid, Polyeucte), died at 42.
(MC, 10/1/01)

1684 Oct 10, Jean Antoine Watteau (d.1721), French rococo painter, was born.
(WUD, 1994 p.1614)(AAP, 1964)(MC, 10/10/01)

1684 Dec 3, Ludvig Baron Holberg, founder of Danish & Norwegian literature, was born.
(MC, 12/3/01)

1684 For one year Paris was the world’s biggest city.
(SFEC, 2/22/98, Z1 p.8)
1684 French explorer Rene Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, set sail for what is now Louisiana with 4 ships commissioned from King Louis XIV. On the way one ship was lost to pirates, another broke apart on a sand bar and a third returned home. The 4th was sunk in a storm in 1686.
(SFC, 11/30/96, p.A7)
1684 Lorenzo de Tonti (b.~1602), governor of Gaeta, Italy, and a Neapolitan banker, died about this time. He is sometimes credited with the invention of the tontine, a form of life insurance, although it has also been suggested that he simply modified existing procedures.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lorenzo_de_Tonti)(Econ 6/17/17, p.68)

1685 Jan, French explorer Rene Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, landed at Matagorda Bay, Texas. He thought that he was at the mouth of the Mississippi River but soon realized his mistake and went of looking for the river.
(SFC, 11/9/96, p.A12)(SFC, 11/30/96, p.A7)

1685 Feb 6, Charles II (54), King of England, Scotland, Ireland (1660-85), died and was succeeded by his Catholic brother James II. He made a deathbed conversion to the Roman Catholic faith. He had earlier ordered Christopher Wren to build an observatory and maritime college at Greenwich. In 2000 Stephen Coote authored the biography: “Royal Survivor.”
(WSJ, 2/28/00, p.A36)(http://tinyurl.com/hkkln)

1685 Feb 11, David Teniers III (46), Flemish painter, died.
(MC, 2/11/02)

1685 Feb 23, George Frideric Handel (d.1759), composer and musician, was born in Halle, Germany.
(LGC-HCS, p.37)(AP, 2/23/98)(HN, 2/23/98)

1685 Mar 21, Composer Johann Sebastian Bach (d.1750) was born in Eisenach, Germany, the youngest of eight children. 2nd source says Mar 21. He composed cantatas, sonatas, preludes, fugues and chorale preludes, and whose works included “Brandenburg Concerto” and “Well-Tempered Clavier.”
(AP, 3/21/97)(LGC-HCS.p.17)(HN, 3/21/99)

1685 May 28, Pieter de la Court (~67), economist, historian, died.
(MC, 5/28/02)

1685 Jun 11, James Scott, Duke of Monmouth, rebelled against Catholic king James II.
(AP, 6/11/03)

1685 Jun 30, John Gay, playwright, was born. He wrote the Beggars’ Opera which attacked the court of George II,
(HN, 6/30/99)
1685 Jun 30, Dominikus Zimmermann, German architect, painter (Liebfrauenkirche), was born.
(MC, 6/30/02)
1685 Jun 30, Archibald Campbell (~55), Scottish politician, was beheaded.
(MC, 6/30/02)

1685 Jun, Qing Emperor Kangxi sent Manchu, Chinese and Daurian forces in a siege against Russians at Albazino on the far eastern Amur River. Some 100 of 800 Russians were killed on the first day of the attack. The survivors surrendered and returned to Nerchinsk.
(Econ, 12/19/09, p.71)

1685 Jul 6, James II defeated James, the Duke of Monmouth, at the Battle of Sedgemoor, the last major battle to be fought on English soil.
(HN, 7/6/98)

1685 Jul 15, James Scott, the Duke of Monmouth and illegitimate son of Charles II, was executed on Tower Hill in England, after his army was defeated at Sedgemoor.
(HN, 7/15/98)(MC, 7/15/02)

1685 Oct 18, King Louis the XIV signed the Edict of Fontainebleau, revoking the Edict of Nantes that had established legal toleration of France’s Protestant population, the Huguenots. The French Parliament recorded the new edict four days later. The edict signed at Nantes, France, by King Henry IV in 1598, had given the Huguenots religious liberty, civil rights and security. By revoking the Edict of Nantes, Louis XIV abrogated their religious liberties. He declared France entirely Catholic again.
(HN, 4/13/98)(HN, 10/18/98)(AP, 10/18/07)

1685 Oct 26, Domenico Scarlatti (d.1757, composer and harpsichordist was born in Naples, Italy. Scarlatti, son of Alessandro, composed over 550 short, keyboard sonatas or exercises.
(WUD, 1994 p.1275)(LGC-HCS, p.38)(MC, 10/26/01)

1685 Nov 8, Fredrick William of Brandenburg issued the Edict of Potsdam, offering Huguenots refuge.
(HN, 11/6/98)

1685 Dec 3, Charles II barred Jews from settling in Stockholm, Sweden.
(MC, 12/3/01)

1685 Dec 12, Lodovico Giustini, composer, was born.
(MC, 12/12/01)

1685 Sylvestre Dufour published “Traitez Nuveaux et Curieux de Cafe, du The, et du Chocolat.”
(WSJ, 7/7/98, p.A14)

1685 Dutch mapmaker, Johannes van Keulen, produced a map of New York and Long Island. He charted the Hudson and Connecticut rivers with greater accuracy than ever before. Long Island was labeled on the map as “Lange Eyland.”
(WSJ, 11/24/95, p.B-8)

1685 In Canada there was a shortage of currency and playing cards were assigned monetary values for use as money.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1685 The Venetians returned to the Peloponnesus.
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.56)

1685-1712 Celia Fiennes’ journal about her travels throughout England have provided historians with valuable insight into the social conditions of the country in the late 1600s. Celia Fiennes, an enterprising young, single woman, rode side-saddle through every county in England. She traveled alone except for two servants, and the journal she kept, later published as “The Journeys of Celia Fiennes 1685-c.1712,” is the only evidence we have of her travels.
(HNQ, 4/22/01)

c1685-1753 George Berkeley, Irish bishop and philosopher. He argued that the things we see around us exist only as ideas. This was in opposition to naive realism which held that we perceive objects as they really are.
(WUD, 1994, p.140)(WSJ, 8/21/98, p.W13)

1685-1768 Hakuin Ekaku, Japanese Zen painter. His work included “Side View of Daruma.”
(SSFC, 9/23/01, DB p.48)

1686 Jan, A storm arose and sank the French ship “La Belle,” of explorer Rene Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, in Matagorda Bay, Texas. La Salle was off searching for the Mississippi River. This ended La Salle’s plan for a French colony and opened the door to Spain to come and occupy Texas. Archeologists found the ship in 1995 in 12-feet of water and began a recovery project. In 1996 a skeleton was bound onboard. In 2014 the remains of the ship were transported to the Bullock State History Museum in Austin.
(SFC, 11/9/96, p.A12)(SFC, 11/30/96, p.A7)(SFC, 8/16/12, p.A7)(AP, 7/18/14)

1686 Feb 15, Jean Baptiste Lully’s opera “Armide,” premiered in Paris.
(MC, 2/15/02)

1686 Apr 4, English king James II published a Declaration of Indulgence.
(MC, 4/4/02)

1686 May 14, Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit German physicist and instrument maker, was born. He invented the thermometer. [see May 24]
(HN, 5/14/98)

1686 May 24, Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit (d.1736), German physicist, was born. He devised a temperature scale and introduced the use of mercury in thermometers. He assigned the number 32 for the melting point of ice, 96 to the temperature of blood and 212 to the steam point.[see May 14]
(WUD, 1994, p.510)(SFEC, 3/22/98, Par. p.8)(HN, 5/24/98)

1686 Jul 8, The Austrians took Buda, Hungary, from the Turks and annexed the country. Hapsburg rule lasted to 1918.
(HN, 7/8/98)(Sm, 3/06, p.76)

1686 Jul 22, Albany, New York, began operating under an official charter.
(SFEC, 4/2/00, Z1 p.2)

1686 Jul 24, Benedetto Marcello, composer, was born. [see Aug 1]
(MC, 7/24/02)

1686 Aug 1, Benedetto Marcello, Italian author, composer (Lettera Famigliare), was born in Venice, Italy. [see Jul 24]
(MC, 8/1/02)

1686 Dec 19, Robinson Crusoe left his island after 28 years (as per Defoe).
(MC, 12/19/01)

1686 The British Royal Society published “Historia Piscium” by John Ray and Francis Willughby. The expense of the high quality illustrations almost bankrupted the academy.
(Econ, 4/21/12, p.95)

1686 The NYC Charter of this year incorporated the rights of the 1664 New Amsterdam “Articles of Capitulation.”
(WSJ, 3/16/04, p.D6)

1686 The Lenape Indians allegedly sold land along the Lehigh River to William Penn.
(ON, 1/03, p.6)

1686 Two Mohican Indians signed a mortgage for their land in Schaghticoke, New York, with simple markings. It was notarized by Robert Livingston, whose family became one of the greatest agricultural landlords and int’l. merchants in the colony of New York.
(WSJ, 11/19/99, p.W10)

1686 A Spaniard by the name of Francisco Lazcano named a group of about 500 small coral islands east of the Philippines, the Caroline Islands, after King Charles II of Spain who funded the expedition.

1686 Russians returned to Albazino on the far eastern Amur River and were again attacked by the Manchus. After a year’s siege they surrendered with only 40 of 900 alive.
(Econ, 12/19/09, p.71)

1687 Feb 19, Johann Adam Birkenstock, composer and sandal designer, was born.
(MC, 2/19/02)

1687 Feb 22, Jean-Baptiste Lully, composer, died in Paris. Lully, Paris Opera director, had stabbed himself in the foot with a baton and died of blood poisoning.
(SFC, 8/21/99, p.B3)(MC, 2/22/02)

1687 Mar 19, French explorer Robert Cavelier (b.1643), Sieur de La Salle, the first European to navigate the length of the Mississippi River, was murdered by mutineers while searching for the mouth of the Mississippi, along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico in present-day Texas.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ren%C3%A9-Robert_Cavelier,_Sieur_de_La_Salle)(AP, 3/19/97)

1687 Mar 28, Constantine Huygens (90), diplomat, poet, composer (Bluebottles), died.
(MC, 3/28/02)

1687 Apr 4, King James II ordered his Declaration of Indulgence read in church.

1687 Jul 5, The first volume of Isaac Newton’s “Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica” (“Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy”) was published in Latin by Edmund Halley. His invention of differential and integral calculus is here presented. Here also are stated Newton’s laws of motion, that obliterated the Aristotelian concept of inertia.
1) Every physical body continues in its state of rest, unless it is compelled to change that state by a force or forces impressed upon it.
2) A change of motion is proportional to the force impressed upon the body and is made in the direction of the straight line in which the force is impressed.
3) To every action there is always opposed an equal reaction.
Book Three of the Principia opens with two pages headed “Rules of Reasoning in Philosophy.” There are four rules as follows:
1) We are to admit no more causes of natural things than such as are both true and sufficient to explain the appearances. [A restatement of Ockham’s Razor: “What can be done with fewer is done in vain with more.”]
2) Therefore to the same natural effects we must, as far as possible, assign the same causes.
3) The qualities of bodies which are found to belong to all bodies within the reach of our experiments, are to be esteemed the universal qualities of bodies whatsoever.
4) In experimental philosophy we are to look upon propositions inferred by general induction from phenomena as accurately or very nearly true notwithstanding any contrary hypothesis that may be imagined, till such time as other phenomena occur, by which they may either be made more accurate, or liable to exceptions.
(V.D.-H.K.p.207-10)(http://tinyurl.com/6772jj)(Econ, 4/21/12, p.95)

1687 Aug 12, At the Battle of Mohacs, Hungary, Charles of Lorraine defeated the Turks.
(HN, 8/12/98)

1687 Sep 26, The Venetian army attacked the Acropolis in Athens while trying to eject Turks. Marauding Venetians sent a mortar through a gable window of the Parthenon and ignited a Turkish store of gunpowder. This damaged the northern colonnade of the Parthenon. The Parthenon was destroyed in the war between Turks and Venetians.
(SFEC, 6/6/99, p.A26)(MC, 9/26/01)

1687 Sep 28, Venetians took Athens from the Turks.
(MC, 9/28/01)

1687 Oct 20, In Peru a massive earthquake leveled most of Lima. It triggered a tsunami and overall about 5,000 people died.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1687_Peru_earthquake)(SSFC, 11/3/13, p.A6)

1687 Oct 27, The Connecticut colony’s charter was stolen during a public meeting in which Gov. Robert Treat defended the colony against demands by Sir Edmund Andros. It was soon hidden under an oak tree (the Charter Oak) in Hartford to protect it from seizure by agents of the King James II.

1687 Nov 13, Nell [Eleanor] Gwyn (37), mistress of Charles II of England, died.
(MC, 11/13/01)

1687 Dec 5, Francesco Xaverio Geminiani, composer, was born.
(MC, 12/5/01)

1687 Dec 16, William Petty (b.1623), English designer, inventor and pioneering economist, died in London. He came up with the “quantity theory of money” and was the first to measure gross domestic product (GDP).
(Econ, 12/21/13, p.116)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Petty)

1687 Giovanni Battista Foggini created a portrait bust of “Cosimo III de’ Medici.”
(WSJ, 1/29/02, p.A18)

1687 William Penn authored “The Excellent Privilege of Liberty and Property Being the Birth-Right of the Free-born subjects of England.”
(www.magnacartaworldheritage.com/magna-carta-us-history/)(Econ, 12/20/14, p.35)

1687 The Austrian Army captured Petrovaradin (Serbia) after 150 years of Turkish control during the Great Turkish War. The Austrians began to tear down the old fortress and build new fortifications according to contemporary standards.

1687 Clocks began to be made with 2 hands for the first time
(SFEC, 9/7/97, Z1 p.5)

1687 James II, a Roman Catholic, supported unpopular policies that, by 1687, led to many English subjects urging William to intervene. With the birth of a son to James in 1688, fears of a Roman Catholic succession led to opponents sending an invitation to William in July.
(HNQ, 12/28 /00)

1687 Newton declared that time is absolute… “It flows equably without relation to anything external.” This view was held until Einstein’s relativity in 1905.
(NG, March 1990, J. Boslough p. 118)

1687-1691 Suleiman II succeeded Mehmed IV in the Ottoman House of Osman.
(Ot, 1993, xvii)

1688 Feb 18, At a Quaker meeting in Germantown, Pa, German Mennonites penned a memorandum stating a profound opposition to Negro slavery. Quakers in Germantown, Pa., adopted the fist formal antislavery resolution in America.
(HN, 2/18/99)(www.germanheritage.com/Publications/cronau/cronau4.html)

1688 Apr 15, Johann Friedrich Fasch, composer, was born.
(MC, 4/15/02)

1688 Apr 27, King James II issued another Declaration of Indulgence: “conscience ought not to be constrained nor people forced in matters of mere religion.”

1688 May 21, Alexander Pope (d.1744), England, poet (Rape of the Lock), was born. His “Essay on Criticism” contains the line: “A little learning is a dangerous thing…”
(NH, 9/97, p.24)(MC, 5/21/02)

1688 May 25, Christian August Jacobi, composer, was born.
(SC, 5/25/02)

1688 Jun 10, Mary of Modena, the wife of Britain’s King James II, gave birth to a male heir. This placed England, much to the dismay of Parliament, in line for a succession of Catholic monarchs.
(Econ, 2/4/06, p.77)(ON, 7/06, p.10)

1688 Jun 30, A jury proclaimed 7 English bishops not guilty of seditious libel against James II. They had refused to comply with his April 27 Declaration of Indulgence because it had not been approved by Parliament.

1688 Aug 15, Frederick-William I, king of Prussia (1713-1740), was born.
(MC, 8/15/02)

1688 Aug 31, John Bunyan, preacher, novelist (Pilgrim’s Progress), died.
(MC, 8/31/01)

1688 Sep 6, Imperial troops defeated the Turks and took Belgrade, Serbia.
(HN, 9/6/98)

1688 Oct 1, Seven British noblemen sent a letter to Prince William of Orange inviting him to invade England and rescue the country from James’ “popery.” William accepted.
(Econ, 2/4/06, p.77)(ON, 7/06, p.10)

1688 Oct 27, King James II fired premier Robert Spencer.
(MC, 10/27/01)

1688 Nov 1, William of Orange set sail for England at the head of a fleet of 500 ships and 30,000 men. He intended too oust his father-in-law King James II. The Dutch parliament, the States General, funded William with 4 million guilders. Amsterdam financiers provided another 2 million. Some of this was used to print 60,000 copies of his “Declaration” (of the reasons inducing him to appear in arms in the Kingdom of England), which were distributed in England. In 2008 Lisa Jardine authored “Going Dutch: How England Plundered Holland’s Glory.”
(WSJ, 8/28/08, p.A13)

1688 Nov 5, William of Orange landed in southern England and marched with his army nearly unopposed to London.
(WSJ, 8/28/08, p.A13)

1688 Nov 24, General strategist John Churchill met William III.
(MC, 11/24/01)

1688 Nov 25, Princess Anne fled from London to Nottingham.
(MC, 11/25/01)

1688 Nov 26, King James II escaped back to London.
(MC, 11/26/01)
1688 Nov 26, Louis XIV declared war on the Netherlands.
(HN, 11/26/98)

1688 Dec 4, General strategist John Churchill (later Duke of Marlborough) joined with William III.
(MC, 12/4/01)

1688 Dec 9, King James II’s wife and son fled England for France.
(MC, 12/9/01)

1688 Dec 11, King James II attempted to flee London as the “Glorious Revolution” replaced him with King William (of Orange) and Queen Mary. James attempted to flee to France, first throwing the Great Seal of the Realm into the River Thames. He was, however, caught in Kent. Having no desire to make James a martyr, the Prince of Orange let him escape on December 23, 1688. James was received by Louis XIV, who offered him a palace and a generous pension. In 2007 Michael Barone authored “Our First Revolution: The Remarkable British Upheaval That Inspired America’s Founding Fathers.”
(HN, 12/11/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_II_of_England)

1688 Dec 18, William of Orange made a triumphant march into London as James II fled in the “Glorious Revolution.” William of Orange, son of William II (Prince of Orange) and Mary (daughter of Charles I of England), was fourth in line to the English throne. In 2006 Edward Valance authored “The Glorious Revolution: 1688 – Britain’s Fight for Liberty.”
(WSJ, 2/6/02, p.A16)(Econ, 2/4/06, p.77)(ON, 12/10, p.12)

1688 Dec 23, English King James II fled to France.
(MC, 12/23/01)
1688 Dec 23, Jean-Louis Lully (21), composer, died.
(MC, 12/23/01)

1688 Dec 25, English king James II landed in Ambleteuse, France.
(MC, 12/25/01)

1688 French writer Pierre d’Ortigue de Vaumoriere published anonymously his book, “The Art of Pleasing Conversation.”
(WSJ, 5/13/05, p.W6)(http://tinyurl.com/d8tac)

1688 Joseph de la Vega published his work “Confusion de Confusiones.” It offered trading strategies to speculators and was built around a conversation between a merchant, a philosopher, and a shareholder. The book was republished in 1996.
(WSJ, 3/5/96, p. A-12)

1688 The Notre-Dame-des-Victoires, the oldest stone church in North America, was built in Quebec City, Canada.
(SSFC, 7/30/06, p.G8)

1688 In England Edward Lloyd opened a London coffee shop where shipping insurance was bought and sold.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1688 In France a blind Benedictine monk named Dom Perignon discovered the fermentation process that led to champagne. [see 1662] He later devised a cork stopper to hold the bubbles.
(WSJ, 10/16/98, p.W13)(Hem., 10/97, p.103)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1688 Persecuted Huguenots, French Protestants, arrived in South Africa and improved the quality of wine production.
(SSFC, 12/3/00, p.T6)

1688-1689 James II was replaced by the Dutch King William. This process was masterminded by the group of seven, which included the Earl of Devonshire, who was then promoted to Duke in reward. William of Orange was a good Dutch Protestant and Mary was his queen. From this point on the king was but a figurehead and Parliament ruled England.
(NG, Nov. 1985, M. Girouard, p.671), (V.D.-H.K.p.222,300)

1688-1763 Pierre Marivaux, French playwright and master of super-subtle dialogue.
(WSJ, 10/20/95, p. A-12)

1689 Jan 18, Charles Louis de Montesquieu (d.1755), French philosopher and writer (Letters Persanes), was born. “In most things success depends on knowing how long it takes to succeed.” He authored “The Spirit of the Laws,” the 1st great comparative study of civilizations.
(AP, 4/13/99)(WSJ, 11/1/00, p.A24)(MC, 1/18/02)

1689 Jan 22, England’s “Bloodless Revolution” reached its climax when parliament invited William and Mary to become joint sovereigns. A specially-called parliament declared that James had abdicated and offered the throne to William and Mary. In 1938 G.M. Trevelyan authored “The English Revolution.” In 2009 Steve Pincus authored “The First Modern Revolution.”
(HN, 1/22/99)(HNQ, 12/28/00)(Econ, 10/17/09, p.97)

1689 Feb 13, The British Parliament adopted the Bill of Rights. It limited the right of a king to govern without the consent of Parliament.
(MT, Dec. ’95, p.16)(ON, 12/10, p.12)

1689 Feb 14, English parliament placed Mary Stuart and Prince William III on the throne.
(MC, 2/14/02)

1689 Feb 23, Dutch prince William III was proclaimed King of England.
(MC, 2/23/02)

1689 Mar 12, Former English King James II landed in Ireland.
(MC, 3/12/02)

1689 Mar, In Northern Ireland the gates of Londonderry were shut in the face of Catholic forces. The event was later celebrated by the Protestant Apprentice Boys as the Lundy’s Day demonstration. [see August 1, 1689]
(SFEC,12/14/97, p.A26)

1689 Apr 11, (OS) William III and Mary II were crowned as joint sovereigns of Britain. As part of their oaths, the new King William III and Queen Mary were required to swear that they would obey the laws of Parliament. At this time, the Bill of Rights was read to both William and Mary. “We thankfully accept what you have offered us,” William replied, agreeing to be subject to law and to be guided in his actions by the decisions of Parliament.
(AP, 4/11/97)(www.bessel.org/billrts.htm)

1689 Apr 15, French king Louis XIV declared war on Spain.
(MC, 4/15/02)

1689 Apr 18, George Jeffreys, 1st Baron Jeffreys of Wem, infamous judge, died.
(MC, 4/18/02)

1689 Apr 19, Residents of Boston ousted their governor, Edmond Andros.
(HN, 4/19/97)
1689 Apr 19, Christina (b.1626), Queen of Sweden (1644-54), died. In 2004 Veronica Buckley authored “Christina: Queen of Sweden.”
(www.sweden.se)(WSJ, 10/29/04, p.W10)

1689 Apr 21, (NS) William III and Mary II were crowned joint king and queen of England, Scotland and Ireland.
(HN, 4/21/98)(HNQ, 12/28/00)

1689 May 11, The French and English naval battle took place at Bantry Bay.
(HN, 5/11/98)

1689 May 12, England’s King William III joined the League of Augsburg and the Netherlands. The “Grand Alliance” was formed to counter the war of aggression launched by Louis XIV against the Palatinate states in Germany. This is known as The War of the League of Augsburg (1689-97) also The Nine Years’ War, and the War of the Grand Alliance.

1689 May 24, English Parliament passed the Act of Toleration, protecting Protestants. Roman Catholics were specifically excluded from exemption.
(HN, 5/24/99)

1689 May 26, Mary Wortley Montagu, English essayist, feminist, eccentric, was born.
(MC, 5/26/02)

1689 Jul 27, Government forces defeated the Scottish Jacobites at the Battle of Killiecrankie.
(HN, 7/27/98)

1689 Jul, Maryland colonist known as the Protestant Associators marched on St. Mary’s City and seized the State House while Lord Baltimore was in England. They went on to take over his plantation at Mattapany.
(Arch, 1/05, p.49)

1689 Aug 1, A siege of Londonderry, Ireland, by the Catholic Army of King James II ended in failure. The Protestants were victorious and the event led to the annual Apprentice Boy’s March. The group is named in honor of 13 teenage apprentices, all Protestants, who bolted the city gates in front of the advancing Catholic forces at the start of the 105-day siege.
(SFEC, 8/11/96, p.A13)(HN, 8/1/98)(AP, 8/13/06)

1689 Aug 4-5, War between England and France led them to use their native American allies as proxies. In retaliation for the French attack on the Seneca in 1687, one thousand, five hundred Iroquois, with English support, attacked Lachine down river from the mission of the Mountain of Ville-Marie (Montreal), killing some 400. They put everything to fire and axe. Some suggest that this is a gross exaggeration and that only 24-25 were killed and likely 90 were captured by the Iroquois, but never returned.

1689 Aug 19, Samuel Richardson (d.1761), English novelist (Pamela, Clarissa), was born in Derbyshire.
(MC, 8/19/02)

1689 Aug 25, Battle at Charleroi: Spanish and English armies chased the French.
(MC, 8/25/02)
1689 Aug 25, The Iroquois took Montreal.
(MC, 8/25/02)

1689 Sep 1, Russia began taxing men’s beards.
(MC, 9/1/02)

1689 Oct 11, Peter the Great became tsar of Russia.
(MC, 10/11/01)

1689 Dec 16, English Parliament adopted a Bill of Rights after Glorious Revolution. The Bill of Rights included a right to bear arms. William and Mary gave it Royal Assent which represented the end of the concept of divine right of kings.
(WSJ, 8/6/02, p.D6)(www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon49.html)

1689 Dec 30, Henry Purcell’s opera “Dido and Aeneas,” premiered in Chelsea.
(MC, 12/30/01)

1689 “Memorable Providences, Related to Witchcrafts and Possessions,” published by Cotton Mather, contributed to the hysteria that led to the Salem witch trials of 1692. Mather was a Puritan clergyman and the eldest son of Increase Mather. While Cotton Mather advised witch trial judges that executions would not be necessary, during the mass executions he remained uncritical. In his 1693 Wonders of the Invisible World Mather defended the verdicts of various trials.
(HNQ, 10/31/98)

1689 John Locke returned to England with his two Treatises which were published late in the same year. He also published his letter on Toleration, in opposition to the strong religious intolerance then prevalent.



Timeline Seventeenth Century: 1661-1699 – 2

1689 Purcell composed his musical tragedy “Dido and Aeneas.”
(SFC, 9/23/00, p.B10)

1689 The White Hart Inn at Ware, England, put up 26 butchers and their wives in one bed, the “Great Bed of Ware,” in a marketing ploy to attract customers.
(WSJ, 12/6/01, p.A19)

1689 The Macedonian city of Skopje, under Ottoman rule at this time, was torched by the Austrians.
(Econ, 1/5/12, p.69)

1689 Russian and Manchu delegates met at Nerchinsk and drew up a treaty in Latin. This was China’s first treaty with a European power. China agreed to open up trade in exchange for Russia’s withdrawal from the Amur.
(Econ, 12/19/09, p.71)

1689-1697 The Abnaki War [Abenaki] of in North America is better known as King William’s War. It was the first of the intercolonial wars between France and England in North America, pitting the English and their Iroquois allies against the French and their Abnaki allies. The Abnakis were a powerful Algonquian tribe from Maine. King William’s War was a component of the European War of the League of Augsburg and was based in part on the growing rivalry between France and England over the control of North America.
(HNQ, 8/26/99)

1690 Jan 14, The clarinet was invented in Germany.
(MC, 1/14/02)

1690 Feb 3, The first paper money in America was issued by the colony of Massachusetts. The currency was used to pay soldiers fighting a war against Quebec.
(SFC, 4/30/97, p.B3)(AP, 2/3/97)

1690 Feb 8, Some 200 French and Indian troops burned Schenectady, NY, and massacred about 60 people to avenge Iraquois raids on Canada.
(AH, 2/05, p.17)

1690 Feb 21, Christoph Stoltzenberg, composer, was born.
(MC, 2/21/02)

1690 Feb 22, Charles Le Brun (70), classical painter (Academie de Peinture), died.
(MC, 2/22/02)

1690 Mar 16, French king Louis XIV sent troops to Ireland.
(MC, 3/16/02)

1690 May 11, In the first major engagement of King William’s War, British troops from Massachusetts seized Port Royal in Acadia (Nova Scotia and New Brunswick) from the French, their objective was to take Quebec.
(HN, 5/11/99)

1690 May 20, England passed the Act of Grace, forgiving followers of James II.
(HN, 5/20/98)

1690 Jun 11, English king William III departed to Ireland.
(PC, 1992, p.265)

1690 Jun 24, King William III’s army landed at Carrickfergus, Ireland.
(MC, 6/24/02)

1690 Jul 1, England’s Protestant King William III of Orange was victorious over his father-in-law, the Catholic King James II (from Scot) in Battle of Boyne (in Ireland). This touched off three centuries of religious bloodshed. Protestants took over the Irish Parliament. This marked the beginning of the annual Drumcree parade, held by the Loyal Orange Lodge on the first Sunday of July. Due to calendar changes in 1752 this later became commemorated on Jul 12.
(PC, 1992, p.265)(WSJ, 7/11/96, p.A1)(SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1 p.6)(SFEC, 7/4/99, p.A18)
1690 Jul 1, Led by Marshall Luxembourg, the French defeated the forces of the Grand Alliance at Fleurus in the Netherlands.
(HN, 7/1/98)

1690 Jul 7, Johann Tobias Krebs, composer, was born.
(MC, 7/7/02)

1690 Jul 10, Domenico Gabrielli (39), composer, died.
(MC, 7/10/02)

1690 Jul 12, Due to British calendar changes in 1752, the July 1, 1690, Battle of Boyne (in Ireland) was adjusted for celebration on Jul 12.
(SFEC, 9/27/98, BR p.5)(AP, 7/11/05)

1690 Sep 6, King William III escaped back to England.
(MC, 9/6/01)

1690 Sep 25, One of the earliest American newspapers, “Publick Occurrences,” published its first and last edition in Boston. The colonial governor and council disallowed the pamphlet due to its contents.
(AP, 9/25/00)(WSJ, 3/8/06, p.D14)

1690 Oct 7, The English attacked Quebec under Louis de Buade.
(MC, 10/7/01)

1690 Oct 8, Belgrade was retaken by the Turks.
(HN, 10/8/98)

1690 Oct 23, American colonial forces from Boston led by Sir William Phips, failed in their attempt to seize Quebec. Phips lost 4 ships on the return trip due to stormy weather.
(Arch, 1/05, p.50)(http://www.biographi.ca/EN/ShowBio.asp?BioId=34586)
1690 Oct 23, There was a revolt in Haarlem, Holland, after a public ban on smoking.
(MC, 10/23/01)

1690 Nov 11, Gerhard Hoffmann, composer, was born.
(MC, 11/11/01)

1690 Nov 24, Charles Theodore Pachelbel, composer, was born.
(MC, 11/24/01)

1690 A newspaper called “Publick Occurences Both Forreign and Domestick” was published in Boston, Mass.
(WSJ, 12/29/07, p.A8)

1690 The 2nd Treatise on Government by John Locke (1632-1704) was published in order to justify the British Whig Revolution of 1688. In it he wrote that men had the natural rights of life, liberty and estate.

1690 Khushal Khan Khattak (b.1613), Pushtun poet, died. He wrote in Pashtu during the reign of the Mongol emperors in the seventeenth century. He lived in the foothills of the Hindu Kush mountains. He was a renowned fighter who became known as the Afghan Warrior Poet.

1690 Emp. Kangxi commissioned Wang Hui (1632-1717) to create a pictorial chronicle of a ceremonial tour across a swath of China. “The Kangxi Emperor’s Southern Inspection Tour” took 6 years and became a magnus opus of some 740 feet in 12 hand scrolls.
(WSJ, 10/29/08, p.D9)

1690 An Englishman made the 1st landing on the Falkland Islands.
(Econ, 7/15/06, p.36)

c1690 “The Narrow Road” by Basho Matsuo (1644?-1694) was written during a 1,500 mile journey through the Japanese countryside. It was a 64-page collection of prose and haiku poems and became a Japanese classic. A manuscript of the work was found in 1996.
(SFC, 11/28/96, p.C16)(WUD, 1994, p.124)

1690 In Puebla, Mexico, the ornate Capilla del Rosario, Chapel of the Rosary, was consecrated.
(SFEC,11/9/97, p.T5)(SFEC, 11/8/98, p.T8)

1690-1699 In the 1690s Kit Cat Club met in London at the invitation of Jacob Tonson (1655/56-1736), a publisher and bookseller, at the inn of Christopher Cat (Christopher Catling). In 2008 Ophelia Field authored “The Kit-Cat Club: Friends Who Imagined a Nation.”
(Econ, 8/16/08, p.82)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacob_Tonson)

1690s Giuseppe Ghezzi found the Codex Leicester, a notebook of Leonardo da Vinci in Rome. It was primarily a treatise on the nature of water in all its properties, manifestations and uses.
(NH, 5/97, p.11,60)
1690s Henry Laurens landed 40% of the slaves sold at Sullivan Island. He was the ancestor to the Ball family that settled in South Carolina.
(SFEC, 2/22/98, BR p.1,8)

1690-1700 Particularly severe weather hit Germany and prompted vintners use more wine sweeteners.
(NH, 7/96, p.51)

1691 Jan 13, George Fox (b.1624), English Dissenter and a founder of the Religious Society of Friends, died.

1691 Feb 8, Carlo di Girolamo Rainaldi (79), Italian architect, composer, died.
(MC, 2/8/02)

1691 Feb 17, Thomas Neale was granted a British patent for American postal service.
(MC, 2/17/02)

1691 May 16, Jacob Leisler, 1st American colonist, was hanged for treason.
(MC, 5/16/02)

1691 May 26, Jacob Leiser, leader of the popular uprising in support of William and Mary’s accession to the throne, was executed for treason.
(HN, 5/26/99)

1691 May 29, Cornelis Tromp (61), Admiral-General, son of Maarten Tromp, died.
(SC, 5/29/02)

1691 Jul 12, William III defeated the allied Irish and French armies at the Battle of Aughrim, Ireland.
(HN, 7/12/98)

1691 Aug 16, Yorktown, Va., was founded.
(MC, 8/16/02)

1691 Sep 17, The Massachusetts Bay Colony received a new charter. [see Oct 17]
(MC, 9/17/01)

1691 Oct 3, English and Dutch armies occupied Limerick, Ireland.
(MC, 10/3/01)

1691 Oct 17, The Massachusetts Bay Company along with Plymouth colony and Maine was incorporated into the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
(HN, 10/17/98)(HNQ, 11/23/00)

1691 Father Eusebio Kino founded the Tumacacori mission 45 miles south of Tucson, Arizona.
(SSFC, 3/29/02, p.C6)

1691 The British periodical Athenian Gazette published the first regular problem page. It was created by John Dunton who felt guilty for cheating on his wife.
(Econ, 12/19/15, p.118)

1691 In northwest Romania an icon was painted at a monastery in Nicula. According to legend, the icon of the Weeping Virgin, wept for 26 days in 1699. The first recorded miracle occurred in 1701 when it is said to have cured an army officer’s wife who was going blind. The church attached to the monastery is named after St. Mary and pilgrimages there are made every year on Aug. 15, Mary’s name day. In 1977, the church burned down, but the icon was unharmed. In 2005 low water level revealed its skeleton.
(AP, 8/15/05)

1691 The Spanish Inquisition killed 37 Jews from Mallorca for secretly practicing their faith. In 2011 the island’s leading government official issued an official condemnation for the killing.
(SFC, 5/6/11, p.A2)

1691-1695 Ahmed II succeeded Suleiman II in the Ottoman House of Osman.
(Ot, 1993, xvii)

1691-1765 Giovanni Paolo Panini, Italian artist. He was later known for his portrayals of Rome.
(WSJ, 9/8/00, p.W2)

1692 Feb 13, In the Glen Coe highlands of Scotland, 38 members of the MacDonald clan, the smallest of the Clan Donald sects, were murdered by soldiers of the neighboring Campbell clan for not pledging allegiance to William of Orange. Ironically the pledge had been made but not communicated to the clans. The event is remembered as the Massacre of Glencoe.

1692 Feb 28, The Salem witch hunts began.
(MC, 2/28/02)

1692 Feb 29, Sarah Goode and Tituba were accused of witchcraft in Salem, Massachusetts, sparking the hysteria that started the Salem Witch Trials.
(HN, 2/29/00)

1692 Feb, William and Mary granted a royal license for postal service in the American colonies. It empowered Thomas Neale “to erect, settle and establish within the chief parts of their majesties’ colonies and plantations in America, an office or offices for the receiving and dispatching letters and pacquets, and to receive, send and deliver the same under such rates and sums of money as the planters shall agree to give, and to hold and enjoy the same for the term of twenty-one years.”
(Econ, 8/20/11, p.32)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Postal_Service)

1692 Mar 1, Sarah Goode, Sarah Osborne and Tituba were arrested for the supposed practice of witchcraft in Salem, Mass.
(HN, 3/1/98)

1692 Mar 14, Peter Musschenbroek, Dutch physician, physicist (Leyden jar), was born.
(MC, 3/14/02)

1692 Mar 18, William Penn was deprived of his governing powers.
(HN, 3/18/98)

1692 Mar 26, King Maximilian was installed as land guardian of South Netherlands.
(SS, 3/26/02)

1692 Apr 8, Giuseppe Tartini, Italy, violinist, composer (Trillo del Diavolo), was born.
(MC, 4/8/02)

1692 Apr 12, Giuseppe Tartini, composer (Istria), was born.
(MC, 4/12/02)

1692 Apr 22, Edward Bishop was jailed for proposing flogging as cure for witchcraft.
(MC, 4/22/02)

1692 May 18, Joseph Butler Wantage Berkshire, theologian, was born.
(SC, 5/18/02)
1692 May 18, Elias Ashmole, antiquary, died.
(SC, 5/18/02)

1692 May 29, Royal Hospital Founders Day was 1st celebrated.
(SC, 5/29/02)
1692 May 29, Battle at La Hogue: An English & Dutch fleet beat France.
(SC, 5/29/02)

1692 Jun 7, An earthquake struck Jamaica. It rearranged the geology, splitting the rocks, turning mountains to lakes, and engulfed two-thirds of Port Royal. On that day and subsequently, five thousand of the inhabitants died.

1692 Jun 10, Bridget Bishop was hanged in Salem, Mass., for witchcraft. This was the first official execution of the Salem witch trials.
(HN, 6/10/01) (WSJ, 1/18/08, p.W10)

1692 Jun 24, Kingston, Jamaica, was founded.
(MC, 6/24/02)

1692 Aug 3, French forces under Marshal Luxembourg defeated the English at the Battle of Steenkerke in the Netherlands.
(HN, 8/3/98)

1692 Aug 19, Five women were hanged in Salem, Massachusetts after being convicted of the crime of witchcraft. Fourteen more people were executed that year and 150 others are imprisoned. In 2006 the governor of Massachusetts signed legislation exonerating 5 women executed in the Salem witch trials of 1692, whose names had not yet been cleared. In 2015 Stacy Schiff authored “The Witches: Salem, 1692.”
(HN, 8/19/00)(WSJ, 9/15/06, p.A10)(Econ, 11/14/15, p.84)

1692 Sep 19, Giles Corey was pressed to death for standing mute and refusing to answer charges of witchcraft brought against him. He is the only person in America to have suffered this punishment.
(HN, 9/19/98)

1692 Sep 21, Two men and seven women were executed for witchcraft in Salem, Massachusetts.
(MC, 9/21/01)

1692 Sep 22, The last person was hanged for witchcraft in Salem, Mass.
(MC, 9/22/01)

1692 Oct 8, Massachusetts Bay Governor Phipps ordered that spectral evidence no longer be admitted in witchcraft trials. Twenty people had died in the Salem witch trials. In 2005 Richard Francis authored “Judge Sewall’s Apology.” Sewall was one of 3 judges presiding over the Salem trials. In 2006 the governor of Massachusetts signed legislation exonerating 5 women executed in the Salem witch trials of 1692, whose names had not yet been cleared.
(http://tinyurl.com/rlj1)(WSJ, 8/9/05, p.D8)(WSJ, 9/15/06, p.A10)

1692 Oct 12, Giovanni Battista Vitali, composer, died at 60.
(MC, 10/12/01)

1692 Oct 18, Charles Eugene de Croy, a field marshal fighting for Austrian forces, laid the cornerstone for a new great fortress at Petrovaradin (later Serbia), built to guard against the Ottoman Turks.

1692 Oct 25, Elisabeth Farnese, princess of Parma and queen of Spain, was born.
(MC, 10/25/01)

1692 Nov 7, Johannes G. Schnabel, German author and surgeon (Insel Felsenburg), was born.
(MC, 11/7/01)

1692 Nov 21, Carlo Fragoni, Italian poet, was born.
(MC, 11/21/01)

1692 In Germany Rheinfels castle withstood a siege of 28,000 French troops sent by Louis XIV. French troops under Napoleon destroyed it in 1797.
(SSFC, 11/29/15, p.G6)(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rheinfels_Castle)

1692 In Portugal Taylor’s restaurant and lodge was founded in Porto.
(SFEC, 7/12/98, p.T10)

1692 In Russia Peter the Great granted the Stroganoff family their lands in perpetuity.
(WSJ, 9/7/00, p.A24)

1693 Jan 11, An earthquake struck parts of southern Italy near Sicily, Calabria and Malta. It destroyed at least 70 towns and cities, seriously affecting an area of 5,600 square km (2,200 sq. miles) and causing the death of about 60,000 people.

1693 Jan 28, Anna “Ivanovna”, Tsarina of Russia, was born. [see Feb 7]
(HN, 1/28/99)

1693 Feb 7, Anna Ivanova Romanova, empress of Russia (1730-40) [NS], was born. [see Jan 28]
(MC, 2/7/02)

1693 Feb 8, A charter was granted for the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Va.
(AP, 2/8/99)

1693 Feb 13, The College of William and Mary opened in Virginia.
(MC, 2/13/02)

1693 Mar 24, John Harrison (d.1776), Englishman who invented the chronometer, was born.

1693 Jun 27, The 1st woman’s magazine “The Ladies’ Mercury” was published in London.
(SC, 6/27/02)

1693 Jul 4, Battle at Boussu-lez-Walcourt: French-English vs. Dutch army.

1693 Jul 29, The Army of the Grand Alliance was destroyed by the French at the Battle of Neerwinden in the Netherlands.
(HN, 7/29/98)

1693 Aug 4, Dom Perignon invented champagne. [see 1688]
(MC, 8/4/02)

1693 English naturalist John Ray noted that whales had more in common with 4-legged mammals than with fish.
(PacDis, Winter/’96, p.14)

1693 Heidelberg was torched by the troops of Louis XIV in a dispute over a royal title.
(SFEC, 9/26/99, p.T8)

1693 The French explorer Francois Leguat spent several months on Mauritius and looked hard for a dodo bird, but found none.
(NH, 11/96, p.26)

1693 The history of the Amish church began with a schism in Switzerland within a group of Swiss and Alsatian Anabaptists led by Jakob Ammann (1656-1730).

1694 Jul 5, Composer Louis-Claude Daquin was born.

1694 Jul 27, The Bank of England received a royal charter as a commercial institution. It was set up by William III, the ruler of Britain and the Netherlands, in the midst of a war against France. The mission of the bank was to provide war finance. Financiers agreed to lend the crown £1.2 million in return for a partial monopoly on the issue of currency.
(SFC, 5/7/97, p.C2)(AP, 7/27/97)(Econ, 1/10/09, p.49)(Econ, 11/5/11, p.92)(Econ, 4/29/17, p.56)

1694 Sep 22, Philip Dormer Stanhope, Lord Chesterfield, statesman of letters whose writings provide a classic portrayal of an ideal 18th-century gentleman, was born. He introduced the Gregorian calendar in 1752.
(HN, 9/22/98)(MC, 9/22/01)

1694 Nov 21, Francois Marie Arouet Voltaire (d.1778), French philosopher, historian, dramatist and essayist, was born. Born to middle class parents, he later attended the Jesuit college of Louis-le-Grand in Paris. The environment exposed him to the world of society and the arts. After the success of his tragedy “Oedipe” in 1718, he was pronounced the successor to the great dramatist Racine. He adopted the pen name Voltaire, though its exact origins and meaning are uncertain. The author of “Candide” (1759) and the “Philosophical Dictionary” (1764), Voltaire’s works often attacked injustice and intolerance and epitomized the Age of Enlightenment. He wrote that “Self-love resembles the instrument by which we perpetuate the species. It is necessary, it is dear to us, it gives us pleasure and it has to be concealed.” “All styles are good except the tiresome sort.” “Love truth, but pardon error.” “The great errors of the past are useful in many ways. One cannot remind oneself too often of crimes and disasters. These, no matter what people say, can be forestalled.” S.G. Tellentyre said on Voltaire: “I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.”
(WUD, 1994, p.1600)(G&M, 2/1/96, p.A-22)(AP, 7/17/97)(SFEC, 1/4/98, Z1p.8)(HNQ, 10/1/98)(SFEC, 10/11/98, Z1 p.8)(HN, 11/21/98)(HNQ, 11/8/00)

1694 Dec 28, George I of England got divorced. [He was crowned in 1714]
(HN, 12/28/98)
1694 Dec 28, Queen Mary II (32) of England died after five years of joint rule with her husband, King William III. The new style calendar puts her death on Jan 7, 1695.
(AP, 12/28/97)

1694 The Whigs of England persuaded King William that if he wanted to win what became the nine years’ war against France, he would have to embrace their political and economic agenda.
(Econ, 10/17/09, p.98)
1694 The history of English death duties began with the Stamp Act of this year which placed 5s on probates over 20 pounds.
(Econ, 10/27/07, p.90)(www.econlib.org/LIBRARY/Bastable/bastbPF29.html)

1694 John Law, Scotsman, fled England after killing rival Edward Wilson in a duel. He traveled in Europe, played the casinos and studied finance. He set up a bank in France and issued paper money and established the Mississippi Company to exploit the French-controlled territories in America. [see 1720] In 2000 Janet Gleeson authored “Millionaire,” a pseudo-biography of Law.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)(WSJ, 6/30/00, p.W9)

1694-1696 An outbreak of colic struck the region around Ulm, Germany. Eberhard Gockel, the city physician, was able to trace the cause to a wine sweetener that used a white oxide of lead.
(NH, 7/96, p.48)

1694-1773 Lord Chesterfield, English author and statesman: “In scandal, as in robbery, the receiver is always as bad as the thief.”
(AP, 2/21/98)

1695 Jan 6, Giuseppe Sammartini, composer, was born.
(MC, 1/6/02)

1695 Jan 7, Mary II Stuart 32), queen of England, died [OS=Dec 28 1694].
(MC, 1/7/02)

1695 Jan 27, Mustafa II became the Ottoman sultan in Istanbul on the death of Amhed II. Mustafa ruled to 1703.
(HN, 1/27/99)(Ot, 1993, xvii)

1695 Mar 7, In Britain John Trevor (1637-1717), the speaker of the House of Commons office, was found guilty of accepting a bribe of 1000 guineas (equivalent to around £1.6 million in 2009) from the City of London to aid the passage of a bill through the house. He was expelled from the House of Commons, a move which he initially resisted on the ground of ill-health, but retained his judicial position until his death.

1695 Apr 13, Jean de la Fontaine (b.1621), French fabulist and poet, died. He is known above all for his Fables, which provided a model for subsequent fabulists across Europe and numerous alternative versions in France.

1695 Apr 17, Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz (b.~1648), Mexican nun and poet, died of plague.
(SSFC, 9/3/06, p.M3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sor_Juana)

1695 Apr 20, Georg Caspar Weckler (63), composer, died.
(MC, 4/20/02)

1695 Apr 30, William Congreve’s “Love for Love,” premiered in London.
(MC, 4/30/02)

1695 Jul 8, Christian Huygens (66), Dutch inventor, astronomer, died. He generally wrote his name as Christiaan Hugens, and it is also sometimes written as Huyghens. In his book “Cosmotheros,” published in 1698, he speculated on life on other planets.

1695 Sep 11, Imperial troops under Eugene of Savoy defeated the Turks at the Battle of Zenta.
(HN, 9/11/98)

1695 Sep 12, NY Jews petitioned governor Dongan for religious liberties.
(MC, 9/12/01)

1695 Nov 20, Zumbi, a Brazilian leader of a hundred-year-old rebel slave group, was killed in an ambush in Palmares. In January 2003 legislation established November 20 as Black Consciousness Day.
(http://tinyurl.com/gsg6wt8)(SFC, 8/16/01, p.A8)(SSFC, 11/18/12, p.G3)

1695 Nov 21, Henry Purcell (36), English composer (Indian Queen), died.
(MC, 11/21/01)

1695 Nov 28, Giovanni Paulo Colonna (58), composer, died.
(MC, 11/28/01)

c1695 Orazio Gentileschi, painted “St. Francis and the Angel.”
(WSJ, 4/28/98, p.A16)

1695 The Comediens Italiens were expelled from Paris for indiscretion in their opera parodies. The fair theaters took up where they left off with the use of vaudevilles and comedia dell’arte characters.
(PNM, 1/25/98, p.4)

1695 The British Parliament voted not to renew the 1662 Licensing of the Press Act, which had censored “seditious, treasonable and unlicensed Bookes and Pamphlets.” It was repealed by the Statute Law Revision Act 1863.
(Econ, 5/23/09, p.57)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Licensing_of_the_Press_Act_1662)
1695 A London rag called “A Collection for Improvement of Husbandry and Trade” included what later was believed to be the first lonely-hearts advertisement: “A Gentleman About 30 Years of Age, that says he had a Very Good Estate, would willingly Match himself to some Good Young Gentlewoman that has a Fortune of £3,000.”
(Econ, 2/12/11, p.92)

1695 Henry Avery (b.~1653), former Royal Navyman turned pirate, captured the Ganj-i-Sawai, the largest ship of the Mogul emperor in India.
(WSJ, 11/22/08, p.W2)

1695 Portugal established colonial rule in the eastern half of Timor Island. The western side was incorporated into the Dutch East Indies.
(SFC, 5/18/02, p.A15)

1696 Jan 31, An uprising of undertakers took place after funeral reforms in Amsterdam.
(MC, 1/31/02)

1696 Mar 5, Giambattista Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (d.1770), Venetian Rococo painter (Isaac’s Sacrifice), was born. He painted for the Dolfin family in the 1720s. His work included: “The Annunciation” (c1765-1770), “Apelles Painting a Portrait of Campaspe,” “Martyrdom of St. Agatha,” “Sacrifice of Isaac,” “The Finding of Moses,” “Nobility and Virtue” (1743), “Satyress with a Putto,” “Satyress With Two Putti and a Tambourine,” and “Halberdier in a Landscape.” His contemporaries included Francesco Fontebasso, Allesandro Longhi, and Louis-Joseph Le Lorrain.
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1483)(WSJ, 10/14/96, p.A14)(SFC, 3/25/97, p.E3)(MC, 3/5/02)

1696 Mar 7, English King William III departed Netherlands.
(MC, 3/7/02)

1696 Jun 17, Jan Sobieski (72), King of Lithuania and Poland (1674-96), died.
(MC, 6/17/02)(LHC, 5/21/03)

1696 Sep 23, A squall drove the ship Reformation aground on the east coast of Florida. Quaker merchant Jonathan Dickinson along with his family, 11 slaves, 8 seamen and Capt. Joseph Kirle were on route to Philadelphia from Jamaica.
(ON, 9/00, p.3)

1696 Sep 27, Alfonsus M. de’ Liguori, Italian theologian, bishop, and religious order founder, was born.
(MC, 9/27/01)

1696 cSep 30, The Reformation castaways encountered a 2nd Indian tribe after paddling north for 2 days in a canoe provided by Indians at their initial landing. They were taken to a village, near present-day Vero Beach, and encountered castaways from the bark Nantwich, which had sailed from Port Royal in the same convoy.
(ON, 9/00, p.5)

1696 Oct 6, Savoy Germany withdrew from the Grand Alliance.
(HN, 10/6/98)

1696 Nov 2, In Florida a Spanish company of soldiers took the Dickinson and Nantwich party into custody and escorted them north to St. Augustine. They arrive on Nov 19 after 5 people died from exposure enroute.
(ON, 9/00, p.5)

1696 Nov 11, Andrea Zani, composer, was born.
(MC, 11/11/01)

1696 Nov 19, Louis Tocque, French painter, was born.
(MC, 11/19/01)

1696 Dec 22, James Oglethorpe, England, General, author, colonizer of Georgia, was born.
(MC, 12/22/01)

1696 August III (d.1738), son of August II, was born. He was crowned King of Lithuania and Poland in 1734.
(SSFC, 4/25/04, p.D12)

1696 William Hogarth, British artist, was born. He believed that visual art could have a morally improving effect on viewers, and that individual betterment led to social improvement.
(SFEC, 1/25/98, DB p.7)(SFC, 1/28/98, p.E1)

1696 In the late 1600s the Xukuru Indians fought the Portuguese to a stand off in what was later referred to as the “War of the Barbarians.”
(WSJ, 8/20/99, p.A1)(http://tinyurl.com/bhqlp)

1696 The Chinese painter Bada Shanren created his work: “Ducks and Lotuses.”
(WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)

1696 In England a Jacobite plot to assassinate King William III and restore James II failed.
1696 In England Isaac Newton (1642-1727) became Warden of the Mint and started combing his hair.
(Econ, 8/23/03, p.68)
1696 New York sea captain William Kidd reluctantly became a privateer for England and was expected to fight pirates on the open sea, seize their cargoes, and provide a hefty share of the spoils to the Crown. According to his British accusers, Kidd turned to piracy himself as the deadline for reporting to his employers in New York approached and he had not taken enough booty to fulfill his commission. Kidd himself did not know he was a wanted man until he dropped anchor in the West Indies in April 1699. He chose to surrender to the authorities and submit to a London trial, believing to the end that he could clear his name. After a trial in which important evidence in his favor was suppressed, William Kidd was found guilty of piracy and hanged.
(HNPD, 8/27/00)

1696 Jacques Ozanam, a visionary Frenchman, 1st proposed a “self-moving vehicle.”
(Econ, 2/5/05, p.77)

1696 Duke Eberhard Ludwig of Wurttenburg, Germany, learned of Eberhard Gockel’s findings on lead poisoning in wine and banned all lead-based wine additives.
(NH, 7/96, p.49)

1696 The Hotel Elephant was founded in Weimar, the capital of the German state of Thuringia.
(SFC, 8/3/99, p.A8)

1696 The Company of Scotland began raising money for a colony at Darien on the Isthmus of Panama. The venture collapsed after 4 years and only 3 of 13 ships returned home.
(Econ, 8/28/10, p.74)

1697 Mar 9, Czar Peter the Great began tour of West Europe. [see Mar 21]
(MC, 3/9/02)

1697 Mar 21, Czar Peter the Great began a tour through West Europe. [see Mar 9]
(MC, 3/21/02)

1697 Apr 1, Abbe Prevost, French novelist, journalist (Manon Lescaut), was born.
(MC, 4/1/02)

1697 Apr 16, Johann Gottlieb Gorner, composer, was born.
(MC, 4/16/02)

1697 May 10, Jean Marie I’aine Leclair, composer, was born.
(MC, 5/10/02)

1697 May 12, The fall of the Venetian Republic.
(SFC, 5/10/97, p.A10)

1697 Jun 7, John Aubrey (b.1626), author of “Monumenta Britanica,” died. In 1948 Anthony Powell authored the biography “John Aubrey.” In 2015 Ruth Scurr authored “John Aubrey: My Own Life,” an autobiography in the form of a diary that he never wrote.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Aubrey)(ON, 4/02, p.12)(Econ., 4/11/15, p.76)

1697 Sep 11, Prince Eugene of Savoy led the Austrians to victory over the Ottoman Turks at Senta (Serbia). This resulted in creating the conditions for the 1699 conclusion of the peace at Karlowitz.

1697 Sep 20, The Treaty of Ryswick was signed in Holland. It ended the War of the Grand Alliance (aka War of the League of Augsburg,1688-1697) between France and the Grand Alliance. Under the Treaty France’s King Louis XIV (1638-1715) recognized William III (1650-1702) as King of England. The Dutch received trade concessions, and France and the Grand Alliance members (Holland and the Austrian Hapsburgs) gave up most of the land they had conquered since 1679. The signees included France, England, Spain and Holland. By the Treaty of Ryswick, a portion of Hispaniola was formally ceded to France and became known as Saint-Domingue. The remaining Spanish section was called Santo Domingo.

1697 Oct 19, Settlers from Mexico sailed across the Sea of Cortez to build a new settlement.
(SFEC, 5/18/97, p.T5)

1697 Oct 25, Settlers from Mexico founded the town of Loreto in honor of the Virgin Nuestra Senoro de Loreto, on the Baha Peninsula. It served as the capital of Baha California for the next 132 years.
(SFEC, 5/18/97, p.T5)

1697 Oct 30, The Treaty of Ryswick ended the War of the Grand Alliance (aka War of the League of Augsburg,1688-1697) between France and the Grand Alliance. France’s King Louis XIV (1638-1715) recognized King William III’s (1650-1702) right to the English throne, the Dutch received trade concessions, and France and the Grand Alliance members (Holland and the Austrian Hapsburgs) gave up most of the land they had conquered since 1679.
(HN, 10/30/98)(DoW, 1999)

1697 Nov 2, Constantine Huygens Jr, poet, painter and cartoonist, was buried.
(MC, 11/2/01)

1697 Nov 10, William Hogarth, English caricaturist, was born.
(HN, 11/10/00)

1697 Dec 2, St. Paul’s Cathedral opened in London.
(MC, 12/2/01)

1697 William Dampier (1651-1715), English explorer, naturalist and privateer, authored “A New Voyage Around the World.” A sequel appeared 2 years later. In 2004 Diana and Michael Preston authored “A Pirate of Exquisite Mind: Explorer, Naturalist and Bucaneer,” a biography of Dampier.
(WSJ, 4/16/04, p.W8)(NH, 6/4/04, p.59)

1697 Eberhard Gockel published: “A Remarkable Account of the Previously Unknown Wine Disease.”
(NH, 7/96, p.49)

1697 Charles Perrault first penned “La Petit Chaperon Rouge” (Little Red Riding Hood) as a sexual morality tale for the loose ladies of Louis XIV’s court. In 2002 Catherine Orenstein authored “Little Red Riding Hood Uncloaked: Sex, Morality and the Evolution of a Fairy Tale.”
(WSJ, 8/7/02, p.D14)(NW, 8/26/02, p.57)

1697 The play “Le Distrait” by Regnard was written and later accompanied by the music of Joseph Haydn.
(WSJ, 7/31/97, p.A16)

1697 In Boston’s Old South Church Judge Sewall told the congregation that he accepted “blame and shame” for the 1692 Salem witch trials. None of the other judges joined him in repenting.
(Econ, 8/6/05, p.70)

1697 Hannah Duston in what is now New Hampshire was attacked and captured by 12 Indians who killed her daughter. She managed to kill 10 of them with a knife and took home their scalps for the bounty money. She was the first woman in the US to have a statue erected in her honor.
(SFEC, 11/17/96, zone 1 p.2)

1697 Two relatives of Galdan Boshugtu Khan surrendered to China’s Qing Kangxi Emperor. Their people were then organized into two Oolod banners and resettled in modern Bayankhongor Province, Mongolia. The Dzungar (or Zunghar), Oirat Mongols who lived in an area that stretched from the west end of the Great Wall of China to present-day eastern Kazakhstan and from present-day northern Kyrgyzstan to southern Siberia (most of which is located in present-day Xinjiang), were the last nomadic empire to threaten China.

1697 The Royal Palace in Stockholm, Sweden, burned down. It was rebuilt in Italian Baroque style with 608 rooms.
(SSFC, 8/19/07, p.G4)

1697-1718 Charles XII (1682-1718) was king of Sweden.
(WUD, 1994, p.249)(SFC, 8/17/96, p.E5)

1697-1798 Antonio Canal, Italian topographical view painter. He was the uncle to Bernardo Belotto.
(WSJ, 9/13/01, p.A18)

1697-1773 Johann Quantz, flutist-composer.
(LGC-HCS, p.44)

1698 Jan 1, The Abenaki [Abnaki] Indians and the Massachusetts colonists signed a treaty ending the conflict in New England.
(HN, 1/1/99)

1698 Apr 5, Georg Gottfried Wagner, composer, was born.
(MC, 4/5/02)

1698 Aug 18, After invading Denmark and capturing Sweden, Charles XII of Sweden forced Frederick IV of Denmark to sign the Peace of Travendal.
(HN, 8/18/98)

1698 Aug 25, Czar Peter the Great returned to Moscow after his trip through West-Europe.
(MC, 8/25/02)

1698 Sep 5, Russia’s Peter the Great imposed a tax on beards.
(AP, 9/5/97)

1698 Oct 23, Ange-Jacques Gabriel, French court architect (Place de la Concorde), was born.
(MC, 10/23/01)

1698 Missionary John St. Cosme celebrated the first Mass in what became St. Louis, Mo.
(SFC, 1/28/99, p.A3)

1698 The Spanish established Presidio Santa Maria de Galve (later Pensacola, Florida).
(AP, 3/24/06)

1698 Elias “Red Cap ” Ball sailed from England to claim his inheritance, a plantation called Comingtee on the banks of the Cooper River in South Carolina. The Ball family kept a history and in 1998 descendant Edward Ball published “Slaves in the Family.”
(SFEC, 2/22/98, BR p.1,8)(SFEC, 4/19/98, p.A22)

1698 The Virginia statehouse at Jamestown burned and the capital was moved to Williamsburg.
(Arch, 1/06, p.26)

1698 The British pint, a 568 milliliter pour, was introduced. Bars were allowed to serve beer only as a pint, or a third or half of that measure. This became the standard size for beer and cider.
(SFC, 1/5/11, p.A2)
1698 English engineer Thomas Savery devised a way to pump water out of mines by the use of condensed steam.
(HNQ, 1/18/01)

1698 Abraham or Ibrahim (Abram Petrovich Gannibal) was born about this time in the Eritrean highland, north of the Mareb River in a town called Logon. Abraham’s father was a local chief or a “prince”. Within a few years Turks invaded the area and abducted Abraham following a battle lost by his father. Abraham spent a year in Constantinople and was sold with a bribe for service to Russia’s Peter the Great.

1698 Peter the Great spent several months at the Shipwright’s Palace in England learning how to build the Russian navy.
(WSJ, 5/24/00, p.A24)

1698-1701 The Portuguese built the Old Fort in Stone Town on Zanzibar to defend against the sultan of Oman.
(SFEC, 4/23/00, p.T6)

1699 Jan 14, Massachusetts held a day of fasting for wrongly persecuting “witches.”
(MC, 1/14/02)

1699 Jan 26, The Treaty of Karlowitz, Croatia, ended the war between Austria and the Turks.
(HN, 1/26/99)(www.san.beck.org/1-10-Ottoman1300-1730.html)

1699 Feb 4, Czar Peter the Great executed 350 rebellious Streltsi in Moscow.
(MC, 2/4/02)

1699 Mar 4, Jews were expelled from Lubeck, Germany.
(SC, 3/4/02)

1699 Mar 23, John Bartram, naturalist, explorer, father of American botany, was born.
(SS, 3/23/02)

1699 Apr 17, Robert Blair, Scottish poet (Grave), was born.
(MC, 4/17/02)

1699 Apr 21, Jean Racine (59), French playwright (Phèdre), died.
(MC, 4/21/02)

1699 Jul 6, Pirate Capt. William Kidd was captured in Boston.
(MC, 7/6/02)

1699 Dec 20, Peter the Great ordered Russian New Year changed from Sept 1 to Jan 1.
(MC, 12/20/01)

1699 Jonathan Dickinson, after resuming his mercantile business in Philadelphia, authored “God’s Protecting Providence,” a journal of his Florida ordeal.
(ON, 9/00, p.5)

1699 A wooden wall on the northern edge of New Amsterdam (later NYC), built for protection from the Indians, was destroyed by the British.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R43)

1699 Williamsburg became the capital of Virginia and served as the capital of the British colony until 1780.
(SSFC, 12/17/00, p.T7)(AH, 6/07, p.27)

1699 Prince Eugene of Savoy looted and burned Sarajevo, Bosnia.
(SSFC, 12/4/05, p.F5)

1699 The British established a rule over the colonies that all wool trade must be with England, and violations were punishable by stiff fines.
(NG, 5.1988, pp. 583)
1699 The Jews in London commissioned Joseph Avis, a Quaker, to build a synagogue on a street called Bevis Marks.
(WSJ, 10/28/06, p.P16)

1699 The Sikhs were founded by a series of 10 prophets or gurus and believe in one God but many paths to heaven. In 1999 some 20,000 thousands of Sikhs gathered to march in SF on the 300th anniversary of their religion. [see Nanak c1500, 1519]
(SFEC, 4/25/99, p.C1)

1699 The Republic of Lucca promulgated the first regulations designed to prevent the spread of tuberculosis.
(WP, 1952, p.29)

1699 References from the Ching dynasty of China refer to the Diaoyu Island located between Taiwan and Okinawa.
(SFEC, 10/8/96, A8)

1699 The King of Spain, due to competition, banned the production of wine in the Americas, except for that made by the church.
(SFEC, 11/7/99, p.T8)

1699-1783 Johann Adolph Hasse, popular composer of now-forgotten operas.
(LGC-HCS, p.32)

1699-1799 Jean Baptiste Simeon Chardin, French painter.
(WSJ, 7/6/00, p.A24)