Timeline 17th Century: 1600-1625

1600 Feb 4, Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler met for 1st time near Prague.
(MC, 2/4/02)

1600 Feb 8, Vatican sentenced scholar Giordano Bruno to death.
(MC, 2/8/02)

1600 Feb 17, Giordano Bruno (b.1548), Italian philosopher, occasional alchemist and advocate of Copernican theory, was burned at stake by the Catholic Church. In 2008 Ingrid D. Rowland authored “Giordano Bruno: Philosopher / Heretic.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giordano_Bruno)(WSJ, 8/21/01, p.A17)(WSJ, 12/19/08, p.A15)

1600 Feb 19, Arequipa, Peru, was destroyed as the Huaynaputina volcano exploded catastrophically, in the largest volcanic explosion in South America in historic times. The eruption continued with associated earthquakes into March and devastated the socioeconomic fabric of southern Peru and neighboring Chile and Bolivia. The explosion had effects on climate around the Northern Hemisphere, where 1601 was the coldest year in six centuries, leading to a famine in Russia.
(SSFC, 6/24/01, p.A16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Huaynaputina)

1600 Apr 19, The Dutch ship Liefde, piloted by Will Adams, reached Japan with a crew of 24 men. 6 of the crew soon died. 4 other ships in the expedition were lost.
(ON, 11/02, p.8)

1600 Oct 21, Tokugawa leyasu defeated his enemies in the battle of Sekigahara and affirmed his position as Japan’s most powerful warlord. The win enabled Ieyasu to found a 265-year ruling dynasty.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Sekigahara)(Econ, 10/31/09, p.54)

1600 Nov 19, Charles I of England was born. Charles I, ruled Great Britain from 1625-1649. He was executed by Parliament in 1649.
(WUD, 1994, p.249)(HN, 11/19/98)

1600 Dec 12, John Craig, Scottish church reformer and James VI’s court vicar, died.
(MC, 12/12/01)

1600 Dec 31, The British East India Company (d.1874) was chartered by Queen Elizabeth I in London to carry on trade in the East Indies in competition with the Dutch, who controlled nutmeg from the Banda Islands. A company of 218 merchants were granted a monopoly to trade east of the Cape of Good Hope. For its first 20 years the company operated out of the home of its governor, Sir Thomas Smythe.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)(www.theeastindiacompany.com/history.html)(Econ, 12/17/11, p.109)

c1600 Mahmud al-Kati authored the Tarikh al-Fattash, a history of the Sudan up to the late 16th century.
(AM, 7/04, p.36)

1600 William Gilbert authored “On the Loadstone And Magnetic Bodies.” He pioneered the scientific method of testing hypothesis by experiment.
(WSJ, 4/14/07, p.P10)

1600 Dona Maria, a Timucua Indian woman, was chief of Nombre de Dios, a Spanish Franciscan mission town in Florida. 6 years later she inherited the position of chief of San Pedro de Mocama on Cumberland Island, Georgia.
(AM, 7/01, p.22)

1600 Hartheim Castle was built at Alkoven in Upper Austria. During WWII it became one of several notorious institutions that Adolf Hitler and his regime turned into the main venues for what they called “euthanasia” and where individuals who did not meet their ideals were gassed or given lethal injections.
(AP, 11/5/10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schloss_Hartheim)

1600 A clock was built in Augsburg, Germany, that shows a king riding in an elephant pulled chariot. His huge belly has a tiny clock placed where his navel would be. When the clock strikes, the king rolls his eyes, licks his lips and drinks from a tankard, while elephants pull the chariot along a table and other figures built around the chariot dance. On exhibit at the Time Museum in Rockford, Ill.
(SF E&C, 1/15/1995, T-10)

1600 A sculptor, later known as Furienmeister (master of the furies), worked in Florence, Vienna and perhaps Dresden about this time. In 2006 only about 25 works were attributed to the artist who carved in ivory.
(Econ, 5/13/06, p.96)

1600 Caravaggio signed a contract with Tibor Cerasi, Pope Clement VIII’s treasurer-general, to decorate the Cerasi Chapel of Rome’s Church of Santa Maria Del Popolo with 2 paintings. One would depict the “Martyrdom of St. Peter” and the other the conversion of Paul.
(WSJ, 10/15/05, p.P11)

c1600 The Tairona civilization, coerced by the Spaniards to convert to Christianity, fled from their coastal settlements and moved to the mountains. They were skilled masons, farmers, weavers and goldsmiths. They had established the city now known as Ciudad Perdida (lost city) east of Santa Maria in the 5th century BCE, whose ruins were only rediscovered in 1975. The indigenous Arhuaco, Assario, and Kogi Indians are thought to be their descendants.
(WSJ, 7/28/97, p.A16)(AM, 11/04, p.19)

c1600 French fishermen and their families settled the islands of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon off the coast of Newfoundland. The 9-island was later made a French territory.
(WSJ, 6/30/00, p.B4)

c1600 Spanish explorers Alvaro de Mendana and Pedro Fernandez de Quiros visited the Cook Islands but overlooked Rarotonga, the largest one.
(SFEC, 1/5/97, p.T5)

c1600 Christian missionaries arrived in India with the first European traders.
(SFC, 11/6/99, p.A14)

1600 Rudolph II, King of the Holy Roman Empire, ruled from Prague and lured the astronomer, Tycho Brahe, from Denmark as well as his student Johannes Kepler.
(WSJ, 9/24/96, p.A18)
1600 Cardinal Filippo Spinelli, Pope Clement VIII’s ambassador in Prague, wrote to the Pope that Emperor Rudolf II was bewitched by the devil.
(WSJ, 9/9/06, p.P9)

1600s The Kongo kingdom broke apart as a result of the Portuguese induced revolts and slave trade.
(ATC, p.153)

1600s In France the contractor Jean-Christophe Marie built bridges on the Seine to the Ile St.-Louis and laid out lots on straight streets for sale.
(SFEC, 6/22/97, p.T8)

1600s In Japan the ancient art of Sumo wrestling became a professional sport.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1600s Pirates Anne Bonny and Mary Read plundered the Caribbean region.
(SFEC, 2/14/99, p.T4)

1600s Portuguese traders brought the cassava root to Africa from Brazil to feed their slaves.
(NH, 7/96, p.13)

1600-1603 Sir Walter Raleigh (1552-1618) governed Jersey, a British Channel Island.
(Econ, 5/23/09, p.59)

1600-1681 Pedro Calderon de la Barca, Spanish baroque master dramatist. His work included: “Life Is a Dream.” “Cuando amor no es locura, no es amor.” (When love is not madness, it is not love).
(WSJ, 10/20/95, p. A-12)(WSJ, 4/5/96, p.A-6)(AP, 10/30/98)

1600-1700 In late 2007 Timothy Brook authored “Vermeer’s Hat: The Seventeenth Century and the Dawn of the Global World.”
(SFC, 2/14/08, p.E3)
c1600-1700 In Early America, fire buckets were typically made out of leather. Because the man at the top of the bucket brigade had to toss empty buckets back down to be refilled, the buckets had to be unbreakable and soft enough so they wouldn‘t injure anyone standing below.
(HNQ, 1/13/00)
1600-1700 Brazil’s Ouro Preto which means Black Gold in Portuguese, was founded in the 17th century after huge gold deposits were discovered under its steep hills.
(AP, 4/19/03)
1600-1700 Cognac 1st appeared when Dutch sea merchants found that they could better preserve white wine shipped from France to northern Europe by distilling it. They then learned the wine got better as it aged in wooden barrels.
(WSJ, 7/14/03, p.A1)
1600-1700 Shabettai Zvi [Sabbatai Zevi], a Kabbalist from the Ottoman Empire, became the central figure in a widespread Messianic craze. He declared himself the Messiah and caused an uproar throughout the Jewish world.
(WSJ, 5/22/98, p.W11)(SFEC, 3/12/00, BR p.2)(Econ, 10/16/04, p.80)
1600-1700 Grass mats called kunaa were made on the island of Gadu and sent by the Maldivian sultan as part of an annual tribute to the kingdom of Sri Lanka. “The Fine Mat Industry of the Suvadiva Atoll” by Andrew Forbes was publ. by the British Museum.
(WSJ, 7/22/96, p.A12)
1600-1700 The Windsor chair originated in Windsor, England.
(WSJ, 8/15/97, p.A1)
1600-1700 Britain waged wars against the Dutch. The English fleet sailed in three segments, the 3rd of which was commanded by a Rear Admiral.
(SFEC, 8/3/97, Z1 p.3)
1600-1700 In England the Roundheads were members or adherents of the Parliamentarians or Puritan party during the civil wars of the 17th century. They were called roundheads by the Cavaliers in derision because they wore their hair cut short.
(WUD, 1994, p.1248)
1600-1700 In Colombia legend held that U’wa Indians led by Chief Guaiticu committed mass suicide to protest Spanish colonialism. A historical record was lacking.
(SFC, 4/25/97, p.A3)
1600-1700 A Jesuit priest wrote in Latin the first recorded description of the magic lantern, a forerunner of later movie and slide projectors: “Ars Magna Lucis et Umbrae.”
(SFC, 10/28/96, p.A24)
c1600-1700 Marin Mersenne, French monk and mathematician. Mersenne numbers, which come from multiplying 2 over and over and subtracting one, are named after him. A small percentage of mersenne numbers are also prime numbers.
(SFC, 11/23/98, p.A3)
c1600-1700 In Naples Giovan Battista Basile wrote his classic collection of folktales known as the “Pentamerone.” It included “La Gatta Cennerentola,” or “Cinderella the Cat.”
(SFC,11/4/97, p.B3)
c1600-1700 In Norway a local commander in Varda burned over 70 women alive as witches.
(WSJ, 6/6/00, p.A1)
1600-1700 Ladakh was a West Tibetan kingdom of this time with lands that extended into what is now Nepal.
(SFEC,12/14/97, p.T4)
1600-1700 In the 17th century the Geluk sect of Buddhism cultivated the Mongols under Altyn Khan. The Khan named the Geluk Lama Sonam Gyatso, “dalai,” in reference to his oceanic wisdom. The 4th Dalai Lama was discovered in the great-grandson of Altyn Khan. The Gelukpa school gained power over the Kagyud (Black Hat) school of Tibetan Buddhism.
(SFEM, 12/20/98, p.19)(Econ, 12/24/05, p.56)

1600-1750 The Baroque Era in music, as practiced by its greatest figures, has pronounced mannerist qualities: mysticism, exuberance, complexity, decoration, allegory, distortion, the exploitation of the supernatural or grandiose, all commingled. The baroque saw the rise of four-part harmony and the figured bass, in which numerals indicated the harmonies to be used. In 1968 Claude Palisca authored “Baroque Music.” The Baroque style (1620-1680) extended to art, architecture and theater, represented by a spirit of opulence, drama and sensuality.
(LGC-HCS, p.24-25)(SFC, 1/23/01, p.C2)(Econ, 4/11/09, p.86)

c1600-1800 The period of the enlightenment, a philosophical movement characterized by the power of human reason and by innovations in political, religious and educational doctrine. Peter Gay later wrote a 2-volume history of the Enlightenment.
(WUD, 1994, p.474)(SFEC, 1/11/98, BR p.9)
1600-1800 About two-thirds of the Albanians converted to Islam.
(www, Albania, 1998)
1600-1800 In the Southern American colonies, large land accumulation was fostered by headrights, a program where generally 50-acres per head was awarded to each person who transported an emigrant to America at his own expense. The systems fostered land accumulation and speculation in land warrants, often raising the price of land beyond the means of servants who had worked out their time.
(HNQ, 1/25/99)
1600-1800 A mass migration of nearly 1 million people from Holland in the 17th and 18th century led to the decline of this small nation.
(SFC, 3/31/98, p.F4)

1600-1867 The Tokugawa (or Edo) Period in Japan.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)
1600-1868 The cosmopolitan Edo period, the heyday of the woodblock print.
(WSJ, 4/24/96, A-12)
1600-1681 Pedro Calderon de la Barca, Spanish dramatist: “Cuando amor no es locura, no es amor.” (When love is not madness, it is not love.)
(AP, 10/30/98)
1600-1900 In Benin a succession of 12 kings ruled from Abomey and each one built a lavish palace.
(SFEC, 8/28/98, p.T4)
1600-1972 This period was covered by R.F. Foster in “Modern Ireland 1600-1972” (1989).
(WSJ, 11/13/96, p.A22)

1601 Jan 7, Robert, Earl of Essex led a revolt in London against Queen Elizabeth.
(MC, 1/7/02)

1601 Jan 17, The Treaty of Lyons ended a short war between France and Savoy.
(HN, 1/17/99)

1601 Feb 8, The armies of Earl Robert Devereux of Essex drew into London.
(MC, 2/8/02)

1601 Feb 13, John Lancaster led the 1st East India Company voyage from London.
(MC, 2/13/02)

1601 Feb 25, Robert Devereux (b.1566), 2nd earl of Essex, was beheaded following a conviction of treason. His plan to capture London and the Tower had failed.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Devereux,_2nd_Earl_of_Essex)(HN, 2/25/99)

1601 Mar 19, Alonzo Cano, Spanish painter, sculptor (Cathedral Granada), was born.
(MC, 3/19/02)

1601 May 2, Athanasius Kircher, German Jesuit, inventor (magic lantern), was born.
(MC, 5/2/02)

1601 Aug 17, Pierre de Fermat (d.1665), French mathematician, was born. [There is some dispute as to his exact birthdate.]
(WSJ, 11/25/96, p.A16)(SFEC,12/797, BR p.5)(SC, 8/17/02)

1601 Aug 22, Georges de Scudery, French writer (Observations sur le Cid), was born.
(MC, 8/22/02)

1601 Sep 27, Maria de Medicis (1575-1642), the 2nd wife of King Henry IV of France, gave birth to Louis XIII, who later became king of France (1610-43). Henry IV, in honor of the birth, revived a tapestry scheme by poet Nicholas Houel and artist Antoine Caron, that had been conceived in honor of Caterina de Medici (1519-1589). Louis ascended to the throne at the age of nine following the assassination of his father. At 17, he seized control of the empire from his mother Marie de’ Medici. Louis XIII proved to be a strongly pro-Catholic ruler.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marie_de%27_Medici)(Econ, 11/1/08, p.98)

1601 Oct 13, Tycho Brahe, astronomer, died in Prague.
(MC, 10/13/01)

1601 Adriaen de Vries, Dutch sculptor, supplied Augsburg, Germany, the cast the “Man Pouring Water From a Conch Shell.”
(WSJ, 1/8/99, p.C13)

1601 Caravaggio painted “Supper at Emmaus.”
(WSJ, 8/4/04, p.D8)

1601 Dutch artist Joachim Wtewael painted “Mars and Venus Discovered by Vulcan.”
(SFEM, 8/31/97, p.8)

1601 A British measure, funded by taxes, provided jobs for the able-bodied poor and apprentice programs for children.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1601 Large portions of Russia received heavy rains in the summer of 1601, and by the end of the growing season it was clear that most crops would fail. This was later related to a major earthquake in Peru in 1600.

1601 Ottoman Sultan Mehmed III issued an order for the seizure of able youths aged 10-20 to be trained as janissaries, his special forces. “The infidel parents or anybody else who resists are to be hanged at once in front of their house gate, their blood being considered of no importance whatsoever.”
(WSJ, 9/17/01, p.A20)

1601-1658 Baltasar Gracian, Spanish philosopher: “You should avoid making yourself too clear even in your explanations.”
(AP, 8/13/00)

1602 Jan 2, Battle at Kinsale, Ireland: English army beat the Spanish.
(MC, 1/2/02)

1602 Feb 2, The first recorded performance of Shakespeare’s comedy “Twelfth Night” took place. It was not published until 1623.
(Econ, 3/9/13, p.86)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Twelfth_Night)

1602 Feb 9, Franciscus van de Enden, Flemish Jesuit, free thinker, tutor of Spinoza, was born.
(MC, 2/9/02)

1602 Feb 14, Pier Francesco Cavalli, Italian opera composer, was born.
(MC, 2/14/02)

1602 Mar 20, The Dutch East India Company (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie) was chartered to carry on trade in the East Indies. The VOC traded to 1798 whereupon its possessions were dissolved into the Dutch empire. In 2010 a student found a share in the company issued to an official named Pieter Harmenz dating to Sep 9, 1606. As a result, continuous trade in company stock emerged on the Amsterdam Exchange.
(SFC, 9/10/10, p.A2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stock_market)(Econ, 2/25/12, SRp.4)

1602 Apr 2, Maria de Jesus de Agreda (Maria Coronel), Spanish Franciscan, was born.
(MC, 4/2/02)

1602 Apr 11, Johann Neukrantz, composer, was born.
(MC, 4/11/02)

1602 Apr 30, William Lilly, astrologer, author, almanac compiler, was born in England.
(MC, 4/30/02)

1602 May 15, Bartholomew Gosnold, English navigator, discovered Cape Cod.
(AP, 5/15/97)(HN, 5/15/98)

1602 May 21, Martha’s Vineyard was first sighted by Captain Bartholomew Gosnold.
(HN, 5/21/98)

1602 May, Sebastian Vizcaino, a Basque merchant, led 4 small ships north from Acapulco, Mexico, to chart the coast of California.
(SFC, 11/13/02, p.A8)

1602 Jul 14, Jules Mazarin, French cardinal, French 1st Minister (1642-61), was born.
(MC, 7/14/02)

1602 Jul 29, The Duke of Biron was executed in Paris for conspiring with Spain and Savoy against King Henry IV of France.
(HN, 7/29/98)

1602 Nov 12, The Vizcaino expedition held Mass on the feast day of San Diego de Alcala. He named the California landing port after the saint.
(SFC, 11/13/02, p.A8)

1602 Nov 20, Otto von Guericke, inventor (air pump), was born.
(MC, 11/20/01)

1602 Dec 5, Giulio Caccini’s “Euridice,” premiered in Florence.
(MC, 12/5/01)

1602 Dec 16-Jan 3, The Vizcaino expedition stopped at Monterey, Ca., and grizzly bears were seen feeding on a whale carcass. Sebastian Vizcaino, Spanish Explorer, discovered an island off the coast of California that he named San Nicolas. It is the outermost of the eight Channel Islands about 75 miles southwest of Los Angeles. It was later used as the site for Scott O’Dell’s novel: “Island of the Blue Dolphins.” [see 1835-1853] Santa Barbara was named by the Vizcaino expedition.
(Pac. Disc., summer, ‘96, p.12)(IBD, 1960, p.183)(Via, 3-4/99, p.38)

1602 Caravaggio painted “The Taking of Christ.” In 2005 Jonathan Harr authored “The Lost Painting: The Quest for a Caravaggio Masterpiece.”
(WSJ, 5/13/99, p.A28)(SSFC, 12/11/05, p.M6)

1602 An atlas made by the Flemish mapmaker Abraham Ortelius, bound in vellum with text in Spanish, was one of dozens issued between 1570 and 1612. It is available in 1995 for $160,000 from New York dealer W.G. Arader III.
(WSJ, 11/24/95, p.B-8)
1602 Matteo Ricci, a Jesuit missionary from Italy, created the first Chinese map to show the Americas, at the request of Emperor Wanli. The map identified Florida as “the Land of Flowers” and put China at the center of the world. Ricci was among the first Westerners to live in what is now Beijing in the early 1600s. He became known for introducing Western science to China. In October, 2009, one such Ricci maps, one of only two in good condition, was purchased by the James Ford Bell Trust for $1 million, making it the 2nd most expensive rare map ever sold.
(AP, 1/12/10)

1602 Bartholomew Gosnold camped for a few months in a party of 24 gentlemen and 8 sailors on Cuttyhunk Island, Mass.
(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.23)

1602 Denmark imposed a strict trade monopoly and cut off Iceland’s products from lucrative markets.
(SFEC, 9/19/99, p.A18)

1602 Japan’s Shogun Ieyasu seized the Dutch ship Liefde and granted its crew allowances to live in Japan.
(ON, 11/02, p.9)

1602 In Macau the Mother of God Church, begun in 1582 by the Jesuits, was completed. At the time it was the largest Catholic church in Asia. Next to the Mother of God Church is the University College of St Paul. For some unknown reason, the name “St Paul” came to be attached to the church facade which is actually a “next door neighbor”.

1602-1603 In Russia agricultural failure in 1601 led to widespread starvation in both 1602 and 1603. It claimed the lives of an estimated 2 million people, or about one-third of the population, and more than 100,000 died in Moscow alone. Government inability to alleviate both the calamity and the subsequent unrest eventually led to the overthrow of Czar Boris Godunov, a defining event in Russian history.

1602-1674 Phillipe de Champaigne, painter. His work included the “Portrait of Arnauld D’Andilly.”
(AAP, 1964)

1602-1686 Otto von Guericke helped to overthrow the guesswork physics of Aristotle through experiments with air pressure.
(SFC, 10/2/97, p.E5)

1603 Jan 1, The Spanish party of Sebastion Vizcaino sighted a point off the Central California coast that they named Ano Nuevo.
(SFEC, 2/27/00, p.T8)

1603 Mar 24, Tudor Queen Elizabeth I (69), the “Virgin Queen,” died. She had reigned from 1558-1603. Scottish King James VI, son of Mary, became King James I of England in the union of the crowns. Each country retained its own parliament until 1707. In 2006 Leanda de Lisle authored “After Elizabeth.” In 2016 John Guy authored “Elizabeth: The Forgotten Years.”
(WSJ, 4/16/97, p.A13)(WSJ, 2/4/06, p.P9)(Reuters, 2/16/12)(Econ, 4/30/15, p.77)

1603 Mar 30, Battle at Mellifont: English army under Lord Mountjoy beat the Irish.
(MC, 3/30/02)

1603 Apr 3, William Smith, composer, was born.
(MC, 4/3/02)

1603 Apr 5, New English king James I departed Edinburgh for London.
(MC, 4/5/02)

1603 Jul 17, Sir Walter Raleigh (1552-1618) was arrested. He was prosecuted by Sir Edward Coke. James I suspended his death sentence and had him incarcerated in the Tower of London for 13 years during which time he wrote his “History of the World.”
(www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/TUDrayleigh.htm)(WSJ, 1/6/04, p.D10)

1603 Jul 29, Bartholomew Gilbert was killed in the colony of Virginia by Indians, during a search for the missing Roanoke colonists.

1603 Oct 20, A Chinese uprising in the Philippines failed after 23,000 killed.
(MC, 10/20/01)

1603 Nov 5, Irini Fedorovna, Russian daughter of Czar Boris Godunov, died.
(MC, 11/5/01)

1603 Dec 27, Thomas Cartwright (~68), English Presbyterian publicist, died.
(MC, 12/27/01)

1603 Roger Williams (d.1683) was born in London. After a brief period as a Baptist, the founder of the Rhode Island Colony and colonial religious leader, became a Seeker—one who adhered to the basic tenets of Christianity but refused to recognize any creed. Williams was the first champion of complete religious toleration in America.
(HNQ, 5/1/99)(WSJ, 6/21/05, p.D10)
1603 The Church of England canon law required priests to hold morning and evening prayers and a communion service each Sunday in every church they oversaw.
(AP, 2/22/19)
1603 Francis Bacon (1561-1626), English philosopher and statesman who served as Attorney General and as Lord Chancellor of England, was knighted.
1603 King James I of England allowed the public limited access to Hyde Park.
(SFEM, 3/21/99, p.8)
1603 Following the London plague in this year weekly Bills of Mortality began to be published.
(Econ, 12/22/07, p.97)

1603 In Prague Adriaen de Vries made a bust of Emperor Rudolf.
(WSJ, 12/7/99, p.A24)

1603 Kabuki theater started in Japan when a shrine maiden named Okuni traveled to Kyoto and performed a dance of ecstasy dressed in men’s clothing while chanting Buddha’s name. [see 1586]
(SFC, 7/12/01, p.A23)
1603 In Japan the wooden Nihonbashi bridge, half way between Edo Bay and Edo Castle, was built. In 1911 it was replaced by a stone version.
(Econ, 10/7/06, p.52)
1603 The Nijo Castle was built in Kyoto, Japan, as a residence for the Shogun. The castle’s Ninomaru Palace is famous for its “nightingale” (creaking) floors that warn of intruders.
(Hem., 2/96, p.60)
1603 Tokyo replaced Kyoto as the administrative center of Japan.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R51)

1603 The Dutch East India Company seized a Portuguese ship laden with raw silk and gold near the straight of Malacca and hired Dutch jurist Hugo Grotius (1583-1645) to defend its action. In 1625 Grotius authored “Mare Liberum” (The Free Sea) arguing that the seas were international territory and should be open to all.
(Econ, 11/15/14, SR p.11)

1603 Galileo invented the thermometer.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1603-1617 Ahmed I succeeded Mehmed III in the Ottoman House of Osman. Ahmet I had the Blue Mosque constructed to show that Muslim architects could rival the Byzantine glories of the Haghia Sophia. Construction was completed in 1616, a year before Ahmet I died at age 27.
(Ot, 1993, xvii)(AP, 11/30/06)

1603-1868 The founding and era of the Tokugawa Shogunate.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.34)

1604 Apr 4, Thomas Churchyard, poet, pamphleteer, died.
(MC, 4/4/02)

1604 May 4, Claudio Merulo (71), Italian organist, composer, died.
(MC, 5/4/02)

1604 May 18, (OS)England and Spain agreed signed the Treaty of London ending the 19 year Anglo-Spanish war.
(AH, 6/07, p.31)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_London_%281604%29)

1604 Jun 26, French explorer Samuel de Champlain, Pierre Dugua and 77 others landed on the island of St. Croix and made friends with the native Passamaquoddy Indians. It later became part of Maine on the US-Canadian border.
(PacDis, Spring/’94, p. 43)(SSFC, 6/20/04, p.D10)

1604 Sep 20, After a two-year siege, the Spanish retook Ostend [NW Belgium], the Netherlands, from the Dutch.
(WUD, 1994, p.1019)(HN, 9/20/98)

1604 Oct 9, “Kepler’s Nova” was 1st sighted. Kepler saw the supernova on Oct 17.

1604 Nov 1, William Shakespeare’s tragedy “Othello” was first presented at Whitehall Palace in London.
(AP, 11/1/99)

1604 Nov, Richard Bancroft (1544-1610) became the Archbishop of Canterbury. He was the “chief overseer” of the production of the King James Bible (1604-1611).
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Bancroft)(SFC, 4/17/17, p.A2)

1604 Claude Lorrain (b.1682), French painter (also known as Claude Gelée), was born.
(WSJ, 11/6/02, p.D8)

1604 Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (1547-1616) published the first part of “The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Quixote de la Mancha.” Don Quixote and his friend Sancho Panza seek what a modern poet has called an impossible dream, a dream of justice in an earthly paradise, a contradiction in terms, as practical men have always known… Cervantes was the first to see that the new world coming into being needed such heroes; otherwise it would go mad.” In 2006 Manuel Duran and Fay R. Rogg authored “Fighting Windmills.”
(V.D.-H.K.p.150)(HN, 9/29/02)(WSJ, 6/10/06, p.P8)

1604 The “Moor of Venis” (Othello) by Shaxberd (Shakespeare) was performed in London.
(http://ise.uvic.ca/Library/SLTnoframes/plays/othsubj.html)(WSJ, 10/22/05, p.P13)
1604 Christopher Marlowe, English writer, published his version of the “Tragical History of Dr. Faustus.”
1604 The first official condemnation of tobacco was made by King James I, who cited the health hazards of smoking in his Counterblaste to Tobacco.
(HNQ, 11/10/98)

1604 Juan de Onate, Spanish colonizer of New Mexico, explored along the Colorado.
(NG, 5.1988, Mem For)

1604 Samuel de Champlain sailed into the river estuary at what later became the seaport of St. John in New Brunswick, Canada.
(SFEC, 7/30/00, p.T5)

1604 Johannes Kepler, German astronomer, observed a supernova with his naked eye. He also worked out an elliptical orbit for Mars.
(NG, 5/88, p.619)(SFC, 11/29/96, p.A16)

c1604 Arjun, the 5th Sikh guru, compiled the sacred book “Granth Sahib,” a compilation of over 6,000 hymns meant to be sung to classical Indian ragas. Arjun was responsible for the Harimandir (temple of God) in the city of Amritsar. Arjun was later executed by Muslim rulers in Lahore. In 2004 Sikhs marked the 400th anniversary of the book’s arrival to Amritsar.
(WSJ, 10/12/01, p.W17)(AP, 9/1/04)

1604-1605 Caravaggio painted “St. John the Baptist in the Wilderness.”
(WSJ, 4/28/98, p.A16)

1604-1606 Caravaggio painted “Madonna di Loreto.”
(WSJ, 2/8/00, p.A20)

1604-1634 Ligdan Khan (reigned 1604-34), the last great Mongol leader, ruled. He united many Mongol tribes to defend their homeland against the rising power of the Manchu.

1604-1690 Reverend John Eliot was an English missionary in Massachusetts called the “Apostle to the Indians.” The Puritan Eliot learned the Algonquian language and preached to the Indians. He translated the Bible into Algonquian and published it in 1663 in Cambridge, Mass.
(HNQ, 6/7/98)(WSJ, 8/7/98, p.W13)

1605 Apr 8, Philip IV king of Spain and Portugal (1621-65), was born.
(HN, 4/8/98)
1605 Apr 8, Louis de Vadder, Flemish painter, was born.
(MC, 4/8/02)

1605 Apr 12, Boris Godunov, Tsar of Russia (1598-1605), died.
(MC, 4/12/02)

1605 Apr 16, New Mexico’s Gov. Don Juan de Onate y Salazar passed by the sandstone bluff of El Morro where he left his mark in the stone. He was returning from an expedition to the Gulf of California, which he called the South Sea.
(SSFC, 4/10/05, p.F9)(Econ., 3/14/15, SR p.3)

1605 Apr 18, Giacomo Carissimi, composer, was born.
(MC, 4/18/02)

1605 Jun 10, False Dimitri was crowned Russian tsar for 1st time.
(MC, 6/10/02)

1605 Jun 15, Thomas Randolph, English poet and playwright, was born.
(HT, 6/15/00)

1605 Jun, Pierre Dugua moved the French settlement at St. Croix, Maine, to Nova Scotia at a site named Port Royal.
(SSFC, 6/27/04, p.A2)

1605 Sep 27, Jan Karol Chodkiewicz (1560-1621), Lithuanian Hetman (Jonas Karolis Katkevi?ius-Katkus), led Lithuanian and Polish forces to victory against a Swedish army at Kircholm, Latvia. Chodkiewicz carried the day in a victory that, taking into account the disparity of power and strategic result, was huge. It is estimated that 6000 Swedes died. Sweden’s King Charles IX was wounded.

1605 Oct 19, Thomas Browne (d.1682), British writer (Garden of Cyrus), was born.

1605 Nov 5, The Gunpowder Plot was planned in response to strict enforcement of anti-Catholic laws by King James I. Several prominent English Catholics plotted to blow up Parliament when the King was to address the House of Lords. Robert Catesby gathered a dozen young men to smuggle barrels of gunpowder into the basement of the House of Parliament. 36 barrels of gunpowder were placed in the cellar. The plot was discovered and one of the conspirators, Guy Fawkes, was arrested as he entered the cellar before the planned explosion. Fawkes was supposed to light the fuse but was caught and horribly tortured. Fawkes, after persuasion on the rack in the White Tower of London, confessed to trying to blow up Parliament. Fawkes and other conspirators were tried, convicted and executed. November 5 is known as Guy Fawkes Day in England and is celebrated by shooting firecrackers and burning effigies of Fawkes. The story is told in the 1996 book “Faith and Treason: The Story of the Gunpowder Plot” by Antonia Fraser. In 2005 Alice Hogge authored “God’s Secret Agents: Queen Elizabeth’s Forbidden Priests and the Hatching of the Gunpowder Plot.”
(NG, V184, No. 4, 10/1993, p. 54)(AP, 11/5/97)(HNQ, 3/15/00)(Econ, 11/5/05, p.92)

1605 Dec 1, Juan de Padilla, composer, was born.
(MC, 12/1/01)

1605 Dec 27, English sea captain John Davis was killed by Japanese pirates whose ship he had captured off the coast of Sumatra. In 1889 Clements Markham authored “A Life of John Davis, the Navigator, 1550-1605, Discoverer of Davis Straits.”
(ON, 11/05, p.9)

1605 The painting “Death of Samson,” attributed to Peter Paul Rubens, may have been done by a student and completed as late as 1650. The work was later purchased by the Getty Museum for $6 million through Italian art dealers from the Corsini family and contested whether or not it was a national treasure.
(WSJ, 4/2/99, p.W12)

1605 Bacon published his “Advancement of Learning.”

1605 Pope Paul V (d.1621) was elected following Clement VIII. After 2 months he elevated his young law-student nephew, Scipione Borghese, to the office of cardinal.
(WSJ, 9/15/98, p.A20)(WSJ, 2/8/00, p.A20)

1605 The American Indian Tisquantum, aka Squanto, was picked up by seafarer George Weymouth and taken to England. He spent 9 years there and returned to the New World as the interpreter for John Smith.
(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.28)

1605 The first scientific description of the dodo bird was made by the Dutch botanist Carolus Clusius from an observation of a dodo at the home of the anatomist Peter Paauw.
(NH, 11/96, p.24)

1605 In France Henry IV and his minister, Duc de Sully, decided to build a square over the former site of the Hotel Royal des Tournelles. The new square was named the Place Royale until the Revolution when it was renamed the Place des Vosges after the first administrative department, Les Vosges, that paid taxes.
(SFEM, 3/15/98, p.16)

1605 Henry IV established a building code that set architectural themes and specified that pavilions had to be owned by a single family.
(SFEM, 3/15/98, p.35)

1605 In India Akbar the Great died. He was succeeded by Juhangir the ineffectual and his “evil queen” Nur Jahan.
(HT, 4/97, p.23)

1605 Japan’s Shogun Ieyasu allowed some of the Dutch crew of the ship Liefde to return home, but kept Will Adams in Japan. Adams soon married Magoma Oyuki, a young noblewoman.
(ON, 11/02, p.10)

1605-1612 Don Pedro de Zuniga served as the Spanish ambassador to England. Zuniga actively engaged in espionage while serving as ambassador to England, sending various reports and maps concerning the English colony in Virginia to the Spanish court.
(AH, 6/07, p.31)(www.she-philosopher.com/ib/bios/zuniga.html)

1605-1704 Marc-Antoine Charpentier, French composer. His work included “Antiennes “O” de l’Avent.”
(WSJ, 11/27/01, p.A20)

1606 Jan 31, Guy Fawkes, convicted for his part in the “Gunpowder Plot” against the English Parliament and King James I, was hanged, drawn and quartered.
(AP, 1/31/98)(HN, 1/31/99)

1606 Apr 12, England’s King James I decreed the design of the original Union Flag (also referred to as the Union Jack), which combined the flags of England and Scotland.
(HN, 4/12/98)(AP, 4/12/06)

1606 May 6, Lorenzo Lippi, [Perlone Zipoli], poet, painter, was born.
(MC, 5/6/02)

1606 Jun 6, Pierre Corneille (d.1684), French dramatist, poet and writer of Le Cid, was born: “Guess, if you can, and choose, if you dare.”
(AP, 3/28/98)(HN, 6/6/98)

1606 Jul 15, The painter Rembrandt (d.1669) Harmenszoom van Rizn (Rijn), was born in Leiden, Netherlands. His paintings included “Old Woman Cutting Her Nails,” “Night Watch,” “Self Portrait Leaning Forward” (1628), “Two Studies of Saskia Asleep” (1635-1637), “Jupiter and Antiope” (1659) and “Aristotle Contemplating the Bust of Homer.” He started making etchings in the 1620s when the medium was barely a 100 years old.
(WSJ, 10/1/96, p.A20)(SFC, 10/12/96, p.E3)(SFC, 5/17/97, p.E1)(AP, 7/15/97)

1606 Dec 20, Virginia Company settlers left London to establish Jamestown.
(HFA, ’96, p.44)(MC, 12/20/01)

c1606 Caravaggio painted “St. John the Baptist.”
(WSJ, 4/28/98, p.A16)
1606 Caravaggio fled Rome after he accidentally killed a man.
(Econ, 2/26/05, p.82)

c1606 Peter Paul Rubens painted “The Massacre of the Innocents.” In 2002 it sold for $76.7 million at auction.
(WSJ, 7/11/02, p.B8)

1606 Shakespeare wrote the tragedy “King Lear.” William Shakespeare wrote “Antony and Cleopatra.” He also wrote “The Tragedy of Macbeth.” A shorter version was made in 1623 Folio.
(WUD, 1994, p.788)(WSJ, 3/13/97, p.A12)(WSJ, 10/27/97, p.A1)

1606 Dona Maria, a Timucua Indian woman, inherited the position of chief of San Pedro de Mocama on Cumberland Island, Georgia. She had been chief of Nombre de Dios, a Spanish Franciscan mission town in Florida.
(AM, 7/01, p.22)

1606 The order of the Sisters of Ursula was founded in France. Like their Jesuit brethren they try to fuse contemplative withdrawal with worldly engagement.
(WSJ, 12/3/98, p.W17)

1606 Venice expelled the Jesuits as part of a larger jurisdictional dispute with the Vatican.
(WSJ, 5/5/07, p.P10)

1606-1612 A drought in the American southeast was the worst in 770 years and caused the deaths of many Jamestown colonists in 1910.
(SFC, 4/24/98, p.A3)

1607 Jan 30, A sudden flood around the Bristol Channel in southwest Britain killed at least 2,000 people. It was the worst natural disaster ever recorded in Britain.
(Econ, 5/5/07, p.101)

1607 Feb 24, Claudio Monteverdi’s opera “Orfeo,” premiered at the Court Theater in Mantua.
(WSJ, 6/19/97, p.A16)(AP, 2/24/07)

1607 Mar 8, Johann Rist, composer, was born.
(MC, 3/8/02)

1607 Apr 26, Ships under the command of Capt. Christopher Newport sought shelter in Chesapeake Bay. The forced landing led to the founding of Jamestown on the James River, the first English settlement. An expedition of English colonists, including Capt. John Smith, went ashore at Cape Henry, Va., to establish the first permanent English settlement in the Western Hemisphere.
(NG, Sept. 1939, p.356)(AP, 4/26/98)(HN, 4/26/98)

1607 Apr, The Midland Revolt was a popular uprising which took place in the Midlands of England. From late April to throughout May riots took place as a protest against the enclosure of common land. In the Midland Revolt the term “Leveller” was used to refer to those who ‘levelled’ hedges in the enclosure riots.

1607 May 13, English colonists landed near the James River in Virginia. They went shore the next day and founded a colony named Jamestown. In 1996 archeologist discovered the original Jamestown Fort and the remains of one settler, a young white male who died a violent death. In 2003 David A. Price authored “Love and Hate in Jamestown.”
(SFC, 9/13/96, p.A2)(AP, 5/13/97)(HN, 5/24/98)(WSJ, 11/25/03, p.D8)(AP, 5/13/07)

1607 May 14, Some 104 men and boys filed ashore from the small sailing ships Susan Constant, Godspeed, and Discovery, onto what English adventurers came to call Jamestown Island in Virginia. Capt. John Smith (27) was among the Englishmen who founded Jamestown.
(HN, 10/3/00)(AP, 5/14/97)(SFEC, 10/15/00, p.T12)(ON, 2/07, p.7)

1607 May 24, Captain Christopher Newport and 105 followers founded Jamestown on the mouth of the James River in Virginia. They had left England with 144 members, 39 died on the way over. The colony was near the large Indian village of Werowocomoco, home of Pocahontas, the daughter Powhatan, an Algonquin chief. In 2003 archeologists believed that they had found the site of Werowocomoco, where Powhatan resided from 1607-1609.
(HN, 5/24/99)(SFC, 5/7/03, p.A2)(Arch, 1/06, p.27)

1607 May 26, Some 200 Indian warriors stormed the unfinished stockade at Jamestown, Va. 2 settlers were killed and 10 seriously wounded before they were repulsed by cannon fire from the colonists’ 3 moored ships.
(ON, 2/07, p.7)

1607 Jun 15, Colonists in North America completed James Fort in Jamestown. Hostilities with the Indians ended as ambassadors said their emperor, Powhatan, had commanded local chiefs to live in peace with the English.
(HN, 6/15/98)(ON, 2/07, p.7)

1607 Jun 21, The Church of England Episcopal Church, the 1st Protestant Episcopal parish in America, was established at Jamestown, Va. The 39 articles of the Episcopal Faith included the statement: “There is but one living and true God, everlasting, without body, parts, or passions; of infinite power, wisdom and goodness; the Maker, and Preserver of all things both visible and invisible.”
(SFC, 7/21/97, p.A11)(MC, 6/21/02)(WSJ, 6/20/03, p.W15)

1607 Jul 7, “God Save the King” was 1st sung.
(MC, 7/7/02)

1607 Aug 14, The Popham expedition reached the Sagadahoc River in the northeastern North America (Maine), and settled there.
(HN, 8/14/98)

1607 Sep 28, Samuel de Champlain and his colonists returned to France from Port Royal Nova Scotia.
(HN, 9/28/98)

1607 Nov 26, This day is believed to be the birth date of London-born clergyman John Harvard, the principal benefactor of the original Harvard College in Cambridge, Mass.
(AP, 11/26/07)

1607 “The Knight of the Burning Pestle,” a play by Francis Beaumont (1584-1616), was first performed. It was first published in a quarto in 1613.

1607 In Aceh Sultan Iskandar Muda fielded the largest fighting force of the region with an army that had Persian horses an elephant corps and 800-man galleys to control the seas.
(SFC, 1/20/00, p.A12)

1607 In China the Great Wall’s largest stone tower, Zhenbeitai, was built at Yulin, near the border of Inner Mongolia.
(SSFC, 9/1/02, p.C6)

1607 In Japan a fortification in the city of Kumamoto was built by Kiyomasa Kato, a veteran military campaigner and feudal lord who took part in the reunification of Japan, which had been ravaged by a century of war.
(AP, 4/16/16)

1607 Francisco de Rojas Zorrilla (d.c1660), Spanish dramatist, was born at Toledo. He became a knight of Santiago in 1644. The exact date of his death is unknown.

1607-1677 Wenceslaus Hollar, Bohemian artist. He made an engraving of old St. Paul’s Cathedral in London.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.14)

1608 Jan 7, An accidental fire devastated the Jamestown settlement in the Virginia Colony.
(AP, 1/7/08)

1608 Jan 28, Giovanni Alfonso Borelli, mathematician, astronomer, was born in Naples.
(MC, 1/28/02)

1608 Jan, John Smith met with the Indian emperor Powhatan at Werocomoco on the Pamunkey River. He studied the Powhattan language and culture. The Powhattans were an aggressive tribe and under Chief Powhatan’s leadership, they had conquered and subjugated more than 20 other tribes. Pocahontas was a Powhattan Indian girl of 10-11 years when she new Smith in Virginia. Records of the colony were kept by William Strachey, its official historian. The Powhattans were an aggressive tribe and under Chief Powhattan’s leadership, they conquered and subjugated more than 20 other tribes. Before coming to Virginia, John Smith had served as a mercenary in Hungary and was wounded, captured and sold into slavery by his Turkish adversaries; he escaped by killing his owner.
(WSJ, 6/13/95, p.A-18)(ON, 2/07, p.8)

1608 May 19, The Protestant states formed the Evangelical Union of Lutherans and Calvinists under the direction of the elector of Brandenburg.
(HN, 5/19/99)

1608 May 28, Claudio Monteverdi’s “Arianna,” premiered in Mantua.
(MC, 5/28/02)

1608 Jun 4, Francesco Caracciolo (44), Italian religious founder, saint, died.
(MC, 6/4/02)

1608 Jul 3, The city of Quebec was founded as a trading post by Samuel de Champlain. The French adventurer Etienne Brule accompanied Champlain to North America and was reportedly eaten by the Huron Indians.
(AP, 7/3/97)(www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1608champlain.html)

1608 Aug 13, John Smith’s story of Jamestown’s 1st days was submitted for publication.
(MC, 8/13/02)

1608 Sep 1, Giacomo Torelli, composer, was born.
(MC, 9/1/02)

1608 Sep 10, John Smith was elected president of the Jamestown colony council in Virginia. Records of the colony were kept by William Strachey, its official historian.
(WSJ, 6/13/95, p.A-18)(AP, 9/10/97)

1608 Sep 25, Hans Lipperhey applied to the government of Zeeland for a patent for the telescope. In 2005 Fred Watson authored “Stargazer: The Life and Times of the Telescope.”
(SSFC, 8/14/05, p.F2)(http://tinyurl.com/93lb6)

1608 Oct 1, Some 200 new settlers arrived at the Jamestown colony, including Dutch and Polish glass-makers, artisans and the first European women in the colony.
(http://spuscizna.org/spuscizna/1608.html)(AH, 6/07, p.27)

1608 Oct 2, Jan Lippershey, spectacle maker, formally offered to the Estates of Holland his new spyglass for warfare. He was the 1st to file a patent claim for a spyglass.
(www.britannica.com/eb/article?tocId=9048449)(CW, Spring ‘99, p.33)

1608 Dec 6, George Monck (Monk), English general and gov. of Scotland, was born.
(MC, 12/6/01)

1608 Dec 9, English blind poet and polemical pamphleteer John Milton (1608-1674) was born in London. His work included “Paradise Lost,” Paradise Regained,” and “Samson Agonistes.” Milton lost one eye at 36 and the other when he was 44. In 1996 Paul West wrote a novel: “Sporting with Amaryllis,” that begins in 1626 and gives a fictional account of his life. In 1997 Peter Levy wrote a biography of Milton titled: “Eden Renewed.”
(WUD, ’94, p.911)(WSJ, 5/6/97, p.A20)(AP, 12/9/97)

1608 Italian artist Caravaggio was expelled from the Knights of Malta after he murdered one young man and got into a brawl that left a knight seriously injured.
(AP, 2/5/13)

1608 Rubens painted “Adoration of the Shepherds.”
(WSJ, 2/8/00, p.A20)

1608 Shakespeare wrote his play “Pericles.” It was about a prince who journeys through evil kingdoms until he meets his bride and then loses her at sea.
(WSJ, 11/11/98, p.A21)

1608 Monteverdi wrote his opera “Arianna.” It was based on a libretto by Ottavio Rinuccini. Only fragments survived into the 20th century when Alexander Goehr composed a contemporary version that premiered in 1998 in St. Louis.
(WSJ, 7/2/98, p.A20)

1608 Bowling in Jamestown was banned after workers were found bowling instead of building the fort.
(SFC, 7/28/97, p.A3)
1608 Capt. John Smith seeking passage to the Pacific and the South Seas sailed through a Chesapeake Bay tributary and was amazed at Indian skill in building log canoes.
(NG, Sept. 1939, J. Maloney p.357)
1608 Settlers in Jamestown, Virginia, shipped distilled tar back to its sponsors in England, the first manufactured item exported from the US.
(SFEC, 7/6/97, Z1 p.6)
1608 Robert Hunt (b.1568), the 1st chaplain at Jamestown, Va., died. The remains of Hunt and 3 other Jamestown leaders were found in 2015 amid the ruins of a church on the site of Fort James. The others were identified as Capt. Gabriel Archer, Sir Ferdinando Wainman and Capt. William West.
(http://tinyurl.com/pnlxcqm)(SFC, 7/29/15, p.A6)

1608 Bushmills Distillery in Northern Ireland acquired a license for whiskey production. They had been producing whiskey since the 1100s.
(SFEC, 1/10/99, p.T8)

1608 Shakespeare’s theater group, The King’s Men, incorporated technical changes in their plays with the acquisition of the indoor Blackfriars theater.
(WSJ, 5/1/97, p.A16)

1608 Inigo Jones built an oak-paneled hall for Queen Elizabeth’s ambassador to France. The room was later bought intact by William Randolph Hearst and shipped to New York. It was later purchased by the developer of the SF Cannery and shipped to SF. It was set up as the interior of Jack’s.
(SFEC, 7/12/98, DB p.32)

1608 In England Bess of Hardwick died at age 80. Know as the Dowager Countess of Shrewsbury, she built the Hardwick Hall in Derbyshire. Bess had married and disposed of four husbands, each leaving her richer than the last. She had been a moneylender, property dealer, exploiter of iron works, coal mines, and glass works, and ended up the richest woman in England after the Queen. She only had children by her second husband, Sir William Cavendish. Her fortune was divided between two sons, William and Charles.
(NG, Nov. 1985, M. Girouard, p.662,671)(SFEM, 10/11/98, p.20)

1608 Shogun Ieyasu ordered Will Adams to go to the Philippines to invite the Spanish Gov. Don Diego Vevero y Velasco to compete with the Portuguese for trade with Japan.
(ON, 11/02, p.10)

1609 Feb 7, Ferdinand I, cardinal, ruler of Tuscany, died.
(MC, 2/7/02)

1609 Feb 10, John Suckling, English Cavalier poet, dramatist, courtier, was born.
(MC, 2/10/02)

1609 Feb 28, Paul Sartorius (39), composer, died.
(MC, 2/28/02)

1609 Mar 21, Jan II Kazimierz, cardinal, King of Poland (1648-68), was born.
(MC, 3/21/02)

1609 Mar 25, Henry Hudson embarked on an exploration for Dutch East India Co.
(MC, 3/25/02)

1609 Mar, John Dee (b.1527), English mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, occultist, navigator, imperialist and consultant to Queen Elizabeth I, died about this time. Dec 1608 is also given as his time of death.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Dee)(Econ, 6/30/12, p.86)

1609 Apr 9, Spain’s King Philip III decreed the expulsion of the Moriscos, descendants of the Muslim population that converted to Christianity under threat of exile from Ferdinand and Isabella in 1502.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Expulsion_of_the_Moriscos)(Econ, 2/22/14, p.44)

1609 Jul, Emperor Rudolf II granted Bohemia freedom of religion with his Letter of Majesty (Majestatsbrief).

1609 Jul 10, The Catholic states in Germany set up a league under the leadership of Maximillian of Bavaria.
(HN, 7/10/98)

1609 Jul 15, Annibale Carracci (b.1560), Italian Baroque painter, died.

1609 Jul 25, Admiral William Somers, head of a 7-ship fleet enroute to Virginia, spied land after being blown off course and soon drove his ship, the Sea Venture, onto the reefs of Bermuda. William Strachey (1572-1621), was also aboard the Sea Venture and later sent a letter to England that described the event. The letter is thought by many to have been the inspiration for Shakespeare’s “Tempest.” Strachey became secretary of the colony at Jamestown, Virginia, after his arrival there on May 23, 1610. In 2009 Hobson Woodward authored: A Brave Vessel: The True Tale of the Castaways Who Rescued Jamestown and Inspired Shakespeare’s “The Tempest.”
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.29)(SFC, 8/18/09, p.E2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sea_Venture)

1609 Aug 25, Galileo demonstrated his 1st telescope to Venetian lawmakers. Galileo Galilei had improved the newly invented telescope and pointed it at the moon.
(V.D.-H.K.p.200)(Econ, 8/15/09, p.12)

1609 Aug 28, Henry Hudson discovered Delaware Bay.
(AP, 8/28/97)

1609 Sep 3-4, Henry Hudson discovered the island of Manhattan. The exact date is not known.
(MC, 9/3/01)(www.hudsonriver.com)

1609 Sep 12, English explorer Henry Hudson sailed his ship, the Half Moon, into the river that later took his name. Hudson sailed for the Dutch East India Company in search of the Northwest Passage, a water route linking the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
(AP, 9/12/97)(Econ, 7/4/09, p.28)

1609 Oct 12, The song “Three Blind Mice” was published in London, believed to be the earliest printed secular song.
(HN, 10/12/00)

1609 Nov 30, Galileo began observing the moon with his perspicullum from Padua, Italy.
(CW, Spring ‘99, p.34)

1609 Caravaggio (1571-1610) completed his “Adoration of the Shepherds,” during a brief stay in Messina, Sicily.
(AP, 10/7/09)
c1609 Peter Paul Rubens painted “Samson and Delilah.”
(SFC, 3/5/05, p.E1)
c1609 Rubens painted “The Head of St. John the Baptist.” In 1998 it sold for $5.5 mil to Alfred Bader.
(SFC, 2/3/98, p.E3)

1609 Dutchman Huig de Groot authored a treatise titled “Mare Liberum” (The Open Sea) in which he argued that seas were open to anyone.
(Econ, 1/18/14, p.80)
1609 Ben Johnson wrote his play “The Silent Woman.”
(WSJ, 2/7/03, p.W2)
1609 Johannes Kepler (1571-1630), German astronomer and mathematician, authored “Astronomia Nova.” Written in 1605, but not published until 1609, it discussed how Mars moves in an elliptical orbit.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johannes_Kepler)(SFC, 10/25/99, p.A4)(Econ, 8/15/09, p.75)
1609 Shakespeare wrote his play “Cymbeline.” It was based on the story of Cymbeline, king of Britain during the reign of Augustus Caesar in Rome.
(WSJ, 6/10/98, p.A16)(WSJ, 8/19/98, p.A16)
1609 The original text of Shakespeare’s 154 sonnets was published. In 1997 a poem-by-poem commentary was published by Helen Vendler: “The Art of Shakespeare’s Sonnets.” A new Arden edition: “Shakespeare’s Sonnets” to elucidate the context of the poems was also published in 1997.
(WSJ, 11/12/97, p.A20)
1609 The song “Three Blind Mice” was published in London.
(SFC,12/5/97, p.C3)
1609 The British attempted to settle Grenada.

1609 Henry Hudson gave brandy to the local Indians and their chief passed out. The place was renamed “Manahachtanienk,” meaning “where everybody got drunk.” Authorities say that “Manhattan” came form an Indian word meaning “high island.”
(SFEC, 1/25/98, Z1 p.8)

1609 Capt. John Smith returned to England from Jamestown (Virginia) after being wounded in an accidental explosion of gunpowder.
(ON, 2/07, p.9)
1609 In 2013 the US Smithsonian Institution reported that settlers at Virginia’s Jamestown Colony resorted to cannibalism to survive the harsh winter of 1609, dismembering and consuming a 14-year-old English girl.
(Reuters, 5/1/13)

1609 The 1st newspaper was published in Germany.
(SFC, 7/26/04, p.F4)

1609 Forces from the Japanese feudal domain of Satsuma invaded the Ryukyu Islands and took the king hostage. Heavy tribute was soon demanded.
(NH, 9/01, p.56)

1609 Rabbi Loew (b.1525), also known as the Maharal of Prague, died. He became well-remembered for a legend about him creating a clay figure known as Golem, which he is said to have brought to life to protect Prague’s Jewish community from attacks.
(AP, 8/5/09)

1609 Sultan Ahmet commissioned the Blue Mosque to rival the other mosques of Istanbul, Turkey.
(CAM, Nov. Dec. ’95, p.29)

1609 Don Alonzo Perez de Guzman el Bueno, the Duke of Medina Sedonia and head of the failed Spanish Armada, died.
(ON, 3/02, p.6)

1609-1610 A dry spell that began in 1606 was responsible for “the starving time” at the Jamestown colony. Nearly half of the 350 colonists alive in June, 1610, were dead by the end of the summer.
(SFC, 4/24/98, p.A17)

1609-1611 The painting “The Massacre of the Innocents” was attributed to Peter Paul Rubens in 2002 and expected to sell for $5.7-8.5 million.
(SFC, 3/7/02, p.D12)

1610 Jan 7, The astronomer Galileo Galilei sighted four of Jupiter’s moons. Galileo discovered the 1st 3 Jupiter satellites, Io, Europa & Ganymede. He discovered mountains and valleys on the moon, that Jupiter has a moon of its own, and that the sun has spots which change. Galileo discovered multiple moons around Jupiter. He also observed Mars.
(V.D.-H.K.p.200)(SFC, 11/5/96, p.A4)(SFC, 11/29/96, p.A16)(AP, 1/7/98)(MC, 1/7/02)

1610 Feb 14, Polish king Sigismund III forced Dimitri #2 and the Romanov family to sign covenant against Czar Vasili Shuishki (sequel to story of “Boris Godunov”).
(MC, 2/14/02)

1610 Feb 28, Thomas West, Baron de La Mar, was appointed governor of Virginia.
(HN, 2/28/98)(MC, 2/28/02)

1610 Mar 13, Galileo published his observations of the night sky under the title “Siderius Nuncius” (Starry Messenger).
(CW, Spring ‘99, p.36)

1610 Mar 21, King James I addressed the English House of Commons.
(MC, 3/21/02)

1610 Apr 18, Robert Parsons (63), English Jesuit leader, plotter, died.
(MC, 4/18/02)

1610 Apr 22, Alexander VIII, [Pietro Ottoboni], Italian lawyer, Pope (1689-91), was born.
(MC, 4/22/02)

1610 May 11, Matteo Ricci, Italian Jesuit missionary (China), died.
(MC, 5/11/02)

1610 May 14, King Henri IV, Henri de Navarre (56), Bourbon King of France (1572, 89-1610) was assassinated by a fanatical monk, François Ravillac. Henri IV was succeeded by 11-year-old Louis XIII, under the eye of Cardinal Richelieu. Henry’s legacy included straight roads flanked by arbres d’alignement on both sides.
(SFEM, 3/15/98, p.17)(HN, 5/14/99)(MC, 5/14/02)(Econ, 2/14/04, p.48)

1610 May 15, Parliament of Paris appointed Louis XIII (8) as French king.
(MC, 5/15/02)

1610 May 24, Sir Thomas Gates instituted “laws divine moral and marshal, ” a harsh civil code for Jamestown, Va.
(HN, 5/24/99)

1610 Jun 3, Jacob Neefs, Flemish engraver, publisher, was baptized.
(MC, 6/3/02)

1610 Jun 10, The 1st Dutch settlers arrived from NJ to colonize Manhattan Island.
(MC, 6/10/02)
1610 Jun 10, English Lord De La Ware and his supply ships arrived at Jamestown allowing the colony to recover and survive.

1610 Jul 4, Battle at Klushino: King Sigismund II [III] of Poland beat Russia & Sweden.

1610 Jul 18, Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (b.1571), Italian artist, died in Porto Ercole at age 38. His paintings included “David With the Head of Goliath,” in which he used his own image for Goliath. In 1999 Helen Langdon authored the biography: “Caravaggio: A Life.” In 2000 Peter Robb authored the biography: “M: The Man Who Became Caravaggio.” In 2010 Andrew Graham-Dixon authored “Caravaggio: A Life Sacred and Profane.”
(Econ, 2/26/05, p.82)(WSJ, 5/4/05, p.D8)(http://tinyurl.com/8jjs6)(SFC, 7/22/10, p.79)

1610 Aug 3, Henry Hudson of England discovered a great bay on the east coast of Canada and named it for himself.
(HN, 8/3/98)(HNQ, 7/23/00)

1610 Aug 27, Polish King Wladyslaw was crowned king of Russia.
(MC, 8/27/01)

1610 Ben Jonson wrote his satirical play: “The Alchemist.” It was about 3 creative crooks in London bilking everyone in sight.
(SFC, 4/26/97, p.E3)
1610 Shakespeare’s play “The Winter’s Tale” was first performed.
1610 Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643), Italian musician, singer and priest, composed his Vespers.
(SFC, 11/15/14, p.E1)

1610 A map of Asia viewed from the sea was drawn about this by a Chinese cartographer in Java. John Seldon, English lawyer, acquired this map through an English sea captain and bequeathed it to Oxford’s Bodleian library in 1654.
(Econ, 1/18/14, p.80)

1610 Spanish colonists founded Santa Fe. They built the block long adobe El Palacio as a seat for the governor-general.
(SFEC, 7/6/97, p.T7)(SSFC, 6/10/01, p.T9)

1610 Galileo observed Saturn and noted that it appeared to be triple-bodied.
(NH, 10/1/04, p.28)

1610 In France Henri IV was killed by an assassin. He was succeeded by 11-year-old Louis XIII, under the eye of Cardinal Richelieu.
(SFEM, 3/15/98, p.17)

1610 Ustad Mansur, a seventeenth century Mughal painter, painted a picture depicting the Dodo bird. As a court artist of Jehangir (1605-1627) Mansur specialized in depicting plants and animals.

1610 In Ireland the settlement at Derry was colonized by the English, who built a fortress surrounded by stone walls and renamed it Londonderry.
(SFC, 12/1/97, p.A14)

1610 Retired-Japanese Samurai Hachirobei Mitsui pawned a couple of his swords and started a ribbon and kimono shop. It grew to become the world’s oldest department store, Tokyo’s Mitsukoshi.
(SFC, 7/7/96, zone 1 p.5)

1610 The Dutch ousted the Portuguese from Indonesia by this time, but the Portuguese retained the eastern half of Timor.
(SFC, 9/8/99, p.A17)

1610 The first cargo of Asian tea arrived in Amsterdam
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1610 Leon, Nicaragua, was buried by the Mombotombo volcano.
(SSFC, 4/10/05, p.F5)

1610 In Cracow (Krakow), Poland, bagels were listed in the community regulations as a suitable gift for pregnant women.
(SFC, 10/16/96, zz1 p.6)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1610 Sigismund III ruled Poland.
(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.29)

c1610-1615 Orazio Gentileschi, the father of Artemisia (one of the most gifted women painters of all time), painted “Judith and her Maidservant With the head of Holofernes.” The 1998 film “Artemisia” was based on the life of Artemisia.
(WSJ, 4/28/98, p.A16)(SFEC, 5/10/98, DB p.48)

1610-1643 Louis XIII (1601-1643) was King of France. He was the son of Henry IV of Navarre. He started the fashion of men’s wigs do to loss of hair.
(WUD, 1994, p.524)(SFC, 12/29/96, zone 1 p.2)

1610-1650 In the Netherlands painters from Utrecht worked in the style of Caravaggio.
(WSJ, 10/20/97, p.A19)

1610-1664 The Chinese painter Hong Ren. His work included “Peaks and Ravines at Jiuqi.”
(WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)

1610-1680 Baldassare Ferri, the first of the famous Castrato vocalists. Some of them had ranges of four octaves, up to A or even B above high C in full voice. Some of them could sustain a note for well over a minute.
(LGC-HCS, p.42)

1611 Mar 4, George Abbot was appointed archbishop of Canterbury.
(SC, 3/4/02)

1611 Apr 1, Gillis van Valkenborch (~72), Flemish painter, was buried.
(MC, 4/1/02)

1611 Apr 14, Word “telescope” was 1st used by Prince Federico Cesi.
(MC, 4/14/02)

1611 May 23, Matthias von Habsburg was chosen king of Bohemia.
(MC, 5/23/02)

1611 Jun 22, English explorer Henry Hudson, his son and several other people were set adrift in present-day Hudson Bay by mutineers. The starving crew of the Discovery, which had spent the winter trapped by ice in Hudson Bay, mutinied against Hudson, who was never seen again.
(AP, 6/22/97)(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.26)(MC, 6/23/02)

1611 Nov 1, Shakespeare’s romantic comedy “The Tempest” was first presented at Whitehall.
(AP, 11/1/99)

1611 Nov 3, Henry Ireton, English general and MP (Edgehill), was born.
(MC, 11/3/01)

1611 Dutch artist Joachim Wtewael painted “Andromeda.” He and Bloemaert helped transmit the Italian mannerist influence and a preference for figure painting over landscape
(SFC, 9/12/97, p.C8)

1611 The Aqua Paola aqueduct was built in Rome.
(SFEC, 7/2/00, p.T5)

1611 The Jamestown settlement in Virginia pushed west with the establishment of Henricus (later Henrico) on the James River.
(AH, 6/07, p.27)
1611 Don Diego de Molina, a Spanish spy, was taken prisoner in Jamestown. Molina managed to send reports about the colony to agents in London. When he eventually returned to Spain, Molina urged King Philip to eliminate the English presence in Virginia, but Philip again demurred.
(AH, 6/07, p.31)

1611 Galileo went to Rome to describe his observations to the pontifical court.

1611 The authorized version of the King James Bible was published and it incorporated the translation of William Tyndale. In 2001 Alister McGrath authored “In the Beginning: The Story of the King James Bible and How It Changed a Nation, a Language and a Culture.” In 2003 Adam Nicolson authored “God’s Secretaries,” which covered the tumult behind the creation of the King James Bible.
(WSJ, 12/22/94, A-20)(SSFC, 6/3/01, DB p.71)(WSJ, 5/9/03, p.W10)

1611 Matthias, brother of Rudolf II, occupied Prague and captured Rudolf II.
(WSJ, 1/8/99, p.C13)

1611-1670 Antonio de Pareda, Spanish allegorist painter. His work included “El Sueño del Caballero” (The Gentleman’s Dream).
(WSJ, 1/09/00, p.A20)

1612 Jan 20, Rudolf II von Habsburg (59), emperor of Germany (1576-1612), died in Prague and Matthias became Holy Roman Emperor. In 1912 an enigmatic manuscript, once owned by Rudolf II, was acquired by Wilfrid Voynich and came to be known as the Voynich manuscript. In 2006 Peter Marshall authored “The Magic Circle of Rudolf II.”
(WSJ, 1/8/99, p.C13)(www.historylearningsite.co)(Econ, 1/10/04, p.71)(WSJ, 9/9/06, p.P9)

1612 Feb 7, Thomas Killigrew, English humorist, playwright, leader (King’s Men), was born.
(MC, 2/7/02)

1612 Feb 8, Samuel Butler (d.1680), England, poet, satirist (Hudibras) was baptized.
(MC, 2/8/02)

1612 Feb 17, Ernst of Bayern (57), prince, bishop of Luik, archbishop of Cologne, died.
(MC, 2/17/02)

1612 Aug 12, Giovanni Gabrieli (60), Italian composer (Madrigals), died.
(MC, 8/12/02)

1612 Sep 12, Russia’s Tsar Vasili IV (b.1552) died.

1612 Oct 22, Russian forces, inspired by a vision of the captive Greek Archbishop Arsenios, won a sweeping victory and took the Chinese quarter, and two days later, the Kremlin itself.

1612 Oct 27, A Polish army which invaded Russia capitulated to Prince Dimitri Pojarski and his Cossacks.
(HN, 10/27/98)

1612 Nov 4, Russia drove Catholic Poles and Lithuanians out of Moscow. This marked the end of the “Time of Troubles,” a period of popular uprisings and fighting between noblemen and pretenders to the throne. Russian Orthodox Church celebrated this day as the victory of the forces of Eastern Orthodoxy over the forces of Western Catholicism. In 2005 Russia chose this day for the new “People’s Unity Day” holiday.
(http://bildt.blogspot.com/2005/11/meaning-of-1612.html)(Econ, 11/12/05, p.56)(Econ, 3/17/07, p.65)

1612 St. George, Bermuda, was first settled.
(SSFC, 12/7/14, p.G5)

1612 Shakespeare was commissioned to write a serious play about Henry VIII. The commission was probably made to celebrate the marriage of one of King James’ daughters.
(WSJ, 6/27/97, p.A13)
1612 Shakespeare handed over the role of scriptwriter for the King’s Men to John Fletcher and retired to his hometown of Stratford-upon-Avon.
(WSJ, 5/1/97, p.A16)
1612 John Webster, English playwright, wrote his play “The White Devil.” It was a tale of treachery, revenge, sexual corruption and murder.
(WSJ, 1/09/00, p.A20)

1612 “Le Carrousel du Roi,” an equestrian ballet, was choreographed by Antoine de Pluvinel and scored by Robert Ballard. It was performed as part of an engagement ceremony for Louis XIII of France to Anne of Austria, princess of Spain. An estimated 200,000 people viewed the performance in Paris’ Place Royale (later the Place des Vosges).
(SFEC, 6/4/00, DB p.38)(SFEC, 6/11/00, p.D9)
1612 In France the Pavillon du Roi, begun under Henri IV, was completed. It was occupied by the king’s court and then the Duc de Sully, after which it was called the Hotel de Sully.
(SFEM, 3/15/98, p.17)
1612 The French explorer Etienne Brule (1592-1632) is believed to be the first European to see the Great Lakes. Brule journeyed to North America with Samuel de Champlain in 1608 and helped found Quebec. Brule explored Lake Huron in 1612 and is believed to have also explored Lakes Ontario, Erie and Superior after 1615. Brule is the first European to live among the Indians and was probably the first European to set foot in what is now Pennsylvania.
(HNQ, 6/29/98)
1612 French explorer Samuel de Champlain compiled a 17 by 30 inch map depicting the coast of New England and the Canadian maritime provinces.
(SFC, 12/5/15, p.A6)

1612 The Passau state library was founded as part of a Jesuit college. In 2011 the library claimed to be home to one of the oldest book collections in Germany.
(ABCNews, 12/7/11)

1612 The square of Esfanan, Persia, was built.
(SSFC, 1/14/07, p.G5)

1612-1626 Johannes Kepler, the Imperial Court Mathematician of the Habsburgs, taught at the provincial academy of Linz. Here he published his famous work Harmonices Mundi.
(StuAus, April ’95, p.79)

1612-1656 Harmen Van Steenwijck, Dutch painter, included skulls in his paintings of objects of everyday life.
(NH, 10/96, p.38)

1612-1672 Anne Bradstreet, American poet: “Authority without wisdom is like a heavy ax without an edge, fitter to bruise than polish.”
(AP, 2/22/99)

1612-1759 The French dominated the interior of America.
(SFC, 7/7/96, BR p.7)

1613 Jan 28, Thomas Bodley (b.1545), English diplomatist and scholar, died in London. He founded the Bodleian Library at Oxford.
1613 Jan 28, Galileo may have unknowingly viewed the undiscovered planet Neptune.
(MC, 1/28/02)

1613 Feb 21, Mikhail Romanov (17), son of Patriarch of Moscow, was elected czar of Russia. He was crowned Jun 22. The Romanovs began to rule over Russia and lasted until 1917.
(PCh, 1992, p.220)(SFC, 4/19/97, p.A3)(http://eefy.editme.com/L18b)

1613 Apr 7, Gerard Dou, Dutch painter (Night School), was born.
(MC, 4/7/02)

1613 Jun 29, Shakespeare’s Globe Theater burned down in London.
(USAT, 8/16/96, p.8D)(MC, 6/29/02)

1613 Jun, Susanna Hall, Shakespeare’s daughter, married Stratford doctor and herbalist John Hall.
(WSJ, 12/5/00, p.A24)

1613 Sep 8, Carlo Gesualdo (b.~1566), prince of Venosa, died. He was an Italian music composer, lutenist and nobleman of the late Renaissance and became famous for his intensely expressive madrigals. In 1590 he murdered his bride and her lover after catching them in flagrante delicto. In 2010 Glenn Watkins authored “The Gesualdo Hex: Music, Myth, and Memory.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carlo_Gesualdo)(Econ, 1/23/10, p.79)

1613 Sep 15, Francois, duc de la Rochefoucauld (d.1680), writer (Memoires), was born in Paris, France. “When we cannot find contentment in ourselves it is useless to seek it elsewhere.”
(AP, 12/2/98)(www.bookrags.com)
1613 Sep 15, Thomas Overbury (b.1581), Elizabethan poet, died in London. He was murdered by his wife, Florence Maybrick, who used an enema of arsenic. The murder was arranged by Frances Howard, Lady Essex, who felt attacked by Overbury’s poem “A Wife.”
(WSJ, 6/24/05, p.W9)(http://search.eb.com/shakespeare/micro/445/8.html)

1613 Jan Breughel (1568-1625), the Elder, a son of Pieter Breughel, painted the “A Village Street with Carts, Villagers and Gentlefolk.”
(WSJ, 2/18/00, p.W12)

1613 The colonists at Jamestown kidnapped Pocahontas and held her for ransom to force her father to free some English hostages and to return some stolen tools.
(ON, 2/07, p.9)(AH, 6/07, p.27)

1613 The American Indian Tisquantum, aka Squanto, returned to the New World from England as the interpreter for John Smith. He was freed by Smith but then kidnapped with 19 fellow Indians by an Englishman and carried off to Milaga, Spain. He managed to escape to England.
(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.28)

1613 A fleet of 3 English ships arrived in Japan in response to letters from Will Adams to the English East India Company.
(ON, 11/02, p.10)

1613 Giovanni Gabrielli (b.1558), Italian composer, died. Some sources place his birth in 1554 and his death in 1612.
(http://tinyurl.com/gbznj)(WSJ, 9/21/06, p.D6)

1613-1675 Gerrit Dou, Dutch artist. He was a student of Rembrandt.
(SFC, 5/25/00, p.A24)

1613 Khushhal Khan Khattak (d.1690), Afghan warrior-poet, was born. He initiated a national uprising against the foreign Moghul government.

1613-1700 Andre Le Notre, French architect and landscape designer. He shaped the gardens at Vaux-le-Vicomte, Versailles, Marly, Chantilly, Saint Germain-en-Laye, Les Tuileries, saint cloud, Sceaux and Courances.
(WUD, 1994, p.820)(SFEM, 5/18/97, p.26)

1614 Apr 5, American Indian princess Pocahontas (d.1617) married English Jamestown colonist John Rolfe in Virginia. Their marriage brought a temporary peace between the English settlers and the Algonquians.
(AP, 4/5/97)(HN, 5/5/97)(SFEC, 10/15/00, p.T12)
1614 Apr 5, 2nd parliament of King James I began session (no enactments).
(MC, 4/5/02)

1614 Apr 7, El Greco (b.1541), born in Crete as Domenikos Theotocopoulos, died in Toledo, Spain. His paintings included “The Resurrection” (1597) and “View and Plan of Toledo” (1610-1614).
(WSJ, 6/18/01, p.A16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/El_Greco)

1614 May 15, An aristocratic uprising in France ended with the treaty of St. Menehould.
(HN, 5/15/98)

1614 Jun 7, The 2nd parliament of King James I dissolved passing no legislation.
(SC, 6/7/02)

1614 Jul 14, Camillus de Lellis (64), Italian soldier, monastery founder, saint, died.
(MC, 7/14/02)

1614 Aug 22, Trades people under Vincent Fettmilch chased and plunder Jews out of ghetto in Frankfurt.
(MC, 8/22/02)

1614 Sep 1, Vincent Fettmich expelled Jews from Frankfurt-on-Main, Germany.
(SC, 9/1/02)

1614 John Webster, English playwright, wrote his play “The Duchess of Malfi.” It is a “Jacobean melodrama set in an Italy that was viewed as a hotbed of sexual and political depravity.”
(WSJ, 12/14/95, p.A-12)

1614 Crispijn de Passe the Younger published “Hortus Floridus” in Holland.
(WSJ, 7/7/98, p.A14)

1614 Portuguese writer Diego do Couto wrote of a king in Cambodia who discovered an abandoned city during an elephant hunt in the middle of the 16th century. The report did not get published until 1958.
(SFEC, 7/26/98, p.T6)

1614 English Jamestown colonist John Rolfe successfully cultivated tobacco for export to England. This guaranteed the colony’s economic survival.
(AH, 6/07, p.27)
1614 Inigo Jones (1573-1652), British architect, traveled to Italy and bought a trunk full of Palladio’s architectural drawings. In 1894 they ended up at the Royal Institute of British Architects.
(Econ, 9/27/08, p.100)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inigo_Jones)

1614 King Louis XIII (13) gave Christophe Marie and his partners the go-ahead to build the Pont Marie linking Paris’ Right Bank to the Ile Saint Louis.
(SFCM, 10/14/01, p.33)

1614 Japan sent samurai Hasekura Tsunenaga to Europe via Acapulco to to request the right to trade directly with New Spain (Mexico).
(Econ, 11/15/14, SR p.8)
1614 Shogun Ieyasu ordered all Christian missionaries to leave Japan. All Christian churches were closed and Japanese people were forbidden to practice Christianity on pain of death.
(ON, 11/02, p.10)

1614 Father Tommaso Caccini denounced the opinions of Galileo on the motion of the Earth from the pulpit of Santa Maria Novella, judging them to be erroneous. Galileo went to Rome and defended himself against charges that had been made against him. In 1616, he was admonished by Cardinal Bellarmino and told that he could not defend Copernican astronomy because it went against the doctrine of the Church. Later, in 1632 he was summoned by the Holy Office to Rome. The tribunal passed a sentence condemning him and compelled Galileo to solemnly abjure his theory. He was sent to exile in Siena.
(MC, 1/8/02)

1614 Sulayman Pasha, a Turkish general, named the Tehran (later Tirana) as the capital of Albania after the capital of Iran.
(SSFC, 12/17/06, p.G5)

1614 The Don Cossacks made a pact with the Russian Czar and gained self-government in exchange for military service.
(SFC,10/28/97, p.A8)

1615 Feb 23, The Estates-General in Paris was dissolved, having been in session since October 1614.
(HN, 2/23/99)

1615 Mar 13, Innocent XII, Roman Catholic Pope, was born.
(HN, 3/13/98)

1615 Jun 4, The Tokugawa Shogun captured Osaka Castle and eliminated Hide-yoshi’s heirs. The fortress of Osaka, Japan, fell to shogun Leyasu after a six month siege.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)(HN, 6/4/98)

1615 Jul 28, French explorer Samuel de Champlain discovered Lake Huron on his seventh voyage to the New World.
(HN, 7/28/98)

c1615 Artemisia Gentileschi created her painting “Female Martyr.” In 1989 Mary D. Garrard authored a book on her life and art. In 2002 Susan Vreeland authored “The Passion of Artemisia,” a novel based on the artist’s life.
(SSFC, 1/13/02, p.M3)

1615 Dutch artist Joachim Wtewael painted the “Judgement of Paris.”
(SFC, 9/12/97, p.C8)

1615 In India prince Shah Jahan, son of Jehangir, returned home after a successful military campaign.
(WSJ, 12/16/97, p.A16)

1615 In Japan Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu granted land to Hon’ami Koetsu, a calligraphy artist. The property was named Takagamine and became a colony for artists united by their adherence to Buddhism.
(SFC, 8/21/00, p.D3)

1615 The Persians sacked the monastic complex of David Gareja in Georgia.
(Econ, 8/28/10, p.50)

1615-1680 Nicolas Fouquet, treasurer to Louis XIV of France. He used embezzled funds to build his chateau Vaux le Vicomte. [see 1661]
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1616 Jan 20, The French explorer Samuel de Champlain arrived to winter in a Huron Indian village after being wounded in a battle with Iroquois in New France.
(HN, 1/20/99)

1616 Feb 24, Qualifiers of the Holy Office concluded that a sun-centered theory was “foolish and absurd in philosophy, and formally heretical, inasmuch as it expressly contradicts the teachings of many passages of Holy scriptures.”
(SSFC, 10/31/04, p.B6)

1616 Feb 26, Spanish Inquisition delivered an injunction to Galileo.
(SC, 2/26/02)

1616 Mar 5, The Catholic Church’s Congregation of the Index banned Catholics from reading “On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres” (1543) by Nicholas Copernicus. “De Revolutionibus” was not formally banned but merely withdrawn from circulation, pending “corrections.” The prohibition was officially lifted in 1835.

1616 Mar 6, Francis Beaumont (b.1584), Elizabethan playwright, died.
(WUD, 1994 p.131)(MC, 3/6/02)

1616 Mar 20, Walter Raleigh was released from Tower of London to seek gold in Guiana. He took along his son Wat (22), who was killed during an attack on a Spanish outpost.
(MC, 3/20/02)(WSJ, 1/6/04, p.D10)

1616 Apr 23, Miguel de Cervantes (b.1547), Spanish poet and novelist, died in Madrid.
(AP, 4/23/97)
1616 Apr 23, William Shakespeare (b.1564), poet and playwright, died in Stratford-on-Avon, England. In 2004 Stephen Greenblatt authored “Will In the World.” In 2006 Colin McGinn authored “Discovering the Meaning Behind the Plays.”
(AP, 4/23/97)(WSJ, 9/24/04, p.W7)(SSFC, 12/24/06, p.M1)

1616 Jul 25, Andreas Libavius, German alchemist, died.
(SC, 7/25/02)

1616 Jul 29, Chinese playwright Tang Xianzu (b.1550) died. His major plays are collectively called the Four Dreams.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tang_Xianzu)(Econ, 1/7/17, p.33)

1616 Nov 20, Bishop Richelieu became French minister of Foreign affairs and War.
(MC, 11/20/01)

1616 Dec 25, Nathaniel Courthope, a British merchant-adventurer under direct orders from James I, landed his ship Swan at the Banda Island of Run. He persuaded the islanders to enter an alliance with the British for nutmeg. He fortified the 1 by 2 mile island and with 30 men proceeded to hold off a Dutch siege for 1,540 days.
(WSJ, 5/21/99, p.W7)

1616 John Smith authored “A Description of New England.” It described his exploration of new England following his departure from Virginia in 1614.
(WSJ, 11/22/08, p.W11)

1616 The collection, “Poems,” by William Drummond (b.1585), Scottish laird of Hawthornden, appeared.
(HN, 12/13/99)

1616 London’s Phoenix Theater in Drury Lane was converted from a cockpit.
(Econ, 5/21/05, p.88)

1616 The Scornful Lady, a play by Beaumont and Fletcher that features a serving maid named Abigail.
(AHD, 1971, p.3)

1616 Capt. Samuel Argall, deputy governor of Jamestown and known as the kidnapper of Pocahontas, was appointed to run the colony. Within 2 years the public estate was gone, though his own plantation thrived. The Earl of Warwick sent a ship and Argall loaded his plunder and absconded to England. Argall was knighted 2 years after his return to England and later served as an adviser on the governance of Jamestown.
(SSFC, 7/14/02, p.G2)
1616 In a letter to Queen Anne, Capt. John Smith recalled that Pocahontas had saved the colony at Jamestown from “death, famine, and utter confusion.”
(WSJ, 6/13/95, p.A-18)
1616 American Indian princess Pocahontas and her husband, Jamestown colonist John Rolfe, sailed to England with their infant son.
(ON, 2/07, p.9)

1616 A set of silver playing cards was created in Germany about this time engraved by a man named Michael Frömmer. It used a suit seen in Italy, with swords, coins, batons and cups in values from ace to 10. Each of these suits has three face cards — king, knight and knave.
(LiveScience, 11/30/12)

1616 The Fuerte de San Diego was built to protect the port of Acapulco, Mexico, from Dutch and English pirates.
(SSFC, 11/2/03, p.C6)

1616 Shabdrung (Zhabdrung) Ngawang Namgyal escaped Tibet to establish a new base in western Bhutan, founding Cheri Monastery at the head of Thimphu valley.

1616 Galileo was forbidden from continuing his scientific work by the Roman Catholic Church.
(NG, March 1990, p. 117)

1616 Shogun Ieyasu (b.1642), Japanese general and statesman, died.
(WUD, 1994 p.759)(ON, 11/02, p.10)

1616 The Dutch became the first to establish colonies in Guyana with Essequibo. Berbice followed in 1627, and then Demerara in 1752.

1616-1619 An epidemic, possibly viral hepatitis from contact with Europeans, ravaged the Wampanoag confederacy in Massachusetts. This helped to make possible the Pilgrim settlement in 1620.
(Econ, 8/11/07, p.49)

1617 Jan 6, Pocahontas, American Indian princess, attended a court masque with King James I and Queen Anne.
(ON, 2/07, p.9)

1617 Feb 4, Louis Elsevier (~76), Dutch publisher, died.
(MC, 2/4/02)

1617 Feb 9, Hans Christoph Haiden (44), composer, died.
(MC, 2/9/02)

1617 Mar 9, The Treaty of Stolbovo ended the occupation of Northern Russia by Swedish troops.
(HN, 3/9/99)

1617 Mar 21, Pocahontas (Rebecca Rolfe) was buried at the parish church of St. George in Gravesend, England. As Pocahontas and John Rolfe prepared to sail back to Virginia, she died reportedly of either small pox or pneumonia. In 2003 Paula Gunn Allen authored “Pocahontas “Medicine Woman, Spy, entrepreneur, Diplomat.”
(AP, 4/5/97)(HN, 5/5/97)(SFEC, 10/15/00, p.T12)(HN, 3/21/01)(SSFC, 10/19/03, p.M5)

1617 Apr 4, John Napier, Scottish mathematician, inventor (logarithms), died.
(MC, 4/4/02)

1617 May 7, David Fabricius (53), German astronomer, died.
(MC, 5/7/02)

1617 Aug 23, The 1st one-way streets opened in London.
(MC, 8/23/02)

1617 Aug 30, Rosa de Lima of Peru became the first American saint to be canonized.
(HN, 8/30/98)

1617 Simon Vouet painted “The Fortune Teller.”
(WSJ, 4/28/98, p.A16)

1617 Fort San Diego was built to protect Acapulco, a major port for Spanish galleons, against buccaneers.
(Hem, Dec. 94, p.25)

1617 Bhutan repelled its first invasion by Tibet.
(http://tinyurl.com/h5u7bzv)(Econ, 10/22/16, p.33)

1617 The Pilgrims decided to leave the Netherlands. They formed a partnership in a joint-stock company with a group of London merchants in a company called John Pierce & Assoc. They received a grant for a plantation in the Virginia colony but ended up landing in Massachusetts. Each adult was to receive a share in the company but earnings would not be divided for 7 years.
(WSJ, 11/26/97, p.A14)

1617 James VI of Scotland, aka James I of England, made a homecoming to Edinburgh Castle.
(SFEC, 11/8/98, p.T3)

1617-1618 Mustafa I succeeded Ahmed I in the Ottoman House of Osman.
(Ot, 1993, xvii)

1618 Jan 7, Francis Bacon became English lord chancellor.
(MC, 1/7/02)

1618 Mar 8, Johannes Kepler came up with his Third Law of Planetary Motion.
(SFC, 6/16/96, PM p.5)(HN, 3/8/98)

1618 Apr 2, Francesco M. Grimaldi, mathematician, physicist (light diffraction), was born.
(MC, 4/2/02)

1618 May 15, Johannes Kepler discovered his harmonics law.
(HN, 5/15/98)

1618 May 23, The Thirty Years War (1618-1648) ravaged Germany. It began when three opponents of the Reformation were thrown through a window. The “official” Defenestration of Prague was the “official” trigger for the Thirty Year’s War. Local Protestants became enraged when Catholic King Ferdinand reneged on promises of religious freedom and stormed Hradcany Castle and threw 3 Catholic councilors out of the window and into the moat. The conflict spread across Europe with most of the fighting taking place in Germany. The Peace of Westphalia in 1648 brought the war to an end and ended the emperor‘s authority over Germany outside the Hapsburg domain. The 1939 play “Mother Courage and Her Children” by Bertolt Brecht was set in this period (1624).
(V.D.-H.K.p.90)(NH, 9/96, p.18,22)(HN, 5/23/98)(HNQ, 2/28/00)(WSJ, 10/23/01, p.A24)

1618 Aug, Hugo Grotius, attorney general of Holland, was arrested on the orders of Prince Maurice of Nassau, ruler of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, for conspiring to undermine the authority of the government.
(ON, 10/04, p.1)

1618 Oct 29, Sir Walter Raleigh, English scholar, poet and historian, was executed for treason. After the death of Queen Elizabeth, Raleigh’s enemies had spread rumors that he opposed the accession of King James. In 2003 Raleigh Trevelyan authored “Sir Walter Raleigh,” and Anna Beer authored “My Just Desire,” a biography of Raleigh’s wife, Elizabeth Throckmorton.
(HN, 10/29/98)(MC, 10/29/01)(WSJ, 1/6/04, p.D10)

1618 Diego Velazquez painted “Old Woman Cooking,” a still life on frying eggs.
(WSJ, 7/27/95, p.A-10)

1618 Pietro da Cortona, artist, made an atlas of human anatomy: “Tabulae Anatomicae.”
(NH, 10/96, p.37)

1618 In London the play “Swetnam the Woman-Hater” introduced the term “misogynist” into the English language.
(SFEC, 7/25/99, p.A2)

1618 In France one of the first manuals of conversation was published: “Maximes de la Bienséance en la Conversation.”
(Econ, 12/23/06, p.80)

1618 In Merida, Mexico, the Iglesia de Jesus was built by Jesuits.
(SSFC, 5/6/01, p.T6)

1618 Michael Sweerts (d.1664), artist, was born in Brussels. He did much of his important work in Rome, moved to the Netherlands, traveled in Asia with a band of missionaries and died in Goa.
(SSFC, 12/24/00, DB p.39)(WSJ, 7/2/02, p.D7)

1618 Hendrick Goltzius (b.1558), Dutch Master painter, died. His work included “Danaë.”
(WSJ, 8/14/03, p.D8)

1618 Kana Takanobu (b.1571), Japanese artist, died.
(NYT, 10/8/04, p.B35)

1618-1622 Osman II took rule in the Ottoman House of Osman.
(Ot, 1993, xvii)

1618-1680 Sir Peter Lely, English court painter.
(Ind, 12/26/98, p.5A)

1618-1689 The Chinese painter Gong Xian. His work included “Summer Mountains After Rain.”
(WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)

1618-1707 Aurangzeb, Moghul ruler of India. His wealth was said to be 10 times that of Louis XIV. The empire reached its greatest size during his rule but his persecution of Hindu subjects weakened Muslim Moghul control.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1618-1945 The Dutch ruled Indonesia. They were drawn to Jakarta, a fishing village which they called Batavia, for the spice trade.
(SFEC, 4/27/97, p.T7)

1619 Feb 24, Charles Le Brun, painter, designer, was born in Paris.
(MC, 2/24/02)

1619 Mar 1, Thomas Campion (53), English physician, composer, poet (Poemata), died.
(SC, 3/1/02)

1619 Mar 6, Cyrano de Bergerac (d.1655), French poet, playwright (Voyage to the Moon), swordsman, was born. His radical writings prefigured Voltaire and Diderot. His noted nose was an invention of the poet Theophile Gautier introduced in an 1844 book. Edmond Rostand’s play on Cyrano was unveiled in 1897.
(SFEC, 4/27/97, DB p.3)(MC, 3/6/02)

1619 Apr 16, Denijs Calvaert (Caluwaert), [Dionisio Fiamingo], Flemish painter, died.
(MC, 4/16/02)

1619 May 13, Johan van Oldenbarnevelt (b.1547), Dutch lands advocate, was beheaded.
(MC, 5/13/02)

1619 May 18, Hugo the Great (1582-1645), Hugo de Groot or Grotius, Dutch scholar, the “Father of Int’l. Law” and author of the 1st treatise on the law of the sea, Mare liberum,” was sentenced to life in prison.
(SC, 5/18/02)(Internet)

1619 Jul 30, The first representative assembly in America the House of Burgesses, became the first legislative assembly in America when it convened at Jamestown, Va.
(AP, 7/30/97)(HN, 7/30/98)

1619 Aug 20, The 1st African slaves arrived to North America aboard a Dutch privateer. It docked in Jamestown, Virginia, with twenty human captives among its cargo. Two privateer ships had raided a Spanish slave vessel in the Gulf of Mexico. The privateers sailed to Virginia and traded more than 30 Africans for food and supplies. English colonists then took the slaves to properties along the James River, including Jamestown.
(SFC, 12/18/96, p.A25)(HN, 8/20/98)(PC, 1992, p.224)(SFC, 8/29/18, p.A5)

1619 Dec 4, A group of settlers from Bristol, England, arrived at Berkeley Hundred in present-day Charles City County, Va., where they held a service thanking God for their safe arrival. Some suggest this was the true first Thanksgiving in America, ahead of the Pilgrims’ arrival in Massachusetts.
(AP, 12/4/08)

1619 The first election in America was held to elect the members of the Virginia assembly.
(BD emp. letter, 9/27/96)
1619 The Virginia Company of London, sponsor of the Jamestown settlement, built a blast furnace for working iron. Ruins of the furnace were found in 2007 along Falling Creek in Chesterfield County, Va.
(AH, 6/07, p.16)

1619 John Seldon, English lawyer, authored a treatise called “Mare Clausum” (The Closed Sea), in which he argued that countries have jurisdiction over the sea close to their shore.
(Econ, 1/18/14, p.80)
1619 In England Tisquantum joined a new exploratory mission to the New England coast and returned to find that his tribe had been wiped out by the plague. It was he who later communicated with the first Pilgrims at Plymouth.
(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.29)
1619 John Seldon, English lawyer, authored a treatise called “Mare Clausum” (The Closed Sea), in which he argued that countries have jurisdiction over the sea close to their shore.
(Econ, 1/18/14, p.80)
1619 Amsterdam opened a stock exchange.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)
1619 Catholic Hapsburg Ferdinand became Holy Roman Emperor as Ferdinand II. [see 1620]
(HNQ, 2/28/00)

1620 Jan 31, Virginia colony leaders wrote to the Virginia Company in England, asking for more orphaned apprentices for employment.
(HN, 1/31/99)

1620 Feb 10, Supporters of Marie de Medici, the queen mother, who had been exiled to Blois, were defeated by the king’s troops at Ponts de Ce, France.
(AP, 2/10/99)

1620 Feb 15, Francois Charpentier, French scholar, archaeologist, was born.
(MC, 2/15/02)

1620 Feb 16, Frederick William, founder of Brandenburg-Prussia, was born.
(HN, 2/16/98)

1620 Mar 9, Aegidius Albertinus (59), German writer (Lucifer’s Kingdom), died.
(MC, 3/9/02)

1620 Apr 24, John Graunt, statistician, founder of science of demography, was born.
(HN, 4/24/98)

1620 May 17, The 1st merry-go-round was seen at a fair in Philippapolis, Turkey.
(MC, 5/17/02)

1620 Jul 21, Jean Picard, French astronomer, was born.
(MC, 7/21/02)

1620 Jul 22, The Pilgrims set out from Holland destined for the New World. The Speedwell sailed to England from the Netherlands with members of the English Separatist congregation that had been living in Leiden, Holland. Joining the larger Mayflower at Southampton, the two ships set sail together in August, but the Speedwell soon proved unseaworthy and was abandoned at Plymouth, England. The entire company then crowded aboard the Mayflower, setting sail for North America on September 16, 1620.
(HNQ, 3/4/00)(MC, 7/22/02)

1620 Jul 29, New Mexico’s Gov. Don Juan de Eulate passed by the sandstone bluff of El Morro on return from the pueblos of Zuni. He left his mark in the stone.
(SSFC, 4/10/05, p.F9)

1620 Aug 7, Kepler’s mother was arrested for witchcraft.
(MC, 8/7/02)
1620 Aug 7, French king Louis XIII beat his mother Marie de Medici at the Battle at Ponts-the-Ca, Poitou.
(MC, 8/7/02)

1620 Sep 16, The Pilgrims sailed from England on the Mayflower, finally settling at Plymouth, Mass. The Pilgrims were actually Separatists because they had left the Church of England. The 4 children of William Brewster, who arrived on the Mayflower, were named: Love, Wrestling, Patience, and Fear. In 2006 Nathaniel Philbrick authored “Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community and War.”
(HN, 9/16/98)(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.23)(SFC, 3/20/99, p.B4)(SFC, 7/26/06, p.E2)

1620 Oct 31, John Evelyn (d.1706), British diarist (Life of Mrs. Godolphin), was born. He was a meditative and sententious English diarist.
(WSJ, 6/2/99, p.A24)(MC, 10/31/01)

1620 Nov 8, The King of Bohemia was defeated at the Battle of White Mountain, Prague. With Hapsburg support in Bohemia the Catholics defeated the Protestants at the Battle of the White Mountain. Weeks of plunder and pillage followed in Prague and after a few months the victors tortured and executed 27 nobles and other citizens and hung 12 heads on iron hooks from the Bridge Tower.
(NH, 9/96, p.24)(HN, 11/6/98)(MC, 11/8/01)

1620 Nov 11, Pilgrims aboard the Mayflower, anchored off Massachusetts, signed a compact calling for a “body politick.” 102 Pilgrims stepped ashore. 41 men signed the compact calling themselves Saints and others Strangers. One passenger died enroute and 2 were born during the passage. Their military commander was Miles Standish. In 2006 Nathaniel Philbrick authored “Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community and War.”
(AP, 11/11/97)(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.8,23)(Econ, 5/6/06, p.82)

1620 Nov 19, The Pilgrims reached Cape Cod.
(HN, 11/19/98)

1620 Nov 20, Peregrine White was born aboard the Mayflower in Massachusetts Bay — the first child born of English parents in present-day New England.
(AP, 11/20/97)

1620 Nov 21, Leaders of the Mayflower expedition framed the “Mayflower Compact,” designed to bolster unity among the settlers. The Pilgrims reached Provincetown Harbor, Mass.
(HN, 11/21/98)(MC, 11/21/01)

1620 Dec 2, An English newspaper headline read: “The new tidings out of Italie are not yet come.” In 2006 this was reported to be the world’s oldest headline.
(Econ, 12/23/06, p.103)

1620 Dec 6, A group of passengers and crew left the Mayflower in a shallop to search for a suitable harbor and place to settle.
(AM, 11/00, p.18)

1620 Dec 11, 103 Mayflower pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock.
(MC, 12/11/01)

1620 Dec 16, The Mayflower dropped anchor in Plymouth Harbor.
(AM, 11/00, p.18)

1620 Dec 18, The Captain of the Mayflower 1st went on land at Plymouth Harbor with 3 to 4 sailors.
(AM, 11/00, p.18)

1620 Dec 21, The Mayflower reached Plymouth, Mass. after a 63-day voyage. Pilgrims aboard the Mayflower went ashore for the first time at present-day Plymouth, Mass. The crew of the ship did not have enough beer to get to Virginia and back to England so they dropped the Pilgrims at Plymouth Rock to preserve their beer stock.
(HFA, ’96, p.44)(AP, 12/20/97)(Hem., 8/96, p.115)(MC, 12/21/01)

1620 Dec 23, French Huguenots declared war on King Louis XIII.
(MC, 12/23/01)

1620 Georges de La Tour began his painting “The Hurdy Gurdy Player With a Dog.” It was completed about 1622.
(WSJ, 11/13/96, p.A20)

1620 “The chronicle of the Pilgrims voyage to and settlement in America was begun by Nathanial Morton, keeper of the records of Plymouth Colony, based on the account of William Bradford, sometime governor thereof…” From the two editorials titled: “The Desolate Wilderness” and “And the Fair Land,” published annually in the WSJ since 1961.
(WSJ, 11/22/95, p.A-10)

1620 Bacon published his “Novum Organon.” Francis Bacon was said to have noted the striking fit of the opposing coastlines of South America and western Africa.
(V.D.-H.K.p.139)(DD-EVTT, p.192)
1620 Thomas Tompkins (1572-1656), English royal composer, wrote his madrigal “When David Heard.”
(SFC, 6/4/10, p.F4)

1620 The Wampanoag Confederacy of some 50 Algonquin bands stretched across southeastern Massachusetts.
(AH, 6/02, p.44)

1620 Ferdinand II became emperor of the Holy Roman Empire after the death of Rudolf II and moved the Imperial Court back to Vienna. He sold dozens of paintings collected by Rudolf II that he found “lewd.”
(WSJ, 7/10/97, p.A13)(WUD, 1994, p.524)

c1620 In Canada a settlement was established at Cupers Cove (now Cupids) in Newfoundland.
(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.23)

1620 In England Dutch-born Cornelius Drebbel tested a submarine which cruised 15 feet under the Thames. Cornelis Drebbel also attempted to air-condition Westminster Abbey.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)(WSJ, 12/10/99, p.W12)

1620 In India Jehangir, successor of Akbar, visited the gardens of Kashmir and adopted the “flower style” as opposed to the previous bestiaries.
(WSJ, 12/16/97, p.A16)

1620 Will Adams, English-Dutch-Japanese ship pilot, died in Japan.
(ON, 11/02, p.10)

1620 In Spain the Plaza Mayor, a grand, arcaded square in Madrid, dates to this time.
(SFEC, 5/31/98, p.T9)

1620-1621 Van Dyck made a portrait of “Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel.”
(WSJ, 3/9/98, p.A16)

c1620-1630 Marquisa de Rambouillet began inviting acquaintances to her Paris townhouse for weekly conversations giving birth to the Paris salon culture. In 2002 Benedetta Craveri authored “The Age of Conversation.” An English translation came out in 2005.
(WSJ, 5/13/05, p.W6)

1620-1637 Ferdinand II, king of Bohemia and Hungary, ruled as the Holy Roman emperor.
(WUD, 1994, p.524)

1621 Jan 3, William Tucker was born. He is believed to be first American born African-American. [1624 date also given]
(HN, 1/3/99)(MC, 1/3/02)

1621 Jan 28, Pope Paul V (b.1552), born as born Camillo Borghese, died. Shortly after his death Cardinal Scipione Borghese, the Pope’s nephew, commissioned Bernini to create a marble bust of the Pope.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Paul_V)(Econ, 6/27/15, p.73)

1621 Feb 17, Miles Standish was appointed 1st commander of Plymouth colony.
(MC, 2/17/02)

1621 Mar 4, Jakarta, Java, was renamed Batavia.
(SC, 3/4/02)

1621 Mar 16 The first Indian appeared in Plymouth, Mass. Samoset, an English speaking Indian, and his friend Tisquantum of the Wampanoag tribe, became friends with the Pilgrims.
(HN, 3/16/98)(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.23)

1621 Mar 31, Andrew Marvell, English poet and politician, was born.
(HN, 3/31/01)

1621 Apr 1, The Plymouth, Massachusetts colonists created the first treaty with Native Americans.

1621 Apr 5, The Mayflower sailed from Plymouth, Mass., on a return trip to England. By this time 44 of the landing party had died and 54 people, mostly children, were left to build the colony.
(AP, 4/5/97)(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.23)

1621 May 3, Francis Bacon was accused of bribery.
(MC, 5/3/02)

1621 May 31, Sir Francis Bacon was thrown into Tower of London for overnight.
(MC, 5/31/02)

1621 Jun 3, The Dutch West India Company received a charter for New Netherlands, now known as New York. The Dutch West India Co. was formed to trade with America and West Africa.
(AP, 6/3/97)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1621 Jul 8, Jean La Fontaine, poet and author of Fables, was born.
(HN, 7/8/98)

1621 Sep 8, Louis II Conde, [Great Conde], duke of Bourbon (Rocroi), was born.
(MC, 9/8/01)

1621 Sep 21, King James of England gave Canada to Sir Alexander Sterling.
(MC, 9/21/01)

1621 Oct 16, Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck, organist and composer, died at about 59.
(MC, 10/16/01)

1621 Oct 25, Gov. Bradford of US Plymouth colony disallowed sport on Christmas Day.
(MC, 10/25/01)

1621 Oct, The first American Thanksgiving was held in Massachusetts’ Plymouth colony in 1621 to give thanks for a bountiful harvest. 51 Pilgrims served codfish, sea bass and turkeys while their 90 Wampanoag guests contributed venison to the feast. After the survival of their first colony through a bitter winter and the subsequent gathering of the harvest in the autumn, Plymouth Colony Governor William Bradford issued a thanksgiving proclamation. During the three-day October thanksgiving the Pilgrims feasted on wild turkey and venison with their Native American guests. American Indians introduced cranberries to the white settlers. In 2006 Godfrey Hodgson, British historian, authored “A Great and Godly Adventure: The Pilgrims and the Myth of the First Thanksgiving.” American scholars quickly defied Hodgson’s allegation that there were no turkeys in the region.
(Econ, 12/18/04, p.122)(SSFC, 11/12/06, p.M1)(SFC, 11/22/06, p.A1)

1621 Dec 3, Galileo invented the telescope. [see Aug 25, 1609]
(MC, 12/3/01)

1621 Dec 5, A letter from the English office of the Virginia Company reported that European honeybees (Apis mellifera) were shipped to America. They arrived in Virginia in March 1622.

1621 Dec 13, Emperor Ferdinand II delegated the 1st anti-Reformation decree.
(MC, 12/13/01)

1621 Dec 18, English parliament unanimously accepted Protestation.
(MC, 12/18/01)

1621 Dec 25, The governor William Bradford of New Plymouth prevented newcomers from playing cards. The queens later depicted on playing cards were said to be: spades (Pallas), hearts (Judith), diamonds (Rachel), clubs (Elizabeth).
(HN, 12/25/98)(SFC, 3/20/99, p.B4)(MC, 12/25/01)

1621 Georges de La Tour painted “The Fortune Teller,” which showed a young aristocrat getting fleeced while having his palm read.
(SFC, 10/16/99, p.D3)
1621 Robert Burton authored “Anatomy of Melancholy.” In 2001 Andrew Solomon authored “The Doomday Demon: An Atlas of Depression.”
(NW, 6/11/01, p.56)
1621 In England Bacon was accused of taking bribes in his office of lord chancellor. He was convicted, sentenced to a large fine and imprisoned for a short time in the Tower of London.
1621 In Germany potatoes, native to the Andes, were first planted.
(SFC, 7/14/99, p.3)
1621 In Mexico Agustina Ruiz of Quertaro was tried for claiming sexual intercourse with saints. She was sent to a convent by the Inquisition for 3 years of fasting and penance.
(SFC, 9/18/96, p.A11)

1621 Spices bought in the West Indies for $227 sold for $2 million in Europe.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1621-1623 Orazio Gentileschi painted “Danaë.”
(WSJ, 3/12/02, p.A24)

1621-1623 Gregory XV served as Pope.
(WSJ, 2/8/00, p.A20)

1621-1622 Dutch artist Dirck van Baburen painted “The Mocking of Christ.”
(SFC, 9/12/97, p.C8)

1622 Jan 15, Moliere (d.1673) [Jean Baptiste Poquelin], French actor and comic dramatist, was born. He was the author of “Tartuffe” and “The Misanthrope” (1666). He also did the bilingual experiment “L’Impromptu du Versailles.” His last play was “The Imaginary Invalid.” “It is a stupidity second to none, to busy oneself with the correction of the world.”
(WUD, 1994, p.923)(WSJ, 4/5/96, p.A-6)(LSA, Spg/97, p.14)(WSJ, 4/2/98, p.A20)(AP, 11/10/98)(HN, 1/15/99)

1622 Jan 23, William Baffin (~38), British explorer, died.
(MC, 1/23/02)

1622 Feb 8, King James I disbanded the English parliament.
(MC, 2/8/02)

1622 Feb 27, Rembrandt Carel Fabritius (d.1654), Dutch painter, was born.
(SFC, 4/4/01, p.C1)(MC, 2/27/02)

1622 Mar 12, Ignatius of Loyola (founder of the Jesuits) was declared a saint.
(MC, 3/12/02)

1622 Mar 22, The Powhattan Confederacy massacred 347-350 colonists in Virginia, a quarter of the population. On Good Friday over 300 colonists in and around Jamestown, Virginia, were massacred by the Powhatan Indians. The massacre was led by the Powhatan chief Opechancanough and began a costly 22-year war against the English. Opechancanough hoped that killing one quarter of Virginia’s colonists would put an end to the European threat. The result of the massacre was just the opposite, however, as English survivors regrouped and pushed the Powhattans far into the interior. Opechancanough launched his final campaign in 1644, when he was nearly 100 years old and almost totally blind. He was then captured and executed.
(WSJ, 10/19/98, p.A24)(HNPD, 10/23/98)(AP, 3/22/99)

1622 Apr 17, Henry Vaughan (d.1695), English poet and mystic, was born.
(WUD, 1994, p.1582)(HN, 4/17/98)

1622 Jun 24, The Dutch defeated Macao.
(HFA, ’96, p.32)

1622 Sep 6, A Spanish silver fleet disappeared off Florida Keys; thousands died. The Santa Margarita, discovered off of Key West in 1980 by pioneering shipwreck salvor Mel Fisher, was bound for Spain when it sank in a hurricane in 1622.
(MC, 9/6/01)(AP, 6/18/07)

1622 Oct 18, French King Louis XIII and the Huguenots signed the treaty of Montpellier.
(MC, 10/18/01)

1622 Dec 28, Francois de Sales (55), French bishop of Geneva, writer and saint, died.
(MC, 12/28/01)

1622 Dutch artist Dirck van Baburen painted: “The Procuress.”
(SFEM, 8/31/97, p.8)

1622 William Bradford and Edward Winslow authored “Mourt’s Relation.” It was published in London and provided an account of the Plymouth colony’s first year.
(WSJ, 11/22/08, p.W11)(AM, 11/00, p.18)

1622 Thomas Middleton and William Rowley wrote the Jacobean tragedy “The Changeling.”
(WSJ, 3/6/97, p.A12)

1622 Paris Lodron, the Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg, founded the Univ. of Salzburg.
(StuAus, April ’95, p.87)

1622 Powhattan Indians attacked the outlying settlements of Jamestown and destroyed the Henricus settlement.

1622 The Spaten’s company name comes from Munich brewing family Spaeth, which bought a 225 year-old brewery in 1622 and ran the firm for seven generations.

1622 In Aklmaar [Netherlands] the cheese market officially opened. [see 1366]
(SFEC, 6/7/98, p.T10)

1622 Safavid Persia ruled Kandahar (Afghanistan).

1622 Queen Nzinga of Matamba visited Portuguese officials to plead for peace.
(ATC, p.153)

1622-1623 Mustafa I took back the rule in the Ottoman House of Osman.
(Ot, 1993, xvii)

1622-1623 Nicolas Poussin, French painter, made his ink and wash drawing “The Death of Chione.”
(WSJ, 2/26/96, p.A-10)

1623 Mar 5, The 1st American temperance law was enacted in Virginia.
(MC, 3/5/02)

1623 Apr 27, Johann Adam Reincken, composer, was born.
(MC, 4/27/02)

1623 Apr 29, 11 Dutch ships departed for the conquest of Peru.
(MC, 4/29/02)

1623 Jun 19, Blaise Pascal (d.1662), French mathematician, physicist, religious writer, was born. He affirmed that the heart has its reasons, which reason does not comprehend. The French mathematician invented the roulette wheel in an effort to create a perpetual motion machine. He formulated the first laws of atmospheric pressure, equilibrium of liquids and probability.” All the troubles of man come from his not knowing how to sit still.”
(V.D.-H.K.p.123)(SFEC, 3/23/97, z1 p.7)(AP, 6/19/98)(AP, 5/28/99)(HN, 6/19/99)

1623 Jul 4, William Byrd (80), English composer (Ave verum corpus), died.
(MC, 7/4/02)

1623 Aug 6, Anne Hathaway, wife of William Shakespeare, died.
(MC, 8/6/02)

1623 Sep 10, Lumber and furs were the first cargo to leave New Plymouth in North America for England.
(HN, 9/10/98)

1623 Nov 9, William Camden (72), English historian: Brittania Annales, died.
(MC, 11/9/01)

1623 In Prague Adriaen de Vries created his sculpture, “Laocoon and His Sons.” It was the first reinterpretation of the Greek masterpiece unearthed in Rome in 1506.
(WSJ, 12/7/99, p.A24)

1623 Dutch artist Dirck van Baburen painted “Prometheus Chained.”
(SFC, 9/12/97, p.C1)

1623 Velazquez painted the portrait: “Gaspar de Guzman, Count-Duke of Olivares.”
(WSJ, 12/29/99, p.A12)

1623 Ben Jonson, playwright, wrote his poem Shakespeare “Sweet Swan of Avon.”
(SFC, 4/26/97, p.E3)

1623 The 1st folio edition of Shakespeare’s plays was published.
(SSFC, 6/3/01, DB p.71)

1623 A volume entitled “Necessary and Useful Rules for Hunting and the Care of Grazing Animals” was published.
(Econ, 1/20/07, p.93)

1623 In Massachusetts Gov. William Bradford instituted private property so that the pilgrims could cultivate food at a profit. He assigned every family a parcel of land.
(WSJ, 11/26/97, p.A12)

1623 Avedis Zildjian, alchemist, noted that a particular combination of tin and copper rang very nicely and began making musical cymbals in Constantinople. In 1929 the firm moved to Massachusetts.
(WSJ, 5/31/96, p.B1)

1623 The young male caretaker of cattle was first called a “cowboy.”
(SFC, 6/16/96, Zone 1 p.2)

1623 In London the Coopers Arm pub, now known as The Lamb and Flag at 33 Rose St., went into business.
(SFC, 8/11/96, p.T7)

1623 The 1st case of smallpox in Russia was reported.
(SFC, 10/19/01, p.A17)

1623-1640 Murad IV succeeded Mustafa I in the Ottoman House of Osman.
(Ot, 1993, xvii)

1624 Jan 15, The people of Mexico rioted upon hearing that their churches were to be closed.
(HN, 1/15/99)

1624 Mar 5, Class-based legislation was passed in the colony of Virginia, exempting the upper class from punishment by whipping.
(HN, 3/5/99)

1624 Apr 29, Louis XIII appointed Cardinal Richelieu chief minister of the Royal Council.
(HN, 4/29/98)

1624 May 24, James I revoked Virginia’s charter after years of unprofitable operation and it became a royal colony.
(HN, 5/24/99)(AH, 6/07, p.27)

1624 Aug 13, French King Louis XIII named Cardinal Richelieu his first minister.
(AP, 8/13/97)

1624 Sep 12, The 1st submarine was tested in London.
(MC, 9/12/01)

1624 May 3, Spanish silver fleet sailed to Panama.
(MC, 5/3/02)

1624 George Fox (d.1691), founder of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers), was born in England.
(SSFC, 8/5/01, p.C10)

1624 In Italy Giovanni Lanfranco painted the “Council of the Gods” on the ceiling of the Galleria Borghese.
(WSJ, 9/15/98, p.A20)

1624 Nicolas Poussin, French painter, left France and went to Rome.
(WSJ, 2/26/96, p.A-10)

1624 Velasquez painted a portrait of King Philip IV.
(WSJ, 12/16/04, p.D8)

1624 Poet John Donne wrote: “Any man’s death diminishes me, because I am involved in Mankind; and therefore never send to know for whom the bell tolls; it tolls for thee…”
(SFC, 7/15/00, p.B3)

1624 Capt. John Smith published his General Historie of Virginia. His exciting adventures are pictured in the book’s engravings.
(NG, Sept. 1939, J. Maloney p.359)

1624 Artisans of Louis XIII completed the 1st generation of the Louvre.
(SFC, 7/15/00, p.B3)

1624 Cafe Chris opened in Amsterdam and served the construction workers of the nearby Westerkerk.
(SFEC, 3/2/97, p.T5)

1624 The Dutch conquered Salvador, Brazil.
(SFEC, 8/8/99, p.T8)

1624 Dutchman Cornelius Drebbel encased a wooden frame in a greased leather sheath and pushed it underwater to create what’s claimed to be the world’s 1st submarine.
(SFC, 7/15/00, p.B3)

1625 Mar 5, James I (VI), Stuart king of Scotland (1567), England (1603-25), died.
(MC, 3/5/02)(PCh, 1992, p.228)

1625 Mar 27, Charles I (d.1649) became the English king. He was King of England, Ireland and Scotland until he was beheaded.
(AP, 3/27/97)(WSJ, 6/13/96, p.A12)(MC, 3/27/02)

1625 Apr 7, Albrecht von Wallenstein was appointed German supreme commander.
(MC, 4/7/02)

1625 May 15, In Upper Austria 16 rebellious farmers were hanged in Varcklamarkt.
(MC, 5/15/02)

1625 May 18, Francisco Gómez de Sandoval y Rojas, Spanish marquis of Denia, died.
(SC, 5/18/02)

1625 Jun 5, Orlando Gibbons (41), English organist, composer (Silver Swan), died.
(MC, 6/5/02)

1625 Jun 8, Giovanni Domenico Cassini, discoverer of four satellites of Saturn, was born in Perinaldo, Italy. Gian Domenico Cassini was an astrologer and then became an astronomer and was known in France as Jean-Dominique Cassini. At the Paris observatory he discovered the wide gap in the rings of Saturn now called the Cassini division, as well as four of the planet’s moons.
(SFEC, 10/5/97, Z1 p.4)(HN, 6/8/98)(SFCM, 3/17/02, p.29)

1625 Jul 2, The Spanish army took Breda, Spain, after nearly a year of siege.
(HN, 7/2/98)

1625 Aug 20, Thomas Corneille, French playwright, was born.
(MC, 8/20/02)

1625 Sep 13, 16 Rabbis (including Isiah Horowitz) were imprisoned in Jerusalem.
(MC, 9/13/01)

1625 Sep 24, Dutch Gen’l. Bowdoin Hendrik and his fleet of 17 ships sailed into San Juan, Puerto Rico, and attacked El Morro. He held the garrison under siege for 3 weeks and then set the town to flames. This infuriated the Spanish who attacked and sent the Dutch fleeing.
(HT, 4/97, p.31-33)(MC, 9/24/01)

1625 Nov 14, Giulio C. Procaccini, Italian sculptor and painter, died.
(MC, 11/14/01)

1625 Dutch artist Hendrick ter Brugghen painted “Saint Sebastian Attended by Saint Irene.”
(SFC, 9/12/97, p.C8)

1625 Rutilio Manetti painted “Lot and His Daughters.”
(WSJ, 4/28/98, p.A16)

1625 Rembrandt depicted himself as a bit player in his painting “The Stoning of St. Stephen.”
(WSJ, 8/11/99, p.A16)

1625 John Donne, English poet, wrote his “Westmoreland Manuscript”
(WSJ, 12/15/95, p.A-16)

1625 Hugo Grotius (1583-1645) of Holland published his influential work “On the Law of War and Peace.” Huig de Groot (Latinized as Hugo Grotius), Dutch jurist and statesman, is generally regarded as the founder of international law. “It is lawful to kill who is preparing to kill.”
(HN, 4/10/98)(HNQ, 3/15/00)(Econ, 11/22/03, p.25)

1625 The first apple orchard in the US was planted on Boston’s Beacon Hill.
(T&L, 10/1980, p.40)

1625 An English colonizing group founded the Mount Wollaston settlement, 25 miles north of Plymouth. It later became Quincy, Mass. Thomas Morton, a London lawyer, was part of the group.
(ON, 3/00, p.11)

1625 St. Croix island in the West Indies was settled by the Dutch and English.
(NG, Jan, 1968, C. Mitchell, p. 83)



Timeline 17th Century: 1626-1660 – 2

1654 Jan 10, Russia’s Czar Alexander announced a war against Lithuania and Poland. It lasted to 1667.
(LHC, 1/9/03)

1654 Apr 12, England, Ireland and Scotland united.
(MC, 4/12/02)

1654 Apr 26, Jews were expelled from Brazil.
(MC, 4/26/02)

1654 May 3, A bridge in Rowley, Mass., was permitted to charge a toll for animals, while people crossed for free.
(AP, 5/3/97)

1654 Jun 6, Queen Christina of Sweden resigned and converted to Catholicism.
(MC, 6/6/02)

1654 Jun 7, Louis XIV was crowned King of France in Rheims.
(AP, 6/7/97)(HN, 6/7/98)

1654 Aug 22, Jacob Barsimson, the 1st Jewish immigrant to US, arrived in New Amsterdam.
(MC, 8/22/02)

1654 Sep 8, Peter Claver, Spanish saint (baptized 300,000 slaves), died.
(MC, 9/8/01)

1654 Oct 12, Carel Fabritius (b.1622), Dutch painter, died in a gunpowder explosion in Delft. He was one of Rembrandt’s most gifted pupils.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carel_Fabritius)(WSJ, 7/20/01, p.W11)(Econ, 10/26/13, p.93)

1654 Nov 21, Richard Johnson, a free black, was granted 550 acres in Virginia.
(MC, 11/21/01)

1654 Nov 23, Blaise Pascal (1623-1662), scientist and philosopher, underwent a mystical experience. He entered a hermitage at Port-Royal des Champs and never again published in his own name. He came up with the idea that believing in God is safer than not believing because it might gain one eternal life. He was a Jansenist, and thereby rejected free will in favor of predestination. Pascal and Fermat devised the laws of probability by trying to determine who 2 players should share the stakes when they leave a game of chance uncompleted.
(SFC, 9/22/96, Par. p.21)(WSJ, 10/15/98, p.A20)

1654 Jacob van Loo painted “An Allegory of Venus and Cupid as Lady World and Homo Bulla.” It hangs in the Speed Museum of Louisville, Ky.
(WSJ, 12/18/97, p.A20)
1654 Rembrandt van Rijn painted a portrait of poet-businessman Jan Six, one of the richest Amsterdammers of his time. His work this year also included “A Woman Bathing in a Stream” and “Flora.” His work this year also included the etching and drypoint “The Descent From the Cross by Torchlight.”
(WSJ, 6/19/00, p.A42)(WSJ, 3/904, p.D8)(SFC, 1/28/06, p.E4)(Econ, 6/23/07, p.96)

1654 Roger Williams (1603-1683) was elected as the 9th president of President of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
(ON, 2/12, p.8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_Williams_%28theologian%29)

c1654 Samuel Stockhausen, a physician in Goslar in the Harz Mountains of Germany, identified the ailment of Huttenkatze as stemming from lead poisoning in the local mining towns. This find later made possible Gockel’s discovery of the cause of colica Pictonum.
(NH, 7/96, p.51)

1654 The earliest circular coin bearing the inscription “rouble” on it in Russia was struck by Czar Alexiei Mikhailovitch.
(VilNews, 12/17/10)

1654-1656 Rembrandt van Rijn painted a medallion portrait of Muhammed Adil Shah of Bijapur.
(SFEM, 2/1/98, p.16)(SFC, 2/7/98, p.E8)

1654-1705 Jacob Bernouilli, Swiss mathematician and physicist. The Bernouilli effect is named after him.
(WUD, 1994, p.141)

1655 Mar 25, Puritans jailed Governor Stone after a military victory over Catholic forces in the colony of Maryland.
(HN, 3/25/99)
1655 Mar 25, Christiaan Huygens, Dutch inventor and astronomer, discovered Titan, Saturn’s largest satellite.

1655 Apr 4, Battle at Postage Farina, Tunis: English fleet licked Barbarian pirates.
(MC, 4/4/02)

1655 Apr 26, Dutch West Indies Co. denied Peter Stuyvesant’s desire to exclude Jews from New Amsterdam.
(MC, 4/26/02)

1655 Apr 28, English admiral Blake beat a Tunisian pirate fleet.
(MC, 4/28/02)

1655 May 10, Jamaica was captured by English.
(MC, 5/10/02)

1655 Jul 28, French dramatist and novelist Cyrano de Bergerac, the inspiration for a play by Edmond Rostand, died in Paris.
(AP, 7/28/05)

1655 Aug 8, Eastern Lithuania was occupied by Russian and Cossack forces. Western Lithuania was occupied by Swedish forces. Following three days of pillaging Vilnius was burned in a fire the lasted 17 days.

1655 Aug 13, Johann Christoph Denner, inventor of the clarinet, was born.
(HN, 8/13/00)

1655 Aug 28, New Amsterdam & Peter Stuyvesant barred Jews from military service.
(MC, 8/28/01)

1655 Aug 29, Swedish king Karel X Gustaaf occupied Warsaw.
(MC, 8/29/01)

1655 Sep 26, Peter Stuyvesant recaptured Dutch Ft. Casimir from Swedish in Delaware.
(MC, 9/26/01)

1655 Oct 15, Jews of Lublin, Poland, were massacred.
(MC, 10/15/01)

1655 Nov 24, English Lord Protector Cromwell banned Anglicans.
(MC, 11/24/01)

c1655 Esteban Murillo (1617-1682), Spanish artist, painted a self-portrait. Some of his mid-century work in Seville portrayed the effects of the Plague that killed 50% of the population in 4 months. [see 1649]
(WSJ, 4/9/02, p.D19)

1655 Rembrandt van Rijn painted “Polish Rider.”
(WSJ, 12/5/96, p.A16)

1655 Vermeer painted his Saint Praxedis. [see Vermeer, 1632-1675]
(WSJ, 11/15/95, p.A-20)

1655 In Bologna Domenico Cassini persuaded the builders of the Basilica of San Petronio that they should include a major upgrade of Danti’s old meridian with a new entry hole for daylight to track the projected sun on the cathedral floor. Sassini was able to use the observatory to confirm Kepler’s version of the Copernican theory.
(SFC, 10/25/99, p.A4)

1655 In Paris the church of St. Medard was built. Medard was a 6th century counselor to the Merovingian kings who bestowed wreaths of roses upon virtuous maidens.
(SSFC, 7/28/02, p.C1)

c1655 Archbishop James Usher of Dublin, Ireland, developed a timetable that set the creation of the world to 4004BC, and Noah’s landing on Mt. Ararat in 2348BC.
(NG, Nov. 1985, edit. p.559)

1655 The first slave auction was held in New Amsterdam (later NYC).
(SFC, 10/19/98, p.D3)

1655 Peter Stuyvesant launched an offensive against Swedish soldiers who had seized control of the fur trade along the Delaware. In his absence Indians attacked New Amsterdam and took dozens of hostages.
(ON, 4/00, p.2)

1655 The three Cayman Islands came under British control when Oliver Cromwell’s army captured nearby Jamaica from the Spanish.
(AP, 5/10/03)

1655 By this time a house had been built on Ghana’s cape, and over the coming years it was enlarged using slave labor into Carolusburg Fort, named after the then Swedish king. This fort was captured and enlarged by the Danish in 1657, and after a few more shuffles of power the English got their hands on it 1664. In 2006 William St. Clair authored “The Grand Slave Emporium: Cape Coast Castle and the British Slave Trade.

1655-1660 Rembrandt van Rijn painted his picture called “The Auctioneer.”
(WSJ, 11/3/95, p.A-12)

1655-1661 In Vilnius some 8-10 thousand residents were killed by occupying Russian forces.

1656 Jan 8, Oldest surviving commercial newspaper began in Haarlem, Netherlands.
(MC, 1/8/02)

1656 Mar 10, In the colony of Virginia, suffrage was extended to all free men regardless of their religion.
(HN, 3/10/99)

1656 Jan 24, Jacob Lumbrozo, 1st Jewish doctor in US, arrived in Maryland.
(MC, 1/24/02)

1656 Feb 20, James Ussher (76), Irish bible scholar, Anglican archbishop, died. [see Mar 21]
(MC, 2/20/02)

1656 Feb 22, New Amsterdam was granted a Jewish burial site.
(MC, 2/22/02)

1656 Mar 13, Jews were denied the right to build a synagogue in New Amsterdam.
(MC, 3/13/02)

1656 Mar 21, Armagh James Ussher (76), Archbishop (said world began 4004 BC), died. [see Feb 20]
(MC, 3/21/02)

1656 Jul 1, The 1st Quakers, Mary Fisher and Ann Austin, arrived in Boston and were promptly arrested.
(MC, 7/1/02)

1656 Jul 26, Rembrandt declared he is insolvent.
(MC, 7/26/02)

1656 Sep 22, In Patuxent, Md., the first colonial all-female jury heard the case of a woman accused of murdering her child. The jury voted for acquittal.
(HFA, ’96, p.38)(AP, 9/22/98)

1656 Oct 2, US colony Connecticut passed a law against Quakers.
(MC, 10/2/01)

1656 Oct 3, Myles Standish (b.1654), Plymouth Colony leader, died.
(WUD, 1994 p.1386)(MC, 10/3/01)

1656 Oct 24, Treaty of Vilnius (Lithuania): Russia and Poland signed an anti-Swedish covenant.
(MC, 10/24/01)

1656 Oct 25, A party of Oneida Indians killed 3 Frenchmen near Montreal. In response Gov. Gen. Louis d’Ailleboust arrested a hunting party of 12 Mohawks and Onondagas and ordered the arrest of all Iroquois in the French colonies.
(AH, 4/01, p.34)

1656 Oct 29, Edmund Halley (d.1742), astronomer, was born about this time in Hagerston, Middlesex, England. The birth date is somewhat uncertain because it is not known if at that time in his village the Gregorian or the Julian calendar was in use. There’s also some dispute over the year. [see Nov 8]
1656 Nov 8, Edmond Halley, mathematician and astronomer who predicted the return of the comet which is named for him, was born. [see Oct 29]
(HN, 11/6/98)

1656 Dec 14, Artificial pearls were 1st manufactured by M. Jacquin in Paris. They were made of gypsum pellets covered with fish scales.
(MC, 12/14/01)

1656 Diego de Velazquez painted “Las Meminas.”
(WSJ, 1/14/00, p.W12)

1656 Vermeer created his painting “The Procuress.”
(WSJ, 11/15/95, p.A-20)

1656 Christiaan Huygens interpreted Saturn’s “ears” as a simple flat ring.
(NH, 10/1/04, p.29)
1656 Christian Huygens invented the first pendulum clock, as described in his 1658 article “Horologium”. It was built by Solomon Coster and was later put on exhibit at the Time Museum in Rockford, Ill. The time-pieces previously in use had been balance-clocks, Chris Huygens’ pendulum clock was regulated by a mechanism with a “natural” period of oscillation and had an error of less than 1 minute a day.
(http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/bl_huygens.htm)(SF E&C, 1/15/1995, T-10)

1656 The first performance of an English opera was given in a room at the Smithfield home of Sir William Davenant.
(Econ, 11/27/10, p.41)
1656 Oliver Cromwell allowed Jews to return to England. They soon established their first synagogue on Creechurch Lane.
(WSJ, 10/28/06, p.P16)

1656 French King Louis XIV charged the architect Liberal Bruant to build a hospital on the location of a gun powder factory, founding the Hospice de la Salpetriere in Paris. The building was expanded in 1684.

1656 In Norway merchant Herman Leopoldus (d.1696) began doing business after immigrating from Lübeck to Christiania. His son, also named Herman Leopoldus (1677–1750), became very rich and was in 1739 ennobled by letters patent.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/L%C3%B8venskiold_%28noble_family%29)(Econ, 3/12/15, p.64)

c1656 European settlers arrived at the cape of South Africa. Robben Island in Cape Town’s Table Bay from this time on was variously used as a mental institution, leper colony and prison.
(SFC, 9/5/96, p.A10)

1657 Feb 11, Bernard Fontenelle, French scientist, writer (Plurality of Worlds), was born.
(MC, 2/11/02)

1657 Mar 23, France and England formed an alliance against Spain.
(HN, 3/23/98)

1657 Mar 31, English Humble Petition offered Lord Protector Cromwell the crown.
(MC, 3/31/02)

1657 Apr 3, English Lord Protector Cromwell refused the crown.
(MC, 4/3/02)

1657 Apr 20, English Admiral Robert Blake fought his last battle when he destroyed the Spanish fleet in Santa Cruz Bay.
(HN, 4/20/99)

1657 May 5, Jacques Danican Philidor, composer, was born.
(MC, 5/5/02)

1657 May 9, William Bradford, Governor (Plymouth Colony, Mass), died.
(MC, 5/9/02)

1657 Jun 1, 1st Quakers arrived in New Amsterdam (NY). (MC, 6/1/02)

1657 Jul 13, Oliver Cromwell constrained English army leader John Lambert.
(MC, 7/13/02)

1657 Aug 7, Bogdan Chmielnicki (b.1593), Ukraine-born Cossack leader, murderer of 300,000 Jews, died.

1657 Sep 24, The 1st autopsy and coroner’s jury verdict was recorded in the state of Maryland.
(MC, 9/24/01)

1657 The last wolf in Boston, Mass., was killed.
(Econ, 12/22/12, p.125)

1657 Vermeer painted his “The Little Street” about this time.
(WSJ, 11/15/95, p.A-20)

1657 Settlers in Vlissingen (later Flushing, Queens, NY) signed a declaration of religious freedom called the Flushing Remonstrance.
(SSFC, 4/17/05, Par p.12)

1657 By this time the White Tower of London was no longer inhabited by royalty and was almost completely given over to the storage of gunpowder.
(Hem, 9/04, p.28)

1657 By this time the White Tower of London was no longer inhabited by royalty and was almost completely given over to the storage of gunpowder.
(Hem, 9/04, p.28)

1657 Pope Alexander VII entrusted Italian Baroque master Gian Lorenzo Bernini with building the colonnade surrounding St. Peter’s Square. A restoration project was lauched in 2009. In 2012 the Vatican sought funds directly from pilgrims, stamp collectors and tourists to pay for the ambitious restoration.
(AP, 11/27/12)

1657 Venice re-admitted the Jesuits ushering in a period of cultural conservatism that marked the end of the “Renaissance project.”
(WSJ, 5/5/07, p.P10)

1658 Mar 5, Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, French colonial governor of America, was born.
(MC, 3/5/02)

1658 Apr 22, Giuseppe Torelli, composer (Concert Grossi op 8), was born in Italy.
(MC, 4/22/02)

1658 Jun 15, The Mogul emperor Aurangzeb imprisoned his father the Shah, after winning a battle at Samgarh.
(HT, 6/15/00)

1658 Jun 25, In India Aurangzeb proclaimed himself emperor of the Moghuls. Aurangzeb, son of Shah Jahan, overthrew his father and locked him up in the Jasmine tower.
(HT, 4/97, p.24)(HN, 6/25/98)

1658 Aug 12, The 1st US police corps formed in New Amsterdam.
(MC, 8/12/02)

1658 Sep 3, Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of the New Commonwealth, i.e. ruler over England’s Puritan parliament (1653-58), died at age 59. Richard Cromwell had succeeded his father as English Lord Protector. Cromwell was responsible for shipping Romanichal Gypsies (i.e., Gypsies from Britain) as slaves to the southern plantations; there is documentation of Gypsies being owned by freed black slaves in Jamaica.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oliver_Cromwell)(AP, 9/3/97)(http://tinyurl.com/q7kfjwn) (ON, 12/00, p.5)

1658 Vermeer (1632-1675), Dutch artist, completed his painting “The Milkmaid” about this time.
(Econ, 9/19/09, p.98)

1658 In New Amsterdam (later NYC) a night watchman kept a lookout for Indian attacks.
(WSJ, 11/3/98, p.A20)

1658 The sultan of Brunei gave Sabah, the northeastern part of Borneo, to the sultan of Sulu, who ruled a part of what later became the Philippines.
(Econ, 2/23/13, p.39)

1658 Construction began on the Royal Palace in Turin, Italy.
(SSFC, 1/22/06, p.E6)

1658 In France Moliere was anointed with the patronage of King Louis XIV.
(SFC, 6/20/96, p.D2)

1658-1716 Ogata Korin, Japanese artist. The artist created the cartoonish “Gods of Wind and Thunder.”
(WSJ, 12/1/98, p.A20)

1658-1742 Nicholas Roosevelt, the common ancestor of later US presidents Theodore and Franklin Roosevelt.
(WSJ, 12/18/97, p.A20)

1659 Jan 18, Benedikt Lechler (64), composer, died.
(MC, 1/18/02)

1659 Mar 7, Henry Purcell, English organist, composer (Dido & Aeneas), was born.
(MC, 3/7/02)

1659 Mar 22, The Warsaw parliament decided to issue metal currency, shillings, for Lithuania and Poland.
(LHC, 3/22/03)

1659 Mar 26, William Wollaston, English philosopher, was born.
(SS, 3/26/02)

1659 Apr 22, Lord protector Cromwell disbanded the English parliament.
(MC, 4/22/02)

1659 May 25, Richard Cromwell resigned as English Lord Protector.
(SC, 5/25/02)

1659 Sep 30, Robinson Crusoe was shipwrecked (according to Defoe). [see Feb 12, 1709]
(MC, 9/30/01)
1659 Sep 30, Peter Stuyvesant of New Netherlands forbade tennis playing during religious services (1st mention of tennis in US).
(MC, 9/30/01)

1659 Oct 13, Gen. John Lambert drove out the English Rump government. The “Rump Parliament” was restored in Dec.
(PCh, 1992, p.247)(MC, 10/13/01)

1659 Oct 10, Able Janszoon Tasman, navigator, died at about 56. He discovered Tasmania.
(WUD, 1994 p.1455)(MC, 10/10/01)

1659 Oct 12, English Rump government fired John Lambert and other generals. [see Oct 13]
(MC, 10/12/01)

1659 Oct 13, Gen. John Lambert drove out the English Rump government. The “Rump Parliament” was restored in Dec. [see Oct 12]
(PCh, 1992, p.247)(MC, 10/13/01)

1659 Rembrandt Harmenszoom van Rizn (Rijn)(1606-1669), Dutch painter, made “Jupiter and Antiope” (1659).
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1213)(WSJ, 10/1/96, p.A20)

1659 Cornelius Meylin, patroon of Staten Island, wrote in his recollections that Staten Island was acquired in 1630 in exchange for “kittles, axes, Hoos, wampum, drilling awles, Jews Harps and diverse small wares.” Wampum was also referred to as peag or seawan by Native Americans and consisted of strung cylindrical beads made from polished shells. It was formerly used by some North American Indians as currency and jewelry. It was also used to record events, as a medium of communication and sometimes for ceremonial and spiritual purposes.
(WSJ, 11/19/99, p.W10)(HNQ, 3/23/02)

1659 Christiaan Huygens published “Systema Saturnium,” his observations on Saturn.
(NH, 10/1/04, p.29)
1659 Christien Huygens of Holland used a 2-inch telescope lens and discovered that the Martian day is nearly the same as an Earth day.
(SFC, 11/29/96, p.A16)

1659 Quaker leader Mary Dyer was sentenced to death by a Puritan court in Massachusetts Bay Colony amid the Salem witch trials. She refused to leave the colony and was hanged in 1660.
(SFC, 3/30/97, Z1. p.6)(SFEC, 1/16/00, Z1 p.1)

c1659 The British Parliament invoked law that made it a crime, punishable by burning at the stake, to forecast the weather.
(SFEC, 8/3/97, Z1 p.2)
1659 A London discussion group called the Amateur Parliament met at Miles’ coffee house.
(Econ, 12/20/03, p.90)
1659 In Britain a check was written and made out for 400 pounds (equivalent to around 42,000 pounds in 2009). It was signed by Nicholas Vanacker, made payable to a Mr Delboe and drawn on Messrs Morris and Clayton, scriveners and bankers of the City of London. As of 2009 it was the oldest surviving British check.
(AP, 12/16/09)

1659 The French colony of Saint-Domingue was founded on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola and continued to 1804.

1659 Christian Huygens of Holland used a 2-inch telescope lens and discovered that the Martian day is nearly the same as an Earth day.
(SFC, 11/29/96, p.A16)

1659 Senegal’s second city, Saint-Louis, was founded and was the capital of the west African nation until 1957. It also served as the capital of French West Africa, as it was then known, between 1895 and 1902.
(AFP, 2/3/18)

1659-1661 Michael Sweerts, Flemish painter, created his rosy “Portrait of a Youth.”
(SFC, 6/17/02, p.D1)

1660 Mar 13, A statute was passed limiting the sale of slaves in the colony of Virginia.
(HN, 3/13/99)

1660 Mar 28, Georg Ludwig, German monarch of Hanover, King George I of Great Britain, was born.
(MC, 3/28/02)

1660 Apr 16, Hans Sloane, founder of British Museum, was born.
(HN, 4/16/98)

1660 May 3, Prince Charles, Son of King Charles I, returned to England from France.
(ON, 7/06, p.8)

1660 May 7, Isaack B. Fubine of Savoy, in The Hague, patented macaroni.
(MC, 5/7/02)

1660 May 8, The son of the late Charles I is proclaimed King ending 11 years of civil war.
(PCh, 1992, p.248)

1660 May 26, Charles II (29), returning from exile, landed at Dover.
(PCh, 1992, p.248)

1660 May 28, George I, king of England (1714-1727), was born.
(HN, 5/28/98)(MC, 5/28/02)

1660 May 29, Charles II, who had fled to France, was restored to the English throne after the Puritan Commonwealth. Charles made a deal with George Monck, a general of the New Model Army, and with the old parliamentary foes of his father. The British experiment with republicanism came to an end with the restoration of Charles II.
(V.D.-H.K.p.218)(WSJ, 5/6/97, p.A20)(HN, 5/29/98)(WSJ, 2/28/00, p.A36)
1660 May 29, Gyorgy Rakosi II prince of Transylvania, died in battle.
(SC, 5/29/02)
1660 May 29, Peter Scriverius (44), lawyer, historian, died.
(SC, 5/29/02)

1660 Aug 6, Diego Rodriguez de Silva Velazquez (b.1599), Spanish court painter, died in Madrid. In 1906 C. Lewis Hind authored “Days with Velazquez.” In 1986 Jonathan Brown authored “Velazquez: Painter and Courtier.” In 2016 Laura Cumming authored “The Vanishing Man: In Pursuit of Velazquez.”
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diego_Vel%C3%A1zquez)(Econ, 1/23/16, p.79)

1660 Aug 21, Hubert Gautier, engineer, wrote 1st book on bridge building, was born in Nimes, France.
(SC, 8/21/02)

1660 Sep 27, St. Vincent de Paul, Vincentian founder, died.
(MC, 9/27/01)

1660 Oct 15, Asser Levy was granted a butcher’s license for kosher meat in New Amsterdam.
(MC, 10/15/01)

1660 Oct 16, John Cooke (b.1608), England’s solicitor-general during the 1649 trial of Charles 1, was hanged as Charles II looked on in approval. Cooke was hanged slowly until he passed out and then was revived to watch as his genitals were sliced off. A length of his bowel was yanked from his body, pulled before his face and set alight as he bled to death. In 2006 Geoffrey Robertson authored “The Tyrannicide Brief,” an account of Cooke during this period.
(WSJ, 9/6/06, p.D10)(www.pepysdiary.com/archive/1660/10/13/)

1660 Oct, England’s King Charles II enacted his first Declaration of Indulgence.

1660 Nov 28, The London Royal Society formed. Members included Christopher Wren, William Petty, Robert Boyle, John Wilkins and Lawrence Rooke.
(www.royalsoc.ac.uk/page.asp?id=2176)(NYTBR, 2/2/03, p.12)

1660 Dec 3, Jacques Sarazin (70), French sculptor and painter, died.
(MC, 12/3/01)

1660 Dec 8, The first Shakespearian actress to appear on an English stage (she is believed to be a Ms. Norris) made her debut as ‘Desdemona.’
(HN, 12/8/99)

1660 Dec 24, Mary I Henriette Stuart (29), queen of England, died.
(MC, 12/24/01)

1660 Rembrandt van Rijn painted “The Old Woman Cutting Her Nails” about this time.
(WSJ, 11/3/95, p.A-12)

c1660 The Dutch crafted an early version of a boat they called a “yacht.”
(SFC, 7/18/98, p.E3)

1660s The British began to dominate the trade in port wine from Portugal after a political spat with the French denied them the French Bordeaux wines. Brandy was added to the Portuguese wines to fortify them for the Atlantic voyage.
(SFEC, 1/12/97, p.T7)(SFEC, 7/12/98, p.T8)

1660 Bartholomew Sharpe, a British pirate, turned Belize into a base to harvest logwood. British buccaneers settled the coast.
(SFC, 11/2/00, p.A12)

1660 The Palacio Clavijero was built as a Jesuit temple in Valladolid (later Morelia), Mexico.
(SSFC, 5/22/05, p.E6)

1660 Pieter Claesz (b.ca.1597), Dutch still-life painter, died.
(WSJ, 11/22/05, p.D8)

1660-1669 Samuel Pepys (1633-1703), administrator of the navy of England and Member of Parliament, kept a diary over this period.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Pepys)(Econ, 9/2/17, p.73)

1660-1685 King Charles II was ruler of Great Britain. He was the son of Charles I. Under his reign the Italian artist Antonio Verrio painted 2 huge frescoes that covered the entire walls and ceiling of what is now St. George’s Hall. One painting depicted Christ healing the sick in the Temple of Jerusalem and the other was of King Charles II. The frescoes were destroyed in the 1820s under King George IV to reflect a new national style. One fresco was rediscovered in 1996 during reconstruction after a fire in 1992. Charles is known as “the Merry Monarch” because of his many mistresses, enthusiasm for parties and mockery of Puritan values.
(SFC, 5/25/96, p.A12)(WUD, 1994, p.249)(ON, 12/00, p.4)

1660-1725 Alessandro Scarlatti, Italian musician and composer, father of Domenico.
(LGC-HCS, p.40)

1660-1731 Daniel Defoe, English novelist and political journalist. He was born as Daniel Foe and became a successful merchant in woolen goods. For a time he was jailed due to his debts. He became a supporter of William of Orange and wrote over 500 publications on his behalf. Some regard him as the father of modern journalism. Among other works he wrote “Robinson Crusoe,” “Moll Flanders,” “General Histories of the Robberies and Murders of the Most Notorious Pirates,” “A Tour of the Whole Island of Great Britain,” and “Journal of the Plague Year.” In 1999 Richard West published “Daniel Defoe: The Life and Strange Surprising Adventures.”
(WUD, 1994, p.379)(WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A12)

1660-1830 In the 1990s literary critic Claude Rawson wrote “Satire and Sentiment: 1660-1830.”
(WSJ, 1/15/98, p.A17)



Timeline 17th Century: 1626-1660

1626 Feb 2, Charles I was crowned King of England. His wife was Queen Henrietta Maria.
(HN, 2/2/99)(WSJ, 10/31/02, p.D6)

1626 Feb 6, Huguenot rebels and the French signed the Peace of La Rochelle.
(HN, 2/6/99)

1626 Feb 20, John Dowland, composer, died.
(MC, 2/20/02)

1626 Feb 28, Cyril Tourneur (c51), English poet, dramatist, died.
(MC, 2/28/02)

1626 Mar 15, In Bolivia the Potosi (San Ildefonso) dam collapsed. It was one of the major hydraulic disasters in the world with some 4,000 human lives lost.

1626 Apr 5, Jan van Kessel (d.1679), Flemish painter, was born. He was the grandson of Jan Breughel. He is known for his small paintings on copper and wood. His “Study of Butterflies, Spiders, Lizards, a Beetle, an Ant, a Grasshopper and Other Insects” sold at a Sotheby’s auction in 2000 for $1,655,750.
(WSJ, 6/9/00, p.W10)(MC, 4/5/02)

1626 Apr 9, Francis Bacon (b.1561), English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, and author, died. Bacon has been called the father of empiricism. His works argued for the possibility of scientific knowledge based only upon inductive reasoning and careful observation of events in nature.

1626 May 4, Dutch explorer Peter Minuit (~1594-1638), director-general of New Netherlands, bought Manhattan Island for 60 guilders (about $24 in 1839 dollars) worth of cloth and buttons. Minuit conducted the transaction with Seyseys, chief of the Canarsees, who were only too happy to accept valuable merchandise in exchange for an island that was actually mostly controlled by the Weckquaesgeeks. The Sixty guilders were valued at approximately $1,060 in 2013. The site of the deal was later marked by Peter Minuit Plaza at South Street and Whitehall Street.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_Minuit)(AP, 5/4/97)(HN, 5/4/98)(WSJ, 11/19/99, p.W10)

1626 Jul 30, An earthquake hit Naples and some 10,000 died.
(MC, 7/30/02)

1626 Aug 27, The Danes were crushed by the Catholic League in Germany, marking the end of Danish intervention in European wars.
(HN, 8/27/98)

1626 Oct 4, Richard Cromwell (d.1659), lord protector of England (1658-59), was born.
(MC, 10/4/01)

1626 Nov 7, Peter Schager of Amsterdam informed the States General that the ship “The Arms of Amsterdam” had arrived with a cargo of furs and timber from New Netherlands and that the settlers there had bought the Island of Manhattes for 60 guilders.
(WSJ, 11/19/99, p.W10)

1626 Nov 15, The Pilgrim Fathers, who settled in New Plymouth, bought out their London investors.
(HN, 11/15/98)

1626 Nov 18, Pope Urban VIII consecrated St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome. Construction had begun in 1506.
(HN, 11/18/98)(SSFC, 2/18/07, p.A2)

1626 Dec 1, Pasha Muhammad ibn Farukh, tyrannical governor of Jerusalem, was driven out.
(MC, 12/1/01)

1626 Dec 8, Christina (d.1689), queen of Sweden (1644-1654), was born. She negotiated the Peace of Westphalia (1648), ending the Thirty Years’ War. “Fools are more to be feared than the wicked.” “Dignity is like a perfume; those who use it are scarcely conscious of it.”
(AP, 7/8/97)(AP, 1/14/99)(HN, 12/8/99)

1626 Andrea Guarneri (d.1698), violin maker, was born.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R53)

1626 Rembrandt van Rijn depicted part of himself in his painting “History Piece.”
(WSJ, 8/11/99, p.A16)
c1626 Peter Paul Rubens painted “The Succession of the Popes (Allegory of Eternity).”
(SFC, 3/5/05, p.E1)

1626 Domenico Zampieri (Domenichino) painted the 7-foot-long “The Rebuke of Adam and Eve.”
(WSJ, 1/21/00, p.W12)

1626 In London Queen Henrietta Maria, wife of Charles I, was presented Jeffrey Hudson (7), whom she made her royal dwarf. In 2002 Nick Page authored “Lord Minimus,” a biography of Hudson.
(HN, 2/2/99)(WSJ, 10/31/02, p.D6)
1626 China’s city of Peking (later Beijing) experienced a major flood.
(Econ, 7/28/12, p.37)
1626 In Prague Adriaen de Vries began his last sculpture, “Hercules.” It was completed in 1627.
(WSJ, 12/7/99, p.A24)
1626 The F.E. Trimbach winery was established in Ribeauville, Alsace.
(SFC, 3/31/05, p.F2)

c1626-1627 Dutch artist Hendrick ter Brugghen painted “The Concert.”
(SFEM, 8/31/97, p.12)

1626-1636 Francois Mansart, French royal architect, built the Chateau de Balleroy in Normandy.
(SSFC, 6/6/04, D6)

1626-1679 Jan Steen, Dutch painter. His work includes Girl Offering Oysters. “He specialized in painting scenes, such as tavern brawls, seductions and family turmoil, that satirized human weaknesses.”
(SFC, 6/4/96, p.E5)

1627 Mar 3, Piet Heyn conquered 22 ships in Bay of Salvador, Brazil.
(SC, 3/3/02)

1627 May 29, Anne of Orléans, duchess of Montpensier (Grand Mademoiselle), was born.
(SC, 5/29/02)

1627 Jul 10, English fleet under George Villiers reached La Rochelle, France, a Huguenot stronghold.
(MC, 7/10/02)(WUD, 1994, p.808)

1627 Jul 20, English fleet under George Villiers reached La Rochelle. [see Jul 10]
(MC, 7/20/02)

1627 Jul 23, Sir George Calvert arrived in Newfoundland to develop his land grant.
(HN, 7/23/98)

1627 Aug 10, Cardinal Richelieu began a siege of La Rochelle.
(MC, 8/10/02)

1627 Sep 25, Jacques-Benigne Bossuet, theologian, was born.
(MC, 9/25/01)

1627 Oct 28, Djehangir (Jahangir), great mogul of India, died.
(MC, 10/28/01)

1627 James Morton changed the name of the New England Mount Wollaston settlement to Merrymount and organized a trading company to compete with Plymouth for the Indian trade in beaver pelts.
(ON, 3/00, p.11)

1627 Barbados was uninhabited as the first English settlers arrived. Sugarcane fields later began to cover the island, a 14 x 21 mile stack of coral terraces.
(NH, 12/96, p.35)(Econ, 6/16/12, p.91)(http://globaledge.msu.edu/countries/Barbados/history/)

1627 In Bhutan Ngawang Namgyal built Simtokha Dzong at the entrance to Thimphu valley. From this dzong he could exert control over traffic between the powerful Paro valley to the west and Trongsa valley to the east.
1627 Two Portuguese Jesuits, Estevao Cacella and Joao Cabral, arrived in Bhutan, the first westerners to do so.

1627 In Norway the stave church at Vaga was rebuilt by architect Werner Olsen. His design included a few fragments of the original building.
(WSJ, 8/27/96, p.A12)

1627 Japan banned contact with foreigners and closed its ports except for limited trade with Holland. [see 1639]
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1627 The last wild cow in Poland died.
(SFC, 12/4/94, p. S-4)

1627 Luis de Gongora y Argote (b.1561), Spanish poet, died.
(SSFC, 9/3/06, p.M3)(www.spanish-books.net/literature/i_gongora.htm)

c1627-1628 Dutch artist Hendrick ter Brugghen painted “Melancholia.”
(SFC, 9/12/97, p.C1)

1627-1637 In northern Pakistan Jahangir’s mausoleum on the right bank of the Navi River in Lahore was built by his son Shah Jahan.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.C)

1628 Jan 13, Charles Perrault, lawyer, writer (Mother Goose), was born in France.
(MC, 1/13/02)

1628 Mar 10, Constantine Huygens Jr., Dutch poet, painter, cartoonist, was born.
(MC, 3/10/02)

1628 Mar 19, Massachusetts colony was founded by Englishmen.
(MC, 3/19/02)

1628 May 1, A May festival in Quincy, Mass., degenerated into an orgy with Indian women.
(MC, 5/1/02)

1628 Jun 9, Thomas Morton of Mass. became the 1st person deported from what is now US.
(MC, 6/9/02)

1628 Aug 1, Emperor Ferdinand II demanded that Austria Protestants convert to Catholicism.
(MC, 8/1/02)
1628 Aug 1, Francesco Gonzaga (37), composer, died.
(MC, 8/1/02)

1628 Aug 10, The Swedish 228-foot warship Vasa capsized and sank in Stockholm harbor on her maiden voyage because the ballast was insufficient to counterweight the 64 guns and ballast. The wreckage was found in 1956. It opened as part of the Vasa museum in 1990. Twenty-five men and women drowned when the ship sank. Vasa was the most expensive and richly ornamented warship of its time in Sweden. She was recovered in 1961 and the skeletal remains were exhumed in 1989.
(NG, 5/95, Geographica)(WSJ, 7/21/00, p.W12)(HN, 8/10/00)

1628 Aug 25, There was as assault on sultan of Mantarams of Batavia (the former name of Djakarta, Indonesia).
(chblue.com, 8/25/01)(WUD, 1994 p.420)

1628 Sep 6, Puritans landed at Salem, from the Mass. Bay Colony.
(MC, 9/6/01)

1628 Sep 8, John Endecott arrived with colonists at Salem, Massachusetts, where he would become the governor.
(HN, 9/8/98)

1628 Oct 14, Iacopo Nigreti (b.~1548-50), prolific and facile Venetian Mannerist painter, died. He is best known as Jacopo Palma il Giovane or simply Palma Giovane (“Young Palma”). His paintings included “Yael Killing Sisera,” a depiction of the Book of Judges Biblical story of the heroine, Yael of Jael, who killed Sisera to deliver Israel from the troops of king Jabin. She was the wife of Heber the Kenite.

1628 Oct 28, After a fifteen-month siege, the Huguenot town of La Rochelle surrendered to Cardinal Richelieu’s Catholic forces. John Tradescant, an English gardener who accompanied Duke George Villiers to rescue the Huguenots, had designed siege trenches prior to the surrender.
(HN, 10/28/98)(MC, 10/28/01)(WSJ, 4/3/08, p.B19)

1628 Nov 24, John Ford (1586-1640) had the premier of his play: “Lover’s Melancholy” in London.
(MC, 11/24/01)(WUD, 1994 p.554)

1628 Nov 28, John Bunyan, English preacher and writer who wrote Pilgrim’s Progress, was born.
(HN, 11/28/98)

1628 Abraham Bloemaert, Dutch mannerist, painted his “Virgin and Child.”
(SFEM, 8/31/97, p.13)

1628 Rembrandt Harmenszoom van Rizn (Rijn)(1606-1669), Dutch painter, painted “Self Portrait Leaning Forward.”
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1213)(WSJ, 10/1/96, p.A20)

1628 Gerrit van Honthorst painted “Portrait of Charles I.”
(WSJ, 2/29/00, p.B16)

1628 The Reformed Protestant Dutch Church was established by settlers in New York. In 1867 it became the Reformed Church of America.
(SFEC, 4/20/97, Par p.18)(SFC, 7/21/97, p.A11)

1628 Margherita de Medici was wed to Duke Odoardo Farnese in the Teatro Farnese in Parma. Music was composed by Claudio Monteverdi.
(SFEC, 9/15/96, p.T6)

1628 Charlestown was founded in the New World. Much of it was burned in the Revolutionary War.
(HT, 3/97, p.34)

1628 The Petition of Right was established in England
(MT, Dec. ’95, p.16)

1628 Peter Paul Rubens, Flemish painter, was called upon to broker a peace between Catholic Spain and Protestant England.
(Econ, 5/15/04, p.81)

1628-1658 Shah Jahan (1592-1666), a descendent of the Moghuls, ruled India. He was India’s 3rd Mughal emperor. The manuscript “Padshahnama” (King of the World) by Abdul-Hamid Lahawri documents the reign of Shah Jahan. In 1997 Wheeler Thackston made a new translation.
(WUD, 1994, p.1309)(HT, 4/97, p.22)(WSJ, 12/4/97, p.A20)

1628-1695 Enku was an Japanese artist-priest who took a vow to sculpt 120,000 images of the Buddha.
(WSJ, 12/1/98, p.A20)

1629 Jan 21, Abbas I (b.1571), Shah of Persia (1588-1629), died.

1629 Jan 27, Hieronymus Praetorius (68), composer, died.
(MC, 1/27/02)

1629 Mar 2, English King Charles I fleeced the house of commons.
(SC, 3/2/02)

1629 Mar 10, England’s King Charles I dissolved Parliament and did not call it back for 11 years.
(AP, 3/10/98)

1629 Mar 14, A Royal charter was granted to the Massachusetts Bay Company. About 1,000 puritans under the leadership of John Winthrop received a charter from King Charles I to trade and colonize between the Charles and Merrimack rivers. The official seal to the document was reported found in 1997. [see 1684, Oct 17, 1691]
(SFC, 7/12/97, p.A21)(HN, 3/14/98)(HNQ, 11/23/00)

1629 Mar 19, Aleksei M. Romanov, Romanov tsar of Russia, was born.
(MC, 3/19/02)

1629 Apr 14, Christian Huygens (d.1695), Dutch astronomer, discoverer of Saturn’s rings, was born. He invented the pendulum and along with Newton showed that any body revolving around a center is actually accelerating constantly toward that center, even though the rate of rotation remains constant.
(TNG, Klein, p.30)(http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/bl_huygens.htm)

1629 Apr 30, John Endecott became governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.

1629 May 29, Arnold Baert (~74) Flemish lawyer, member of Great Council, died.
(SC, 5/29/02)

1629 Jun 18, Piet Heyn (51), lt. admiral (Spanish silver fleet), died in battle.
(MC, 6/18/02)

1629 Jul 31, Johann Jakob Lowe von Eisenach, composer, was born.
(MC, 7/31/02)

1629 Oct 13, Dutch West Indies Co. granted religious freedom in West Indies.
(MC, 10/13/01)

1629 Oct 30, King Charles I gave the Bahamas to Sir Robert Heath.
(MC, 10/30/01)

1629 Peter Paul Rubens, Flemish painter, created an allegorical design depicting “Honor and Virtue.” The painting was commissioned in this year and in 1998 was part of the collection of the Prince of Liechtenstein. A separate small oil sketch for the painting was first made and made public in 1998. Rubens also made a copy of Titian’s “The Rape of Europa,” and he painted the portrait of “Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel.”
(SFC, 2/19/98, p.E4)(WSJ, 3/9/98, p.A16)

1629 In New Mexico construction began on the Mission church of San Esteban del Rey at the Acoma Pueblo mesa. It took 14 years to complete and required more than 20,000 tons of earth and rock to be hauled up the mesa on foot.
(SSFC, 9/24/06, p.G6)

1629 The weekly Bills of Mortality in London, begun in 1603, began to include causes of death.
(Econ, 12/22/07, p.97)

1629 In Japan women performers were banned in Kabuki theaters to prevent prostitution and were replaced by young boys. The ban spawned a new breed of male actors.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)(SFC, 6/14/05, p.B3)

1629 The Batavia, a Dutch East India ship, struck a reef off the western coast of Australia. Some 300 survivors made it to a tiny island in the Houtman Abrolhos archipelago, where Jeronimus Cornelisz, a junior officer, took power after a vicious struggle. He ran a regime of murder, rape and torture for 3 months when helped arrived from the Dutch colony on Java. 70 of the 300 initial survivors were still alive. Cornelisz was quickly tried and executed. In 2005 Simon Leys authored “The Wreck of the Batavia.”
(WSJ, 1/10/06, p.D8)

1629-1684 Pieter de Hooch, Dutch painter of contemplative scenes of everyday life.
(WSJ, 2/2/99, p.A20)

1630 Feb 22, Indians introduced pilgrims to popcorn at Thanksgiving.
(MC, 2/22/02)

1630 Mar 22, The first American legislation prohibiting gambling was enacted in Boston.
(HN, 3/22/97)

1630 Mar 23, French troops occupied Pinerolo, Piedmont.
(SS, 3/23/02)

1630 Apr 17, Christian I, ruler of Anhalt-Bernburg (battle of White Mt), died.
(MC, 4/17/02)

1630 May 17, Italian Jesuit Niccolo Zucchi saw the belts on Jupiter’s surface.
(HN, 5/17/98)

1630 May 29, Charles Stuart (d.1685), later Charles II, king of England (1660 to 1685), was born. He was the son of Charles I. Charles II was restored to the English throne after the Puritan Commonwealth. Charles made a deal with George Monck, a general of the New Model Army, and with the old parliamentary foes of his father. The British experiment with republicanism came to an end with the restoration of Charles II.
(V.D.-H.K.p.218)(WUD, 1994, p.249)(SFC, 5/25/96, p.A12)(WSJ, 5/6/97, p.A20)(HN, 5/29/98)(WSJ, 2/28/00, p.A36)
1630 May 29, Gov. John Winthrop began his “History of New England.”
(SC, 5/29/02)

1630 Jun 12, John Winthrop aboard the Isabella, landed at North River near Salem. Winthrop eventually decided to locate the colony in Charlestown because of its proximity to the harbor.

1630 Jun 25, The fork was introduced to American dining by Gov. Winthrop.
(MC, 6/25/02)

1630 Jul 12, New Amsterdam’s governor bought Gull Island from Indians for cargo and renamed it Oyster Island. It later became Ellis Island.
(MC, 7/12/02)

1630 Aug 13, Emperor Frederick II of Bohemia fired Albrecht von Wallenmanders, his best military commander.
(HN, 8/13/98)

1630 Sep 7, The Massachusetts town of Trimontaine (Shawmut), was renamed Boston, and became the state capital. It was named after a town of the same name in Lincolnshire, England.
(HN, 9/7/98)(www.bostonhistory.org/faq.html)

1630 Sep 11, John de White, Calvinist banker to Prague, committed suicide.
(MC, 9/11/01)

1630 Sep 30, John Billington, one of the original pilgrims who sailed to the New World on the Mayflower, became the first criminal in the American colonies to be executed for murder. He was hanged for having shot John Newcomin following a quarrel.
(HN, 9/30/01)(MC, 9/30/01)

1630 Oct 19, In Boston the 1st general court was held.
(MC, 10/19/01)

1630 Nov 1-1630 Nov 30, In Italy 12,000 inhabitants of Venice died of plague. 80,000 people died over a period of 17 months.
(WSJ, 9/7/05, p.D14)(www.turismovenezia.it/eng/dynalay.asp?PAGINA=913)

1630 Nov 10, In France there was a failed palace revolution against Richelieu government.
(MC, 11/10/01)

1630 Nov 15, Johann Kepler (b.1571), German astronomer, died at 58.
(MC, 11/15/01)

1630 Nov 19, Johann Hermann Schein (44), German composer (Opella Nova), died.
(MC, 11/19/01)

1630 Frans Hals painted his “Portrait of a Man.”
(WSJ, 7/16/02, p.D6)

1630 Georges de La Tour began his masterwork painting “The Cheat With the Ace of Clubs.” It was completed about 1634.
(WSJ, 11/13/96, p.A20)

c1630 Poussin completed his painting “Rinaldo and Armida” and the “Plague at Ashdod.”
(WSJ, 7/20/01, p.W11)(SFC, 6/17/02, p.D1)

1630 Tirso de Molina, Spanish dramatist, wrote the tragic drama “The Seducer of Seville”, wherein Don Juan was first given a literary personality, though it was already an old myth of libertinism from the medieval past.

1630 John Winthrop made his famous sermon “A Model of Christian Charity,” also known as his “City Upon a Hill” sermon. The speech was likely made in England prior to his departure for Massachusetts.
1630 The Boston Common was first used by the Pilgrims as a common grazing ground for their livestock. It remained open to livestock until 1830.
(AH, 10/07, p.72)

1630 Staten Island was acquired by Dutch settlers. [see 1659]
(WSJ, 11/19/99, p.W10)

1630 The southern wall of the Wallenstein Garden in central Prague was built as part of Gen. Albrecht von Wallenstein’s palace complex.
(WSJ, 8/7/07, p.D10)

1630 In Hungary Mate Szepsy Laczko described the method for producing Tokaj wine made from botrytized grapes.
(WSJ, 10/5/00, p.A24)

c1630 The widow of a samurai set up a business that grew to become the Kikkoman Corp., the world’s leading maker of soy sauce.
(WSJ, 12/27/99, p.A1)(Econ, 12/18/04, p.105)

1630s Inigo Jones built the portico of London’s Old St. Paul’s Cathedral.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.14)

1630-1631 There was a great famine in India. Records indicate that cannibalism became so rampant that human flesh was sold on the open market.
(SFC, 7/6/96, p.E4)

1631 Feb 5, A ship from Bristol, the Lyon, arrived with provisions for the Massachusetts Bay Colony (Massachusetts Bay Company). Puritan Roger Williams, proponent of religious freedom and later founder of Rhode Island, arrived with his wife in Boston from England and joined the Separatist colony at Plymouth.
(http://tinyurl.com/m6czns)(AP, 2/5/97)(WSJ, 6/21/05, p.D10)(AH, 4/07, p.25)

1631 Mar 31, John Donne (b.1572), British metaphysical poet, died in London. In 2006 John Stubbs authored “Donne: The Reformed Soul.”
(www.luminarium.org/sevenlit/donne/donnebio.htm)(Econ, 9/9/06, p.79)

1631 Apr 6, Vincenzo De Grandis, composer, was born.
(MC, 4/6/02)

1631 May 4, Mary I Henriette Stuart, daughter of Charles I (later queen of England), was born.
(MC, 5/4/02)

1631 May 17, Earl Johann Tilly attacked Magdeburg.
(MC, 5/17/02)

1631 May 18, English colony of Massachusetts Bay granted Puritans voting rights and John Winthrop was elected 1st governor of Massachusetts.
(SC, 5/18/02)

1631 May 20, A German army under earl Johann Tilly conquered Magdeburg.
(MC, 5/20/02)

1631 Jun 17, Mumtax Mahal, wife of Shah Jahan of India, her tomb (Taj Mahal), died. Arjumand Shah Begum (aka Mumtaz Mahal -Jewel of the Palace), was the 2nd wife of Shah Jahan. She had bore him 14 children and died in childbirth. He build the Taj Mahal (1654) in her memory. The project took 22 years and cost $18 million.
(HT, 4/97, p.22)(SFEC, 5/21/00, p.T8)
1631 Jun 17, The Spanish galleon San Jose smashed into rock off the Pacific coast of Panama. It was overloaded with 200 passengers and 700 tons of cargo. Silver coins and bars were lost over a 40-mile trail.
(http://tinyurl.com/hmy8v7f)(SFC, 12/1/15, p.A7)

1631 Jun 21, John Smith (baptized. 6 January 1580), English sailor, soldier and author, died in England. John Smith was also an explorer, colonial governor, Admiral of New England and played an important role in the establishment of the colony at Jamestown, Virginia, the first permanent English settlement in America. He was a leader of the Virginia Colony between September 1608 and August 1609, and he led an exploration along the rivers of Virginia and the Chesapeake Bay, during which he became the first English explorer to map the Chesapeake Bay area. Later, he explored and mapped the coast of New England.

1631 Jun 26, Justinus van Nassau, Italian admiral (Armada), died.
(MC, 6/26/02)

1631 Jul 19, Cesare Cremonini (b.1550), Italian philosopher and lecturer at Padua Univ., died. His skepticism influenced the culture of the late Renaissance. In 2007 Edward Muir authored “The Culture Wars of the Late Renaissance.”
(WSJ, 5/5/07, p.P10)

1631 Jul 23, Sweden’s King Gustavus II Adolfus repulsed an imperialist force at Werben, Russia.
(AP, 7/23/97)

1631 Aug 9, John Dryden, the 1st official poet laureate of England (1668-1700), was born at Aldwinkle, Northamptonshire.
(HN, 8/9/02)

1631 Sep 17, At the Battle of Breitenfeld (Leipzig) Sweden’s King Gustaaf Adolf led a Saxon-Swedish army and defeated Gen. Tilly.
(MC, 9/17/01)(PCh, 1992, p.231)

1631 Oct 10, A Saxon army occupied Prague.
(MC, 10/10/01)

1631 Oct 14, The ship Our Lady of Juncal set sail from the Gulf coast port of Veracruz, as part of a 19-ship fleet bearing described only as “a valuable shipment of the goods obtained by the king’s ministers to feed the Spanish empire.” Most of the fleet never made it.
(AP, 2/17/09)

1631 Nov 7, Pierre Gassendi observed a transit of Mercury as predicted by Kepler.
(MC, 11/7/01)

1631 Dec 6, The 1st predicted transit of Venus took place. It had been predicted by Kepler, but he died a year before the event.
(MC, 12/6/01)(Econ, 5/29/04, p.78)

1631 Dec 16, In Italy Mount Vesuvius erupted and destroyed 6 villages. Some 3.5-4,000 people were killed.
(SFEC, 5/2/99, p.T8)(MC, 12/16/01)

1631 The General Court of Massachusetts gave voting rights only to Puritan church members.
(AH, 4/07, p.30)

1631 Barker and Lucas, the king’s printers at Blackfriars were fined 300 pounds for their bible misprint that omitted “not” from the 7th commandment. The fine helped to ruin the printer. The edition was called “The Wicked Bible.” A list of variant bible editions due to misprints is in Brewer’s Dictionary of Phrase and Fable
(SFC, 8/11/97, p.D8)

1631 French artist Jean Lhomme painted “Pardon in Assisi.” In 2016 the work was stolen from a village church in Nottoria, Italy, after it was damaged by a series of powerful earthquakes.
(SFC, 11/8/16, p.A2)
1631 The French naval dockyards were created in order to give France sufficient maritime power to rival that of England. This laid the foundation for the French defense firm DCNS.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DCNS_(company))(Econ, 5/14/16, p.55)

1631 Marco d’Aviano, an itinerant preacher for the Capuchins, a branch of the Franciscan friars, was born in Aviano, northern Italy. He led Catholics and Protestants in prayer on the eve of the 1683 battle for Vienna, Austria, which was critical in stopping the advance of Turkish soldiers in Europe.
(AP, 4/27/03)

1632 Feb 18, Giovanni Battista Vitali, composer, was born.
(MC, 2/18/02)

1632 Feb 20, Thomas Osborne, Duke of Leeds, English PM (1690-94)/founder (Tories), was born.
(MC, 2/20/02)

1632 Feb 28, Jean-Baptiste Lully, composer, was born in Florence, Italy. [see Nov 28]
(MC, 2/28/02)

1632 Apr 15, Swedish and Saxon army beat Earl Tilly.
(MC, 4/15/02)

1632 Apr 16, Albrecht von Wallenstein was appointed supreme commander of Holy Roman Empire forces.
(MC, 4/16/02)

1632 Apr 20, Nicolas Antione, converted to Judaism, was burned at the stake. [see Dec 20]
(MC, 4/20/02)

1632 May 25, Albrecht von Wallenstein recaptured Prague on Saksen.
(SC, 5/25/02)

1632 Jun 20, Britain granted 2nd Lord Baltimore rights to Chesapeake Bay area.
(MC, 6/20/02)

1632 Aug 29, English philosopher John Locke was born in Somerset, England. The philosopher of liberalism influenced the American founding fathers and was famous for his treatise “An Essay Concerning Human Understanding.” It was he who stated that the child is born with a tabula rasa, a blank state. On it, he said, experience wrote words, and thus knowledge and understanding came about, through the interplay of the senses and all that they perceived. “New opinions are always suspected, and usually opposed, without any other reason but because they are not already common.”
(V.D.-H.K.p.64,219)(AP, 8/4/97)(AP, 8/29/97)(HN, 8/29/98)

1632 Sep 3, Battle at Nuremberg: Duke Wallenstein beat Sweden.
(MC, 9/3/01)

1632 Oct 20, Sir Christopher Wren (d.1723), astronomer and architect, was born. He designed the current St. Paul’s Cathedral in London.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.14)(HN, 10/20/98)

1632 Oct 24, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, Dutch naturalist, was born.
(HN, 10/24/00)

1632 Oct 30, Henri de Montmorency, French duke and plotter, was beheaded.
(MC, 10/30/01)

1632 Oct 31, [Johannes] Jan Vermeer (d.1675), tavern keeper and Dutch painter (Procuress, Astronomer), was born in Delft. Only 35 of his pictures are known to survive. These include: “Girl With a Pearl Earring” (1665-1666), “The Little Street” (1657), “Saint Praxedis” (1655), “Allegory of Faith” (1671) and “The Artist in His Studio.” His wife was Catharina Bolnes.
(WSJ, 11/15/95, p.A-20)(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1587)(MC, 10/31/01)

1632 Nov 6, Gustavus II Adolphus (37), king of Sweden, died in battle.
(MC, 11/6/01)

1632 Nov 16, Battle at Lutzen: Sweden beat the imperial armies under Wallenstein.
(MC, 11/16/01)

1632 Nov 24, Baruch (Benedict) de Spinoza (d.1677), Dutch rationalist philosopher, was born in Amsterdam. “Fear cannot be without hope nor hope without fear.”
(AP, 9/24/99)(MC, 11/24/01)

1632 Nov 28, Jean-Baptiste Lully, composer, was born in Florence, Italy. [see Feb 28]
(MC, 11/28/01)

1632 Dec 20, Nicolas Antoine, French Catholic pastor who converted to Judaism, was executed. [see Apr 20]
(MC, 12/20/01)

1632 Rembrandt van Rijn painted his work “Europa” and “Portrait of a Lady Aged 62.” The portrait sold for $28.7 million in 2000.
(WSJ, 3/9/98, p.A16)(SFC, 12/15/00, p.C15)

1632 Galileo’s book “Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems” was published with the full backing of the church censors. It was soon recognized to support Copernican theory and Galileo was put under house arrest for life.
(BHT, Hawking, p.180)

1632 John Tuttle arrived from England to a settlement near the Maine-New Hampshire border, using a small land grant from King Charles I to start a farm. In 2010 the 134-acre Tuttle Farm went on the market for $3.35 million.
(AP, 8/1/10)

1632 Colonial Williamsburg, Virginia, a small city between the York and James rivers was founded.

1632 Cardinal Richelieu ordered the construction of the Palais Royale in Paris, France. It was expanded by the Duke of Orleans, who in the 1800s gave it its present form by enclosing the garden on three sides with buildings filled with commercial shops and income-producing apartments.
(Hem., 10/’95, p.109)

1632 The British colonized Montserrat.
(NH, Jul, p.20)

1632 Olivier Le Jeune (7), a black boy born in Madagascar, was sold to a clerk in the future province of Quebec. He was later considered the first known black enslaved in Canada.
(SFC, 2/12/10, p.A18)

1632 Tartu Univ. was founded in Tartu, on the banks of the Emajogi River.
(Hem, 4/96, p.23)

1632 The French explorer Etienne Brule was killed by the Huron Indians for unknown reasons.
(HNQ, 6/29/98)

1632 In India Arjumand Shah Begum (aka Mumtaz Mahal -Jewel of the Palace), 2nd wife of Shah Jahan, died. She had bore him 14 children and died in childbirth. He build the Taj Mahal in her memory. The project took 22 years and cost $18 million.
(HT, 4/97, p.22,24)

1632 In Poland King Ladislas IV began his rule.
(PCh, 1992, p.241)

1632 Pope Urban VIII’s nephew stole two altar paintings from a provincial church and smuggled them to Rome. The clandestine move from the central Italian city of Urbino on the back of a mule, hid the link between the two paintings and their creator, Dominican friar Fra Carnevale.
(AP, 10/30/04)

1632-1635 Velazquez painted “The Jester Pablo de Vallodolid.”
(WSJ, 4/16/03, p.D10)

1633 Feb 1, The tobacco laws of Virginia were codified, limiting tobacco production to reduce dependence on a single-crop economy.
(HN, 2/1/99)

1633 Feb 13, Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei arrived in Rome for trial before the Inquisition.
(AP, 2/13/98)

1633 Feb 23, Samuel Pepys (d.1703), English diarist, was born. Pepys was an informal and spontaneous English diarist. In 1999 Ferdinand Mount wrote the novel “Jem (and Sam),” about Pepys and his drinking partner Jeremiah Mount. In 1999 Sara George authored “The Journal of Mrs. Pepys,” a novel based on Pepys’ young wife Elizabeth.
(WSJ, 6/2/99, p.A24)(HN, 2/23/01)

1633 Apr 10, Werner Fabricius, composer, was born.
(MC, 4/10/02)

1633 May 1, Sebastien le Prestre de Vauban, French fortress architect, was born.
(MC, 5/1/02)

1633 Jun 21, Galileo Galilei was tortured and threatened by Inquisition to “abjure, curse, & detest” his Copernican heliocentric views.
(JST-TMC,1983, p.7)(MC, 6/21/02)

1633 Jun 22, Galileo Galilei was again forced by the Pope to recant that the Earth orbits the Sun. On Oct 31, 1992, the Vatican admitted it was wrong.
(MC, 6/22/02)

1633 Oct 14, James II Stuart, king of England and Scotland (James VII) (1685-88), was born.
(MC, 10/14/01)

1633 Nov 7, Cornelis Drebbel, physicist, chemist, inventor (submarine), died.
(MC, 11/7/01)

1633 Dec 18, Willem van de Velde the Younger, Dutch marine painter, was baptized.

1633 Rembrandt van Rijn painted the “Portrait of a Bearded Man in a Red Coat.” It sold for $9.1 million in 1998.
(SFC, 2/3/98, p.E3)

1633 Francisco de Zurbaran (1598-1644), Spanish artist, painted his “Still Life With Lemons Oranges and a Rose,” later described as symbolic objects to the Virgin Mary. It was the work that Zurbaran ever signed and dated. In 1998 it was held by the Los Angeles Norton Simon Museum of Art.
(SFEC, 1/11/98, p.D7)(WSJ, 2/21/09, p.W7)

1633 Captain John Davis wrote “Seamans Secrets.”
(WSJ, 7/2/03, p.D8)

1633 Rene Descartes wrote “Le Monde” in which he upheld the theories of Copernicus but halted publication to prevent conflict with the Church.
(Dr, 7/20/96, supl p.1)

1633 In Oberammergau, Germany, plague victims swore an oath to portray the suffering and death of the Lord every 10 years. Their first Passion Play was performed in 1634.

1633 The Blessing, a ferry carrying gold and silver of King Charles I and 30 passengers, sank in Scotland’s Firth of Forth. A documentary of the story for TV was shown in 1996 on the Discovery Channel titled: “The Lost Treasure of King Charles I.”
(WSJ, 6/13/96, p.A12)

1634 Feb 17, William Prynne (1600-1669), English Puritan leader and pamphleteer, was tried in Star Chamber for publishing “Histrio-masti.”
(WUD, 1994 p.1159)(MC, 2/17/02)

1634 Feb 18, Emperor Ferdinand II ordered General Albrecht von Wallenstein’s execution.
(MC, 2/18/02)

1634 Feb 19, At the Battle at Smolensk Polish king Wladyslaw IV beat the Russians. [see Mar 1]
(MC, 2/19/02)

1634 Feb 22, Petrus “Pieter” van Schooten, fortress architect, was born.
(MC, 2/22/02)

1634 Mar 1, Battle at Smolensk; Polish King Wladyslaw IV beat the Russians. [see Feb 19]
(SC, 3/1/02)

1634 Mar 4, Samuel Cole opened the first tavern in Boston, Massachusetts. (HN, 3/4/99)

1634 Mar 13, Academie Francaise was established. Its task was to preserve the purity of the French language, which included maintaining a dictionary. Members came to be known as the “immortals” and by 1998 they were struggling to with masculine nouns of positions held by women who desired feminine endings.
(SFC, 1/17/98, p.A12)(MC, 3/13/02)

1634 Mar 25, English colonists sent by Cecil Calvert, the second Lord Baltimore, arrived in present-day Maryland. Maryland was founded as a Catholic colony.
(HN, 3/24/98)(AP, 3/25/08)(AH, 4/07, p.30)

1634 May 31, Massachusetts Bay colony annexed the Maine colony.
(MC, 5/31/02)

1634 Jul 14, Pasquier Quesnel, French theologian, Jansenist (Jesus-Christ Penitent), was born.
(MC, 7/14/02)

1634 Sep 5, Battle at Nordlingen: King Ferdinand III & Catholic Spain beat Sweden & German protestants.
(MC, 9/5/01)

1634 Sep 18, Anne Hutchinson, the first female religious leader in American colonies, arrived at the Massachusetts Bay Colony with her family. She preached that faith alone was sufficient for salvation. As her following grew, she was brought to trial and found guilty of heresy against Puritan orthodoxy and banished from Massachusetts. She left with 70 followers to Providence, Rhode Island, Roger Williams’s colony based on religious freedom.
(MC, 9/18/01)

1634 Gov. John Winthrop of the Massachusetts Bay Colony estimated the local population rather counting it directly.
(Econ, 12/22/07, p.97)

1634 Luca Giordano (d.1705), Neapolitan baroque painter, was born.
(WSJ, 1/15/02, p.A14)

1634 Rembrandt van Rijn painted “Portrait of a Woman.” It hangs in the Speed Museum of Louisville, Ky.
(WSJ, 12/18/97, p.A20)

1634 Ngawang Namgyal, in the Battle of Five Lamas, prevailed over the Tibetan and Bhutanese forces allied against him and was the first to unite Bhutan into a single country.

1634 French explorer Jean Nicolet, looking for Cathay, traveled the western shores of Lake Michigan and landed on Wisconsin soil.
(www.wisconsinhistory.org/museum/exhibits/framed/landfall.asp)(Econ, 6/27/09, p.38)

1634 In Oberammergau, Germany, a re-enactment of the last days of Jesus began to be performed. The Passion Play was performed from then on every ten years with a few rare exceptions. In 1633 plague victims had sworn an oath to portray the suffering and death of the Lord every 10 years.
(WSJ, 5/18/00, p.A1)(www.passionplay-oberammergau.com/index.php?id=127)

1634 Ligdan Khan (reigned 1604-34), the last great Mongol leader, died. After his death, the Mongols were subdued by the Manchu and became part of the Ch’ing (Manchu) dynasty of China.

1634-1635 Construction began on the Wazir Khan Mosque. It built by Hakim Shaikh Ilm-ud-din Ansari (commonly known as Wazir Khan), a native of Chiniot, who rose to be the court physician to Shah Jahan and a governor of Lahore.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wazir_Khan_Mosque)(Econ, 3/19/15, p.42)

1634-1637 The Dutch tulip craze was known as the “tulipomania.” A futures market was created for tulip bulbs in Dutch taverns and prices crashed 95% in the end. In 2000 Peter M. Garber authored “Famous First Bubbles,” and restored a sense of proportion to the inflated notions of the mania.
(WSJ, 7/7/98, p.A14)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(WSJ, 1/18/00, p.C14)(WSJ, 8/2/00, p.A20)

1634-1644 Hugo Grotius (d.1645) of Holland, father of international law, served the Swedish government as ambassador to France.
(HN, 4/10/98)(HNQ, 3/15/00)

1635 Feb 22, King Louis XIII at the urging of Cardinal Richelieu granted letters patent to formally establish the Academie Francaise in Paris. The Académie française was responsible for the regulation of French grammar, orthography, and literature.

1635 Feb 13, In Massachusetts the oldest public school in the United States, the Boston Public Latin School, was founded.
(SFC,12/11/97, p.A1)(AP, 2/13/98)

1635 Apr 16, Frans van Mieris, the Elder, Dutch painter, was born.
(MC, 4/16/02)

1635 Apr 28, Virginia Governor John Harvey was accused of treason and removed from office.
(HN, 4/28/98)

1635 May 5, Philippe Quinault, French playwright (L’amant indiscret), was born.
(MC, 5/5/02)

1635 May 19, Cardinal Richelieu of France intervened in the great conflict in Europe by declaring war on the Hapsburgs in Spain.
(DTnet, 5/19/97)(HN, 5/19/99)

1635 Jun 3, Philippe Quinault (d.1688), French dramatist whose popular librettos included Amadis, Roland and Armida, was born.

1635 Jun 28, The French colony of Guadeloupe was established in the Caribbean.
(HN, 6/28/98)

1635 Aug 27, Lope Felix de Vega (72), playwright, poet (Angelica, Arcadia), died.
(MC, 8/27/02)

1635 Sep 6, Adrian A. Metius, mathematician and fort architect, died at 63.
(MC, 9/6/01)

1635 Sep 7, Pal Esterhazy, composer, was born.
(MC, 9/7/01)

1635 Oct 9, Religious dissident Roger Williams was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony (Mass. Bay Company). He became a founder of Rhode Island. Enforcement was delayed until the following January due to illness.
(AP, 10/9/01)(AH, 4/07, p.26)

1635 Dec 1, Melchior Teschner (51), composer, died.
(MC, 12/1/01)

1635 Dec 25, Samuel de Champlain (b.1575), French navigator and founder of Quebec City, died in Quebec. In 2008 David Hackett Fischer authored “Champlain’s Dream.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_de_Champlain)(WSJ, 10/11/08, p.W8)

1635 Britain established binding numerical limits on horse-drawn coaches.
(Econ, 2/11/12, p.76)
1635 European ships carrying African slaves to the West Indies sank off the coast of St. Vincent. The surviving salves escaped and gradually intermarried with the island’s Carib Indian natives.
(SFEC, 5/4/97, p.T11)
1635 A Cistercian nunnery and surrounding villages of Sorbs in Germany’s Upper Lusatia remained Catholic after Protestant Saxony priced the land away from Bohemia.
(Econ, 6/28/08, p.59)

1635-1637 Rembrandt Harmenszoom van Rizn (Rijn)(1606-1669), Dutch painter, painted “Two Studies of Saskia Asleep.”
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1213)(WSJ, 10/1/96, p.A20)

1635-1682 Johann Joachim Becher, German alchemist. “”It is always better to sell goods to others than to buy goods from others, for the former brings a certain advantage and the latter inevitable damage.”
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)

1635-1703 Robert Hooke, English scientist, and friend of Newton suggested that the properties of matter, especially gases, could be understood in terms of the motion and collision of atoms.

1636 Mar 26, University of Utrecht held its opening ceremony.
(SS, 3/26/02)

1636 Apr 29, Esaias Reusner, composer, was born.
(MC, 4/29/02)

1636 Jun, Roger Williams and his followers founded Providence, Rhode Island, on land purchased from the Narragansett Indians. The settlement was governed by policies of democracy and religious tolerance.

1636 Jul 20, John Oldham, trader in Mass., was murdered by Indians.
(MC, 7/20/02)

1636 Aug 8, The invading armies of Spain, Austria and Bavaria were stopped at the village of St.-Jean-de-Losne, only 50 miles from France.
(HN, 8/8/98)

1636 Sep 8, Harvard College, the first college in America, was founded as Cambridge College. It changed its name two years later in honor of the Reverend John Harvard, who gave the institution three hundred books and a large sum of money for the day. [see Oct 28]
(MC, 9/8/01)

1636 Sep 18, Pietro Sanmartini, composer, was born.
(MC, 9/18/01)

1636 Oct 4, The Massachusetts Plymouth Company drafted its 1st law.
(MC, 10/4/01)

1636 Oct 28, The General Court of Massachusetts passed a legislative act establishing Harvard College in Cambridge, Mass. It was the first corporation in the US. Harvard Univ. was named after John Harvard who bequeathed books to the Univ. that included “The Christian Warfare Against the Devil World and Flesh” by John Downame. Englishman George Downing was the first graduate. London’s Downing St. was named after him. [see Sep 8]
(SFEC, 6/28/98, Z1 p.8)(HN, 10/28/98)(SFEC, 12/6/98, Z1p.10)(AP, 10/28/07)

1636 Nov 1, Nicholas Boileaus, French poet and historian, was born.
(HN, 11/1/00)

1636 Nov 17, Henrique Dias, Brazilian general, won a decisive battle against the Dutch in Brazil.
(HN, 11/17/98)

1636 Rembrandt van Rijn made his etching “Self-portrait with Saskia.”
(HT, 5/97, p.60)

1636 Henry Adams reached Massachusetts and settled on 40 acres of land in Braintree and fathered eight sons. He was the great-grandfather of John Adams, 2nd president of the US.
(A&IP, Miers, p.17)
1636 The first militia units in the Massachusetts Bay Colony were formed.
(SFC, 5/17/06, p.A11)

1636 Tung Ch’ich’ang (b.1555), Chinese painter, died.
(SFC, 12/8/05, p.E12)

1636 Westerners in Japan were sequestered on the man-made island of Dejima in Nagasaki’s harbor as the government cracked down on all things foreign. The island later disappeared in land reclamation projects.
(SSFC, 8/10/03, p.C11)

1636 In Mexico a city wall was built around Veracruz.
(SFEC, 5/17/98, p.T12)

1637 Feb 15, Ferdinand II (58), King of Bohemia, Hun, German Emperor (1619-37), died. Ferdinand III succeeded him as Holy Roman Emperor.
(440 Int’l., 2/15/99)(MC, 2/15/02)

1637 Mar 5, John van der Heyden, Dutch painter, inventor (fire extinguisher), was born.
(MC, 3/5/02)

1637 May 13, Cardinal Richelieu of France created the table knife.
(MC, 5/13/02)

1637 May 26, The Connecticut English militia and their Mohegan allies killed over 600 Pequot Indians at their village at Mystic. The survivors were parceled out to other tribes. Those given to the Mohegans eventually became the Mashantucket Pequots.
(AH, 6/07, p.18)(www.dowdgen.com/dowd/document/pequots.html)

1637 Jul 23, King Charles of England handed over the American colony of Massachusetts to Sir Fernando Gorges, one of the founders of the Council of New England.
(HN, 7/23/98)

1637 Aug 6, Ben Johnson (65), English dramatist and poet, died. In 1960 Jonas Barish wrote “Ben Jonson and the Language of Prose Comedy.”
(AP, 1/4/98)(WUD, 1994, p.771)(SFC, 4/4/98, p.A24)(MC, 8/6/02)

1637 Oct 20, Nicolaas van der Veken, Flemish sculptor (confessional chairs), was born.
(MC, 10/20/01)

1637 Nov 7, Anne Hutchinson was banished from the Mass Bay colony as a heretic.
(MC, 11/7/01)

1637 Nov 20, Peter Minuit & 1st Dutch and Swedish immigrants to Delaware sailed from Sweden. Peter later purchased Manhattan Island for 60 guilders.
(MC, 11/20/01)

1637 Dec 7, Barnardo Pasquini, composer, was born.
(MC, 12/7/01)

c1637 Poussin completed his painting “The Nurture of Jupiter.”
(WSJ, 7/20/01, p.W11)

1637 James Morton published “New English Canaan,” a satiric book describing his encounters with the New England Pilgrims.
(ON, 3/00, p.12)

1637 A King James version of the Bible was printed with only 14 known copies made.
(Ind, 12/26/98, p.5A)

1637 To solve any problem, it is helpful to divide the question into a set, or series, of smaller problems, and solve each one in turn. Descartes, “Discourse on Method.”

1637 John Tradescant the younger, a widower with a son and daughter, undertook the first of three voyages from England to Virginia “to gather up all raritye of flowers, plants, shells.” The King’s request to search for useful trees and herbs, no doubt played a role in Tradescant’s decision to take this trip during what must have been a very difficult time.

1637 Rene Descartes, French mathematician, began using the final letters of the alphabet to represent unknowns. He published his 6 tome “Discours de la Methode” in Leyden.
(Alg, 1990, p.115)

1637 The Dutch tulip bulb craze crashed as futures prices became too high for speculators to pay off and take delivery.
(WSJ, 7/7/98, p.A14)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(WSJ, 1/18/00, p.C14)
1637 The Dutch attacked and captured Elmina (Ghana), which up to that point was the centre of Portuguese activity in West Africa.

1637 Ferdinand II Holy Roman emperor, king of Bohemia and king of Hungary, died.
(WUD, 1994, p.524)

1637 Gekkeikan began making sake in Kyoto, Japan. The company began supplying the imperial household in 1909.
(SSFC, 9/26/04, p.D12)

c1637-1638 Peter Paul Rubens painted “The Elevation of the Cross.”
(SFC, 3/5/05, p.E1)
1637-1638 The Christians of Shimabara, Japan, rebelled.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)

1637-1707 Dietrich Buxtehude, German composer. He was a transitional figure between early and later baroque. Bach made a legendary journey on foot to hear the aging composer perform. Handel also journeyed to see him 3 years before Bach. His works include Jubilate Domino and the Trio Sonata for violin, gamba and continuo.
(EMN, 1/96, p.1)

1638 Jan 5, Petition in Recife, Brazil, led to the closing of its two synagogues.
(MC, 1/5/02)

1638 Feb 28, Scottish Presbyterians signed the National Covenant at Greyfriars, Edinburgh.
(MC, 2/28/02)
1638 Feb 28, Henri duc de Rohan, French soldier, Huguenot leader, died.
(MC, 2/28/02)

1638 Mar 3, Duke Bernard van Saksen-Weimar occupied Rheinfelden.
(SC, 3/3/02)

1638 Mar 22, Religious dissident Anne Hutchinson was expelled from the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
(AP, 3/22/97)

1638 Mar 23, Frederik Ruysch, Dutch anatomist, was born.
(SS, 3/23/02)

1638 Mar 29, The first permanent white settlement was established in Delaware. Swedish Lutherans who came to Delaware were the first to build log cabins in America. The first English colonists did not know how to build houses from logs but those who lived in the forests of Scandinavia, Germany and Switzerland did. German pioneers who settled in Pennsylvania built the first log cabins there in the early 1700s. The Scotch-Irish immigrants who settled in the Appalachian highlands after 1720 made the widest use of log cabins and by the time of the American Revolution, log cabins were the mainstay among settlers all along the western frontier.
(HNQ, 9/15/99)(AP, 3/29/08)

1638 Apr 13, Duke Henri II (58), French Huguenot leader, died.
(MC, 4/13/02)

1638 May 6, Cornelius Jansen, theologian (Jansenism), died.
(MC, 5/6/02)

1638 Jun 1, The first earthquake was recorded in the U.S. at Plymouth, Mass.
(DTnet, 6/1/97)

1638 Aug 9, Jonas Bronck of Holland became the 1st European settler in the Bronx.
(MC, 8/9/02)

1638 Sep 5, Louis XIV, “The Sun King” (1643-1715) of France, was born. He built the palace at Versailles. [see Sep 16]
(HN, 9/5/98)

1638 Sep 14, John Harvard (B.1607), a Massachusetts Puritan minister died. On his deathbed he bequeathed half his estate to Harvard College.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Harvard_%28clergyman%29)(Econ, 3/26/15, p.32)

1638 Sep 16, France’s King Louis XIV, the Sun King, was born. He ruled from 1643-1715 and died in 1715. [see Sep 5]
(WUD, 1994, p.848)(AP, 9/16/97)

1638 Dec 18, Pere Joseph (Francois du Tremblay, b.1577), French Capuchin friar, confidant and agent of Cardinal Richelieu, died. He was the original éminence grise — the French term (“grey eminence”) for a powerful advisor or decision-maker who operates secretly or unofficially. Richelieu was known as Éminence Rouge (red eminence); from the colors of their respective habits.

1638 Dec 24, The Ottomans under Murad IV recaptured Baghdad from Safavid Persia.
(HN, 12/24/98)

1638 Rembrandt van Rijn painted the “Portrait of Willem Bartolsz Ruyter,” a Dutch actor.
(SFC, 10/12/96, p.E3)

1638 Galileo smuggled out his book “Dialogue Concerning Two New Sciences” to a publisher in Holland.
(BHT, Hawking, p.180)(NH, 2/05, p.19)

1638 Monteverdi composed the madrigal “Il Combattimento de Tanncredi e Corinda.”
(WSJ, 7/22/99, p.A24)

1638 Thomas Emerson came from England and settled in Ipswich, Massachusetts. Ralph Waldo Emerson came along 5 generations later.
(WP, 1952, p.39)

1638 John Tradescant (b.1570), English gardener and father of John Tradescant (1608-1662), died. In 2008 Jennifer Potter authored “Strange Blooms: The Curious Lives and Adventures of the John Tradescants.
(WSJ, 4/3/08, p.B19)

1638 Joachim Wytawael (Wtewael, b.1566), Dutch mannerist painter, died. His work included “The Adoration of the Shepherds.”
(SFEM, 8/31/97, p.13)(SFEM, 9/17/00, p.96)

1638-1686 Nils Steenson, Danish doctor, better known as Nicolaus Steno, explained stratigraphy. He was convinced that fossils are the remains of ancient organic forms.
(RFH-MDHP, p.7)

1638-1709 Meindert Hobbema, Dutch painter. He painted “The Avenue.”
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.675)

1638-1715 Louis XIV, the French Sun King. He ruled from 1643-1715.
(WUD, 1994, p.848)

1638-1715 Dom Perignon, a French monk. He introduced blending, vineyard and cellaring practices that made champagne a better wine.
(Hem., 10/97, p.104)

1639 Jan 6, Virginia became the 1st colony to order surplus crops (tobacco) destroyed.
(MC, 1/6/02)

1639 Jan 14, (Julian Calendar) “Fundamental Orders,” the first constitution of Connecticut, was adopted [see Jan 24].
(AP, 1/14/98)(www.constitution.org/bcp/fo_1639.htm)

1639 Jan 23, Francisco Maldonado da Silva Solis, Peruvian poet, was burned at stake.
(MC, 1/23/02)

1639 Jan 24, (Gregorian Calendar) The Fundamental Orders, the first constitution in the New World, was adopted in Connecticut [see Jan 14].
(HN, 1/24/99)(www.constitution.org/bcp/fo_1639.htm)

1639 Feb 7, Academie Francaise began its Dictionary of French Language.
(MC, 2/7/02)

1639 Mar 13, Cambridge College was re-named Harvard University for clergyman John Harvard.
(AP, 3/13/98)(MC, 3/13/02)

1639 May 8, William Coddington founded Newport, RI.
(MC, 5/8/02)

1639 May 20, Dorchester, Mass., formed the 1st school funded by local taxes.
(MC, 5/20/02)

1639 May 21, Tommaso Campanella (b.1568), Italian philosopher, theologian, astrologer, and poet, died. He spent 27 years imprisoned in Naples (1599-1626) for leading a conspiracy against the Spanish rule. During his detention, he wrote his most important works: The Monarchy of Spain (1600), Political Aphorisms (1601), Atheismus triumphatus (Atheism Conquered, 1605–1607), Quod reminiscetur (1606?), Metaphysica (1609–1623), Theologia (1613–1624), and his most famous work, The City of the Sun (originally written in Italian in 1602; published in Latin in Frankfurt (1623) and later in Paris (1638)).

1639 Jun 6, Massachusetts granted 500 acres of land to erect a gunpowder mill.
(MC, 6/6/02)

1639 Jun 10, The 1st American log cabin at Fort Christina (Wilmington, Delaware).
(MC, 6/10/02)

1639 Aug 10, “Ten fair pippins” were planted on Governor’s Island in Boston Harbor.
(WSJ, 9/9/96, p.A16)

1639 Sep 25, The 1st printing press in America began operating.
(MC, 9/25/01)

1639 Nov 3, Martinus de Porres (69), Peru saint (patron of social justice), died.
(MC, 11/3/01)

1639 Nov 5, 1st post office in the colonies opened in Massachusetts.
(MC, 11/5/01)

1639 Nov 24, A 2nd predicted transit of Venus occurred. Jeremiah Horrocks of England predicted and observed the event with his friend William Crabtree.
(MC, 11/24/01)(Econ, 5/29/04, p.78)

1639 Descartes published his “Discourse on Method.” It is here that his famous statement “I doubt; therefore I am,” was expounded. “He then proceeded to discover a method of achieving similar certainty in other realms, based on the reduction of all problems to a mathematical form and solution.” He invented analytic geometry in order to reduce the description of phenomena to a set of numbers. His Discourse was placed by Catholic theologians on the Index of forbidden books.

1639 Francois Citois, the physician of Cardinal Richelieu, published a book that described the disease colica Pictonum, and noted the prevalence of the disease to the wine region of Poitou, where tart wines needed sweetening.
(NH, 7/96, p.48)

1639 Roger Williams of Providence, Rhode Island, embraced the Baptist faith long enough to help found the first Baptist church in America. After 4 months he abandoned the Baptist congregation and left organized religion behind.
(AH, 4/07, p.27)

1639 Hugel Corp. first bottled wine in France.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R46)

1639 In India the walled city of Old Delhi, the 6th Delhi city, was erected by Shah Jahan. It came to be called Shajahanabad after the construction of new Delhi by the British.
(SFEC, 5/21/00, p.T1)

1639 Japan was closed to the outside world except for a Dutch trading post.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)
1639 Jesuit Father Petro Kassui Kibe, a convert to Christianity, was captured, tortured and martyred in Tokyo. He had initially managed to escape persecution and traveled to Rome, where he became a Jesuit and was ordained to the priesthood. He then returned to Japan to minister to other oppressed Christians. The 188 other martyrs included four Jesuit priests, other priests, brothers and nuns, lay men and women, all killed in different cities between 1603 and 1639 after the Japanese government outlawed Christianity. In 2007 Pope Benedict XVI approved recognition of their martyrdom.
(www.catholicnews.com/data/stories/cns/0603392.htm)(AP, 6/2/07)

1639-1699 Racine, French dramatist. His plays included “Phedre” and “Ariadne’s Thread” based on Greek myths.
(WUD, 1994, p.1184)(WSJ, 10/8/02, p.D8)

1640 Jan 25, Robert Burton, author (Anatomy of Melancholy), died.
(MC, 1/25/02)

1640 Feb 9, Murad IV (27), sultan of Turkey (1623-40), died in Baghdad. Ibrahim (1640-1648) succeeded Murad IV in the Ottoman House of Osman.
(Ot, 1993, xvii)(MC, 2/9/02)

1640 Mar 9, Pierre Corneille’s “Horace,” premiered in Paris.
(MC, 3/9/02)

1640 Apr 10, Agostino Agazzari (61), Italian composer, died.
(MC, 4/10/02)

1640 May 5, English Short Parliament united.
(MC, 5/5/02)

1640 May 30, Peter Paul Rubens (b.1577), Flemish painter, died in Antwerp.
(www.newadvent.org/cathen/13214c.htm)(Econ, 5/15/04, p.81)

1640 Jun 9, Leopold I, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire (1658-1705), was born.
(HN 6/9/98)(MC, 6/9/02)

1640 Aug 28, The Indian War in New England ended with the surrender of the Indians.
(HTNet, 8/28/99)

1640 Aug 29, English King Charles I signed a peace treaty with Scotland.
(MC, 8/29/01)

1640 Nov 11, John Pym, earl of Strafford, was locked in Tower of London.
(MC, 11/11/01)

1640 Nov 25, Giles Farnaby, composer, died.
(MC, 11/25/01)

1640 Nov 26, Carl Rosier, composer, was born.
(MC, 11/26/01)

1640 Dec 1, Spain lost Portugal as the Duke of Braganza was proclaimed João IV (John IV), king of Portugal.
(HoS, p.267)

1640 Dec 6, Matthijs Elsevier (75), Flemish-Dutch book publisher and merchant, died.
(MC, 12/6/01)

1640 Dec 9, Settler Hugh Bewitt was banished from the Massachusetts colony when he declared himself to be free of original sin.
(MC, 12/9/01)

1640 Rembrandt van Rijn painted his “Portrait of a Man Seated in an Armchair” about this time.
(WSJ, 11/3/95, p.A-12)

c1640 In Connecticut Roger Williams prepared the first primer of the Algonquian Indian language.
(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.23)

1640 The Bay Psalm Book, the first book printed in British North America, was published in Cambridge, Mass., on a press shipped from England. In 2013 a copy sold at a Sotheby’s auction for a recored $14.2 million.
(Econ, 11/30/13, p.31)

c1640 “The Great Tulip Book,” an album with 158 illustrations used by a merchant and grower to show available varieties, was created.
(WSJ, 4/24/01, p.A22)

1640 Monteverdi composed his opera “The Return of Ulysses.”
(WSJ, 11/15/01, p.A24)

1640 The towns of Southampton and East Hampton, NY, were founded. (In 2004 Steven Petrow authored “The Lost Hamptons.”
(SSFC, 7/18/04, p.M2)
1640 English colonists founded Greenwich, Connecticut. It evolved into an exclusive retreat from nearby NYC.
(WSJ, 4/12/08, p.A6)

1640 The Massachusetts Bay Company sent 300,000 codfish to market.
(SFC, 5/24/97, p.E3)

1640 Chemical lighters came out in London that used phosphorus and sulfur.
(SFC, 5/17/97, p.E3)

1640 John Ford (b.c1586) English playwright, died. In 1944 Prof. Sensabaugh (d.2002 at 95) authored “The Tragic Muse of John Ford.”
(WUD, 1994 p.554)(SFC, 2/28/02, p.A20)

1640 In Canada three French nuns in Quebec established Le Monastere des Augustines (the Augustine Monastery). In 1962 the remaining nuns donated the building to a non-profit. In 2015 it was re-opened as a luxury 65-room hotel, retreat and wellness center.
(SSFC, 7/2/17, p.F6)

1640 The Cathedral of Morelia, Mexico, 185 miles northwest of Mexico City, was begun. It was completed 100 years later and is considered to be Mexico’s best example of Platersque architecture, an ornate style that resembles silverwork.
(Hem, Nov.’95, p.144)

1640 Spain’s medieval kingdom of Aragon rebelled against Madrid.
(Econ, 11/8/08, SR p.10)
1640 Pope Urban VIII ordered Spanish priests to stop smoking cigars.
(SFC, 5/24/97, p.E3)

1640 Russia completed its conquest of Siberia and reached the Pacific Ocean.
(ON, 2/04, p.5)

1640s In England the parliamentary battles that led up to the English Civil War were recorded in 7 tomes known as Rushworth’s Collections.
(WSJ, 3/10/99, p.A22)

1640s In England an agrarian commune was created by Gerard Winstanley, a merchant turned pamphleteer whose elegant prose derided the class system. The 1975 film “Winstanley” was co-directed by Andrew Mollow and Kevin Brownlow was based on Winstanley.
(SFEC, 1/30/00, DB p.42)

1640s In Sweden the violin was introduced, possibly by French musicians at the court of Queen Christina.
(NH, 4/97, p.32)

1640s The Fifth Dalai Lama (1617-1682) invented a unique institution to rule his country, a collaboration of monastics and aristocrats. It gradually accomplished demilitarization and elevated monasticism with an emphasis on education and spiritual development.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R55)

1640-1688 Elector Friedrich Wilhelm acquired a collection of paintings by Titian, Rubens, Rembrandt and others at his home in Oranien. His nephew was Frederick the Great.
(WSJ, 7/29/98, p.A13)
1640-1706 John Evelyn (1620-1706), English writer and gardener, kept a diary over this period.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Evelyn)(Econ, 9/2/17, p.73)
1640-1945 In 1955 Stanford Prof. Gordon A. Craig (1913-2005) authored “The Politics of the Prussian Army, 1640-1945.”
(SFC, 11/9/05, p.B11)

1641 Jan 3, Jeremiah Horrocks (22), English astronomical prodigy, died.
(MC, 1/3/02)

1641 Feb 16, English king Charles I accepted the Triennial Act.
(MC, 2/16/02)

1641 Feb, Sara Copia Sullam (b1592), poet, essayist and resident of the Venetian Jewish ghetto, died. Her literary salon had been open to Jewish and Christian intellectuals.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sara_Copia_Sullam)(Econ, 6/18/16, p.83)

1641 May 12, Thomas Wentworth (48), chief advisor to Charles I and English viceroy of Ireland, was beheaded in the Tower of London.
(HN, 5/12/01)(MC, 5/12/02)`

1641 Sep 23, Adrian “Aart” van Wijck, theologian, was born. He fought Jansenism.
(MC, 9/23/01)

1641 Oct 21, A Catholic uprising took place in Ulster. Thousands of English and Scots were killed. [see Oct 23]
(MC, 10/21/01)

1641 Oct 23, Catholics in Ireland, under Phelim O’Neil, rose against the Protestants and cruelly massacred men, women and children to the number of 40,000 (some say 100,000). [see Oct 21]
(HN, 10/23/98)

1641 Dec 1, Massachusetts became the 1st colony to give statutory recognition to slavery. It was followed by Connecticut in 1650 and Virginia in 1661.
(MC, 12/1/01)(HNQ, 5/20/02)

1641 Dec 9, Anthonie “Antoon” van Dyck (42), Flemish painter, died.
(MC, 12/9/01)

1641 The “Pharmacopoeia medicochymica” by Johann Schroder was first printed in Ulm.
(NH, 6/00, p.28)

1641 Cristoval de Acuna, a Jesuit missionary, first wrote about the Amazon River to the king of Spain.
(SFC, 12/16/00, p.A22)

1641 Puritans wrote a statute that enjoined husband from beating their wives: the Massachusetts Body of Liberties.
(WSJ, 4/1/02, p.A13)

1641 The Spanish warship Nuestra Senora de la Concepcion sank off of the coast of Florida.
(AM, Jul-Aug/99, p.8)

1641 The English Court of Star Chamber was abolished. It had been used by unpopular kings to enforce unpopular policies.
(ON, 11/04, p.10)

1641 In Ireland a Catholic uprising in Ulster was suppressed. English Gen’l. Oliver Cromwell took away the land rights of 44,000 Catholics in Ulster and adjacent counties.
(SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1 p.6)

1641 Japan designated an artificial island in Nagasaki harbor as the only place that foreigners could live.
(Econ, 11/24/07, p.47)

1641 The Dutch pushed the Portuguese out of Malacca and renamed Our Lady of the Hill church to St. Paul’s.
(Econ, 11/15/14, SR p.5)

1641 Gerritt van Wuysthoff, a Dutchman, struggled up the Mekong River through Cambodia and reached Vientiane, Laos.
(Econ, 1/3/04, p.29)

1642 Jan 4, King Charles I attacked the English House of Commons with an armed guard. He was forced to retire, empty-handed.

1642 Jan 8, Astronomer Galileo Galilei (77) died in Arcetri, Italy. Galileo had 2 daughters consigned to a nunnery and one son, whom he got married into a rich Florentine family. In 1614, Father Tommaso Caccini denounced the opinions of Galileo on the motion of the Earth from the pulpit of Santa Maria Novella, judging them to be erroneous. Galileo went to Rome and defended himself against charges that had been made against him. In 1616, he was admonished by Cardinal Bellarmino and told that he could not defend Copernican astronomy because it went against the doctrine of the Church. Later, in 1632 he was summoned by the Holy Office to Rome. The tribunal passed a sentence condemning him and compelled Galileo to solemnly abjure his theory. He was sent to exile in Siena. Galileo spent his last years almost totally blind and poor. In 1999 Dava Sobel published “Galileo’s Daughter.”
(BHT, Hawking, p.180)(AP, 1/8/98)(WSJ, 10/19/99, p.A24)(MC, 1/8/02)

1642 Jan 10, King Charles I and his family fled London for for Hampton Court Palace and moved two days later to Windsor Castle.

1642 Feb 25, Dutch settlers slaughtered lower Hudson Valley Indians in New Netherland, North America, who sought refuge from Mohawk attackers.
(HN, 2/25/99)

1642 Mar 1, Georgeana (York), Maine, became the first American city to incorporate.
(HN, 3/1/98)(SC, 3/1/02)

1642 Mar 12, Abel Tasman became the 1st European to land in New Zealand. [see Nov 24, Dec 13]
(MC, 3/12/02)

1642 May 6, Frans Francken, the Younger, Flemish painter, died on 61st birthday.
(MC, 5/6/02)

1642 May 17, Paul de Chomedy de Maisonneuve landed on the Island of Montreal and gave the name Ville-Marie to the town he constructed at the foot of Mont Royal.

1642 May 18, The Canadian city of Montreal was founded by French colonists.
(AP, 5/18/08)

1642 Jul 3, Maria de’ Medici (~69), French queen-mother, died.
(MC, 7/3/02)

1642 Aug 7, A Royalist force laid siege to Warwick Castle. Soldiers loyal to the king tried without success to unseat the Parliamentarian forces that held it. While a minor skirmish, the outcome would foreshadow the broader struggle for the country. The siege was lifted on 23 August 1642 when the garrison was relieved by the forces of Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex, and the Royalists were forced to retreat to Worcester.

1642 Aug 13, Christian Huygens discovered the Martian south polar cap.
(MC, 8/13/02)

1642 Aug 22, Civil war in England began as Charles I declared war on the Puritan Parliament at Nottingham. Charles I went to the House of Commons to arrest some of its members and was refused entry. From this point on no monarch was allowed entry.
(HN, 8/22/98)(SFC, 10/16/98, p.D3)(ON, 12/00, p.1)

1642 Sep 12, Cinq Mars, French plotter, was executed.
(MC, 9/12/01)

1642 Sep 23, Giovanni Maria Bononcini, composer, was born.
(MC, 9/23/01)
1642 Sep 23, Harvard College in Cambridge, Mass., held its first commencement.
(AP, 9/23/97)

1642 Oct 23, The Battle of Edgehill was the first major clash between Royalist and Parliamentary forces in the English Civil Wars. King Charles I and 11-15,000 Cavaliers held the high ground against 13-15,000 Roundheads led by the Earl of Essex and Oliver Cromwell. The conflict began with a smattering of cannon exchanges. The Royalist artillery was hampered by its uphill position, rendering its cannons largely ineffective against the enemy below. As a result, Royalist cavalry, led by the King’s nephew, Prince Rupert, swept down the hill toward the Parliamentarians, decimating a large section of their ranks. The Royalists did not capitalize on this initial success, however, as the troops became more interested in plundering the town than in finishing the fight. This allowed Parliamentarian troops to regroup and break up enemy formations. After several hours of hard fighting, both sides withdrew to their original positions, leaving a field scattered with debris and casualties.
(HNQ, 6/16/01)
1642 Oct 23, Sir Edmund Verneys rode into the battle of Edgehill as the standard bearer of Charles I and died there. In 2007 Adrian Tinniswood authored “The Verneys: A True Story of Love, War and Madness in Seventeenth-Century England.”
(Econ, 3/3/07, p.87)

1642 Nov 13, Battle at Turnham Green, London: King Charles I vs. English parliament.
(MC, 11/13/01)

1642 Nov 24, Abel Janszoon Tasman (d.1659) discovered Van Diemen’s Land (Tasmania).
(MC, 11/24/01)

1642 Dec 4, Cardinal Armand-Jean Duplessis Richelieu (57), French statesman and bishop of Luzon, died. “If you give me six lines written by the most honest man, I will find something in them to hang him.” “He did too much harm to be praised, and too much good to be damned.”
(MC, 12/4/01)(WSJ, 9/24/02, p.D8)(Econ, 1/24/04, p.75)

1642 Dec 13, Dutch navigator and explorer Abel Janszoon sighted present-day New Zealand. He fled after Maori cannibals feasted on the “friendship party” he sent ashore.
(NG, Aug., 1974, p.196)(SFEC, 10/4/98, p.T4)(AP, 12/13/07)

1642 Dec 25, (OS) Isaac Newton (d.1727), English physicist, mathematician and scientist, was born in Woolsthorpe (Grantham), Lincolnshire, England. He enunciated the laws of motion and the law of gravity [see Jan 4, 1643].
(V.D.-H.K.p.205)(HN, 12/25/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isaac_Newton)

1642 Descartes published: “Meditationes de prima philosophia, in quibus Dei Existentia et animae humanae a corpore distinctio demonstrantur.” [2nd source says 1841]
(Dr, 7/20/96, supl p.1)(WSJ, 3/18/97, p.A20)

1642 Rembrandt van Rijn painted “Night Watch.”
(WSJ, 3/904, p.D8)

1642 London’s Globe theater closed as the Puritan-controlled British Parliament suppressed theaters and other forms of popular entertainment.
(ON, 11/03, p.2)
1642 In England Speaker William Lenthall refused Charles I’s request that he identify 5 uppity MPs, whom the king had come to the House of Commons to arrest.
(Econ, 12/6/08, p.75)

1642 Monteverdi composed “L’Incoronazione di Poppea.”
(WSJ, 6/1/98, p.A16)

1642 Le Vau, the French royal architect, built the Hotel Lambert on the Ile of Saint Louis.
(SFCM, 10/14/01, p.32)

1642 A diamond, said to be stolen from a Hindu statue, was acquired in India by Jean Baptiste Tavernier, a noted French traveler. The 45.52 carat steel blue diamond was found in India back in remote times as a rough crystal weighing 112 carats. Tavernier later sold to King Louis XIV of France. The diamond, known as the French Blue or the Tavernier Blue, disappeared. For many years it was not heard from at all. In 1830, a large steel blue diamond of a different shape, and weighing only 44.50 carats appeared on the market in England and was purchased by Henry Thomas Hope, an English banker. It changed hands a number of times and in 1911 it was sold to Evelyn Walsh McLean of Washington, DC, who had it placed in a Cartier setting.
(http://famousdiamonds.tripod.com/hopediamond.html)(SSFC, 12/20/09, p.N7)

c1642 Gretje Reyniers had sailed to New Amsterdam [now New York] from Holland and built a life as a prostitute, moneylender and pelt dealer. Her story was expanded in a 1996 novel by Michael Pye titled “The Drowning Room.”
(SFC, 6/3/96, BR p.14)

1642 Curacao became a colony of the Netherlands.
(Econ, 6/19/04, p.72)

1642 In France Blaise Pascal invented a calculating machine to ease the drudgery of his tax-collector father. It was considered too complicated.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1642-1648 The English civil war severely damaged St. Paul’s Cathedral in London.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.14)

1642-1651 Period of English civil wars.

1643 Jan 4, (NS) Sir Isaac Newton, scientist, was born. He developed the laws of gravity and planetary relations [See Dec 25, 1642].
(HN, 1/4/01)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isaac_Newton)

1643 Mar 1, Girolamo Frescobaldi (59), Italian composer, organist, died.
(SC, 3/1/02)

1643 Apr 20, Christoph Demantius (75), composer, died.
(MC, 4/20/02)

1643 May 13, Battle at Grantham: English parliamentary armies beat royalists.
(MC, 5/13/02)

1643 May 14, Louis XIV became King of France at age 4 upon the death of his father, Louis XIII.
(AP, 5/14/97)

1643 May 18, Queen Anne, the widow of Louis XIII, was granted sole and absolute power as regent by the Paris parliament, overriding the late king’s will.
(HN, 5/18/99)

1643 May 19, Delegates from four New England colonies, Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, Connecticut and New Harbor, met in Boston to form a confederation: the United Colonies of New England.
(AP, 5/19/97)

1643 May 19, A French army destroyed Spanish army at the Battle at Rocroi – Allersheim in France
(DTnet, 5/19/97)(HN, 5/19/98)

1643 Jun 18, In England the bloody battle of Chalgrove Field occurred. Royalist strategy meetings were held at the Horsenden Manor at Buckinghamshsire.
(WSJ, 7/19/96, p.B6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Chalgrove_Field)

1643 Jun 30, Battle at Atherton Moor: Royalists beat parliamentary armies.
(MC, 6/30/02)

1643 Jul 5, 1st recorded tornado in US was at Essex County, Massachusetts.
(MC, 7/5/02)

1643 Jul 13, In England, the Roundheads, led by Sir William Waller, were defeated by royalist troops under Lord Wilmot in the Battle of Roundway Down.
(HN, 7/13/98)

1643 Jul 27, Cromwell defeated the Royalists at the Battle of Gainsborough.
(MC, 7/27/02)

1643 Nov 22, Rene R. Cavelier, sieur de La Salle, French explorer, was born. [see Dec 22]
(MC, 11/22/01)

1643 Nov 29, Claudio Giovanni Monteverdi (76), Italian composer (L’Arianna), died.
(MC, 11/29/01)

1643 Dec 8, John Pym (59), English House of Commons member, died.
(MC, 12/8/01)

1643 Dec 22, Rene-Robert Cavelier La Salle, French explorer (Louisiana), was born. [see Nov 22]
(MC, 12/22/01)

1643 Dec 25, Captain William Mynors of the Royal Mary, a British East India Company vessel, named Christmas Island when he sailed past it on Christmas Day. Sovereignty of the island was transferred to Australia in 1957.

1643 Tinicum township, founded by Swedes, was the first European settlement in Pennsylvania.
(AP, 8/22/19)

1643 Roger Williams of Providence, Rhode Island, published “A Key into the Language of America,” a dictionary of the Narragansett Indian language and a commentary on the culture and customs of the southern New England Indians. The work was printed in England by Gregory Dexter.
(AH, 4/07, p.27)
1643 Ann Radcliffe established the first scholarship at Harvard Univ.
(SFC, 4/21/99, p.A2)

1643 The English parliament first introduced levies on beer and meat to finance its fight against the Crown.
(Econ, 12/31/11, p.39)

1643 Fang Yizhi, a Chinese scholar, wrote that smoking tobacco for too long would blacken the lungs and lead to death.
(Econ, 1/28/12, p.44)
1643 Wu Bin (b.1580), Ming Dynasty painter, died. His work included “Pine Lodge Amid Tall Mountains.”
(SFC, 3/13/03, p.E1)

1643 A novel by Umberto Eco, Italian philosopher and novelist, written in 1995 was set in this period. It was titled “The Island of the Day Before,” (Harcourt Brace, 513 pp., $25).
(WSJ, 11/27/95, p.A-1)
1643 The opera “Il Capricio” with libretto by Francesco Buti and music by Marco Marazzoli had its first performance at the home of the French ambassador in Rome. The sole manuscript then languished in the Vatican library until a revived performance in SF in 1997.
(SFC, 3/10/97, p.D2)

1643 The great marble dome of the Taj Mahal was first completed.
(WSJ, 3/31/07, p.P10)

1643 Piotr Golovin, the Cossack governor of Russia’s Yakutsk province, sent an expedition under Vasily Poyarkov into the far eastern Amur watershed. After 3 winters Poyarkov returned to Yakutsk with fewer than a quarter of his 160 men.
(Econ, 12/19/09, p.71)

1643-1715 Louis XIV was King of France. “L’etat c’est moi” (I am the state). Francois Michelle Le Tellier, the Marquis de Louvois, was his secretary of state for war. A portrait of the Marquis was painted by Herault.
(WUD, 1994, p.848)(SFC,10/23/97, p.E1)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R12)

1644 Jan 18, 1st reported UFO sighting in America was made by perplexed pilgrims in Boston.
(MC, 1/18/02)

1644 Feb 5, The 1st US livestock branding law was passed by Connecticut.
(MC, 2/5/02)

1644 Mar 7, Massachusetts established 1st 2-chamber legislature in colonies.
(MC, 3/7/02)

1644 Mar 14, Roger Williams of Providence, Rhode Island, was issued a charter in the name of the king, which connected the towns of Providence, Portsmouth, and Newport under the title of “the Incorporation of Providence Plantations in the Narragansett Bay in New England.” A March 24 date is also common for this and reflects later use of the new style calendar.

1644 Apr 25, The Ming Chongzhen emperor committed suicide by hanging himself as Beijing fell to the bandit and rebel leader Li Dzucheng (39). The Qing, or Chi’ing, dynasty of China began when the Manchus invaded from Northeast China and overthrew the 300-year-old Ming Dynasty.
(WSJ, 9/13/96, p.B8)(HN, 4/25/98)(PCh, 1992, p.239)

1644 Jul 2, Lord Cromwell crushed the Royalists at the Battle of Marston Moor near York, England. Cromwell came from minor gentry in Huntingdon and had served in Parliament before the wars, during which he commanded the Ironsides, a cavalry regiment famous for its discipline and tenacity. Although he had had no previous military experience, he showed amazing courage and tactical brilliance, particularly at the Battle of Marston Moor.
(HN, 7/2/98)(HNQ, 8/8/00)
1644 Jul 2, William Gascoigne (24), introduced telescopic sights, was killed.
(SC, 7/2/02)

1644 Jul 11, A Florentine scientist described the invention of barometer.
(MC, 7/11/02)

1644 Aug 12, Heinrich Ignaz Franz von Biber, composer, was born.
(MC, 8/12/02)
1644 Aug 12, Georg Christoph Leuttner, composer, was born.
(MC, 8/12/02)

1644 Sep 2, At the Battle at Lostwithiel: Robert Devereux’s infantry surrendered.
(MC, 9/2/01)

1644 Sep 25, Olaus Rímer, 1st to accurately measured speed of light, was born in Denmark.
(MC, 9/25/01)

1644 Oct 1, Jean Rousseau, composer, was born.
(MC, 10/1/01)
1644 Oct 1, Alessandro Stradella, Italian violinist and composer, was born.
(MC, 10/1/01)

1644 Oct 14, William Penn, founder of Pennsylvania, or Penn’s Woods, was born.
(HN, 10/14/98)

1644 Oct 27, The 2nd Battle at Newbury: King Charles I beat parliamentary armies.
(MC, 10/27/01)

1644 Nov 6, Sir Thomas Roe (b.~1581), English scholar and a patron of learning, died. He was an English diplomat of the Elizabethan and Jacobean periods and He sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1614 and 1644. “It is no good state of a body to have a fat head, thin guts and lean members.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Roe)(Econ, 6/30/12, SR p.15)

1644 Dec 23, Tomas de Torrejon y Velasco, composer, was born.
(MC, 12/23/01)

1644 Antonio Stradivari (d.1737), violin maker, was born.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R53)

1644 Velazquez painted the portrait: “King Philip IV of Spain.”
(WSJ, 12/29/99, p.A12)

1644 “Principia Philosophiae” by Rene Descartes was published in Amsterdam.
(Dr, 7/20/96, supl p.1)
1644 Johan Baptista von Helmont, Flemish alchemist and physician, had a manuscript published post mortem where he described invisible spirits bubbling from flasks in his laboratory. He coined the word “Gas” from the Greek word for chaos to describe the invisible spirits. One of the gases he studied was carbon dioxide which he called gas sylvestris, or spirit of wood.
(NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.16)
1644 Poet John Milton published “Areopagitica,” an essay in defense of a free press.
(SFC, 1/21/04, p.D2)
1644 Roger Williams published “The Bloudy Tenent of Persecution,” a sweeping condemnation of Massachusetts’s intolerance and a manifesto defending the rights of each individual to decide, according to his own conscience, how best to worship god without interference from any civil authority.
(AH, 4/07, p.27)

1644 A house was constructed for the Reverend John Lothrop, the founder of Barnstable, Mass. It later formed the original part of the Sturgis Library, the oldest Library building in the United States. The building is also one of the oldest houses remaining on Cape Cod.”

1644 Pope Innocent X was elected Pope. He was from the noble Roman Pamphili family.
(SFC, 11/20/00, p.A20)

1644 A land grant for “The Beach” was given for a fifty acre tract that covers the present harbor area of St. Michaels on the Chesapeake Bay.
(SMBA, 1996)

1644 Lambert Jochemse Van Valckenburg and his wife Annetje arrived in New Amsterdam and promptly purchased a house and 50 acres.
(SFEC, 8/11/96, p.A17)

1644 Trongsa Dzong was built. Trongsa was the ancestral home of Bhutan’s royal family.

1644 The Globe Theater in London was dismembered.
(SFC, 8/20/96, p.E4)

1644 The Manchu emperors of China ordered all subjects to shave the top of their heads and wear the rest of their hair in a braid. The men complied until 1911 but the women did not.
(SFEC, 9/8/96, Z1 p.6)
c1644 In China the later Zhengyici Theater in Beijing started as a temple in the late Ming period.
(WSJ, 1/9/97, p.A8)
1644 Many Chinese mandarins fled to the port of Hoi An, Vietnam, when the Ming Dynasty was overthrown. Hoi An at this time was known as Faifo.
(SFEC, 4/26/98, p.T4)

1644 In Sikkim the beginning of a 330 year dynasty.
(WSJ, 3/6/97, p.A1)

1644-1694 Matsuo Basho, Japanese poet. His work include “The Narrow Road to the Deep North” (Oku no Hosomichi). One of his poems celebrated the entrancing cry of the cicada.
(SFC, 11/28/96, p.C16)(WUD, 1994, p.124)(SFC, 7/29/97, p.C3)(Econ, 7/5/14, p.67)

1644-1911 “The Qing Dynasty” by Nie Chongzheng is the 4th section of Wu Hung’s 1997 “The Origins of Chinese Painting.” The period is marked by the emergence of the literati-amateur movement.
(WSJ, 1/2/98, p.6)

1644-1912 The period of the Ching (Qing) dynasty of China. Others end it at 1911. Chinese GDP per person fell relentlessly during the Qing dynasty.
(WSJ, 9/19/96, p.A18)(SFC, 10/14/96, p.B3)(Econ 6/17/17, p.40)

1645 Jan 10, William Laud (71), the Archbishop of Canterbury, was beheaded on Tower Hill, accused of acting as an enemy of the Parliament.
(HN, 1/10/99)

1645 Feb 14, Robert Ingle, commissioned by the English Parliament and captain of the tobacco ship Reformation, sailed to St. Mary’s (Maryland) and seized a Dutch trading ship. This marked the beginning of what came to known as “The Plundering Time.”
(Arch, 1/05, p.48)

1645 Apr 2, Robert Devereux resigned as parliament supreme commander.
(MC, 4/2/02)

1645 Apr 7, Michael Cardozo became the 1st Jewish lawyer in Brazil.
(MC, 4/7/02)

1645 Jun 14, Oliver Cromwell’s army routed the King’s army at Naseby.
(HN, 6/14/98)

1645 Jul 12, In Russia Michael Romanov (b.1596), the first RomanovTsar (1613-1645), died.
(Econ, 3/9/13, p.86)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_I_of_Russia)

1645 Aug 9, Settlers in New Amsterdam gained peace with the Indians after conducting talks with the Mohawks.
(HN, 8/9/98)

1645 Aug 16, Jean de la Bruyere, French writer and moralist famous for his work “Characters of Theophratus,” was born.
(HN, 8/16/98)

1645 Aug 28, Hugo Grotius, Dutch jurist and politician, died. In 1917 Hamilton Vreeland authored “Hugo Grotius: The Father of Modern Science and International Law.”
(RTH, 8/28/99)(ON, 10/04, p.4)

1645 Aug 30, Dutch & Indians signed peace treaty in New Amsterdam (NY).
(MC, 8/30/01)

1645 Sep 20, Louis Joliet, French-Canadian explorer in the New World, was born.
(MC, 9/20/01)

1645 Sep 24, The Battle of Rowton Heath took place during the English Civil War between the Parliamentarians, commanded by Sydnam Poyntz, and the Royalists under the personal command of King Charles I. The result was a significant defeat for the Royalists, with heavy losses and Charles prevented from relieving the Siege of Chester. William Lawes (b.1602), Cavalier composer, died at the Battle of Rowton Heath.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Rowton_Heath)(Econ, 4/16/11, p.90)

1645 In Brazil two priests and 28 lay people were slaughtered by Dutch Calvinists and indigenous people, and in some cases had their hearts torn from their chests after being tortured and mutilated.
(AP, 10/15/17)

1645 The construction of Saint Sulpice in Paris, France, began over a Romanesque church and graveyard.
(SSFC, 1/25/04, p.C12)
1645 The San Marcoul Hospital was established in Rheims, France, by a devout woman for the care of scrofulous [tubercular] patients.
(WP, 1951, p.7)

1645 Mikhail Guryev, a Russian trader, founded the Ural River port city known as Guryev. The Kazakhstan oil town was later named Atyrau.
(WSJ, 7/25/01, p.A1)

1646 George Fox (b.1624) abandoned the church in England and began following the “inner light.” He told listeners that the truth could be found by listening to an inner voice of God speaking directly to the soul. His teachings formed the basis to the Religious Society of Friends, aka Quakers. Believers reportedly sat and quivered waiting for the Holy Spirit to move them to speak.
(SSFC, 8/5/01, p.C10)

1645 In Sweden the Post Och Inrikes Tidningar began daily publication for bankruptcies, corporate and government announcements. On Jan 1, 2007, the world’s oldest newspaper stopped publishing on paper and moved to the Internet.
(WSJ, 1/2/07, p.B4)

1645 Turkish invaders of the Ottoman Empire captured Hania on the island of Crete and built a mosque.
(SFEC, 8/17/97, p.T10)

1645-1651 During the English civil war of this period almost every silver and gold object in the country was melted down or smashed.
(Econ, 3/9/13, p.86)

1645-1715 The Maunder Minimum. A 70-year period, named after astronomer E.W. Maunder, who documented a lack of solar activity during this time. It also marked the coldest period of the “Little Ice Age” that gripped Europe from c1450-c1890.
(SFC, 11/29/02, p.J6)(SFC, 12/8/03, p.A2)

1646 Feb 28, Roger Scott was tried in Massachusetts for sleeping in church.
(MC, 2/28/02)

1646 Mar 6, Joseph Jenkes received the 1st colonial machine patent.
(MC, 3/6/02)

1646 Apr 27, King Charles I fled Oxford.
(MC, 4/27/02)

1646 May 5, King Charles I surrendered at Scotland.
(MC, 5/5/02)

1646 Jul 1, Gottfried Von Leibniz (Leibnitz, d.1716), German philosopher and mathematician, was born.
(HN, 7/1/98)(WUD, 1994, p.819)

1646 Jul 30, English parliament set the Newcastle Propositions of King Charles I.
(MC, 7/30/02)

1646 Aug 28, Fulvio Testi (53), Italian poet (Poesie liriche), died.
(MC, 8/28/01)

1646 Sep 14, Robert Devereux (b.1591), 3rd earl of Essex, died.

1646 Oct 28, The 1st Protestant church assembly for Indians took place in Massachusetts.
(MC, 10/28/01)

1646 Gluckel of Hameln was born in Hamburg. She married at 14 and had 12 children and was widowed at age 44. She continued for 3 more decades as a single businesswoman and devoted diarist. Her story was made into a theater production in 1999 by the New York based Great Small Works.
(SFC, 10/16/99, p.D1,4)

1646 A treaty with Virginia Indians required the state to protect the Mattaponi from “enemies,” but only on the reservation in King William County. The peace treaty unraveled the powerful confederation of local Indian tribes and large amounts of land were ceded to English settlers.
(SFC, 6/4/97, p.A7)(AH, 6/07, p.27)

1646 James Morton, author of the “New English Canaan,” died in Maine.
(ON, 3/00, p.12)

1646 Charles I (1600-1649), king of England, Scotland and Ireland, licensed the Silver Cross to serve as both a brothel and drinking establishment.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_I_of_England)(SFEC, 8/11/96, p.T7)

1646 The Cheng Hoon Teng Buddhist temple was built in Malacca, Malaysia.
(SFEC, 3/19/00, p.T8)

1646 In Satevo, Mexico, at the bottom of the Copper Canyon near Batopilas is a 350 year old church.
(SFC, 5/19/96, T-1)

1646 Akzo Nobel, a Dutch multinational firm, traced its origins to a foundry established this year in the Swedish countryside by Paul Hossman. Milestone mergers and divestments led to the formation of AKZO in 1969 and the merger with Nobel Industries in 1994 to form Akzo Nobel.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AkzoNobel) (Econ, 4/22/17, p.58)

1646-1707 Jules Hardouin Mansart, French architect. He became the chief architectural director for Louis XIV.
(WUD, 1994, p.873)

1647 Jan 2, Nathaniel Bacon, leader of Bacon’s Rebellion, Va., (1676), was born.
(MC, 1/2/02)

1647 Jan 23, Scottish Presbyterians sold captured Charles I to English Parliament.
(MC, 1/23/02)

1647 Jan 30, King Charles I was handed over to the English parliament.
(MC, 1/30/02)

1647 Mar 14, The 1647 Treaty of Ulm was reached between the French and the Bavarians during the Thirty Years’ War. In negotiations with the French, Maximilian I of Bavaria abandoned his alliance with the Holy Roman emperor Ferdinand III through the Treaty of Ulm. In 1648 Bavaria returned to the side of the emperor.
(HNQ, 11/7/98)

1647 Apr 1, John Wilmot (d.1680) Second Earl of Rochester, poet (A Satyr Upon Mankinde), scandalous pornographer and bawdy playwright, was born. He married Elizabeth Malet, and carried on an affair with the actress Elizabeth Barry. His friend, playwright George Etherege modeled the character Dorimont after him in “Man of Mode.” A 1994 play by Stephen Jeffrey titled “The Libertine,” is based on Wilmot’s life.
(WSJ, 3/28/96,p.A-12)(WSJ, 1/14/98, p.A17)

1647 May 11, Peter Stuyvesant (37) arrived in New Amsterdam to become governor of New Netherland. The one-legged professional soldier was sent from the Netherlands to head the Dutch trading colony at the southern end of Manhattan Island. Stuyvesant lost a leg in a minor skirmish in the Caribbean in 1644.
(ON, 4/00, p.1)(AH, 10/04, p.74)(AP, 5/11/08)

1647 May 26, A new law banned Catholic priests from the colony of Massachusetts. The penalty was banishment or death for a second offense.
(HN, 5/26/99)

1647 May 27, In Salem, Massachusetts, Achsah Young became the first recorded American woman to be executed for being a “witch.”
(AP, 5/27/97)(HN, 5/27/98)

1647 Jun 4, The English army seized King Charles I as a hostage.
(AP, 6/4/97)(HN, 6/4/98)

1647 Jun 24, Margaret Brent (d.1671), a niece of Lord Baltimore, was ejected from the Maryland Assembly after demanding a place and vote in the body. Brent, acted as attorney for Lord Baltimore, and saved the colony from mutinous soldiers and from a Protestant revolt against the Catholic government.
(AP, 6/24/97)(www.historyswomen.com/MargaretBrent.htm)

1647 Jul 7, In Naples an outbreak began with a riot at the city gates between the fruit-vendors of the environs and the customs officers. Misgovernment and fiscal oppression during the Thirty Years’ War had aroused much discontent throughout the Kingdom of Naples.

1647 Jul 16, Masaniello (b.1622), an Italian fisherman, was murdered in Naples after leading a doomed revolt against Habsburg rule.
(Econ, 7/16/11, p.88)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Masaniello)

1647 Aug 22, Denis Papin, inventor of the pressure cooker, was born.
(HN, 8/22/00)

1647 Nov 8, Pierre Bayle (d.1706), French-Dutch theologian, philosopher, and writer, was born. He authored the “Historical and Critical Dictionary.” “If an historian were to relate truthfully all the crimes, weaknesses and disorders of mankind, his readers would take his work for satire rather than for history.”
(WUD, 1994, p.128)(AP, 11/19/97)(WSJ, 12/2/97, p.A20)(MC, 11/8/01)

1647 Nov 10, The all Dutch-held area of New York was returned to English control by the treaty of Westminster.
(HN, 11/10/98)

1647 Nov 11, Massachusetts passed the 1st US compulsory school attendance law.
(MC, 11/11/01)

1647 Velazquez (1599-1660) began his painting “Toilet of Venus.” It was completed in 1651.
(WSJ, 2/24/00, p.A16)

1647 William Bradford authored “History of Plymouth Plantation.”
(ON, 3/00, p.12)
1647 Samuel Danforth, a Puritan minister, authored “An Almanack for the Year of Lord 1647.” It included a 20-year chronology of notable events in the Massachusetts colony.
(WSJ, 11/22/08, p.W11)

1647 Gian Francesca Abela, vice-chancellor of the Knights of St. John and the father of Maltese historiography, authored “Descrittione di Malta.” His antiquities, willed to the College of Jesuit Fathers in Valetta, later formed the nucleus of Malta’s National Museum of Archeology.
(AM, 7/97, p.48)

1647 Pietro della Valle first published an illustration of a cuneiform inscription.
(RFH-MDHP, p.193)

1647 “L’Orfeo” was produced in France. It was composed by Luigi Rossi who was imported by Cardinal Mazarin who sought to bring the Italian operatic tradition to France and mate it with the court orchestra, Les Vingt-Quatre Vuiolons du Roi.
(WSJ, 6/19/97, p.A16)

1647 Elizabeth Throckmorton (b.1565), wife of Sir Walter Raleigh, died. In 2003 Anna Beer authored her biography “My Just Desire.”
(WSJ, 1/6/04, p.D10)

1647 The British Parliament under Oliver Cromwell banned Christmas celebrations. The ban was lifted after Cromwell’s downfall in 1660.

1647-1649 “An Agreement of the People” was a series of manifestos, published during this period, for constitutional changes to the English state. They have been most associated as the manifestos of the Levellers but were also published by the Agitators and the General Council of the New Model Army.

1648 Jan 21, In Maryland, the first woman lawyer in the colonies, Margaret Brent, was denied a vote in the Maryland Assembly.
(HN, 1/21/99)

1648 Apr 5, Spanish troops and feudal barons struck down people’s uprising in Naples.
(MC, 4/5/02)

1648 Apr 11, Matthaus Apelles von Lowenstern (53), composer, died.
(MC, 4/11/02)

1648 Apr 16, John Luyken, poet, etcher (Duytse Lyre), was born.
(MC, 4/16/02)

1648 Apr 22, English army claimed king Charles I was responsible for bloodshed.
(MC, 4/22/02)

1648 May 6, Battle at Zolty Wody-Bohdan: Chmielricki’s Cossacks beat John II Casimir.
(MC, 5/6/02)

1648 May 13, Margaret Jones of Plymouth was found guilty of witchcraft and was sentenced to be hanged by the neck.
(HN, 5/13/99)

1648 May 15, The independence of the Netherlands was finally recognized with the Dutch and Spanish ratification of the Treaty of Munster, initially signed on January 30.

1648 May 20, In Poland King Ladislas IV died at age 55. His Jesuit brother (39) took rule as John Casimir II.
(PCh, 1992, p.241)

1648 Jun 18, The Eighty Years’ War between the Dutch and Spain ended following the signing of the Treaty of Munster.

1648 Jun 24, Cossacks slaughtered 2,000 Jews and 600 Polish Catholics in Ukraine.
(MC, 6/24/02)

1648 Jul 22, Some 10,000 Jews of Polannoe were murdered in a massacre led by Cossack Bogdan Chmielnicki (55).
(PC, 1992, p.241)(MC, 7/22/02)

1648 Aug 8, Ibrahim, the sultan of Istanbul, was thrown into prison, then assassinated.
(HN, 8/8/98)

1648 Aug 26, There was a people’s uprising, the Fronde, against Anna of Austria, regent for Louis XIV of France, and Cardinal Mazarin (d.1661), the effective ruler.
(PC, 1992, p.241)(MC, 8/26/02)

1648 Sep 1, Marin Mersenne (59), French mathematician, died.
(SC, 9/1/02)

1648 Sep 21, In Poland at the Battle at Pilawce Bohdan Chmielricki beat John II Casimir.
(PCh, 1992, p.241)(MC, 9/21/01)

1648 Oct 4, Peter Stuyvesant established America’s 1st volunteer firemen.
(MC, 10/4/01)

1648 Oct 18, Boston shoemakers were authorized to form a guild to protect their interests; it’s the first American labor organization on record. The guild was authorized by the Massachusetts Bay Colony (Mass. Bay Company).
(HN, 10/18/98)(AP, 10/18/07)

1648 Oct 24, The Peace of Westphalia ended the German Thirty Years War and effectively destroyed the Holy Roman Empire. The Treaties of Osnabruck and Munster, that ended the Thirty Years” War, divided Pomerania, a historic region that once stretched from Stralsund to the Vistula along the Baltic Sea in north-central Europe, into two parts known as Hither Pomerania and Farther Pomerania. Hither Pomerania, the area west of the Oder River, was granted to Sweden. Farther Pomerania was east of the Oder and went to the state of Brandenburg. Hither Pomerania is now part of the German state of Mecklenburg-West Pomerania; Farther Pomerania is now part of Poland. The 30 years war had spread from one end of Germany to the other, and left the country a scene of desolation and disorder, wasted by fire, sword and plague. The war was followed by great scarcity, due to the lack of laborers. San Marino did not attend the conference or sign the treaty because it had not been involved in the fighting, however it was linked to states that were fighting and was therefore still at war with Sweden until 1996 when an official end was declared. The treaty abolished private armies and the nation-state acquired a monopoly on maintaining armies and fighting wars.
(AP, 10/24/97)(WSJ, 6/1/99, p.A22)(HNQ, 10/6/99)(Econ, 5/24/08, p.80)
1648 Oct 24, Switzerland’s independence was recognized with the Peace of Westphalia.
(MC, 10/24/01)

1648 Nov 2, 12,000 Jews were massacred by Chmielnicki hordes in Narol Podlia (Ukraine). Cossack Bogdan Chmielnicki led the pogrom in quest of Ukrainian independence from the Polish nobility, who employed Jews to collect taxes.
(PCh, 1992, p.241)(MC, 11/2/01)

1648 Nov 26, Pope Innocent X condemned the Peace of Westphalia, which ended 30 Years War one month earlier.
(AP, 11/26/02)

1648 Nov 30, English army captured King Charles I.
(MC, 11/30/01)

1648 Dec 6, Pride’s Purge: Thomas Pride prevented 96 Presbyterians from sitting in English Parliament.
(MC, 12/6/01)

1648 Aldrovandus illustrated an Aztec sacrificial knife with a flaked blade (probably of obsidian) and a Brazilian anchor axe of ground stone set in a wooden haft as examples of stone implements of ancient type but of recent manufacture and used by primitive peoples.
(RFH-MDHP, p.71-72)

1648 William Blaeu, Dutch master, illustrated 26-inch heaven and Earth orbs and depicted lions in the sky and sea monsters in the Pacific. Their value in 1996 was $825,000.
(WSJ, 11/1/96, p.B10)

1648 The painting “Holy Family on the Steps,” later acquired by the US National Gallery of Art, was initially attributed to Nicolas Poussin. The original turned out to be at the Cleveland Museum of Art and the National Gallery changed the authorship to a “follower of Poussin.”
(WSJ, 4/9/99, p.W16)

1648 Van Ruisdael painted “Dunes at Haarlem.” His work this year also included his print “Christ Preaching (The Hundred Guilder Print).
(SFEC, 9/3/00, p.T7)(WSJ, 3/904, p.D8)

1648 Van Ruisdael painted “Dunes at Haarlem.”
(SFEC, 9/3/00, p.T7)

1648 The French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture was founded.
(AM, 7/05, p.54)

1648 At the end of the Thirty years’ War the Swedes got to Prague and picked up the remains of works collected by Rudolf II.
(WSJ, 7/10/97, p.A13)

1648 The island of St. Martin in the Lesser Antilles was divided between the French and Dutch. The southern half went to the Dutch as Sint Maarten, while the northern half, Saint Martin, became part of the French department of Guadeloupe. Legend has it that a Dutchman and a Frenchman stood back to back at the center of the island and paced of their shares. The Dutchman stopped often to drink beer and was left with the smaller share.
(NH, 10/96, p.60)(SFEC,2/16/97, p.T6)

1648-1687 Mehmed IV succeeded Ibrahim in the Ottoman House of Osman.
(Ot, 1993, xvii)

1648-1815 This period of European history was covered by Tim Blanning in his 2007 book “The Pursuit of Glory: Europe 1648-1815.”
(Econ, 6/23/07, p.94)

1649 Jan 30, King Charles I of England, who ruled from 1625-1649, was beheaded for treason at Banqueting House, Whitehall, by the hangman Richard Brandon. He lost his capital trial by one vote, 68-67. “For the people, and I truly desire their liberty and freedom as much as anybody whomsoever, but I must tell you that their liberty and their freedom consists in having of government those laws by which their life and their goods may be most their own. It is not for having a share in government, sirs; that is nothing pertaining to them. A subject and a sovereign are clean different things.” Charles I was canonized by the church of England 13 years later. Parliament became the supreme power under the rule of Oliver Cromwell, who ruled over Parliament as Lord Protector of the New Commonwealth from 1649-1658. He argued against his soldiers having a voice in government because they owned no property. He stated in so many words that government “has always been, and should always continue to be, of property, by property, and for property.”
(SFEC, 8/11/96, p.T7)(V.D.-H.K.p.218)(WSJ, 5/6/97, p.A20)(HN, 1/30/99)(SFEC, 7/2/00, Z1 p.2)(WSJ, 2/7/03, p.W13)
1649 Jan 30, Jester Muckle John lost his job when King Charles 1 was beheaded.
(Reuters, 8/7/04)

1649 Jan, The prosecution of England’s King Charles I was led by John Cooke (1608-1660), who suffered a horrible death with the Restoration in 1660.
(SSFC, 9/24/06, p.M3)

1649 Feb 5, The Prince of Wales became king Charles II. Charles II (18), while living in exile at the Hague, was recently informed that his father was beheaded at Whitehall on Jan 30.
(WSJ, 2/28/00, p.A36)(MC, 2/5/02)

1649 Feb 23, John Blow, composer of 1st English opera (Venus and Adonis), was baptized.
(MC, 2/23/02)

1649 Feb 27, Johann Philipp Krieger, composer, was born.
(MC, 2/27/02)

1649 Mar 11, The peace of Rueil was signed between the Frondeurs (rebels) and the French government.
(HN, 3/11/99)

1649 Mar 26, John Winthrop, Puritan and 1st Gov. of Massachusetts, died. [see Apr 5]
(SS, 3/26/02)

1649 Apr 3, Joseph-Francois Salomon, composer, was born.
(MC, 4/3/02)

1649 Apr 5, Elihu Yale (1721), the English philanthropist for whom Yale University is named, was born.
(WUD, 1994, p.1652)(AP, 4/5/99)
1649 Apr 5, John Winthrop (61), 1st governor of the colony at Mass. Bay, died. [see Mar 26]
(MC, 4/5/02)

1649 Apr 9, James Scott Duke of Monmouth (d.1685), was born. He was the illegitimate son of Charles II of England and pretender to the throne of James II
(HN, 4/9/98)(WUD, 1994, p.925)

1649 Apr 21, The Maryland Toleration Act, which provided for freedom of worship for all Christians, was passed by the Maryland assembly.
(AP, 4/21/97)(HN, 4/21/98)

1649 May 12, Isaac Doreslaer, English lawyer, diplomat, was murdered.
(MC, 5/12/02)

1649 Aug 15, Oliver Cromwell landed in Ireland with his New Model Army on behalf of England’s Rump Parliament.

1649 Sep 1, Descartes departed Amsterdam to go to Sweden at the invitation of Queen Kristina.
(Dr, 7/20/96, supl p.1)

1649 Sep 6, Robert Dudley, English navigator and writer (Arcano del Mare), died.
(MC, 9/6/01)

1649 Sep 11, Oliver Cromwell seized Drogheda, Ireland in a siege that began September 3. The week after the storming of Drogheda, the Royalist press in England claimed that 2,000 of the 3,000 dead were civilian.

1649 Oct, English Parliamentarian troops broke into the town of Wexford while the commander of the garrison, David Sinnot, was trying to negotiate a surrender – massacring soldiers and civilians alike. Much of the town was burned and its harbor was destroyed.

1649 Poussin created his painting “Moses Striking the Rock.”
(WSJ, 1/04/00, p.A16)
1649 Salomon van Ruysdael (1602-1670), Dutch landscape artist, created his painting “Ferry on a River.”
(WSJ, 7/2/08, p.D7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruisdael)
1649 The Prins Willem was built in Middelburg, Netherlands, as the flagship of the Dutch East India Company. The 3-masted ship, launched on Jan 1, 1650, sank in 1662 off Madagascar.
(AP, 7/30/09)(http://tinyurl.com/mteqbf)
1649 Descartes published “Traite des passions de l’ame” in Paris.
(Dr, 7/20/96, supl p.1)
1649 Gov. Peter Stuyvesant granted Lambert Jochemse Van Valckenburg and his wife Annetje 50 acres, now nine blocks in the heart of Manhattan.
(SFEC, 8/11/96, p.A17)
1649 Marblehead, Mass., was founded by Cornwall fishermen.
(SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T7)

1649 Iroquois attacks and starvation decimated the Huron nation from some 12,000 to a few hundred.
(AH, 4/01, p.33)
1649 Alessandro Turchi (b.1578), Italian painter, died in Rome. His work included “The Lamentation Over the Dead Christ” (1617).
1649 In Russia serfs were made part of the land that they inhabited. A later edict allowed them to be sold with the land.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)
1649 In Seville, Spain, one in three died of the Black Plague.
(SFEC, 10/13/96, p.T6)

1649-1653 This period marks the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland or Cromwellian war in Ireland. The Parliamentarians deported about 50,000 people as indentured laborers. They were sent to the English colonies of America and West Indies.

1649-1743 Hyacinthe Rigaud, painter. Painted the “Portrait of Louis XIV.”
(AAP, 1964)

1649-1815 In 2004 N.A.M. Rodger authored “The Command of the Ocean: A Naval History of Britain, 1649-1815.”
(Econ, 11/20/04, p.88)

1650 Feb 1, Rene Descartes, philosopher: “I think therefore I am”, died. [see Feb 11]
(MC, 2/1/02)

1650 Feb 2, Nell [Eleanor] Gwyn, English actress, mistress to King Charles II, was born.
(MC, 2/2/02)

1650 Feb 11, Rene Descartes (b.1596), French mathematician and philosopher: “I think therefore I am”, died in Stockholm. [see Feb 1]
(Dr, 7/20/96, supl p.1)(MC, 2/11/02)

1650 Apr 27, Scottish general Montrose was defeated.
(MC, 4/27/02)

1650 May 21, James, Marquis of Montrose, Scottish general, was hanged.
(MC, 5/21/02)

1650 May 24, John Churchill, 1st duke of Marlborough, English general strategist, was born.
(MC, 5/24/02)

1650 May 28, Gilles Hayne (59), composer, died.
(MC, 5/28/02)

1650 May, Oliver Cromwell left Ireland to fight the Third English Civil War against the new Scottish-Royalist alliance. He passed his command onto Henry Ireton.

1650 Jun 28, Lord Cromwell set off for Scotland at the head of an army of 16,354 men.
(HNQ, 8/8/00)

1650 Jun, The Ulster army met a Parliamentarian army composed mainly of British settlers and commanded by Charles Coote at the Battle of Scarrifholis in Donegal. The Ulster army was routed and as many as 2000 of its men were killed.
1650 Jun, Jean Rotrou (b.1609), French playwright, died of the plague. In his day he was considered second only to Corneille.
(SFC, 12/31/08, p.E2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_Rotrou)

1650 Sep 3, The English under Cromwell defeated a superior Scottish army under David Leslie at the Battle of Dunbar.
(HN, 9/3/98)

1650 Sep, Peter Stuyvesant traveled from New Amsterdam to Hartford, Conn., to negotiate boundaries for their colonies.
(ON, 4/00, p.1)

1650 Oct 3, The English parliament declared its rule over the fledgling American colonies.
(MC, 10/3/01)

1650 Oct 21, Jean Bart, French captain and sea hero, was born. He escaped from Plymouth.
(MC, 10/21/01)

1650 Nov 4, William III, Prince of Orange and King of England, was born. [see Nov 14]
(HN, 11/4/98)

1650 Nov 14, William III, King of England (1689-1702), was born. [see Nov 4]
(HN, 11/14/98)

1650 Nov 24, Manuel Cardoso (83), composer, died.
(MC, 11/24/01)

c1650 Dutch artist Jan Baptist Weenix painted “Mother and Child in an Italian Landscape.”
(SFEM, 8/31/97, p.12)

c1650 Velazquez painted the portrait: “Juan de Pareja.”
(WSJ, 12/29/99, p.A12)

1650 The Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi, fountain of Four Rivers, in Rome’s Piazza Navona was designed by Bernini.
(SFEC, 7/2/00, p.T5)

1650 The Khaju bridge in Esfahan, Persia (Iran), was built over the Zayandeh Rood river.
(SSFC, 1/14/07, p.G5)

c1650 The Kagyupa sect of Buddhism, known as the “Black Hats,” under the leadership of the Karmapa was supplanted by the Gelupga school of the Dalai Lamas as Tibet’s most politically powerful group.
(SFC, 1/800, p.A8)

c1650 Mother St. John Fontbonne founded the Sisters of St. Joseph.
(SFC, 11/13/00, p.A3)

1650 Ludlow’s Code, Colonial American laws, came about when Connecticut’s general court asked Roger Ludlow, a member of the court, to draft a body of laws. Without the impartiality of an established set of laws, Connecticut colonists had complained of the capriciousness of magistrates.
(HNQ, 8/4/98)

c1650 The Cinder Cone at Mt. Lassen volcano (California) was formed.
(SFEC, 8/13/00, p.T1)

1650 In Barbados St. Nicholas Abbey was built as a plantation house in the Jacobean style.
(SFEC, 2/15/98, p.T10)

c1650 Andres Manso de Contreras of Cuba built a vast fortune by intercepting Caribbean pirates in the mid-17th century. In 1704 and 1776 his heirs sailed to London and allegedly deposited the equivalent of some $60 million in gold at a London bank at 5% interest.
(WSJ, 4/20/01, p.A1)

1650 Portuguese rule ended in Oman.
(SSFC, 3/30/08, p.E4)

1650s In Massachusetts the Puritans ordered Obadiah Holmes to be “well whipped” for holding a Baptist service.
(SFC, 6/24/96, p.A19)

1650-1695 St. Croix island in the West Indies was taken over by the French and then abandoned.
(NG, Jan, 1968, C. Mitchell, p.84)

1650-1700 This period marks the approximate end of the Renaissance and the beginning of the Age of Revolution. In 2006 Theodore K. Rabb authored “The Last Days of the Renaissance.”
(WSJ, 5/27/06, p.P8)
1650-1700 Germany during the last half of the 1600s was composed of 234 independent countries, 51 free cities and some 1,500 knightly manors governed by their lords.
(SFEC, 8/29/99, Z1 p.8)

1651 Jan 1, Charles II (20), Charles Stuart, was crowned king of Scotland at Scone.
(PC, 1992, p.243)(ON, 8/12, p.1)

1651 Apr 15, Domenico Gabrielli, composer, was born.
(MC, 4/15/02)

1651 Apr 30, Jean-Baptiste de la Salle, French priest, theorist, saint, was born.
(MC, 4/30/02)

1651 Aug 6, Francois Fenelon (d.1715), French theologian and writer (Playing for Time), was born. “Nothing is more despicable than a professional talker who uses his words as a quack uses his remedies.”
(AP, 11/27/98)(MC, 8/6/02)

1651 Aug 13, Litchfield, Connecticut, was founded.
(MC, 8/13/02)

1651 Sep 3, In the Battle at Worcester Oliver Cromwell destroyed English royalists. Charles II led the Scots Covenanters to a disastrous defeat at the battle of Worcester. Some 3,000 of his soldiers were killed and 10,000 taken prisoner.
(WSJ, 2/28/00, p.A36)(ON, 12/00, p.1)

1651 Oct 14, Laws were passed in Massachusetts forbidding the poor to adopt excessive styles of dress.
(HN, 10/14/98)

1651 Oct 15, Charles II boarded the ship Surprise to cross the Channel to France.
(ON, 12/00, p.5)

1651 Oct 17, Future King Charles II fled from England. [see Oct 15]
(MC, 10/17/01)

1651 Oct 22, Jacob Praetorius (65), composer, died.
(MC, 10/22/01)

1651 Oct 26, Courlander Gambia was established as a Latvian colony.

1651 Nov 7, King Louis XIV of France (13) was declared of full age.
(MC, 11/7/01)

1651 Nov 26, Henry Ireton (40), English gen. and parliament leader (Marston Moor), died.
(MC, 11/26/01)

1651 Dec 25, The General Court of Boston levied a five shilling fine on anyone caught “observing any such day as Christmas.”
(HN, 12/25/98)

1651 Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679), English philosopher, authored “Leviathan.” In it he tried to deduce from 1st principles the shape that society should take.
(SSFC, 6/27/04, p.M3)

1651 The opera “La Calisto” by Francesco Cavalli was produced. It was based on Ovid’s “Metamorphoses” and the text was by Giovanni Faustini.
(WSJ,3/13/95, p.A-13)

1651 Giuseppe Vaz was born in Goa, India. He chose to work in Sri Lanka amid persecution of Catholics by Dutch colonial rulers, who were Calvinists. He was later credited with having revived the Catholic faith in the country. Pope Francis planned to canonize Rev. Giuseppe Vaz during his January, 2015, visit to Sri Lanka.
(AP, 9/17/14)

1652 Feb 17, Gregorio Allegri (67), Italian singer, composer (Miserere), died.
(MC, 2/17/02)

1652 Mar 28, Samuel Sewall, British colonial merchant and one of the Salem witch trial judges, was born.
(HN, 3/28/01)

1652 Apr 7, The Dutch established settlement at Cape Town, South Africa.
(HN, 4/7/97)

1652 May 10, John Johnson, a free black, was granted 550 acres in Northampton, Va.
(MC, 5/10/02)

1652 May 18, A law was passed in Rhode Island banning slavery in the colonies but it caused little stir and was not enforced. More than 1,000 slave voyages were mounted from Rhode Island, mostly in the 18th century, carrying more than 100,000 Africans into slavery.
(HN, 5/18/99)(Reuters, 3/29/07)

1652 May 29, English Admiral Robert Blake drove out the Dutch fleet under Lieutenant-Admiral Tromp.
(SC, 5/29/02)

1652 Jun 27, New Amsterdam (later NYC) passed the 1st speed limit law in US.
(MC, 6/27/02)

1652 Jun 29, Massachusetts declared itself an independent commonwealth.
(HN, 6/29/98)

1652 Jul 4, Prince of Cond‚ started a blood bath in Paris.

1652 Jul 22, Prince Conde’s rebels narrowly defeated Chief Minister Mazarin’s loyalist forces at St. Martin, near Paris.
(HN, 7/22/98)

1652 Aug 14, Abraham Elsevier (60), Dutch book publisher, publisher, died.
(MC, 8/14/02)

1652 Sep 17, Bonaventura Elsevier, book publisher and merchant, died at about 69.
(MC, 9/17/01)

1652 Oct 13, Abraham Verhoeven, Flemish printer and newspaper publisher, died.
(MC, 10/13/01)

1652 Oct 21, King Louis XIV returned to Paris.
(MC, 10/21/01)

1652 Michael Sweerts, Flemish artist, painted “Plague in an Ancient City” in Rome. In 1998 it held by the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA).
(SFEC, 1/11/98, p.D7)

1652 Under the “Liberty Tree,” a tulip poplar at St. John’s College campus in Annapolis, Md., Virginia Puritans were welcomed as colonists by Lord Baltimore, and smoked peace pipes with the Susquehanna Indians.
(NG, Sept. 1939, J. Maloney p.391)

1652 A silver sixpence minted in colonial New England was set for auction in 2003 with an estimated value of $33-31k.
(SFC, 10/10/03, p.B2)
1652 Massachusetts produced a silver colonial coin that was found with a metal detector in 1989 in a potato field. In 2012 it was auctioned off for $430,000.
(SFC, 11/24/12, p.A5)

1652 The English Parliament passed the Act for the Settlement of Ireland which classified the Irish population into one of several categories according to their degree of involvement in the uprising and subsequent war. Dr. William Petty, Physician-General to Cromwell’s Army, estimated that as many as 100,000 Irish men, women and children were transported to the colonies in the West Indies and in North America as slaves.
1652 Inigo Jones (b.1573), father of English classical architecture, died. His work included a book titled “Stonehenge Restored,” which considered Stonehenge to have been Roman temple.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.14)(ON, 4/02, p.11)
1652 War broke out between the Netherlands and England.
(ON, 4/00, p.2)

1652 Officials [farmers] of the Dutch East India Company were sent from Europe to run the small victualing station at the cape of South Africa. They were distinguished from the native born Dutch people who are called Afrikaner. It marked the beginning of Cape Town. Jan Van Riebeck, a Dutch ship’s surgeon, founded Dap Town.
(NG, Oct. 1988, p. 563)(SFEC, 6/22/97, Z1 p.5)(SFEC, 10/15/00, p.T8)

1653 Feb 2, New Amsterdam — now New York City — was incorporated.
(AP, 2/2/97)

1653 Apr 20, Oliver Cromwell dissolved the English parliament. “You have sat too long for any good you have been doing lately…”
(www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/glossary/rump-parliament.htm)(Econ, 5/8/10, p.60)

1653 May 18, Carel Reyniersz (48), Governor-General of Netherlands and East Indies, died.
(SC, 5/18/02)

1653 Jul 4, British Barebones Parliament went into session.

1653 Sep 1, Johann Pachelbel (d.1706), German organist and composer, was born. He is best known for his “Canon in D.”
(WUD, 1994, p.1034)(SI-WPC, 1997)(MC, 9/1/02)

1653 Oct 1, Russian parliament accepted annexation of Ukraine.
(MC, 10/1/01)

1653 Nov 5, The Iroquois League signed a peace treaty with the French, vowing not to wage war with other tribes under French protection.
(HN, 11/5/98)

1653 Nov 26, Andreas Anton Schmelzer, composer, was born.
(MC, 11/26/01)

1653 Dec 1, An athlete from Croydon was reported to have run 20 miles from St. Albans to London in less than 90 minutes.
(MC, 12/1/01)

1653 Dec 16, Oliver Cromwell took on dictatorial powers with the title of lord protector” of England, Scotland and Ireland. He served as dictator of England to 1658.
(CFA, ’96, p.44)(AHD, p.315)(AP, 12/16/97)(HN, 12/16/98)

1653 Rembrandt van Rijn painted his “Aristotle With a Bust of Homer.”
(WSJ, 11/3/95, p.A-12)

1653 Izaak Walton (b.1593-1683) wrote “The Compleat Angler.”
(SFEC, 11/3/96, Par p.19)

1653 Peter Stuyvesant, governor of New Netherland, ordered a wall built to protect the Dutch settlers from the Indians. The wall gave New York’s Wall Street its name.
(WSJ, 10/9/97, p.A16)

1653 King Emanuele Filiberto moved Savoy’s capital across the Alps from Chambery to Turin to escape French clutches.
(SSFC, 1/22/06, p.E6)

1653 Shah Jahan completed the Taj Mahal. Master builders, masons, calligraphers, etc. along with more than 20,000 laborers, worked for 22 years under orders of Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan to complete the great mausoleum for the shah’s beloved wife. In 2007 Diana and Michael Preston authored “Taj Mahal” and Ebba Koch authored “the Complete Taj Mahal.”
(WSJ, 3/31/07, p.P10)(www.tribuneindia.com/2003/20030713/spectrum/heritage.htm)

1653 Paris physician Louis Morin the thrice-daily temperature and pressure measurements as part of a short-lived international meteorological network created by the Grand Duke of Tuscany.
(AP, 9/15/07)

1653 The English palace of Oatlands was pulled down by the Commonwealth. John Tradescant and his son John had worked there under Charles 1 as gardeners. In 1790 Duke of York purchased Oatlands House, built in the grounds of Henry VIII’s 1537 Oatlands Palace.
(WSJ, 4/3/08, p.B19)(www.weybridgesociety.org.uk/History.aspx)



Timeline Seventeenth Century: 1661-1699 – 2

1689 Purcell composed his musical tragedy “Dido and Aeneas.”
(SFC, 9/23/00, p.B10)

1689 The White Hart Inn at Ware, England, put up 26 butchers and their wives in one bed, the “Great Bed of Ware,” in a marketing ploy to attract customers.
(WSJ, 12/6/01, p.A19)

1689 The Macedonian city of Skopje, under Ottoman rule at this time, was torched by the Austrians.
(Econ, 1/5/12, p.69)

1689 Russian and Manchu delegates met at Nerchinsk and drew up a treaty in Latin. This was China’s first treaty with a European power. China agreed to open up trade in exchange for Russia’s withdrawal from the Amur.
(Econ, 12/19/09, p.71)

1689-1697 The Abnaki War [Abenaki] of in North America is better known as King William’s War. It was the first of the intercolonial wars between France and England in North America, pitting the English and their Iroquois allies against the French and their Abnaki allies. The Abnakis were a powerful Algonquian tribe from Maine. King William’s War was a component of the European War of the League of Augsburg and was based in part on the growing rivalry between France and England over the control of North America.
(HNQ, 8/26/99)

1690 Jan 14, The clarinet was invented in Germany.
(MC, 1/14/02)

1690 Feb 3, The first paper money in America was issued by the colony of Massachusetts. The currency was used to pay soldiers fighting a war against Quebec.
(SFC, 4/30/97, p.B3)(AP, 2/3/97)

1690 Feb 8, Some 200 French and Indian troops burned Schenectady, NY, and massacred about 60 people to avenge Iraquois raids on Canada.
(AH, 2/05, p.17)

1690 Feb 21, Christoph Stoltzenberg, composer, was born.
(MC, 2/21/02)

1690 Feb 22, Charles Le Brun (70), classical painter (Academie de Peinture), died.
(MC, 2/22/02)

1690 Mar 16, French king Louis XIV sent troops to Ireland.
(MC, 3/16/02)

1690 May 11, In the first major engagement of King William’s War, British troops from Massachusetts seized Port Royal in Acadia (Nova Scotia and New Brunswick) from the French, their objective was to take Quebec.
(HN, 5/11/99)

1690 May 20, England passed the Act of Grace, forgiving followers of James II.
(HN, 5/20/98)

1690 Jun 11, English king William III departed to Ireland.
(PC, 1992, p.265)

1690 Jun 24, King William III’s army landed at Carrickfergus, Ireland.
(MC, 6/24/02)

1690 Jul 1, England’s Protestant King William III of Orange was victorious over his father-in-law, the Catholic King James II (from Scot) in Battle of Boyne (in Ireland). This touched off three centuries of religious bloodshed. Protestants took over the Irish Parliament. This marked the beginning of the annual Drumcree parade, held by the Loyal Orange Lodge on the first Sunday of July. Due to calendar changes in 1752 this later became commemorated on Jul 12.
(PC, 1992, p.265)(WSJ, 7/11/96, p.A1)(SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1 p.6)(SFEC, 7/4/99, p.A18)
1690 Jul 1, Led by Marshall Luxembourg, the French defeated the forces of the Grand Alliance at Fleurus in the Netherlands.
(HN, 7/1/98)

1690 Jul 7, Johann Tobias Krebs, composer, was born.
(MC, 7/7/02)

1690 Jul 10, Domenico Gabrielli (39), composer, died.
(MC, 7/10/02)

1690 Jul 12, Due to British calendar changes in 1752, the July 1, 1690, Battle of Boyne (in Ireland) was adjusted for celebration on Jul 12.
(SFEC, 9/27/98, BR p.5)(AP, 7/11/05)

1690 Sep 6, King William III escaped back to England.
(MC, 9/6/01)

1690 Sep 25, One of the earliest American newspapers, “Publick Occurrences,” published its first and last edition in Boston. The colonial governor and council disallowed the pamphlet due to its contents.
(AP, 9/25/00)(WSJ, 3/8/06, p.D14)

1690 Oct 7, The English attacked Quebec under Louis de Buade.
(MC, 10/7/01)

1690 Oct 8, Belgrade was retaken by the Turks.
(HN, 10/8/98)

1690 Oct 23, American colonial forces from Boston led by Sir William Phips, failed in their attempt to seize Quebec. Phips lost 4 ships on the return trip due to stormy weather.
(Arch, 1/05, p.50)(http://www.biographi.ca/EN/ShowBio.asp?BioId=34586)
1690 Oct 23, There was a revolt in Haarlem, Holland, after a public ban on smoking.
(MC, 10/23/01)

1690 Nov 11, Gerhard Hoffmann, composer, was born.
(MC, 11/11/01)

1690 Nov 24, Charles Theodore Pachelbel, composer, was born.
(MC, 11/24/01)

1690 A newspaper called “Publick Occurences Both Forreign and Domestick” was published in Boston, Mass.
(WSJ, 12/29/07, p.A8)

1690 The 2nd Treatise on Government by John Locke (1632-1704) was published in order to justify the British Whig Revolution of 1688. In it he wrote that men had the natural rights of life, liberty and estate.

1690 Khushal Khan Khattak (b.1613), Pushtun poet, died. He wrote in Pashtu during the reign of the Mongol emperors in the seventeenth century. He lived in the foothills of the Hindu Kush mountains. He was a renowned fighter who became known as the Afghan Warrior Poet.

1690 Emp. Kangxi commissioned Wang Hui (1632-1717) to create a pictorial chronicle of a ceremonial tour across a swath of China. “The Kangxi Emperor’s Southern Inspection Tour” took 6 years and became a magnus opus of some 740 feet in 12 hand scrolls.
(WSJ, 10/29/08, p.D9)

1690 An Englishman made the 1st landing on the Falkland Islands.
(Econ, 7/15/06, p.36)

c1690 “The Narrow Road” by Basho Matsuo (1644?-1694) was written during a 1,500 mile journey through the Japanese countryside. It was a 64-page collection of prose and haiku poems and became a Japanese classic. A manuscript of the work was found in 1996.
(SFC, 11/28/96, p.C16)(WUD, 1994, p.124)

1690 In Puebla, Mexico, the ornate Capilla del Rosario, Chapel of the Rosary, was consecrated.
(SFEC,11/9/97, p.T5)(SFEC, 11/8/98, p.T8)

1690-1699 In the 1690s Kit Cat Club met in London at the invitation of Jacob Tonson (1655/56-1736), a publisher and bookseller, at the inn of Christopher Cat (Christopher Catling). In 2008 Ophelia Field authored “The Kit-Cat Club: Friends Who Imagined a Nation.”
(Econ, 8/16/08, p.82)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacob_Tonson)

1690s Giuseppe Ghezzi found the Codex Leicester, a notebook of Leonardo da Vinci in Rome. It was primarily a treatise on the nature of water in all its properties, manifestations and uses.
(NH, 5/97, p.11,60)
1690s Henry Laurens landed 40% of the slaves sold at Sullivan Island. He was the ancestor to the Ball family that settled in South Carolina.
(SFEC, 2/22/98, BR p.1,8)

1690-1700 Particularly severe weather hit Germany and prompted vintners use more wine sweeteners.
(NH, 7/96, p.51)

1691 Jan 13, George Fox (b.1624), English Dissenter and a founder of the Religious Society of Friends, died.

1691 Feb 8, Carlo di Girolamo Rainaldi (79), Italian architect, composer, died.
(MC, 2/8/02)

1691 Feb 17, Thomas Neale was granted a British patent for American postal service.
(MC, 2/17/02)

1691 May 16, Jacob Leisler, 1st American colonist, was hanged for treason.
(MC, 5/16/02)

1691 May 26, Jacob Leiser, leader of the popular uprising in support of William and Mary’s accession to the throne, was executed for treason.
(HN, 5/26/99)

1691 May 29, Cornelis Tromp (61), Admiral-General, son of Maarten Tromp, died.
(SC, 5/29/02)

1691 Jul 12, William III defeated the allied Irish and French armies at the Battle of Aughrim, Ireland.
(HN, 7/12/98)

1691 Aug 16, Yorktown, Va., was founded.
(MC, 8/16/02)

1691 Sep 17, The Massachusetts Bay Colony received a new charter. [see Oct 17]
(MC, 9/17/01)

1691 Oct 3, English and Dutch armies occupied Limerick, Ireland.
(MC, 10/3/01)

1691 Oct 17, The Massachusetts Bay Company along with Plymouth colony and Maine was incorporated into the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
(HN, 10/17/98)(HNQ, 11/23/00)

1691 Father Eusebio Kino founded the Tumacacori mission 45 miles south of Tucson, Arizona.
(SSFC, 3/29/02, p.C6)

1691 The British periodical Athenian Gazette published the first regular problem page. It was created by John Dunton who felt guilty for cheating on his wife.
(Econ, 12/19/15, p.118)

1691 In northwest Romania an icon was painted at a monastery in Nicula. According to legend, the icon of the Weeping Virgin, wept for 26 days in 1699. The first recorded miracle occurred in 1701 when it is said to have cured an army officer’s wife who was going blind. The church attached to the monastery is named after St. Mary and pilgrimages there are made every year on Aug. 15, Mary’s name day. In 1977, the church burned down, but the icon was unharmed. In 2005 low water level revealed its skeleton.
(AP, 8/15/05)

1691 The Spanish Inquisition killed 37 Jews from Mallorca for secretly practicing their faith. In 2011 the island’s leading government official issued an official condemnation for the killing.
(SFC, 5/6/11, p.A2)

1691-1695 Ahmed II succeeded Suleiman II in the Ottoman House of Osman.
(Ot, 1993, xvii)

1691-1765 Giovanni Paolo Panini, Italian artist. He was later known for his portrayals of Rome.
(WSJ, 9/8/00, p.W2)

1692 Feb 13, In the Glen Coe highlands of Scotland, 38 members of the MacDonald clan, the smallest of the Clan Donald sects, were murdered by soldiers of the neighboring Campbell clan for not pledging allegiance to William of Orange. Ironically the pledge had been made but not communicated to the clans. The event is remembered as the Massacre of Glencoe.

1692 Feb 28, The Salem witch hunts began.
(MC, 2/28/02)

1692 Feb 29, Sarah Goode and Tituba were accused of witchcraft in Salem, Massachusetts, sparking the hysteria that started the Salem Witch Trials.
(HN, 2/29/00)

1692 Feb, William and Mary granted a royal license for postal service in the American colonies. It empowered Thomas Neale “to erect, settle and establish within the chief parts of their majesties’ colonies and plantations in America, an office or offices for the receiving and dispatching letters and pacquets, and to receive, send and deliver the same under such rates and sums of money as the planters shall agree to give, and to hold and enjoy the same for the term of twenty-one years.”
(Econ, 8/20/11, p.32)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Postal_Service)

1692 Mar 1, Sarah Goode, Sarah Osborne and Tituba were arrested for the supposed practice of witchcraft in Salem, Mass.
(HN, 3/1/98)

1692 Mar 14, Peter Musschenbroek, Dutch physician, physicist (Leyden jar), was born.
(MC, 3/14/02)

1692 Mar 18, William Penn was deprived of his governing powers.
(HN, 3/18/98)

1692 Mar 26, King Maximilian was installed as land guardian of South Netherlands.
(SS, 3/26/02)

1692 Apr 8, Giuseppe Tartini, Italy, violinist, composer (Trillo del Diavolo), was born.
(MC, 4/8/02)

1692 Apr 12, Giuseppe Tartini, composer (Istria), was born.
(MC, 4/12/02)

1692 Apr 22, Edward Bishop was jailed for proposing flogging as cure for witchcraft.
(MC, 4/22/02)

1692 May 18, Joseph Butler Wantage Berkshire, theologian, was born.
(SC, 5/18/02)
1692 May 18, Elias Ashmole, antiquary, died.
(SC, 5/18/02)

1692 May 29, Royal Hospital Founders Day was 1st celebrated.
(SC, 5/29/02)
1692 May 29, Battle at La Hogue: An English & Dutch fleet beat France.
(SC, 5/29/02)

1692 Jun 7, An earthquake struck Jamaica. It rearranged the geology, splitting the rocks, turning mountains to lakes, and engulfed two-thirds of Port Royal. On that day and subsequently, five thousand of the inhabitants died.

1692 Jun 10, Bridget Bishop was hanged in Salem, Mass., for witchcraft. This was the first official execution of the Salem witch trials.
(HN, 6/10/01) (WSJ, 1/18/08, p.W10)

1692 Jun 24, Kingston, Jamaica, was founded.
(MC, 6/24/02)

1692 Aug 3, French forces under Marshal Luxembourg defeated the English at the Battle of Steenkerke in the Netherlands.
(HN, 8/3/98)

1692 Aug 19, Five women were hanged in Salem, Massachusetts after being convicted of the crime of witchcraft. Fourteen more people were executed that year and 150 others are imprisoned. In 2006 the governor of Massachusetts signed legislation exonerating 5 women executed in the Salem witch trials of 1692, whose names had not yet been cleared. In 2015 Stacy Schiff authored “The Witches: Salem, 1692.”
(HN, 8/19/00)(WSJ, 9/15/06, p.A10)(Econ, 11/14/15, p.84)

1692 Sep 19, Giles Corey was pressed to death for standing mute and refusing to answer charges of witchcraft brought against him. He is the only person in America to have suffered this punishment.
(HN, 9/19/98)

1692 Sep 21, Two men and seven women were executed for witchcraft in Salem, Massachusetts.
(MC, 9/21/01)

1692 Sep 22, The last person was hanged for witchcraft in Salem, Mass.
(MC, 9/22/01)

1692 Oct 8, Massachusetts Bay Governor Phipps ordered that spectral evidence no longer be admitted in witchcraft trials. Twenty people had died in the Salem witch trials. In 2005 Richard Francis authored “Judge Sewall’s Apology.” Sewall was one of 3 judges presiding over the Salem trials. In 2006 the governor of Massachusetts signed legislation exonerating 5 women executed in the Salem witch trials of 1692, whose names had not yet been cleared.
(http://tinyurl.com/rlj1)(WSJ, 8/9/05, p.D8)(WSJ, 9/15/06, p.A10)

1692 Oct 12, Giovanni Battista Vitali, composer, died at 60.
(MC, 10/12/01)

1692 Oct 18, Charles Eugene de Croy, a field marshal fighting for Austrian forces, laid the cornerstone for a new great fortress at Petrovaradin (later Serbia), built to guard against the Ottoman Turks.

1692 Oct 25, Elisabeth Farnese, princess of Parma and queen of Spain, was born.
(MC, 10/25/01)

1692 Nov 7, Johannes G. Schnabel, German author and surgeon (Insel Felsenburg), was born.
(MC, 11/7/01)

1692 Nov 21, Carlo Fragoni, Italian poet, was born.
(MC, 11/21/01)

1692 In Germany Rheinfels castle withstood a siege of 28,000 French troops sent by Louis XIV. French troops under Napoleon destroyed it in 1797.
(SSFC, 11/29/15, p.G6)(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rheinfels_Castle)

1692 In Portugal Taylor’s restaurant and lodge was founded in Porto.
(SFEC, 7/12/98, p.T10)

1692 In Russia Peter the Great granted the Stroganoff family their lands in perpetuity.
(WSJ, 9/7/00, p.A24)

1693 Jan 11, An earthquake struck parts of southern Italy near Sicily, Calabria and Malta. It destroyed at least 70 towns and cities, seriously affecting an area of 5,600 square km (2,200 sq. miles) and causing the death of about 60,000 people.

1693 Jan 28, Anna “Ivanovna”, Tsarina of Russia, was born. [see Feb 7]
(HN, 1/28/99)

1693 Feb 7, Anna Ivanova Romanova, empress of Russia (1730-40) [NS], was born. [see Jan 28]
(MC, 2/7/02)

1693 Feb 8, A charter was granted for the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Va.
(AP, 2/8/99)

1693 Feb 13, The College of William and Mary opened in Virginia.
(MC, 2/13/02)

1693 Mar 24, John Harrison (d.1776), Englishman who invented the chronometer, was born.

1693 Jun 27, The 1st woman’s magazine “The Ladies’ Mercury” was published in London.
(SC, 6/27/02)

1693 Jul 4, Battle at Boussu-lez-Walcourt: French-English vs. Dutch army.

1693 Jul 29, The Army of the Grand Alliance was destroyed by the French at the Battle of Neerwinden in the Netherlands.
(HN, 7/29/98)

1693 Aug 4, Dom Perignon invented champagne. [see 1688]
(MC, 8/4/02)

1693 English naturalist John Ray noted that whales had more in common with 4-legged mammals than with fish.
(PacDis, Winter/’96, p.14)

1693 Heidelberg was torched by the troops of Louis XIV in a dispute over a royal title.
(SFEC, 9/26/99, p.T8)

1693 The French explorer Francois Leguat spent several months on Mauritius and looked hard for a dodo bird, but found none.
(NH, 11/96, p.26)

1693 The history of the Amish church began with a schism in Switzerland within a group of Swiss and Alsatian Anabaptists led by Jakob Ammann (1656-1730).

1694 Jul 5, Composer Louis-Claude Daquin was born.

1694 Jul 27, The Bank of England received a royal charter as a commercial institution. It was set up by William III, the ruler of Britain and the Netherlands, in the midst of a war against France. The mission of the bank was to provide war finance. Financiers agreed to lend the crown £1.2 million in return for a partial monopoly on the issue of currency.
(SFC, 5/7/97, p.C2)(AP, 7/27/97)(Econ, 1/10/09, p.49)(Econ, 11/5/11, p.92)(Econ, 4/29/17, p.56)

1694 Sep 22, Philip Dormer Stanhope, Lord Chesterfield, statesman of letters whose writings provide a classic portrayal of an ideal 18th-century gentleman, was born. He introduced the Gregorian calendar in 1752.
(HN, 9/22/98)(MC, 9/22/01)

1694 Nov 21, Francois Marie Arouet Voltaire (d.1778), French philosopher, historian, dramatist and essayist, was born. Born to middle class parents, he later attended the Jesuit college of Louis-le-Grand in Paris. The environment exposed him to the world of society and the arts. After the success of his tragedy “Oedipe” in 1718, he was pronounced the successor to the great dramatist Racine. He adopted the pen name Voltaire, though its exact origins and meaning are uncertain. The author of “Candide” (1759) and the “Philosophical Dictionary” (1764), Voltaire’s works often attacked injustice and intolerance and epitomized the Age of Enlightenment. He wrote that “Self-love resembles the instrument by which we perpetuate the species. It is necessary, it is dear to us, it gives us pleasure and it has to be concealed.” “All styles are good except the tiresome sort.” “Love truth, but pardon error.” “The great errors of the past are useful in many ways. One cannot remind oneself too often of crimes and disasters. These, no matter what people say, can be forestalled.” S.G. Tellentyre said on Voltaire: “I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.”
(WUD, 1994, p.1600)(G&M, 2/1/96, p.A-22)(AP, 7/17/97)(SFEC, 1/4/98, Z1p.8)(HNQ, 10/1/98)(SFEC, 10/11/98, Z1 p.8)(HN, 11/21/98)(HNQ, 11/8/00)

1694 Dec 28, George I of England got divorced. [He was crowned in 1714]
(HN, 12/28/98)
1694 Dec 28, Queen Mary II (32) of England died after five years of joint rule with her husband, King William III. The new style calendar puts her death on Jan 7, 1695.
(AP, 12/28/97)

1694 The Whigs of England persuaded King William that if he wanted to win what became the nine years’ war against France, he would have to embrace their political and economic agenda.
(Econ, 10/17/09, p.98)
1694 The history of English death duties began with the Stamp Act of this year which placed 5s on probates over 20 pounds.
(Econ, 10/27/07, p.90)(www.econlib.org/LIBRARY/Bastable/bastbPF29.html)

1694 John Law, Scotsman, fled England after killing rival Edward Wilson in a duel. He traveled in Europe, played the casinos and studied finance. He set up a bank in France and issued paper money and established the Mississippi Company to exploit the French-controlled territories in America. [see 1720] In 2000 Janet Gleeson authored “Millionaire,” a pseudo-biography of Law.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)(WSJ, 6/30/00, p.W9)

1694-1696 An outbreak of colic struck the region around Ulm, Germany. Eberhard Gockel, the city physician, was able to trace the cause to a wine sweetener that used a white oxide of lead.
(NH, 7/96, p.48)

1694-1773 Lord Chesterfield, English author and statesman: “In scandal, as in robbery, the receiver is always as bad as the thief.”
(AP, 2/21/98)

1695 Jan 6, Giuseppe Sammartini, composer, was born.
(MC, 1/6/02)

1695 Jan 7, Mary II Stuart 32), queen of England, died [OS=Dec 28 1694].
(MC, 1/7/02)

1695 Jan 27, Mustafa II became the Ottoman sultan in Istanbul on the death of Amhed II. Mustafa ruled to 1703.
(HN, 1/27/99)(Ot, 1993, xvii)

1695 Mar 7, In Britain John Trevor (1637-1717), the speaker of the House of Commons office, was found guilty of accepting a bribe of 1000 guineas (equivalent to around £1.6 million in 2009) from the City of London to aid the passage of a bill through the house. He was expelled from the House of Commons, a move which he initially resisted on the ground of ill-health, but retained his judicial position until his death.

1695 Apr 13, Jean de la Fontaine (b.1621), French fabulist and poet, died. He is known above all for his Fables, which provided a model for subsequent fabulists across Europe and numerous alternative versions in France.

1695 Apr 17, Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz (b.~1648), Mexican nun and poet, died of plague.
(SSFC, 9/3/06, p.M3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sor_Juana)

1695 Apr 20, Georg Caspar Weckler (63), composer, died.
(MC, 4/20/02)

1695 Apr 30, William Congreve’s “Love for Love,” premiered in London.
(MC, 4/30/02)

1695 Jul 8, Christian Huygens (66), Dutch inventor, astronomer, died. He generally wrote his name as Christiaan Hugens, and it is also sometimes written as Huyghens. In his book “Cosmotheros,” published in 1698, he speculated on life on other planets.

1695 Sep 11, Imperial troops under Eugene of Savoy defeated the Turks at the Battle of Zenta.
(HN, 9/11/98)

1695 Sep 12, NY Jews petitioned governor Dongan for religious liberties.
(MC, 9/12/01)

1695 Nov 20, Zumbi, a Brazilian leader of a hundred-year-old rebel slave group, was killed in an ambush in Palmares. In January 2003 legislation established November 20 as Black Consciousness Day.
(http://tinyurl.com/gsg6wt8)(SFC, 8/16/01, p.A8)(SSFC, 11/18/12, p.G3)

1695 Nov 21, Henry Purcell (36), English composer (Indian Queen), died.
(MC, 11/21/01)

1695 Nov 28, Giovanni Paulo Colonna (58), composer, died.
(MC, 11/28/01)

c1695 Orazio Gentileschi, painted “St. Francis and the Angel.”
(WSJ, 4/28/98, p.A16)

1695 The Comediens Italiens were expelled from Paris for indiscretion in their opera parodies. The fair theaters took up where they left off with the use of vaudevilles and comedia dell’arte characters.
(PNM, 1/25/98, p.4)

1695 The British Parliament voted not to renew the 1662 Licensing of the Press Act, which had censored “seditious, treasonable and unlicensed Bookes and Pamphlets.” It was repealed by the Statute Law Revision Act 1863.
(Econ, 5/23/09, p.57)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Licensing_of_the_Press_Act_1662)
1695 A London rag called “A Collection for Improvement of Husbandry and Trade” included what later was believed to be the first lonely-hearts advertisement: “A Gentleman About 30 Years of Age, that says he had a Very Good Estate, would willingly Match himself to some Good Young Gentlewoman that has a Fortune of £3,000.”
(Econ, 2/12/11, p.92)

1695 Henry Avery (b.~1653), former Royal Navyman turned pirate, captured the Ganj-i-Sawai, the largest ship of the Mogul emperor in India.
(WSJ, 11/22/08, p.W2)

1695 Portugal established colonial rule in the eastern half of Timor Island. The western side was incorporated into the Dutch East Indies.
(SFC, 5/18/02, p.A15)

1696 Jan 31, An uprising of undertakers took place after funeral reforms in Amsterdam.
(MC, 1/31/02)

1696 Mar 5, Giambattista Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (d.1770), Venetian Rococo painter (Isaac’s Sacrifice), was born. He painted for the Dolfin family in the 1720s. His work included: “The Annunciation” (c1765-1770), “Apelles Painting a Portrait of Campaspe,” “Martyrdom of St. Agatha,” “Sacrifice of Isaac,” “The Finding of Moses,” “Nobility and Virtue” (1743), “Satyress with a Putto,” “Satyress With Two Putti and a Tambourine,” and “Halberdier in a Landscape.” His contemporaries included Francesco Fontebasso, Allesandro Longhi, and Louis-Joseph Le Lorrain.
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1483)(WSJ, 10/14/96, p.A14)(SFC, 3/25/97, p.E3)(MC, 3/5/02)

1696 Mar 7, English King William III departed Netherlands.
(MC, 3/7/02)

1696 Jun 17, Jan Sobieski (72), King of Lithuania and Poland (1674-96), died.
(MC, 6/17/02)(LHC, 5/21/03)

1696 Sep 23, A squall drove the ship Reformation aground on the east coast of Florida. Quaker merchant Jonathan Dickinson along with his family, 11 slaves, 8 seamen and Capt. Joseph Kirle were on route to Philadelphia from Jamaica.
(ON, 9/00, p.3)

1696 Sep 27, Alfonsus M. de’ Liguori, Italian theologian, bishop, and religious order founder, was born.
(MC, 9/27/01)

1696 cSep 30, The Reformation castaways encountered a 2nd Indian tribe after paddling north for 2 days in a canoe provided by Indians at their initial landing. They were taken to a village, near present-day Vero Beach, and encountered castaways from the bark Nantwich, which had sailed from Port Royal in the same convoy.
(ON, 9/00, p.5)

1696 Oct 6, Savoy Germany withdrew from the Grand Alliance.
(HN, 10/6/98)

1696 Nov 2, In Florida a Spanish company of soldiers took the Dickinson and Nantwich party into custody and escorted them north to St. Augustine. They arrive on Nov 19 after 5 people died from exposure enroute.
(ON, 9/00, p.5)

1696 Nov 11, Andrea Zani, composer, was born.
(MC, 11/11/01)

1696 Nov 19, Louis Tocque, French painter, was born.
(MC, 11/19/01)

1696 Dec 22, James Oglethorpe, England, General, author, colonizer of Georgia, was born.
(MC, 12/22/01)

1696 August III (d.1738), son of August II, was born. He was crowned King of Lithuania and Poland in 1734.
(SSFC, 4/25/04, p.D12)

1696 William Hogarth, British artist, was born. He believed that visual art could have a morally improving effect on viewers, and that individual betterment led to social improvement.
(SFEC, 1/25/98, DB p.7)(SFC, 1/28/98, p.E1)

1696 In the late 1600s the Xukuru Indians fought the Portuguese to a stand off in what was later referred to as the “War of the Barbarians.”
(WSJ, 8/20/99, p.A1)(http://tinyurl.com/bhqlp)

1696 The Chinese painter Bada Shanren created his work: “Ducks and Lotuses.”
(WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)

1696 In England a Jacobite plot to assassinate King William III and restore James II failed.
1696 In England Isaac Newton (1642-1727) became Warden of the Mint and started combing his hair.
(Econ, 8/23/03, p.68)
1696 New York sea captain William Kidd reluctantly became a privateer for England and was expected to fight pirates on the open sea, seize their cargoes, and provide a hefty share of the spoils to the Crown. According to his British accusers, Kidd turned to piracy himself as the deadline for reporting to his employers in New York approached and he had not taken enough booty to fulfill his commission. Kidd himself did not know he was a wanted man until he dropped anchor in the West Indies in April 1699. He chose to surrender to the authorities and submit to a London trial, believing to the end that he could clear his name. After a trial in which important evidence in his favor was suppressed, William Kidd was found guilty of piracy and hanged.
(HNPD, 8/27/00)

1696 Jacques Ozanam, a visionary Frenchman, 1st proposed a “self-moving vehicle.”
(Econ, 2/5/05, p.77)

1696 Duke Eberhard Ludwig of Wurttenburg, Germany, learned of Eberhard Gockel’s findings on lead poisoning in wine and banned all lead-based wine additives.
(NH, 7/96, p.49)

1696 The Hotel Elephant was founded in Weimar, the capital of the German state of Thuringia.
(SFC, 8/3/99, p.A8)

1696 The Company of Scotland began raising money for a colony at Darien on the Isthmus of Panama. The venture collapsed after 4 years and only 3 of 13 ships returned home.
(Econ, 8/28/10, p.74)

1697 Mar 9, Czar Peter the Great began tour of West Europe. [see Mar 21]
(MC, 3/9/02)

1697 Mar 21, Czar Peter the Great began a tour through West Europe. [see Mar 9]
(MC, 3/21/02)

1697 Apr 1, Abbe Prevost, French novelist, journalist (Manon Lescaut), was born.
(MC, 4/1/02)

1697 Apr 16, Johann Gottlieb Gorner, composer, was born.
(MC, 4/16/02)

1697 May 10, Jean Marie I’aine Leclair, composer, was born.
(MC, 5/10/02)

1697 May 12, The fall of the Venetian Republic.
(SFC, 5/10/97, p.A10)

1697 Jun 7, John Aubrey (b.1626), author of “Monumenta Britanica,” died. In 1948 Anthony Powell authored the biography “John Aubrey.” In 2015 Ruth Scurr authored “John Aubrey: My Own Life,” an autobiography in the form of a diary that he never wrote.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Aubrey)(ON, 4/02, p.12)(Econ., 4/11/15, p.76)

1697 Sep 11, Prince Eugene of Savoy led the Austrians to victory over the Ottoman Turks at Senta (Serbia). This resulted in creating the conditions for the 1699 conclusion of the peace at Karlowitz.

1697 Sep 20, The Treaty of Ryswick was signed in Holland. It ended the War of the Grand Alliance (aka War of the League of Augsburg,1688-1697) between France and the Grand Alliance. Under the Treaty France’s King Louis XIV (1638-1715) recognized William III (1650-1702) as King of England. The Dutch received trade concessions, and France and the Grand Alliance members (Holland and the Austrian Hapsburgs) gave up most of the land they had conquered since 1679. The signees included France, England, Spain and Holland. By the Treaty of Ryswick, a portion of Hispaniola was formally ceded to France and became known as Saint-Domingue. The remaining Spanish section was called Santo Domingo.

1697 Oct 19, Settlers from Mexico sailed across the Sea of Cortez to build a new settlement.
(SFEC, 5/18/97, p.T5)

1697 Oct 25, Settlers from Mexico founded the town of Loreto in honor of the Virgin Nuestra Senoro de Loreto, on the Baha Peninsula. It served as the capital of Baha California for the next 132 years.
(SFEC, 5/18/97, p.T5)

1697 Oct 30, The Treaty of Ryswick ended the War of the Grand Alliance (aka War of the League of Augsburg,1688-1697) between France and the Grand Alliance. France’s King Louis XIV (1638-1715) recognized King William III’s (1650-1702) right to the English throne, the Dutch received trade concessions, and France and the Grand Alliance members (Holland and the Austrian Hapsburgs) gave up most of the land they had conquered since 1679.
(HN, 10/30/98)(DoW, 1999)

1697 Nov 2, Constantine Huygens Jr, poet, painter and cartoonist, was buried.
(MC, 11/2/01)

1697 Nov 10, William Hogarth, English caricaturist, was born.
(HN, 11/10/00)

1697 Dec 2, St. Paul’s Cathedral opened in London.
(MC, 12/2/01)

1697 William Dampier (1651-1715), English explorer, naturalist and privateer, authored “A New Voyage Around the World.” A sequel appeared 2 years later. In 2004 Diana and Michael Preston authored “A Pirate of Exquisite Mind: Explorer, Naturalist and Bucaneer,” a biography of Dampier.
(WSJ, 4/16/04, p.W8)(NH, 6/4/04, p.59)

1697 Eberhard Gockel published: “A Remarkable Account of the Previously Unknown Wine Disease.”
(NH, 7/96, p.49)

1697 Charles Perrault first penned “La Petit Chaperon Rouge” (Little Red Riding Hood) as a sexual morality tale for the loose ladies of Louis XIV’s court. In 2002 Catherine Orenstein authored “Little Red Riding Hood Uncloaked: Sex, Morality and the Evolution of a Fairy Tale.”
(WSJ, 8/7/02, p.D14)(NW, 8/26/02, p.57)

1697 The play “Le Distrait” by Regnard was written and later accompanied by the music of Joseph Haydn.
(WSJ, 7/31/97, p.A16)

1697 In Boston’s Old South Church Judge Sewall told the congregation that he accepted “blame and shame” for the 1692 Salem witch trials. None of the other judges joined him in repenting.
(Econ, 8/6/05, p.70)

1697 Hannah Duston in what is now New Hampshire was attacked and captured by 12 Indians who killed her daughter. She managed to kill 10 of them with a knife and took home their scalps for the bounty money. She was the first woman in the US to have a statue erected in her honor.
(SFEC, 11/17/96, zone 1 p.2)

1697 Two relatives of Galdan Boshugtu Khan surrendered to China’s Qing Kangxi Emperor. Their people were then organized into two Oolod banners and resettled in modern Bayankhongor Province, Mongolia. The Dzungar (or Zunghar), Oirat Mongols who lived in an area that stretched from the west end of the Great Wall of China to present-day eastern Kazakhstan and from present-day northern Kyrgyzstan to southern Siberia (most of which is located in present-day Xinjiang), were the last nomadic empire to threaten China.

1697 The Royal Palace in Stockholm, Sweden, burned down. It was rebuilt in Italian Baroque style with 608 rooms.
(SSFC, 8/19/07, p.G4)

1697-1718 Charles XII (1682-1718) was king of Sweden.
(WUD, 1994, p.249)(SFC, 8/17/96, p.E5)

1697-1798 Antonio Canal, Italian topographical view painter. He was the uncle to Bernardo Belotto.
(WSJ, 9/13/01, p.A18)

1697-1773 Johann Quantz, flutist-composer.
(LGC-HCS, p.44)

1698 Jan 1, The Abenaki [Abnaki] Indians and the Massachusetts colonists signed a treaty ending the conflict in New England.
(HN, 1/1/99)

1698 Apr 5, Georg Gottfried Wagner, composer, was born.
(MC, 4/5/02)

1698 Aug 18, After invading Denmark and capturing Sweden, Charles XII of Sweden forced Frederick IV of Denmark to sign the Peace of Travendal.
(HN, 8/18/98)

1698 Aug 25, Czar Peter the Great returned to Moscow after his trip through West-Europe.
(MC, 8/25/02)

1698 Sep 5, Russia’s Peter the Great imposed a tax on beards.
(AP, 9/5/97)

1698 Oct 23, Ange-Jacques Gabriel, French court architect (Place de la Concorde), was born.
(MC, 10/23/01)

1698 Missionary John St. Cosme celebrated the first Mass in what became St. Louis, Mo.
(SFC, 1/28/99, p.A3)

1698 The Spanish established Presidio Santa Maria de Galve (later Pensacola, Florida).
(AP, 3/24/06)

1698 Elias “Red Cap ” Ball sailed from England to claim his inheritance, a plantation called Comingtee on the banks of the Cooper River in South Carolina. The Ball family kept a history and in 1998 descendant Edward Ball published “Slaves in the Family.”
(SFEC, 2/22/98, BR p.1,8)(SFEC, 4/19/98, p.A22)

1698 The Virginia statehouse at Jamestown burned and the capital was moved to Williamsburg.
(Arch, 1/06, p.26)

1698 The British pint, a 568 milliliter pour, was introduced. Bars were allowed to serve beer only as a pint, or a third or half of that measure. This became the standard size for beer and cider.
(SFC, 1/5/11, p.A2)
1698 English engineer Thomas Savery devised a way to pump water out of mines by the use of condensed steam.
(HNQ, 1/18/01)

1698 Abraham or Ibrahim (Abram Petrovich Gannibal) was born about this time in the Eritrean highland, north of the Mareb River in a town called Logon. Abraham’s father was a local chief or a “prince”. Within a few years Turks invaded the area and abducted Abraham following a battle lost by his father. Abraham spent a year in Constantinople and was sold with a bribe for service to Russia’s Peter the Great.

1698 Peter the Great spent several months at the Shipwright’s Palace in England learning how to build the Russian navy.
(WSJ, 5/24/00, p.A24)

1698-1701 The Portuguese built the Old Fort in Stone Town on Zanzibar to defend against the sultan of Oman.
(SFEC, 4/23/00, p.T6)

1699 Jan 14, Massachusetts held a day of fasting for wrongly persecuting “witches.”
(MC, 1/14/02)

1699 Jan 26, The Treaty of Karlowitz, Croatia, ended the war between Austria and the Turks.
(HN, 1/26/99)(www.san.beck.org/1-10-Ottoman1300-1730.html)

1699 Feb 4, Czar Peter the Great executed 350 rebellious Streltsi in Moscow.
(MC, 2/4/02)

1699 Mar 4, Jews were expelled from Lubeck, Germany.
(SC, 3/4/02)

1699 Mar 23, John Bartram, naturalist, explorer, father of American botany, was born.
(SS, 3/23/02)

1699 Apr 17, Robert Blair, Scottish poet (Grave), was born.
(MC, 4/17/02)

1699 Apr 21, Jean Racine (59), French playwright (Phèdre), died.
(MC, 4/21/02)

1699 Jul 6, Pirate Capt. William Kidd was captured in Boston.
(MC, 7/6/02)

1699 Dec 20, Peter the Great ordered Russian New Year changed from Sept 1 to Jan 1.
(MC, 12/20/01)

1699 Jonathan Dickinson, after resuming his mercantile business in Philadelphia, authored “God’s Protecting Providence,” a journal of his Florida ordeal.
(ON, 9/00, p.5)

1699 A wooden wall on the northern edge of New Amsterdam (later NYC), built for protection from the Indians, was destroyed by the British.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R43)

1699 Williamsburg became the capital of Virginia and served as the capital of the British colony until 1780.
(SSFC, 12/17/00, p.T7)(AH, 6/07, p.27)

1699 Prince Eugene of Savoy looted and burned Sarajevo, Bosnia.
(SSFC, 12/4/05, p.F5)

1699 The British established a rule over the colonies that all wool trade must be with England, and violations were punishable by stiff fines.
(NG, 5.1988, pp. 583)
1699 The Jews in London commissioned Joseph Avis, a Quaker, to build a synagogue on a street called Bevis Marks.
(WSJ, 10/28/06, p.P16)

1699 The Sikhs were founded by a series of 10 prophets or gurus and believe in one God but many paths to heaven. In 1999 some 20,000 thousands of Sikhs gathered to march in SF on the 300th anniversary of their religion. [see Nanak c1500, 1519]
(SFEC, 4/25/99, p.C1)

1699 The Republic of Lucca promulgated the first regulations designed to prevent the spread of tuberculosis.
(WP, 1952, p.29)

1699 References from the Ching dynasty of China refer to the Diaoyu Island located between Taiwan and Okinawa.
(SFEC, 10/8/96, A8)

1699 The King of Spain, due to competition, banned the production of wine in the Americas, except for that made by the church.
(SFEC, 11/7/99, p.T8)

1699-1783 Johann Adolph Hasse, popular composer of now-forgotten operas.
(LGC-HCS, p.32)

1699-1799 Jean Baptiste Simeon Chardin, French painter.
(WSJ, 7/6/00, p.A24)



Timeline Seventeenth Century: 1661-1699

1661 Feb 5, Kangxi ascended the throne of China as a child. He was the 1st of three Qing emperors who reigned for 133 years until 1795. Kangxi ruled over China until 1722. The film “Forbidden City: The Great Within,” depicts the period. Kangxi was followed by Yongzheng and Qianlong.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kangxi_Emperor)(WSJ, 11/2/95, p.A-12)(Econ, 11/5/05, p.90)

1661 Mar 9, Cardinal Jules Mazarin (58), the chief minister of France, died, leaving King Louis the 14th in full control.
(AP, 3/9/01)

1661 Mar 19, English occupied St. Andrew Island and other Courlander possessions in Gambia. They renamed the island James Island with administration by the Royal Adventurers in Africa Company.

1661 Mar 24, William Leddra became the last Quaker to be hanged in Boston. Quakers were last hanged on Boston Common. Charles II ordered the executions stopped.
(WSJ, 4/4/01, p.A18)(MC, 3/24/02)

1661 Apr 23, English king Charles II was crowned in London.
(MC, 4/23/02)

1661 Apr 29, Chinese Ming dynasty occupied Taiwan.
(HN, 4/29/98)

1661 May 25, King Charles II married Portuguese princess Catherina the Bragança. India’s city of Mumbai, formed from seven islands, was given by Portugal to Charels II of England as dowry for his marriage to Catherine of Braganza.
(SC, 5/25/02)(Econ, 12/22/12, p.119)

1661 May 27, Archibald Campbell (~53), Scottish politician, was beheaded.
(MC, 5/27/02)

1661 Jun 3, Gottfried Scheidt (67), composer, died.
(MC, 6/3/02)

1661 Jun 5, Isaac Newton was admitted as a student to Trinity College, Cambridge.

1661 Aug 6, Holland sold Brazil to Portugal for 8 million guilders.
(MC, 8/6/02)

1661 Aug 29, Louis Couperin (b.1626), French composer, died.

1661 Oct 1, A yacht race from Greenwich to Gravesend between King Charles and James, Duke of York, made the sport fashionable.

1661 Oct 11, Melchior de Polignac, French diplomat (Anti-Lucretius), was born.
(MC, 10/11/01)

1661 Oct 13, “I went to see Major General Harrison being drawn and quartered. He was looking as cheerful as any man could in that condition.” Harrison (b.1606) had sided with Parliament in the English Civil War. During the Interregnum he was a leader of the Fifth Monarchists. In 1649 he signed the death warrant of Charles I and in 1660, shortly after the Restoration, he was found guilty of regicide.
(Samuel Pepys Diary)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Harrison_%28soldier%29)

1661 Massachusetts merchant William Payne willed a spectacular 35-acre seafront property for the benefit of public school children, decreeing the land should never be sold or wasted. The land gift was intended to help Ipswich comply with a 1647 colonial law that required communities with more than 100 families to set up a grammar school to prepare students for admission to Harvard.
(AP, 2/24/12)

1661 White Virginians who wanted to keep their servants legalized the enslavement of African immigrants.
(SFC, 12/18/96, p.A25)

1661 The Bourla Theatre of Antwerp, Belgium can be traced back to this date.
(Hem., 7/95, p.28)

1661 Robert Boyle (1627-1691), English chemist, authored “The Sceptical Chymist: or Chymico-Physical Doubts & Paradoxes.”
1661 Charles II appointed Christopher Wren (29) assistant to the surveyor general of the king’s works (assistant to the royal architect).
(NYTBR, 2/2/03, p.12)
1661 Henry Slingsby, master of the London Mint, proposed the “standard solution” a mix of fiat rules and free markets, to resolve the ongoing problem of money supply and coin value. Britain adopted the idea in 1816 and the US followed in 1853.
(WSJ, 4/2/02, p.A20)

1661 The Paris Opera Ballet was founded.
(WSJ, 7/10/96, p.A16)
1661 In France Nicolas Fouquet, treasurer to Louis XIV, invited the king to his new chateau Vaux le Vicomte. The king, peeved by the wealth of the nonroyal, ordered his arrest and had him imprisoned for embezzlement. The property was confiscated and Louis hired Fouquet’s architects and designers to build Versailles.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1661 In Japan the Takanoshi family started producing food seasonings and became known for its soy sauce.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1661 Sweden became the first European country to introduce bank notes.
(AP, 3/17/12)

1661-1714 Peter Strudel, Austrian painter. He was a court painter of the Habsburgs and founded an art school that later became the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna.
(StuAus, April ’95, p.47)

1661-1722 Di Zi Gui (Standards for being a Good Pupil and Child) was written in the Qing Dynasty during the reign of the Kangxi Emperor (r. 1661-1722) by Li Yuxiu.

1662 Jan 27, 1st American lime kiln began operation in Providence, RI.
(MC, 1/27/02)

1662 Feb 11, The Prins Willem, built in 1643 as flagship of the Dutch East India Company, sank off Madagascar. A replica, built in the 1980s, burned down at Den Helder in 2009.
(AP, 7/30/09)(http://tinyurl.com/mteqbf)

1662 Apr 20, Gerard Terborch, the elder, painter, died.
(MC, 4/20/02)

1662 Apr 23, Connecticut was chartered as an English colony.
(MC, 4/23/02)

1662 Apr 27, Netherlands and France signed a treaty of alliance in Paris.

1662 May 3, John Winthrop the Younger, the son of the first governor of Massachusetts was honored by being made a fellow of the Royal Society, England’s new scientific society. Winthrop gained a new charter from the king, uniting the colonies of Connecticut and New Haven.
(HN, 5/3/99)

1662 Jun, Mary Sanford (~39) of Hartford, Connecticut, was convicted of “familiarity with Satan.” Historians later surmised that she was hanged for her crimes. In 2006 a descendant of Sanford worked on legislation to clear her ancestor as well as a dozen or so other women and men convicted for witchcraft in Connecticut from 1647 to the 1660s.
(WSJ, 9/15/06, p.A1)

1662 Aug 24, An Act of Uniformity, a part of the Clarendon Code (1661-1665), was passed by the English Parliament and required that England’s college fellows and clergymen accept the newly published Book of Common Prayer. Charles II attempted to suspend the operation of the Clarendon Code by issuing a 2nd Declaration of Indulgence, but opposition from Parliament forced him to retract it in 1663.
(PC, 1992, p.249)(www.everything2.com/index.pl?node=the%20Clarendon%20Code)

1662 Sep 12, Gov. Berkley of Virginia was denied his attempts to repeal the Navigation Acts.
(HN, 9/12/98)

1662 Oct 26, Charles II of England sold Dunkirk to France.
(MC, 10/26/01)

1662 Moliere authored his satirical play “The School for Wives.”
(SFC, 8/17/05, p.G9)

1662 Edward Collier painted a still life that sold for $442,500 in 1999.
(WSJ, 6/4/99, p.W10)

1662 Rembrandt depicted himself in a painting as the fifth-century Greek painter Zeuxis. His work this year also included “The Syndics of the Clothmakers’ Guild.”
(WSJ, 8/11/99, p.A16)(Econ, 6/23/07, p.96)

1662 Cavalli composed his opera “Ercole Amante” (Hercules in Love). It was written to celebrate the marriage of Louis XIV and Maria Theresa of Austria.
(WSJ, 6/21/99, p.A24)

1662 John Bowne (34) was arrested in Vlissingen (later Flushing, Queens, NY) on orders from Gov. Peter Stuyvesant for aiding and abetting an “abomination” (Quakerism). In a hearing 19 months later Bowne invoked a 1657 declaration of religious freedom called the Flushing Remonstrance.
(SSFC, 4/17/05, Par p.12)

1662 The British Parliament approved the Licensing of the Press Act, which censored “seditious, treasonable and unlicensed Bookes and Pamphlets.” It failed renewal in 1695 and was repealed by the Statute Law Revision Act 1863.
1662 British law established that mourning clothes had to be made of English wool. [see 1667]
(NG, 5.1988, pp. 574)
1662 Englishman Christopher Merret presented a paper to the Royal Society on making sparkling wine. This was noted in the 1998 “World Encyclopedia of Champagne and Sparkling Wine” by Tom Stevenson.
(WSJ, 10/16/98, p.W13)
1662 London haberdasher John Graunt published the first quantitative account of death.
(Econ, 4/29/17, p.9)
1662 John Tradescant the younger (b.1608), English traveler, horticulturalist, collector and gardener to Queen Henrietta Maria, died. His home in South Lambeth, called The Ark, was filled with his Museum Tradescantianum, a collection of rarities which included birds, fish, shells, insects, minerals, coins, medals and unusual plants. After his death the collection went to Elias Ashmole, who subsequently presented it to Oxford University, where it formed the basis of the Ashmolean Museum. In 2008 Jennifer Potter authored “Strange Blooms: The Curious Lives and Adventures of the John Tradescants.
(www.npg.org.uk/live/search/person.asp?LinkID=mp04533)(WSJ, 4/3/08, p.B19)

1662 Dutch fortune seekers killed over 400 members of the Nayar warrior caste in Kerala, India.
(SFEM, 7/18/99, p.12)

1662-1938 This period is examined by Judy L. Klein in Statistical Visions in Time: a History of Time Series Analysis: 1662-1938, from Cambridge Univ. Press.
(WSJ, 9/28/95, p.A-18)

1663 Jan 6, There was a great earthquake in New England.
(MC, 1/6/02)

1663 Jan 10, King Charles II affirmed the charter of Royal African Company.
(MC, 1/10/02)

1663 Jan 29, Robert Sanderson, Bishop of Lincoln (1660-63), died.
(MC, 1/29/02)

1663 Feb 12, Cotton Mather (d.1728), American clergyman and witchcraft specialist, was born.
(WUD, 1994, p.884)(MC, 2/12/02)

1663 Feb 28, Thomas Newcomen, English co-inventor of the steam engine, was born.
(MC, 2/28/02)

1663 Mar 7, Tomaso Antonio Vitali, composer, was born.
(MC, 3/7/02)

1663 Mar 24, Charles II of England awarded lands known as Carolina in America to eight members of the nobility who assisted in his restoration. [see Apr 6]
(HN, 3/24/99)

1663 Apr 6, King Charles II signed the Carolina Charter. [see Mar 24]
(MC, 4/6/02)

1663 Apr 10, Samuel Pepys, London-based diarist, noted that he had enjoyed a French wine called Ho Bryan at the Royal Oak Tavern. This same year the Pontacs, a top wine-making family in Bordeaux, founded a fashionable London restaurant called Pontack’s Head. Ho Bryan later came to be called Chateau Haut Brion.
(Econ, 12/19/09, p.131)

1663 Apr 18, Osman declared war on Austria.
(MC, 4/18/02)

1663 May 7, Theatre Royal in Drury Lane, London, opened.
(MC, 5/7/02)

1663 May 20, William Bradford, printer, was born.
(HN, 5/20/01)

1663 Jul 15, King Charles II of England granted John Clarke a charter for the colony of Rhode Island guaranteeing freedom of worship. He granted the charter giving the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations an elected governor and legislature. Roger Williams (1603-1683) authored the Rhode Island and Providence Plantation Charter, which stated that religion and conscience should never be restrained by civil supremacy.
(http://avalon.law.yale.edu/17th_century/ri04.asp)(AH, 4/07, p.21)

1663 Jul 27, British Parliament passed a second Navigation Act, requiring all goods bound for the colonies be sent in British ships from British ports.
(HN, 7/27/98)

1663 Sep 13, The 1st serious American slave conspiracy occurred in Virginia.
(MC, 9/13/01)

1663 Dec 5, Severo Bonini (80), composer, died.
(MC, 12/5/01)

1663 Rembrandt depicted himself as a bit player in his painting “The Raising of the Cross.”
(WSJ, 8/11/99, p.A16)

1663 Reverend John Eliot (1604-1690) published the first Bible in North America in the Algonquian language. An English missionary in Massachusetts called the “Apostle to the Indians,” the Puritan Eliot learned the Algonquian language and preached to the Indians. He translated the Bible into Algonquian and published it in 1663.
(HNQ, 6/7/98)

1663 The 1998 historic thriller “An Instance of the Fingerpost” by Iain Pears was set in this year.
(WSJ, 3/18/98, p.A20)

1663 Robert Boyle (1627-1691), English chemist and author of “The Sceptical Chymist: or Chymico-Physical Doubts & Paradoxes” (1661), wrote an essay apologizing for his interest in chrysopoeia, the chemical pursuit of transmutation of base metals into gold.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Sceptical_Chymist)(Econ, 2/26/11, p.85)

1663 London featured 82 coffee houses.
(Econ, 12/20/03, p.89)

1663 The 1st turnpike was authorized to collect tolls in order to cover maintenance costs.
(Econ, 10/23/04, p.78)

1663 Quebec became the capital of New France.
(HNQ, 10/3/99)

1663 The Reichstag, the imperial parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, began sitting permanently.
(Econ, 4/16/15, p.72)

1663 Abraham Blauvelt, Dutch pirate, died about this time. In the early 1630’s He explored the coasts of Honduras and Nicaragua. Afterwards, he went to England and with a proposal for a settlement at site in Nicaragua, which is near the town and river of Bluefields, Nicaragua.

1663-1665 Jan Steen, Dutch painter, painted “The Drawing Lesson.”
(SFC, 6/4/96, p.E5)

1663-1742 Jean Baptiste Massillon, French clergyman: “To be proud and inaccessible is to be timid and weak.”
(AP, 7/23/97)

1663-1789 This period in US history is covered in the 1st volume of the Oxford History of the US by Robert Middlekauff titled: “The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution, 1663-1789.”
(WSJ, 6/7/96, p.A12)

1664 Jan 21, Count Miklos of Zrinyi set out to battle the Turkish invasion army.
(MC, 1/21/02)

1664 Mar 12, England’s King Charles II granted land in the New World, known as New Netherland (later New Jersey), to his brother James, the Duke of York.
(HN, 3/12/98)(AP, 3/12/08)

1664 Mar 22, Charles II gave large tracks of land from west of the Connecticut River to the east of Delaware Bay in North America to his brother James, the Duke of York and Albany. The entire Hudson Valley and New Amsterdam was given to James.
(AP, 3/22/99)(ON, 4/00, p.2)

1664 Apr 4, Adam Willaerts, Dutch seascape painter, died.
(MC, 4/4/02)

1664 May 28, 1st Baptist Church was organized (Boston).
(MC, 5/28/02)

1664 May, Benoit Rencorel, a shepherd girl in the French Alps, alleged that she began receiving apparitions of the Virgin Mary. Her apparitions continued to 1718. In 2008 the Vatican officially recognized the “supernatural origin” of the apparitions and made the site of Notre-Dame-du-Laus an official pilgrimage site.
(SFC, 5/5/08, p.A13)

1664 Jun 24, New Jersey, named after the Isle of Jersey, was founded.
(HN, 6/24/98)

1664 Jul 21, Matthew Prior, English poet, was born.
(MC, 7/21/02)

1664 Jul 23, Wealthy non-church members in Massachusetts were given the right to vote.
(HN, 7/23/98)
1664 Jul 23, 4 British ships arrived in Boston to drive the Dutch out of NY.
(MC, 7/23/02)

1664 Aug 1, The Turkish army was defeated by French and German troops at St. Gotthard, Hungary.
(HN, 8/1/98)

1664 Aug 4, Louis Lully, composer, was born.
(MC, 8/4/02)

1664 Aug 6, Johann Christoph Schmidt, composer, was born.
(MC, 8/6/02)

1664 Aug 28, Four English warships under Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into New Amsterdam. 450 English soldiers disembarked and took control of Brooklyn, a village of mostly English settlers.
(ON, 4/00, p.2)

1664 Aug 29, Adriaen Pieck/Gerrit de Ferry patented a wooden firespout in Amsterdam.
(MC, 8/29/01)

1664 Sep 5, After days of negotiation, the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam surrendered to the British, who would rename it New York. The citizens of New Amsterdam petitioned Peter Stuyvesant to surrender to the English. The “Articles of Capitulation” guaranteed free trade, religious liberty and a form of local representation. In 2004 Russell Shorto authored “The Island At the Center of the World,” a history of New York’s Dutch period.
(HN, 9/5/98)(ON, 4/00, p.3)(WSJ, 3/16/04, p.D6)

1664 Sep 8, The Dutch formally surrendered New Amsterdam to 300 English soldiers. The British soon renamed it New York.
(AP, 9/8/97)(ON, 4/00, p.3)

1664 Sep 20, Maryland passed the 1st anti-amalgamation law to stop intermarriage of English women and black men.
(MC, 9/20/01)

1664 Stephen Blake wrote “The Compleat Gardeners Practices.”
(WSJ, 7/7/98, p.A14)

1664 Moliere wrote Tartuffe, his satire on holier-than-thou hypocrites and their fatuous dupes.
(SFC, 8/16/96, p.D1)

1664 The Jesuit scholar Athanasius Kircher wrote the “Mundus subterraneus.” His work also included an ethnography of China and major treatises on music and magnetism. He also assembled in Rome a natural history collection.
(NH, 5/97, p.58)(NH, 6/00, p.32)

1664 There was no litigation in London, England due to the Black plague.
(SFC, 7/14/96, zone 1 p.2)

1664 Michael Sweerts (b.1618), Belgium-born artist, died in Goa, India. He did much of his important work in Rome, moved to the Netherlands, and traveled in Asia with a band of missionaries. His major work included a series depicting the Seven Acts of Mercy.
(WSJ, 7/2/02, p.D7)

1664-1667 The Second Anglo-Dutch War.
(HN, 6/21/98)

1664-1769 The French East India Company was chartered to carry on trade in the East Indies.
(WUD, 1994, p.449)

1665 Jan 12, Pierre de Fermat (b.1601), French lawyer, mathematician (Fermat’s Principle), died. His equation xn + yn = zn is called Fermat’s Last Theorem and remained unproven for many years. The history of its resolution and final proof by Andrew Wiles is told by Amir D. Aczel in his 1996 book Fermat’s Last Theorem. “Fermat’s Enigma: The Epic Quest to Solve the World’s Greatest Mathematical Problem” by Simon Singh was published in 1997. In 1905 Paul Wolfskehl, a German mathematician, bequeathed a reward of 100,000 marks to whoever could find a proof to Fermat’s “last theorem.” It stumped mathematicians until 1993, when Andrew John Wiles made a breakthrough.
(MC, 1/12/02)(SFC, 10/2/02, p.D7)

1665 Feb 6, Anne Stuart, queen of England (1702-14), was born.
(MC, 2/6/02)

1665 Feb 12, Rudolph J. Camerarius, German botanist, physician (sexuality plant), was born.
(MC, 2/12/02)

1665 Feb 20, Michel Dorigny (b.1617), French painter, died.

1665 Mar 4, English King Charles II declared war on Netherlands.
(SC, 3/4/02)

1665 Mar 6, Philosophical Transactions of Royal Society started publishing.
(MC, 3/6/02)

1665 Mar 11, A new legal code was approved for the Dutch and English towns, guaranteeing religious observances unhindered.
(HN, 3/11/99)

1665 May 15, Pope Alexander VII condemned Jansenism.
(MC, 5/15/02)

1665 May 31, Jerusalem’s rabbi Sjabtai Tswi proclaimed himself Messiah.
(MC, 5/31/02)

1665 Jun 12, England installed a municipal government in New York, formerly the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam.
(AP, 6/12/97)

1665 Aug 15-22, The London weekly “Bill of Mortality” recorded 5,568 fatalities with teeth holding the no. 5 spot. 4,237 were killed by the plague.
(SFEC, 8/2/98, BR p.7)

1665 Aug 27, “Ye Bare & Ye Cubb,” the 1st play performed in N. America, was performed at Acomac, Va.
(MC, 8/27/01)

1665 Sep 22, Moliere’s “L’amour Medecin,” premiered in Paris.
(MC, 9/22/01)

1665 Nov 7, The London Gazette, the oldest surviving journal, was first published.
(HN, 11/7/98)

1665 Dec 4, Jean Racine’s “Alexandre le Grand,” premiered in Paris.
(MC, 12/4/01)

c1665 Gerrit Dou, Dutch artist, painted “Woman at the Clavichord” and a “Self-Portrait” in which he resembled Rembrandt.
(WSJ, 5/24/00, p.A24)
1665 Jacob van Ochtervelt (1634-1682), Dutch artist, painted his “Street Musicians in the Doorway of a House.”
(WSJ, 1/30/09, p.W2)(http://wwar.com/masters/o/ochtervelt-jacob.html)

1665 Robert Hooke authored “Micrographia,” in which he described not only the microscopic world, but also astronomy, geology and the nature of light. This was the first great scientific book written in English.
(WSJ, 4/14/07, p.P10)

1665 The 1st horse racing track in America was laid out on Long Island.
(SFEC, 10/17/99, Z1 p.3)

1665 In France Louis XIV began to systematically hollow out formal guarantees to the Protestants until they became little more than scraps of paper.
(WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R23)
1665 French finance minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert founded the Saint Gobain company to replace imports of Venetian glass with home-made wares. The glass was to be used for the mirrors at the Palace of Versailles.
(Econ, 3/25/06, p.71)(Econ, 11/17/07, p.74)

1665 The villagers of Eyam in Derbyshire, England, voluntarily isolated themselves so as not to spread the plague. 250 of 350 people died and the town became known as the Plague Village.
(SFEM, 10/11/98, p.22)

1665 The British briefly recaptured the Banda Island of Run from the Dutch.
(WSJ, 5/21/99, p.W7)
1665 In London at least 68,000 people died of the plague this year. In 1722 Daniel Defoe published his novel “A Journal of the Plague Year.” The novel posed as a historical document covering the London plague. The Lord Mayor of London exterminated all the city’s cats and dogs, which allowed the rats, the real transmitters of the disease, to increase exponentially.
(NG, 5/88, p.684)(WSJ, 9/9/06, p.P8)(WSJ, 10/21/06, p.P8)

1665 Nicolas Poussin (b.1594), painter, known as the founder of French Classicism, died. He spent most of his career in Rome which he reached at age 30 in 1624. His Greco-Romanism work includes “The Death of Chione” (1622-1623) and “The Abduction of the Sabine Women.” [WUD ends his life in 1655] In 1997 Elizabeth Cropper and Charles Dempsey authored “Nicholas Poussin: Friendship and the Love of Painting.”
(WSJ, 2/26/96, p.A-10)(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1126)(SFC,11/22/97, p.D5)(WSJ, 11/6/02, p.D8)y

1665 Dutch artist Johannes Vermeer painted his “Girl With a Pearl Earring” about this time. [see Vermeer, 1632-1675] In 1999 Tracy Chevalier authored the novel “Girl With a Pearl Earring,” a fictionalization based on one of Vermeer’s models.
(WSJ, 11/15/95, p.A-20)(SFEC, 1/2/00, BR p.3)(SFC, 1/24/13, p.E1)

1665-1666 Over a span of 18 months Isaac Newton invented calculus, explained how gravity works, and discovered his laws of motion. This period came to be called his annus mirabilis.
(Econ, 1/1/05, p.59)

1666 Jan 22, Shah Jahan died. He had built the Taj Mahal.
(HT, 4/97, p.24)

1666 Feb 15, Antonio M. Valsalva, Italian anatomist (eardrums, glottis), was born.
(MC, 2/15/02)

1666 Apr 19, Sarah Kembel Knight, diarist, was born.
(HN, 4/1901)

1666 Aug 4, Johan Evertsen, Italian admiral of Zeeland, was lynched in Brielle.
(MC, 8/4/02)

1666 Sep 2, The Great Fire of London, having started at Pudding Lane, began to demolish about four-fifths of London. It started at the house of King Charles II’s baker, Thomas Farrinor, after he forgot to extinguish his oven. The flames raged uncontrollably for the next few days, helped along by the wind, as well as by warehouses full of oil and other flammable substances. Approximately 13,200 houses, 90 churches and 50 livery company halls burned down or exploded. But the fire claimed only 16 lives, and it actually helped impede the spread of the deadly Black Plague, as most of the disease-carrying rats were killed in the fire.
(CFA, ’96, p.54)(AP, 9/2/97)(HNPD, 9/2/98)(HNQ, 12/2/00)

1666 Sep 5, The great fire of London, begun on Sep 2, was extinguished. Old St. Paul’s was among the 87 churches burned down.
(HN, 9/5/98)(www.stpauls.co.uk)

1666 Nov 5, Attilio Ariosti, composer, was born.
(MC, 11/5/01)

1666 Nov 14, Samuel Pepys reported the on 1st blood transfusion, which was between dogs.
(HFA, ’96, p.42)(MC, 11/14/01)

1666 Dec 5, Francesco Antonio Nicola Scarlatti, composer, was born.
(MC, 12/5/01)

c1666 Sir Peter Lely painted Barbara Villiers 1640-1709, mistress to King Charles II, as a Shepherdess. Charles had raised her stature to Countess of Castlemaine and later Duchess of Cleveland.
(WSJ, 3/7/02, p.A22)

1666 Moliere wrote his play The Misanthrope. It condemned the falseness and intrigue of French aristocratic society.
(WSJ, 10/11/95, p. A-10)

1666 Pierre-Paul Riquet convinced French finance minister Colbert for a canal from the Mediterranean port of Sete to Toulouse and the River Garonne. He oversaw the Canal du Midi project for 15 years and died 6 months before it was completed.
(SSFC, 1/14/01, p.T9)

1666 John Locke met Sir Anthony Ashley Cooper, later the Earl of Shaftsbury, and served him as physician, secretary and counselor for the next 15 years.

1666 The plague decimated London and Isaac Newton moved to the country. He had already discovered the binomial theorem at Cambridge and was offered the post of professor of mathematics. Newton formulated his law of universal gravitation.
(V.D.-H.K.p.206)(JST-TMC,1983, p.70)

1666 The French Academy of Sciences was founded.
(Econ, 1/9/10, p.57)

1666 Giovanni Domenico Cassini (1625-1712), Italian-born French astronomer, discovered one of the polar ice caps of Mars.
1666 Giovanni Francesco Barbieri Guercino, Italian painter, died. His work included “Erminia finding the wounded Tancred.” In 1996 it was purchased by the Scottish National Gallery for $3.1 million.
(TOH, 1982, p.1591d)(SFC, 8/17/96, p.E4)
1666 Pier Francesco Mola (b.1612), Italian Baroque artist, died in Rome.

1666 Franz Hals (b.1581?), painter, died in the Oudemannenhuis almshouse in Haarlem. The almshouse later became the Frans Hals Museum.
(SFEC, 9/3/00, p.T7)

1666 In Cholula, Mexico, the chapel Nuestra de los Remedios was built atop a Teotihuacan pyramid.
(SFEC, 11/8/98, p.T10)

1666 Russia’s orthodox “Old Believers” split over liturgical reforms.
(Econ, 2/2/13, p.73)

1667 Jan 30, Lithuania, Poland and Russia signed a 13.5 year treaty at Andrusov, near Smolensk. Russia received Smolensk and Kiev.
(LHC, 1/30/03)

1667 Feb 20, David ben Samuel Halevi, rabbi, author (Shulchan Aruch), died.
(MC, 2/20/02)

1667 Apr 9, 1st public art exhibition (Palais Royale, Paris).
(MC, 4/9/02)

1667 Apr 29, John Arbuthnot (d.1735), Scottish mathematician, was born. With Alexander Pope, Jonathan Swift, John Gay and Thomas Parnell he founded the Scriblerus Club in 1714, whose purpose was to satirize bad poetry and pedantry. The club was short-lived.
(MC, 4/29/02)

1667 May 6, Johann Jacob Froberger (50), German singer, organist, composer, died.
(MC, 5/6/02)

1667 May 7, Johann Jakob Froberger (50), German organist, singer, composer, died.
(MC, 5/7/02)

1667 May 9, Marie Louise de Gonzague-Nevers, French Queen of Poland (1645-48), died.
(MC, 5/9/02)

1667 May 26, Abraham De Moivre, mathematician, was born.
(HN, 5/26/98)

1667 Jun 15, Dr. Jean-Baptiste Denys, French doctor, performed the 1st animal to human blood transfusion. He successfully transfused a few ounces of blood from a lamb into boy (15). Another experimental transfusion this year resulted in the patient’s death and Denys was accused of murder. In 2011 Holly Tucker authored “Blood Work: A Tale of Medicine and Murder in the Scientific Revolution.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_transfusion)(Econ, 3/19/11, p.95)

1667 Jun 18, The Dutch fleet sailed up the Thames and threatened London. They burned 3 ships and captured the English flagship in what came to be called the Glorious Revolution, in which William of Orange replaced James Stuart.
(HN, 6/18/98)(WSJ, 3/14/00, p.A28)

1667 Jul 21, The Peace of Breda ended the Second Anglo-Dutch War and ceded Dutch New Amsterdam to the English. The South American country of Surinam, formerly Dutch Guiana, including the nutmeg island of Run was ceded by England to the Dutch in exchange for New York in 1667 after the second Anglo-Dutch War.
(WUD, 1994, p.961)(HN, 7/21/98)(HNQ, 8/21/98)(WSJ, 5/21/99, p.W7)

1667 Aug 3, Francesco Borromini (b.1599), Italian Baroque architect and sculptor, died. He designed the San Ivo della Sapienza church in Rome. In 2005 Jake Morrissey authored “The Genius in the Design: Bernini, Borromini and the Rivalry that Transformed Rome.”
(www.bookrags.com/biography-francesco-borromini/)(Econ, 7/25/05, p.71)

1667 Aug 20, John Milton published “Paradise Lost,” an epic poem about the fall of Adam and Eve.
(HN, 8/20/98)

1667 Aug 31, Johann Rist, composer, died at 60.
(MC, 8/31/01)

1667 Sep 23, Slaves in Virginia were banned from obtaining their freedom by converting to Christianity.
(HN, 9/23/98)

1667 Sep 24, Jean-Louis Lully, composer, was born.
(MC, 9/24/01)

1667 Nov 7, Jean Racine’s “Andromaque,” premiered in Paris.
(MC, 11/7/01)

1667 Nov 30, Jonathan Swift (d.1745), English satirist who wrote “Gulliver’s Travels,” was born in Ireland. “We have enough religion to make us hate, but not enough to make us love one another.”
(WUD, 1994, p.1437)(HN, 11/30/98)(AP, 4/16/00)

1667 Connecticut adopted America’s first divorce law.
(SFC, 7/18/98, p.A15)

1667 British law required that everyone be buried in wool. [see 1662]
(NG, 5.1988, pp. 574)
1667 The first insurance company was formed in London.
(Econ, 2/25/12, SRp.4)

1667 A Baroque palace was built in Dubrovnik, Croatia. It later became a 400 student elementary school.
(Hem. 1/95, p. 67)

1667 In France Louis XIV opened the 1st stretch of the Champs-Elysees: a short extension of the Tuileries Gardens leading to the palace at Versailles.
(SSFC, 2/11/07, p.G3)

1667 Arequipa, Peru, was hit by an earthquake.
(SSFC, 6/24/01, p.A16)

1667 The Cossack Stench Razing led a peasant uprising.
(SFC,10/28/97, p.A8)

1667 Cassiopeia A, the gaseous remains of a supernova, would have been visible from Earth at about this time, but no record indicates that it was noticed. It was first detected in 1947 as a radio source.
(Econ, 9/2/06, p.72)

1667-1668 The War of Devolution was fought between France and Spain as a result of the claim by Louis XIV of France that the ownership of the Spanish Netherlands devolved to his wife, Marie Therese, upon the death of her father, Philip IV of Spain. France conquered the area, now Belgium, and also seized the Franche-Comte, a Spanish possession that bordered on Switzerland.
(HNQ, 2/7/00)

1667-1748 Johan Bernouilli, Swiss mathematician, brother of Jacob.
(WUD, 1994, p.141)

1668 Feb 7, English King William III danced in the premiere of “Ballet of Peace.”
(MC, 2/7/02)
1668 Feb 7, The Netherlands, England and Sweden concluded an alliance directed against Louis XIV of France.
(HN, 2/7/99)

1668 Mar 5, Francesco Gasparini, composer, was born.
(MC, 3/5/02)

1668 Mar 25, The first horse race in America took place.
(HN, 3/24/98)

1668 Mar 26, England took control of Bombay, India.
(SS, 3/26/02)

1668 Mar 27, English king Charles II gave Bombay to the East India Company.
(MC, 3/27/02)

1668 Apr 13, John Dryden (36) became 1st English poet laureate.
(MC, 4/13/02)

1668 May 2, Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle ended the War of Devolution in France.
(HN, 5/2/99)

1668 May 8, Alain Rene Lesage, French novelist and dramatist, was born. He is best known for his works “The Adventures of Gil Blas” and “Turcaret.”
(HN, 5/8/99)

1668 May 27, Three colonists were expelled from Massachusetts for being Baptists.
(HN, 5/27/99)

1668 Sep 16, King John Casimer II of Poland abdicated the throne.
(HN, 9/16/98)(PCh, 1992, p.241)

1668 Oct 23, Jews of Barbados were forbidden to engage in retail trade.
(MC, 10/23/01)

1668 Nov 10, Francois Couperin, composer and organist (Concerts Royaux), was born in Paris, France.
(MC, 11/10/01)

1668 Dec 22, Stephen Day, 1st British colonial printer, died.
(MC, 12/22/01)

1668 Bernini sculpted a terra cotta study for one of the angels of Rome’s Port Santa Angelo.
(WSJ, 10/22/96, p.A20)

1668 The British trading ship Nonsuch 1st sailed into Hudson Bay.
(SSFC, 12/22/02, p.C6)

1668 Louis XIV of France purchased the 112 carat blue diamond from John Baptiste Tavernier for 220,000 livre. Tavernier was also given a title of nobility.
(THC, 12/3/97)(EB, 1993, V6 p.51)
1668 Charles Alphonse Dufresnoy (b.1611), French artist, died. His work included the painting “The Death of Socrates” (1650).
(WSJ, 11/24/07, p.W8)

1668 The Spaniards established a permanent settlement on Guam. They forced the Chamorros to convert to Catholicism. Under Spanish rule the Chamorro numbers were reduced to some 2,000.
(SFEC, 3/7/99,Z1 p.4)

1668 A fortified wall was completed at Campeche, Mexico, to ward off pirate attacks.
(SSFC, 1/25/09, p.E4)

1668 Arequipa, Peru, was hit by another earthquake.
(SSFC, 6/24/01, p.A16)

1668 Sweden’s Sveriges Riksbank, the first central bank, was set up as a tool of government financial management.
(Econ, 2/25/12, SR p.4)(Econ, 4/29/17, p.56)

1669 Feb 1, French King Louis XIV limited the freedom of religion.
(MC, 2/1/02)

1669 Mar 11, Mount Etna in Sicily began erupting. Lava flows that destroyed at least 10 villages on its southern flank before reaching the city walls of the town of Catania five weeks later, on 15 April. Contemporaneous accounts written both in Italian and English mention no deaths related to this eruption (but give very precise figures of the number of buildings destroyed, the area of cultivated land lost, and the economic damage).

1669 Jul 6, LaSalle left Montreal to explore Ohio River.
(MC, 7/6/02)

1669 Jul 21, John Locke’s Constitution of English colony Carolina was approved.
(MC, 7/21/02)

1669 Aug 24, Alessandro Marcello (d.1747), composer, was born in Venice.
(MC, 8/24/02)

1669 Sep 26, The island of Crete fell to the Ottoman Turks after 465 years as a colony of Venice.
(WSJ, 7/21/08, p.A11)

1669 Oct 4, Rembrandt H. van Rijn (b.1606), painter and etcher (Steel Masters, Night Watch), died. In 1999 Simon Schama published the biography “Rembrandt’s Eyes.”
(WSJ, 11/24/99, p.A16)(MC, 10/4/01)

1669 Dec 20, The 1st American jury trial was held in Delaware. Marcus Jacobson was condemned for insurrection and sentenced to flogging, branding & slavery.
(MC, 12/20/01)

1669 Vermeer painted “The Art of Painting.” The 3′ by 4′ work was larger than most of his paintings.
(SFC, 11/24/99, p.E8)

1669 Nils Steensen’s “Prodromus” was first published in Italy and translated to English two years later. It explained the authors determination of the successive order of the earth strata.
(RFH-MDHP, p.7)

1669 The semicircular Sheldonian Theater at Oxford, England, designed by Christopher Wren, was completed.
(SSFC, 2/4/01, p.T8)

1669 Emperor Leopold I sanctioned the foundation of a higher school in Innsbruck, Austria. This is considered to mark the founding of the Univ. of Innsbruck.
(StuAus, April ’95, p.97)

1669 A French ordnance created a forest code.
(Econ, 9/2/17, p.46)

1669 While Mount Etna erupted, German scholar Athanasius Kircher was busy devising a machine that would clean out volcanoes the way a chimney sweep cleaned out clogged chimneys.
(PacDisc. Spring/’96, p.26)

1670 Jan 3, George Monck (61), English general (to the-sea), died.
(MC, 1/3/02)

1670 Feb 10, William Congreve, English writer (Old Bachelor, Way of the World), was born.
(MC, 2/10/02)

1670 Feb 14, Roman Catholic emperor Leopold I chased the Jews out of Vienna.
(MC, 2/14/02)

1670 Feb 27, Jews were expelled from Austria by order of Leopold I.
(MC, 2/27/02)

1670 Apr, Colonists landed on the western bank of the Ashley River, five miles from the sea, and named their settlement Charles Town in honor of Charles II, King of England.
(Hem., 1/95, p.70)

1670 May 2, The Company of Adventurers of England Trading into Hudson Bay (the Hudson Bay Co.) was chartered by England’s King Charles II to exploit the resources of the Hudson Bay area. By 2006 it had mutated into Canada’s largest non-food retailer.
(AP, 5/2/97)(HN, 5/2/98)(AH, 4/01, p.36)(Econ, 2/4/06, p.36)

1670 May 12, August II, the Strong One, King of Poland (355 children), was born.
(MC, 5/12/02)

1670 May 26, A treaty was signed in secret in Dover, England, between Charles II and Louis XIV ending hostilities between them.
(HN, 5/26/99)

1670 Jul 18, Giovanni Battista Bononcini, Italian (opera) composer, was born.
(MC, 7/18/02)

1670 Jul 25, Jews were expelled from Vienna, Austria.
(SC, 7/25/02)

1670 Oct 13, Virginia passed a law that blacks arriving in the colonies as Christians could not be used as slaves.
(HN, 10/13/98)

1670 Nov 28, Pierre Corneille’s “Tite et Berenice,” premiered in Paris.
(MC, 11/28/01)

1670 Vermeer painted his “A Young Woman Standing at a Virginal” and “A Young Woman Seated at a Virginal.” Estimates for auction in 2004 for the seated one reached $5.4 million.
(WSJ, 6/19/00, p.a42)(SFC, 4/1/04, p.E7)

1670 John Ray printed a book of aphorisms such as: “Blood is thicker than water…” and “Haste makes waste.”
(SFC, 11/23/96, p.E4)

1670 Spinoza (1632-1677), Dutch philosopher, authored “Tractatus Theologico-Politicus” an enlightened assessment of the Old Testament and a plea for religious toleration.
(WSJ, 12/15/05, p.D8)

1670 Cafe Procope, the first cafe in Paris, began serving ice cream.
(SFC, 11/23/96, p.E4)

1670 Le Notre, the royal landscaper of Louis XIV, laid out the Triumphal Way in Paris.
(SSFC, 1/25/04, p.C12)

1670 Minute hands on watches first appeared.
(SFC, 7/14/99, p.3)

1670 Ashanti, a West African chiefdom (later part of Ghana), prospered from trade of cola nuts, gold and slaves.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1670-1680 In Oman the Nizwa Fort was built 100 miles southwest of Muscat.
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.46)

1670-1712 Osei Tutu, ruler of the Ashanti Empire in what later became Ghana. He amassed a fortune by supplying slaves to British and Dutch traders in exchange for firearms.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1670-1752 In 2006 Jonathan I. Israel authored “Enlightenment Contested: Philosophy, Modernity, and the Emancipation of Man 1670-1752.”
(Econ, 12/2/06, p.85)

1670-1850 Daniel Cohen’s 1993 Pillars of Salt, Monuments of Grace is a book that follows the shifts in social authority and attitudes toward authority in New England as demonstrated by changes in the crime literature of this period.
(LSA., Fall 1995, p.19)

1670s French explorer Rene Robert Cavelier (LaSalle), Sieur de La Salle, explored the Great Lakes region of the New World.
(SFC, 11/30/96, p.A7)

1671 Jan 18, Pirate Henry Morgan defeated Spanish defenders and captured Panama.
(MC, 1/18/02)

1671 Jan 27, Welsh pirate Sir Henry Morgan (1635-1688) landed at Panama City.
(WUD, 1994 p.931)(MC, 1/27/02)

1671 Feb 19, Charles-Hubert Gervais, composer, was born.
(MC, 2/19/02)

1671 Apr 6, Jean-Baptiste Rousseau, French playwright, poet (Sacred Odes & Songs), was born.
(MC, 4/6/02)

1671 Apr 22, King Charles II sat in on English parliament after which he gave his Royal Assent to the several Bills that were presented to him, fourteen private Acts, and eighteen public, including an act for exporting “Beer, Ale, and Mum.”

1671 Apr 30, Peter Zrinyi (49), Hungarian banished to Croatia, was beheaded.
(MC, 4/30/02)

1671 May 9, Colonel Thomas Blood (1618-1680), Irish adventurer, attempted to steal the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London.
(MC, 5/9/02)(Reuters, 8/24/01)

1671 Jun 6 (OS), Stenka, Stepan Razin, Russian Cossack, was killed. [see Jun 16]
(MC, 6/6/02)

1671 Jun 8, Tomaso Albinoni, Italian composer (Adagio in G-minor), was born.
(MC, 6/8/02)

1671 Jun 16 (NS), Stenka Razin, Cossack rebel leader, was tortured & executed in Moscow. [see Jun 6]
(MC, 6/16/02)

1671 Nov 6, Colley Cibber, England, dramatist, poet laureate (Love’s Last Shift), was born.
(MC, 11/6/01)

1671 Dec 1, Francesco Stradivari, Italian violin maker and son of Antonius, was born.
(MC, 12/1/01)

1671 Vermeer painted his “Allegory of Faith.” [see Vermeer, 1632-1675]
(WSJ, 11/15/95, p.A-20)

1671 Moliere wrote his farce “Les Fourberies de Scapin” (The Wiles of Scapin or Scapin the Cheat).
(WSJ, 1/10/97, p.A9)(SFC, 6/15/98, p.D3)

1671 Rice arrived in South Carolina from Madagascar but nobody knew how to husk it for food.
(Hem., 12/96, p.82)

1671 Charles II banned anyone without property worth £100 a year from owning guns, bows or ferrets. Game stocks were the motive.
(Econ, 6/5/10, p.63)
1671 English Protestants became alarmed when they learned that James, Duke of York, had converted to Catholicism.
(ON, 7/06, p.8)

1671 In Germany Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz (Leibniz) devised a mechanical calculator to add, subtract, multiply and divide.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1671 Mar 7, In Scotland Rob Roy MacGregor (d.1734) was baptized. He was later forced to become a highland fugitive.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rob_Roy_MacGregor)(SFC, 8/19/96, p.D7)(Econ, 12/22/12, p.109)

1671-1743 Kaigetsudo Ando (d.1743), Japanese artist, was born. He is also called Okazaki Genshichi.

1671-1729 John Law, Scotsman and financier for France. He controlled France’s foreign trade, mints, revenue, national debt and the Louisiana territory. [see 1694]
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1672 Jan 1, The beginning of the current Dionysian Period, named for the monk Dionysius Exiguous who, in the AD 500s, introduced the present custom of reckoning time by counting the years from the birth of Christ.
(CFA, ’96, p.22)

1672 Feb 8, Isaac Newton read his 1st optics paper before Royal Society in London.
(MC, 2/8/02)

1672 Mar 15, England’s King Charles II enacted a 3rd Declaration of Indulgence.

1672 Apr 2, Pedro Calungsod (b.1654), a Filipino teenager, was killed in Tumon, Guam, along with Diego Luis de San Vitores, his Jesuit missionary priest, by natives resisting their conversion efforts. In 2012 Pedro was named a saint in the Catholic church.
(AP, 10/20/12)( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pedro_Calungsod)

1672 Apr 6, Andre Ardinal Destouches, composer, was born.
(MC, 4/6/02)

1672 Apr 29, King Louis XIV of France invaded the Netherlands.
(HN, 4/29/99)

1672 Apr 30, Marie of the Incarnation (b.1599, French Ursuline nun and the leader of the group of nuns sent to establish the Ursuline Order in New France, died in Quebec City. She was canonized a saint on April 2, 2014.

1672 May 1, Joseph Addison (d.1719), English essayist (Spectator) and poet, was born. “We are always doing, says he, something for posterity, but I would fain see posterity do something for us.” “A man must be both stupid and uncharitable who believes there is no virtue or truth but on his own side.”
(AHD, 1971, p.14)(AP, 11/21/97)(AP, 7/14/98)(MC, 5/1/02)

1672 May 15, 1st copyright law was enacted by Massachusetts.
(MC, 5/15/02)

1672 May 17, Frontenac became governor of New France (Canada).
(MC, 5/17/02)

1672 May 30, Peter I (the Great) Romanov, great czar (tsar) of Russia (1682-1725), was born. [see Jun 9]
(HN, 5/30/98)(MC, 5/30/02)

1672 Jun 9, Peter I (d.1725), “The Great,” was born. He grew to be almost 7 feet tall and was the Russian Czar from 1682 to 1725 and modernized Russia with sweeping reforms. He moved the Russian capital to the new city he built, St. Petersburg. [see May 30]
(CFA, ’96, p.48)(WUD, 1994, p.1077)(HN, 6/9/99)(SFC, 12/25/99, p.C3)

1672 Jun 15, The Sluices were opened in Holland to save Amsterdam from the French.
(HT, 6/15/00)

1672 Jun 25, 1st recorded monthly Quaker meeting in US was held at Sandwich, Mass.
(MC, 6/25/02)

1672 Jul 4, States of Holland declared “Eternal Edict” void.

1672 Aug 9, Jose Ximenez (70), Spanish composer, died.
(MC, 8/9/02)

1672 Aug 20, Jan de Witt, Dutch politician and mathematician, was assassinated by a carefully organized lynch “mob” after visiting his brother Cornelis de Witt in prison. He was killed by a shot in the neck; his naked body was hanged and mutilated and the heart was carved out to be exhibited.

1672 Nov 1, Heinrich Schutz (87), composer, died. Pupil of Giovanni Gabrielli from 1609-1672, he was employed by the Elector of Saxony in 1615 and became Kapellmeister two years later. While employed by the Elector, Schütz made several visits to Italy and served three two-year terms as guest court conductor in Copenhagen. Schütz’s works include one opera (a first in the German language), Easter and Christmas oratorios, three passions, numerous polychoral Psalm settings in the style of his teacher, Gabrielli, other sacred concerted works in Latin and German, and Italian madrigals.

1672 Dec 10, Gov. Lovelace announced monthly mail service between NY and Boston.
(MC, 12/10/01)

1672 Peter Stuyvesant died on his farm in NY. In 1959 Henry H. Kessler and Eugene Rachlis authored “Peter Stuyvesant and his New York.” In 1970 Adele de Leeuw authored “Peter Stuyvesant.”
(ON, 4/00, p.3)

1672 In Bolivia the Royal Mint in Potosi was established. It required the construction of reservoirs, dams and a canal system to deliver water used in the minting process.

1672 Gerhard Altzenbach (b.1609), German artist, died.
(SFC, 9/23/06, p.E2)

1672 Christian Huygens of Holland discovered the southern polar caps on Mars.

1672 The Royal African Co. was granted a charter to expand the slave trade and its stockholders included philosopher John Locke. The operation supplied English sugar colonies with 3,000 slaves annually.
(SFC, 10/19/98, p.D3)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1673 Feb 17, Moliere, [Jean Baptiste Poquelin], French author (Tartuffe, Le Malade Imaginaire), died.
(MC, 2/17/02)

1673 Feb 20, The 1st recorded wine auction was held in London.
(MC, 2/20/02)

1673 Mar 28, Adam Pijnacker (51), Dutch landscape painter, etcher, was buried.
(MC, 3/28/02)

1673 Mar 29, The English Parliament passed the Test Act. It in effect excluded Roman Catholics from public functions. King Charles II was unable to stop the action.

1673 Apr 5, Francois Caron (~72), admiral, governor (Formosa), drowned.
(MC, 4/5/02)

1673 May 17, Louis Joliet and Jacques Marquette began exploring the Mississippi.
(MC, 5/17/02)

1673 May 29, Cornelis van Bijnkershoek, lawyer, president of High Council, was born.
(SC, 5/29/02)

1673 Jun 25, In France Charles de Batz (b.1611), a commander known as D’Artagnan, was slain in the service of Louis XIV. He died at the Siege of Maastricht in the Franco-Dutch War and was one of the musketeers who inspired Dumas’ fiction.
(SSFC, 4/13/08, p.E4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/D’Artagnan)

1673 Jul 24, Edmund Halley entered Queen’s College, Oxford, as an undergraduate.
(MC, 7/24/02)

1673 Aug 9, Dutch recapture NY from English. It was regained by English in 1674.
(MC, 8/9/02)

1673 Sep 21, James Needham returned to Virginia after exploring the land to the west, which would become Tennessee.
(HN, 9/21/98)

1673 Dec 28, Joan Blaeu (77), Dutch cartographer, publisher (Atlas Major), died.
(MC, 12/28/01)

1673 In London the Worshipful Society of Apothecaries started the Chelsea Physic Garden as an educational tool for apprentices learning to grow medicinal plants.
(SFC, 3/26/08, p.G1)

1673 Cuba began a program of scientific research.
(SFC, 3/17/99, p.A14)

1673 The most important of Christian Huygens’ written works, the “Horologium Oscillatorium,” was published in Paris. It discussed the mathematics surrounding pendulum motion and the law of centrifugal force for uniform circular motion.
1673 The French Blue Diamond was recut to a 67 carat stone.
(EB, 1993, V6 p.51)

1673 In Japan the Mitsukoshi store introduced fixed prices.
(Econ, 8/25/07, p.58)

1674 Feb 9, English reconquered NY from Netherlands.
(MC, 2/9/02)

1674 Feb 19, Netherlands and England signed the Peace of Westminster. NYC became English.
(MC, 2/19/02)

1674 Feb 21, Johann Augustin Kobelius, composer, was born.
(MC, 2/21/02)

1674 Mar 6, Johann Paul Schor (58), German baroque painter, died.
(MC, 3/6/02)

1674 May 20, John Sobieski became Poland’s first King. [see May 11, 1573]
(HN, 5/20/98)

1674 May 21, Gen. Jan Sobieski was chosen King of Poland. [see May 20]
(MC, 5/21/02)

1674 Jun 6, Sivaji crowned himself King of India.
(HN, 6/6/98)

1674 Jun 20, Nicholas Rowe, poet laureate of England, was born.
(HN, 6/20/98)

1674 Jul 17, Isaac Watts, English minister and hymn writer, was born.
(HN, 7/17/01)

1674 Aug 18, Jean Racine’s “Iphigenie,” premiered in Versailles.
(MC, 8/18/02)

1674 Oct 15, Robert Herrick, British poet (Together), was born in Mass.
(MC, 10/15/01)

1674 Nov 8, John Milton (65), English poet (Paradise Lost), died. His work included “Paradise Lost,” Paradise Regained,” and “Samson Agonistes.” Milton lost one eye at 36 and the other when he was 44. In 1952 Prof. Sensabaugh (d.2002 at 95) authored “In That Grand Whig, Milton,” an examination of Milton’s political tracts. In 1996 Paul West wrote a novel: “Sporting with Amaryllis,” that begins in 1626 and gives a fictional account of his life. In 1997 Peter Levy wrote a biography of Milton titled: “Eden Renewed.”
(WUD, ’94, p.911)(WSJ, 5/6/97, p.A20)(AP, 12/9/97)(MC, 11/8/01)(SFC, 2/28/02, p.A20)

1674 Nov 10, Dutch formally ceded New Netherlands (NY) to English.
(MC, 11/10/01)

1674 Nov 24, Franciscus van Enden (72), Flemish Jesuit and free thinker, was executed.
(MC, 11/24/01)

1674 Dec 4, Father Marquette built the 1st dwelling at what is now Chicago.
(MC, 12/4/01)

1675 Jan 20, Christian Huygens, Dutch scientist, transformed a theoretical insight on springs into a practical mechanism with the 1st sketch of a watch balance regulated by a coiled spring.
(www.princeton.edu/~mike/articles/huygens/timelong/timelong.html)(Econ, 2/4/06, p.73)

1675 Jan 31, Cornelia Dina Olfaarts was found not guilty of witchcraft.
(MC, 1/31/02)

1675 Mar 2, Prince William III was installed as Governor of Overijssel.
(SC, 3/2/02)

1675 Mar 4, John Flamsteed was appointed 1st Astronomer Royal of England.
(SC, 3/4/02)

1675 May 18, Jacques Marquette (37), Jesuit, missionary in Chicago, died.
(SC, 5/18/02)

1675 Jun 8, Three Wampanoag Indians were hanged in Plymouth, Massachusetts. On the testimony of a Native American witness, Plymouth Colony arrested three Wampanoags, including a counselor to Metacom, a Pokanoket sachem. A jury among whom were some Indian members convicted them of the recent murder of John Sassamon, an advisor to Metacom.

1675 Jun 11, France and Poland formed an alliance.
(AP, 6/11/03)

1675 Jun 20, King Philip’s War began when Indians–retaliating for the execution of three of their people who had been charged with murder by the English–massacred colonists at Swansea, Plymouth colony. Abenaki, Massachusetts, Mohegan & Wampanoag Indians formed an anti English front. Wampanoag warriors attacked livestock and looted farms.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King_Philip%27s_War)(AH, 6/02, p.46)

1675 Jun 21, Sir Christopher Wren (1632-1723) began to rebuild St Paul’s Cathedral in London, replacing the old building which had been destroyed by the Great fire. St Paul’s Cathedral was dedicated in 1708 but work continued.
(Econ, 6/7/08, p.98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St_Paul%27s_Cathedral)

1675 Jun 22, Royal Greenwich Observatory was established in England by Charles II.
(YarraNet, 6/22/00)

1675 Jun 23, An English youth shot a Marauding Wampanoag warrior.
(AH, 6/02, p.46)

1675 Jun 28, Frederick William of Brandenburg crushed the Swedes.
(HN, 6/28/98)

1675 Aug 6, Russian Czar Aleksei banned foreign haircuts.
(MC, 8/6/02)

1675 Aug 10, King Charles II laid the foundation stone of Royal Observatory, Greenwich. [see Jun 22]
(MC, 8/10/02)

1675 Aug 27, The Strasbourg Agreement, signed between France and the Holy Roman Empire, banned the use of poison bullets in conflict.
(AP, 12/4/12)

1675 Sep 9, New England colonial authorities officially declared war on the Wampanoag Indians. The war soon spread to include the Abenaki, Norwottock, Pocumtuck and Agawam warriors.
(MC, 9/9/01)(AH, 6/02, p.47)

1675 Nov 22, English king Charles II adjourned parliament.
(MC, 11/22/01)

1675 Dec 19, Some 1,000 colonial troops attacked the Narragansett winter village in Rhode Island. The Great Swamp Fight ended with some 80 English killed and 600 Indians dead, mostly women and children. Wakefield, Rhode Island, USA, The Great Swamp Memorial marks the site where 4,000 Indians died in defense of a secret fort.
(Postcard, Wakefield Chamber of Commerce)(AH, 6/02, p.48)

1675 Lely painted a portrait of Nell Gwynn, the favorite mistress of Charles II. It is now in the London National Gallery. Charles II acknowledged 14 illegitimate children and historians identified 13 mistresses.
(SFEC, 2/1/98, p.T8)(SFC, 7/22/00, p.E4)

1675 In Boston, Mass., a law forbade American Indians from setting foot in the city, as settlers warred with area tribes. In 2005 although the law wasn’t enforced for centuries it was a lingering source of anger for American Indians.
(AP, 5/20/05)

1675 English king Charles II issued a proclamation deploring the “evil and dangerous effects” of coffee houses.
(Econ, 12/20/03, p.90)

1675 In France Lully composed “Thesee.” The librettist was Philippe Quinault. This work established the tragedie lyrique operatic form.
(WSJ, 7/5/01, p.A10)
1675 In France taxes imposed by Louis XIV led to an uprising in Brittany. Protesters wore bonnets rouges (red wooly hats).
(Econ, 11/30/13, p.50)

1675 The 9th Sikh guru was executed in Delhi, India. His son, Gobind Rai, took up arms and organized a new fraternity called the Khalsa (the pure), and gave them the common surname Singh (lion), and changed his own name to Gobind Singh.
(WSJ, 10/12/01, p.W17)

1675 Wojciech Bobowski (b.1610), Polish-Jewish musician and dragoman, died. He had been taken prisoner by Crimean Tartars and was sold to the Ottoman court where he converted to Islam and served as an interpreter, treasurer and musician. He translated the Bible into Turkish and composed Turkish psalms.
(Econ, 9/15/07, p.104)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wojciech_Bobowski)

1675 Johannes Vermeer (b.1632), Dutch painter, died in poverty. In 2001 Anthony Bailey authored “Vermeer: A View of Delft.”
(WSJ, 11/15/95, p.A-20)(SSFC, 3/25/01, BR p.5)

1675 In northern Russia Solovki monks resisted church reforms. Tsarist forces broke through, but only following a 7-year siege.
(Econ, 12/18/04, p.83)

1675-1710 In London Old St. Paul’s Cathedral was replaced with a new design by Sir Christopher Wren.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.14)

c1675-1741 Antonio Vivaldi, Italian violinist and composer. [see 1678]
(WUD, 1994, p.1598)

1675-1900 McDade’s Annals of Murder is an annotated bibliography that provides a list and description of individual items and identifies multiple accounts of the same crimes over this time period by career FBI man McDade.
(LSA., Fall 1995, p.17)

1676 Feb 10, In King Philip’s War Narragansett and Nipmuck Indians raided Lancaster, Mass. Over 35 villagers were killed and 24 were taken captive including Mary Rowlandson (1637-1711) and her 3 children. Rowlandson was freed after 11 weeks and an account of her captivity was published posthumously in 1682.
(AH, 6/02, p.48)(Econ, 2/21/09, p.83)(http://tinyurl.com/cvrhcv)

1676 Feb, Mohawk Indians attacked and killed all but 40 Wampanoag Indians under Philip. NY Gov. Edmund Andros had urged the Mohawks to attack the Wampanoags.
(AH, 6/02, p.48)

1676 Mar 29, Wampanoag allies including Narragansetts destroyed Providence, Rhode Island. The house of Roger Williams was destroyed as he negotiated with Indian leaders on the outskirts of town.
(AH, 6/02, p.48)(AH, 4/07, p.29)

1676 Apr 14, Ernst Christian Hesse, composer, was born in Thuringian town of Gros sengottern.

1676 Apr 17, Frederick I, king of Sweden, was born.
(HN, 4/17/98)

1676 Apr 18, Sudbury, Massachusetts was attacked by Indians.
(HN, 4/18/98)

1676 Apr 29, Michiel A. de Ruyter (69), Dutch rear-admiral, (Newport), was killed.
(MC, 4/29/02)

1676 May 10, Bacon’s Rebellion began. It pitted frontiersmen against the government. Bacon’s Rebellion in Virginia involved an attack on a local Indian community and the sacking of the colonial capital in Jamestown. It is described by Catherine McNicol Stock in her 1997 book “Rural Radicals; Righteous Rage in the American Grain.”
(SFEC, 2/2/97, BR. p.8)(HN, 5/10/98)

1676 Jul 21, Anthony Collins, English philosopher (A discourse on free-thinking), was born.
(MC, 7/21/02)

1676 Jul 29, Nathaniel Bacon was declared a rebel for assembling frontiersmen to protect settlers from Indians. [see May 10, Sep 1]
(MC, 7/29/02)

1676 Aug 12, Indian chief King Philip, also known as Metacom, was killed by a Pocasset Indian named Alderman in the swamps of Rhode Island. This ended the King Philip’s War. Benjamin Church, a Plymouth volunteer, ordered that Philip be beheaded and quartered. [see Aug 28]
(AH, 6/02, p.50)

1676 Aug 26, Sir Robert Walpole (d.1745), the first and longest serving prime minister of England, was born. He was not then called the prime minister as the king held all honors. He collected a large number of paintings by old masters at his Houghton Hall home in Norfolk.
(WSJ, 3/3/97, p.A16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Walpole)

1676 Aug 28, Indian chief King Philip, also known as Metacom, was killed by English soldiers, ending the war between Indians and colonists. [see Aug 12]
(HN, 8/28/98)

1676 Sep 1, Nathaniel Bacon led an uprising against English Governor William Berkeley at Jamestown, Virginia, resulting in the settlement being burned to the ground. Bacon’s Rebellion came in response to the governor’s repeated refusal to defend the colonists against the Indians. [see May 10, Sep 19]
(HN, 9/1/99)

1676 Sep 19, Rebels under Nathaniel Bacon set Jamestown, Va., on fire. [see Sep 1]
(MC, 9/19/01)

1676 Sep 21, Benedetto Odescalchi was elected as Pope Innocent XI.
(MC, 9/21/01)

1676 Oct 18, Nathaniel Bacon, who rallied against Virginian government, was killed at 29.
(MC, 10/18/01)

1676 Nov 16, 1st colonial prison was organized at Nantucket Mass.
(MC, 11/16/01)

1676 Roger Williams published “George Fox Digg’d Out of His Burrowes.” It was an account of his debates with the Quakers in Newport and Providence.
(AH, 4/07, p.28)

1676 Canonchet, the Narragansett sachem, was executed.
(AH, 6/02, p.48)

1676 Lully composed his tragic opera “Atys.”
(SFEC, 1/18/98, DB p.33)

1676 Isaac Newton wrote: “If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of Giants.”
(Econ, 8/7/04, p.64)

1676 Jean-Domenique Cassini, director of the Paris Observatory, reported that there were 2 rings around Saturn separated by a gap that came to be called the Cassini Division.
(NH, 10/1/04, p.29)

1676 Ole Christensen Romer (Roemer), Danish astronomer, derived a speed of light of 130,000 miles per second based on his observations of Io, the innermost moon of Jupiter.
(http://inkido.indiana.edu/a100/timeline2.html)(NH, 2/05, p.19)

1676 Geminiamo Montanari, Italian astronomer, documented a meteor with a sound “like the rattling of a great Cart running over Stones.” It was later understood that meteors can detectable generate radio waves.
(NH, 7/02, p.38)

1676 Jeong Seon (d.1759), Korean landscape painter, was born.

1676 King Carlos II of Spain, having successfully outlawed a drink suspected of leading to homicides, inattentiveness at church and moral turpitude, warned his colonial rulers in Bogota of a drink “that is, beyond all comparison, more dangerous and which goes by the name of aguardiente.” In 1988 Gilma Mora de Tovar’s authored, “Aguardiente and Social Conflicts in 18th Century New Granada,”
(AP, 9/2/03)

1676-1759 Chong Son, Korean painter. His work included “Pine Tree at Sajik Altar” and “Landscape.”
(SFC, 7/26/97, p.E1)

1677 Feb 15, King Charles II reported an anti-French covenant with Netherlands.
(MC, 2/15/02)

1677 Feb 16, Earl of Shaftesbury was arrested and confined to the London Tower. [see Oct 24, 1681]
(MC, 2/16/02)

1677 Feb 21, [Benedictus] Baruch Spinoza (b.1632), Dutch philosopher, died. In 2003 Antonio Damasio authored “Looking for Spinoza,” a look at contemporary neurological research in contrast with the opposing philosophical views of Spinoza and Descartes. In 2005 Matthew Stewart authored “The Courtier and the Heretic: Leibniz, Spinoza, and the Fate of God in the Modern World.”
(WUD, 1994 p.1371)(SSFC, 2/2/03, p.M4)(WSJ, 12/15/05, p.D8)

1677 Mar 13, Massachusetts gained title to Maine for $6,000.
(MC, 3/13/02)

1677 Apr 27, Colonel Jeffreys became the governor of Virginia.
(HN, 4/27/98)

1677 May 29, King Charles II and 12 Virginia Indian chiefs signed a treaty that established a 3-mile non-encroachment zone around Indian land. The Mattaponi Indians in 1997 invoked this treaty to protect against encroachment.
(SFC, 6/2/97, p.A3)

1677 Sep 21, John and Nicolaas van der Heyden patented a fire extinguisher.
(MC, 9/21/01)

1677 Nov 4, William and Mary were married in England on William’s birthday. William of Orange married his cousin Mary (daughter to James, Duke of York and the same James II who fled in 1688).
(HNQ, 12/28/00)(HN, 11/4/02)

1677 Racine wrote his drama Phedre in alexandrine meter. It was based on Euripides’ tragic Greek tale of Phaedra’s love for her stepson Hippolytus, son of Theseus.
(WSJ, 5/21/97, p.A12)(Econ, 6/20/09, p.89)(Econ, 6/27/09, p.92)

1677 Pope Innocent XII confirmed the imperial foundation of the Univ. of Innsbruck in a papal bull that emphasized the Catholic character of the Univ. and decreed that the important chairs of the Faculty of Theology be filled by members of the Jesuit order.
(StuAus, April ’95, p.97)

1677 The Episcopal Parish called St. Michaels was established on the east coast of the Chesapeake Bay. The town of St. Michaels derives its name after the parish.
(SMBA, 1996)

1677 Christopher Wren redesigned the burned Church of St. Mary the Virgin in Aldermanbury, England. His monument at St. Paul’s Cathedral in London reads: “Si monumentum requires circumspice” (If you seek his monument, look around you).
(SFC, 3/30/97, p.T5)(WSJ, 5/21/97, p.A15)

1678 Feb 18, John Bunyan’s “Pilgrim’s Progress” was published. [see Sep 28]
(MC, 2/18/02)

1678 Mar 4, Antonio Vivaldi (d.1741), Italian Baroque composer (4 Seasons) and violinist, was born in Venice. [see 1675]
(HN, 3/4/01)(SC, 3/4/02)

1678 May 31, The Godiva procession, commemorating Lady Godiva’s legendary ride while naked, became part of the Coventry Fair.
(HN, 5/31/01)

1678 Jun 17, Giacomo Torelli (69), composer, died.
(MC, 6/17/02)

1678 Jul 26, Joseph I Habsburg, German king, Roman catholic emperor (1705-11), was born.
(MC, 7/26/02)

1678 Aug 3, Robert LaSalle built the 1st ship in America, Griffon.
(SC, 8/3/02)(AP, 12/10/03)

1678 Aug 16, Andrew Marvell (b.1621), English poet (Definition of Love), died.
(MC, 8/16/02)

1678 Sep 28, “Pilgrim’s Progress” by John Bunyan (b.1628) was published. [see Feb 18]
(MC, 9/28/01)

1678 Nov 18, Giovanni Maria Bononcini (36), composer, died.
(MC, 11/18/01)

1678 Nov 28, England’s King Charles II accused his wife, Catherine of Braganza, of treason. Her crime? She had yet to bear him children.
(DTnet, 11/28/97)

1678 Nov 30, Roman Catholics were banned from English parliament.
(MC, 11/30/01)

1678 Dec 3, Edmund Halley received an MA from Queen’s College, Oxford.
(MC, 12/3/01)

1678 Titus Oates (b.1649), failed Catholic seminarian, and Israel Tonge concocted the Popish Plot. They alleged that plotters planned to raise a Catholic army, massacre Protestants, and poison Charles II in order to get James on the throne. 9 Jesuit priests were executed. In 1681 it was revealed to be a fabrication.
(www.newadvent.org/cathen/11173c.htm)(ON, 7/06, p.9)

1678 Anthony Ashley Cooper, the Earl of Shaftesbury and Protestant Parliamentary leader formed the County Party, later known as the Whigs, to prevent James from becoming king of England.
(ON, 7/06, p.9)

1678 Louis XIV claimed the region of Alsace from Germany.
(SFEC, 1/31/99, p.T4)

1678 Frederick William, Brandenburg’s Great Elector, gave Bielefeld the privilege of certifying the quality of local linen. This cemented its position as a center for the textile trade.
(Econ, 4/14/12, p.30)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brandenburg)

1678-1707 Georg Farquhar, Anglo-Irish dramatist.
(WSJ, 10/3/96, p.A12)
1678-1707 Aurangzeb was the 1st Muslim ruler to fire his cannon at the giant Buddhas at Bamiyan, Afghanistan.
(WSJ, 11/16/01, p.W12)

1679 Jan 24, King Charles II disbanded the English parliament.
(MC, 1/24/02)

1679 Jan 31, Jean-Baptiste Lully’s opera “Bellerophon” premiered in Paris.
(MC, 1/31/02)

1679 Mar, King Charles II sent his brother James to the Netherlands for safety.
(ON, 7/06, p.9)

1679 Apr 3, Edmund Halley met Johannes Hevelius in Danzig.
(MC, 4/3/02)

1679 Apr 17, John van Kessel (53), Flemish painter, died.
(MC, 4/17/02)

1679 May 12, Giovanni Antonio Ricieri, composer, was born.
(MC, 5/12/02)

1679 May 14, Peder [Nielsen] Horrebow, Danish astronomer, was born.
(MC, 5/14/02)

1679 May 15, The Earl of Shaftesbury introduced his Exclusion Bill into Parliament proposing that James, the Catholic brother of King Charles II, be permanently barred from the line of succession to the English throne.
(ON, 7/06, p.9)

1679 May 27, England’s House of Lords passed the Habeas Corpus Act (have the body) to prevent false arrest and imprisonment. King Charles adjourned Parliament before the final reading of Shaftesbury’s Exclusion Bill.
(WUD, 1994 p.634)(www.british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=11707)(ON, 7/06, p.9)

1679 Jun 1, Battle at Bothwell Bridge on Clyde: Duke of Monmouth beat the Scottish. (MC, 6/1/02)

1679 Jul 10, The British crown claimed New Hampshire as a royal colony.
(HN, 7/10/98)

1679 Jul 12, Britain’s King Charles II ratified Habeas Corpus Act.
(MC, 7/12/02)

1679 Sep 18, New Hampshire became a county Massachusetts Bay Colony.
(MC, 9/18/01)

1679 Oct 16, Jan Dismas Zelenka, composer, was born.
(MC, 10/16/01)

1679 Oct 23, The Meal Tub Plot took place against James II of England.
(MC, 10/23/01)

1679 Nov 3, A great panic occurred in Europe over the close approach of a comet.
(MC, 11/3/01)

1679 Dec 4, Thomas Hobbes (b.1588), English philosopher, died. “The reputation of power IS power.” Hobbes sought to separate politics from religion. In his book “Leviathan” he argues that the only way to secure civil society is through universal submission to the absolute authority of a sovereign.
(www.thefreedictionary.com/Hobbesian)(WSJ, 7/30/03, p.A12)(WSJ, 9/15/07, p.W10)

1679 Dec 17, Don Juan, ruler of Spain, died.
(MC, 12/17/01)

1679 Louis Hennepin, a Catholic priest, sailed up the Detroit River aboard the Griffon, through Lake St. Clair, which he named, and into Lake Huron and beyond. The French ship Le Griffon, built by explorer Rene-Robert Sieur de La Salle disappeared during its maiden voyage.
(DFP, 7/24/01, p.5A)(SFC, 6/5/13, p.A6)
1679 Elections in England produced a new House of Commons, but King Charles II declined to let it assemble.
(ON, 7/06, p.9)

1679-1947 Some 8,500 vessels have been lost in Lake Michigan over this period.
(Hem., 7/96, p.25)

1680 Apr 3, Shivaji Raje Bhosle (b.1627), warrior king and founder of the Maratha empire of western India, died.
(Econ, 7/12/08, p.73)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shivaji)

1680 May 5, Giuseppe Porsile, composer, was born.
(MC, 5/5/02)

1680 May 29, Abraham Megerle (73), composer, died.
(SC, 5/29/02)

1680 Jul 26, John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester, poet, courtier, died.
(MC, 7/26/02)

1680 Aug 13, War started when the Spanish were expelled from Santa Fe, New Mexico, by Indians under Chief Pope.
(HN, 8/13/98)

1680 Aug 21, Pueblo Indians took possession of Santa Fe, N.M., after driving out the Spanish. They destroyed almost all of the Spanish churches in Taos and Santa Fe.
(AP, 8/21/97)(SFEC, 6/21/98, Z1 p.8)

1680 Aug 24, Colonel Thomas Blood, Irish adventurer who stole the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London in 1671, died. Captured after the theft, he insisted on seeing King Charles II, who pardoned him.
(Reuters, 8/24/01)

1680 Sep 25, Samuel Butler (b.1612), poet and satirist, died.
(MC, 9/25/01)

1680 Oct 13, Daniel Elsevier, book publisher and publisher, died at 54.
(MC, 10/13/01)

1680 Oct, King Charles II of England was forced to recall Parliament in order to ask for money to fortify the port of Tangier, Morocco, which was under assault by Moorish forces.
(ON, 7/06, p.9)

1680 Nov 18, Jean-Baptiste Loeillet, composer, was born.
(MC, 11/18/01)

1680 Nov 27, Athanasius Kircher, German Jesuit and inventor of a lantern, died.
(MC, 11/27/01)

1680 Nov 28 Giovanni “Gian” Lorenzo Bernini (b.Dec 7,1598), Sculptor, Painter, Architect, Italian, the greatest sculptor of the 17th century, died.
(DTnet, 11/28/97)

1680 Pierre Puget made his bronze sculpture of Herakles (Hercules) struggling in the burning tunic. Sophocles around 440-420 composed his tragedy “The Trachinian Women.” It described what happened when Hercules put on the robe woven by his wife Deianeira.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.55)

1680 John Locke completed two works requested by the Earl of Shaftsbury. “The First Treatise on Civil Government” was written to counter Robert Filmer’s old book “Patriarcha.” “The Second Treatise on Civil Government” was a more general approach. It concerns the interconnection of three great ideas: property, government, and revolution. Government comes into existence, said Locke, because of property. If there is no property, then government is not needed to protect it. For Locke the question revolved around whether property was legitimate.

1680 Kateri Tekakwitha (b.1656), known as the “Lily of the Mohawks,” died in Canada. She was born to a pagan Iroquois father and an Algonquin Christian mother in upstate New York. Her parents and only brother died when she was 4 during a smallpox epidemic that left her badly scarred and with impaired eyesight. She went to live with her uncle, a Mohawk, and was baptized Catholic by Jesuit missionaries. But she was ostracized and persecuted by other natives for her faith. In 2012 she was named a saint in the Catholic church.
(AP, 10/20/12)

1680 Benedetto Ferrari composed his oratorio “Il Sansone,” (Samson). It was later discovered that he wrote the text and probably the music for “Pur to miro,” the final duet for Monteverdi’s “L’Incoronazione di Poppea.”
(SFC, 1/20/98, p.E1)(SFC, 6/9/98, p.D1)

1680 In Hamburg, Germany, a cymbal was used for the 1st time in an orchestra.
(SFC, 9/18/99, p.B3)

1680 The original parish of the Nuestra Senora de la Purisima Concepcion church in Socorro, Texas, also known as San Miguel because it contains a statue of the archangel Michael, was founded.
(AWAM, Dec. 94, p.65)

1680 Maryland colonists ran out of supplies and survived starvation by eating oysters.
(SFC, 9/18/99, p.B3)

c1680 The first American tall case clock, later called a “grandfather clock,” was built.
(SFC,10/22/97, Z1 p.7)

1680 Chief Justice William Scroggs was impeached for, among other things, browbeating witnesses, cursing and drinking to excess.
(WSJ, 1/25/99, p.A19)

1680 An eclipse of the sun occurred in this year. The oral tradition of one African culture speaks of a strange darkness during chief Bo Kama Bomenchala’s reign.
(ATC, p.147)

1680 Light from the supernova of the star Cassiopeia A reached Earth. A remnant was observed by the Chandra X-ray Observatory in 1999.
(USAT, 8/27/99, p.14A)(Econ, 8/28/04, p.71)

1680 Kateri Tekakwitha, a Mohawk Indian, died. She became the first Native American to be beatified by the Catholic Church in 1980.
(SFEC, 9/14/97, p.A18)

1680 Leavened bread was developed in Egypt.
(SFC, 9/18/99, p.B3)

1680 Hykos tribesmen wore sandals and successfully overcame barefoot Egyptians.
(SFC, 9/18/99, p.B3)

1680 Portuguese founded Colonia del Sacramento (Uruguay) for smuggling contraband across the Rio de la Plata to Spanish-controlled Argentina.
(SSFC, 10/30/05, p.F7)

c1680-1685 Simon Pietesz, Verelst, painted a portrait of “Nell Gwyn,” Protestant mistress to Charles II.
(WSJ, 3/7/02, p.A22)

1680-1786 On Senegal it was estimated that over 2 million slaves passed through Goree Island on their way to the American colonies.
(SFC, 4/3/98, p.B3)

1681 Jan 6, 1st recorded boxing match was between the Duke of Albemarle’s butler and his butcher.
(MC, 1/6/02)

1681 Jan 8, The treaty of Radzin ended a five year war between the Turks and the allied countries of Russia and Poland.
(HN, 1/8/99)

1681 Jan 18, England’s King Charles II suspended Parliament and set its next meeting for March in Oxford.
(ON, 7/06, p.10)

1681 Mar 4, England’s King Charles II granted a charter to William Penn (37) for 48,000 square miles that later became Pennsylvania. Penn’s father had bequeathed him a claim of £15,000 against the king. Penn later laid out the city of Philadelphia as a gridiron about 2 miles long, east to west, and a mile wide.
(PCh, 1992, p.259)(AP, 3/4/98)(SFEC, 8/16/98, p.T1)

1681 Mar 14, Georg Philipp Telemann, late baroque composer, was born in Magdeburg, Germany.
(MC, 3/14/02)

1681 Apr 8, England’s King Charles II received the 1st installment of a 5-million livre subsidy from King Louis of France. This provided him independence from Parliament and he ruled without it until his death in 1685.
(ON, 7/06, p.10)

1681 Apr 11, Anne Danican Philidor, composer, was born.
(MC, 4/11/02)

1681 May 17, Louis XIV sent an expedition to aid James II in Ireland. As a result, England declared war on France.
(HN, 5/17/99)

1681 May 25, Caldéron de la Barca (b.1600), Spanish dramatist & poet, died.
(WUD, 1994 p.210)(SC, 5/25/02)

1681 Aug 22, Pierre Danican Philidor, composer, was born.
(MC, 8/22/02)

1681 Oct 24, Earl of Shaftesbury (d.1683) was accused of high treason in London. The Earl of Shaftesbury had challenged the king on the question of succession. The king dissolved Parliament and threw Shaftesbury into the Tower of London and charged him with treason. Shaftesbury was acquitted and went to Holland with John Locke.
(V.D.-H.K.p.220)(MC, 10/24/01)(PCh, 1992, p.260)

1681 Nov 9, Hungarian parliament promised Protestants freedom of religion.
(MC, 11/9/01)

1681 Fa Jo-chen, Chinese artist, created a 45-foot-long handscroll of a winding river with the land on both sides rolled up in round, furry lumps.
(WSJ, 5/15/02, p.AD7)

1681 Nehemiah Grew, the first scientist to call sloths by their common English name, described the animal in his catalog of specimens owned by the Royal Society of London.
(Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.20-21)

1681 The dodo bird was last seen on Mauritius. The dodo bird became extinct on Mauritius. In 2005 scientists reported the discovery of a complete skeleton of the bird on Mauritius.
(SFC, 7/7/96, BR p.5)(NH, 11/96, p.24)(SFEC, 6/21/98, Z1 p.8)(SSFC, 12/25/05, p.A2)

1681-1730 French Protestants, known as Huguenots, migrated in large numbers to England due to persecutions known as dragonnades wherein rowdy soldiers were billeted in their homes. They also lost a semblance of security in the 1685 revocation of the Edict of Nantes.
(Econ, 12/20/03, p.85)

1681-1764 Johann Mattheson, German composer, friend of Handel.
(LGC-HCS, p.38)

1682 Feb 13, Giovanni Piazzetta, painter, was born.
(HN, 2/13/98)

1682 Apr 3, Esteban Murillo (b.1617), Spanish painter, died. Some of his mid-century work in Seville portrayed the effects of the Plague that killed 50% of the population in 4 months.
(WSJ, 4/9/02, p.D19)(MC, 4/3/02)

1682 Apr 9, The French explorer Rene Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, reached the Mississippi River. La Salle claimed lower Mississippi River and all lands that touched it for France.
(AP, 4/9/97)(SFC, 11/30/96, p.A7)(HN, 4/9/98)

1682 Apr 11, Jean-Joseph Mouret, composer, was born.
(MC, 4/11/02)

1682 May 6, King Louis XIV moved his court to Versailles, France.
(HN, 5/6/98)

1682 Jun 10, The first tornado of record in colonial America hit New Haven, Conn.
(SFEC, 7/4/99, Z1 p.8)

1682 Jun 27, Charles XII (d.1718), King of Sweden (1697-1718), was born.
(WUD, 1994, p.249)(SFC, 8/17/96, p.E5)(HN, 6/27/98)

1682 Jul 14, Henry Purcell was appointed organist of Chapel Royal, London.
(MC, 7/14/02)

1682 Aug 24, Duke James of York gave Delaware to William Penn.
(MC, 8/24/02)

1682 Aug 30, William Penn left England to sail to New World. He took along an insurance policy.
(MC, 8/30/01)

1682 Sep 4, English astronomer Edmund Halley saw his namesake comet.
(MC, 9/4/01)

1682 Oct 26, William Penn accepted the area around Delaware River from Duke of York.
(MC, 10/26/01)

1682 Oct 29, The founder of Pennsylvania, William Penn, landed at what is now Chester, Pa. William Penn founded Philadelphia. Penn founded Pennsylvania as a “Holy Experiment” based on Quaker principles.
(AP, 10/29/97)(SFEC, 6/21/98, Z1 p.8)(SSFC, 8/5/01, p.C10)

1682 Nov 23, Claude Lorrain, French painter (also known as Claude Gelée), died. His birth is variously noted from 1600-1604.
(WSJ, 11/6/02, p.D8)(www.britannica.com/eb/article-9024243/Claude-Lorrain)

1682 Nehemiah Grew (1641-1712), English botanist and physician, postulated that plants reproduce sexually in his book “Anatomy of Plants.” His 1st book on plant anatomy was titled “The Anatomy of Vegetable Begun” (1672).
(www.britannica.com/eb/article-9038079)(Econ, 11/12/05, p.88)

1682 Thomas Otway wrote his Restoration tragedy “Venice Preserv’d.”
(WSJ, 2/6/97, p.A12)

1682 John Playford organized the Musick’s Recreation on the Viol.
(EMN, 1/96, p.4)

1682 Wren’s Royal Hospital Chelsea was founded by Charles II as a hostel for old soldiers.
(WSJ, 3/11/02, p.A16)

1682 William Penn established Bucks County as one of Pennsylvania’s 3 original counties.
(WSJ, 3/22/08, p.R7)

1682 Nicholas Wise founded Norfolk, Va.
(SFEC, 7/4/99, Z1 p.8)

1682 Pere Lachaise, a French Jesuit priest, was confessor to Louis XIV. His order built a house on the future site of the Paris cemetery named after him.
(SFC, 6/16/96, T-6)

1682 In Russia a rebellion by government Streltsy regiments killed the grandfather, aunts and other relatives of Peter the Great. The Monastery of Peter the Metropolitan was reconstructed and as served as the family necropolis.
(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.38)

1682 In Tibet the Fifth Dalai Lama (b.1617) died. His death kept hidden for 15 years by his prime minister and possible son Desi Sangay Gyatso in order that the Potala Palace could be finished and Tibet’s neighbors not take advantage of an interregnum in the succession.

1682-1725 The rule of Peter the Great. The original stone cathedral of the Monastery of the Epiphany in Moscow was built during this time. It was built over the remnants of an earlier wooden church.
(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.37)

1683 Feb 12, A Christian Army, led by Charles, the Duke of Lorraine and King John Sobieski of Poland, routed a huge Ottoman army surrounding Vienna.
(HN, 2/12/99)

1683 Feb 20, Philip V, first Bourbon King of Spain, was born. [see Dec 19]
(HN, 2/20/01)

1683 Apr 1, Roger Williams (b.1603) died in poverty in Rhode Island. Williams died at Providence between, his wife Mary having predeceased him in 1676. Williams was the first champion of complete religious toleration in America. In 2005 Edwin S. Gaustad authored the biography “Roger Williams.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_Williams_%28theologian%29)(WSJ, 6/21/05, p.D10)

1683 Apr 15, Catherine I (d.1727), empress of Russia (1725-1727), was born as Martha Skravonskaya in Jacobstadt, Latvia. Catherine was the daughter of Samuil Skavronski, a Lithuanian peasant.
(HN, 4/15/98)(www.arthistoryclub.com/art_history/Catherine_I_of_Russia)

1683 Jun 23, William Penn signed a friendship treaty with Lenni Lenape Indians in Pennsylvania. It became the only treaty “not sworn to, nor broken.”
(HN, 6/23/98)(MC, 6/23/02)

1683 Jul 3, Edward Young, English poet, dramatist and literary critic, was born. He wrote “Night Thoughts.”
(HN, 7/3/99)

1683 Jul 21, Lord William Russell, English plotter against Charles II, was beheaded.
(MC, 7/21/02)

1683 Jul 24, The 1st settlers from Germany to US left aboard the ship Concord.

1683 Sep 3, Turkish troops broke through the defense of Vienna.
(MC, 9/3/01)

1683 Sep 6, Jean-Baptiste Colbert (b.1619), French finance minister (1665-1683) under Louis XIV, died. He pioneered “dirigisme,” i.e. state control of the economy and state intervention in industry. “The art of taxation consists in so plucking the goose as to obtain the largest possible amount of feathers with the smallest possible amount of hissing.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean-Baptiste_Colbert)(Econ, 3/25/06, p.71)(Econ, 2/22/14, SR p.5)

1683 Sep 9, Algernon Sidney, English Whig politician and plotter, was beheaded.
(MC, 9/9/01)

1683 Sep 12, A combined Austrian and Polish army defeated the Ottoman Turks at Kahlenberg and lifted the siege on Vienna, Austria. Prince Eugene of Savoy helped repel an invasion of Vienna, Austria, by Turkish forces. Marco d’Aviano, sent by Pope Innocent XI to unite the outnumbered Christian troops, spurred them to victory. The Turks left behind sacks of coffee which the Christians found too bitter, so they sweetened it with honey and milk and named the drink cappuccino after the Capuchin order of monks to which d’Aviano belonged. An Austrian baker created a crescent-shaped roll, the Kipfel, to celebrate the victory. Empress Maria Theresa later took it to France where it became the croissant. In 2006 John Stoye authored “The Siege of Vienna.”
(Hem., Dec. ’95, p.69)(WSJ, 3/27/96, p.A-16)(HN, 9/12/98)(SFEC, 2/6/00, p.A1)(Reuters, 4/28/03)(WSJ, 6/3/03, p.D5) (WSJ, 12/6/06, p.D12)

1683 Sep 17, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek reported the existence of bacteria.
(MC, 9/17/01)

1683 Sep 24, King Louis XIV expelled all Jews from French possessions in America.
(MC, 9/24/01)

1683 Sep 25, Jean-Philippe Rameau, composer, was born in Dijon, France.
(MC, 9/25/01)

1683 Sep 29, A small armada sailed from the Mexican mainland across the Sea of Cortez to the Baha Peninsula. Hostile natives had forced them back to the mainland on a first landing and a storm forced them back on a 2nd attempt.
(SFEC, 5/18/97, p.T5)(WSJ, 12/26/97, p.A9)

1683 Oct 6, 13 Mennonite families from Krefeld, Germany, arrived in present-day Philadelphia to begin Germantown, one of America’s oldest settlements. They were encouraged by William Penn’s offer of 5,000 acres of land in the colony of Pennsylvania and the freedom to practice their religion.
(AP, 10/6/97)(www.ulib.iupui.edu/kade/germantown.html)
1683 Oct 6, The small armada from the Mexican mainland landed on their 3rd attempt at crossing to the Baha peninsula and settled at the mouth of a river that they named San Bruno. The site was abandoned after 2 years. Spanish settlement on the Baha was later described by Father James Donald Francez in “The Lost Treasures of Baha California.”
(SFEC, 5/18/97, p.T5)(WSJ, 12/26/97, p.A9)

1683 Oct 30, George II, King of Great Britain (1727-60), was born. [see Oct 30]
(MC, 10/30/01)

1683 Nov 10, George II, king of England (1727-60), was born. [see Nov 10]
(MC, 11/10/01)

1683 Nov 22, Purcell’s “Welcome to All the Pleasures,” premiered in London.
(MC, 11/22/01)

1683 Dec 19, Philip V, King of Spain (1700-24, 24-46), was born in Versailles, France. [see Feb 20]
(MC, 12/19/01)

1683 Dec 25, Kara Mustapha (b.~1634), chief of the Ottoman janissaries, appeared before the grand vizier in Belgrade. He was sentenced to death and executed for the military loss at Vienna.
(WSJ, 12/5/06, p.D12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kara_Mustafa)

1683 Giovanni Battista Foggini created his sculpture “The Mass of Saint Andrea Corsini.”
(WSJ, 1/29/02, p.A18)

1683 The Ashmolean Museum was built in Oxford to house natural-history artifacts. It was the first such public museum. It gained its name and its first collections from Elias Ashmole (1617-1692), whose own collections were derived in part from those of John Tradescant (1608-1662).
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)(http://myweb.tiscali.co.uk/speel//otherart/ashmole.htm)

1683 Alessandro Scarlatti (father of Domenico Scarlatti) wrote the score for his opera “L’Aldimiro.” The only know score extant was found in a library in Berkeley, Ca., in 1989.
(SFC, 5/26/96, DB p.26)

1683 Secatogue Indians deeded land on the South Shore of Long Island to William Nicoll.
(WSJ, 10/9/07, p.D6)

1683 French King Louis XIV married Madame de Maintenon (1635-1719), his mistress for the last 11 years, shortly after the death of his wife. The marriage was kept secret for the next 3 decades.
(Econ, 7/26/08, p.96)

1683 Taiwan was claimed by China’s Manchu dynasty after large-scale immigration from the Chinese mainland to the island.
(AP, 8/12/06)

1683-1707 Adriaen Coorte (b.1665), a Dutch Golden Age painter of still lifes, signed his work during this period. His work included “Still Life With Sea Shells” (1698).

1684 Jan 11, In Switzerland this day “was so frightfully cold that all of the communion wine froze,” said an entry by Brother Josef Dietrich, governor and “weatherman” of the Einsiedeln Monastery. The Einsiedeln abbots, princes within the Holy Roman Empire until 1798, were powerful leaders who ruled over large swaths of central Switzerland’s mountainous terrain.
(AP, 9/15/07)

1684 Apr 25, A patent was granted for the thimble.
(SS, 4/25/02)

1684 Jun 21, King Charles II revoked the 1629 Massachusetts Bay Colony charter. [see 1691]
(HNQ, 11/23/00)(MC, 6/21/02)

1684 Jun 22, Francesco Onofrio Manfredini, composer, was born.
(MC, 6/22/02)

1684 Oct 1, Pierre Corneille, French lawyer and dramatist (El Cid, Polyeucte), died at 42.
(MC, 10/1/01)

1684 Oct 10, Jean Antoine Watteau (d.1721), French rococo painter, was born.
(WUD, 1994 p.1614)(AAP, 1964)(MC, 10/10/01)

1684 Dec 3, Ludvig Baron Holberg, founder of Danish & Norwegian literature, was born.
(MC, 12/3/01)

1684 For one year Paris was the world’s biggest city.
(SFEC, 2/22/98, Z1 p.8)
1684 French explorer Rene Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, set sail for what is now Louisiana with 4 ships commissioned from King Louis XIV. On the way one ship was lost to pirates, another broke apart on a sand bar and a third returned home. The 4th was sunk in a storm in 1686.
(SFC, 11/30/96, p.A7)
1684 Lorenzo de Tonti (b.~1602), governor of Gaeta, Italy, and a Neapolitan banker, died about this time. He is sometimes credited with the invention of the tontine, a form of life insurance, although it has also been suggested that he simply modified existing procedures.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lorenzo_de_Tonti)(Econ 6/17/17, p.68)

1685 Jan, French explorer Rene Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, landed at Matagorda Bay, Texas. He thought that he was at the mouth of the Mississippi River but soon realized his mistake and went of looking for the river.
(SFC, 11/9/96, p.A12)(SFC, 11/30/96, p.A7)

1685 Feb 6, Charles II (54), King of England, Scotland, Ireland (1660-85), died and was succeeded by his Catholic brother James II. He made a deathbed conversion to the Roman Catholic faith. He had earlier ordered Christopher Wren to build an observatory and maritime college at Greenwich. In 2000 Stephen Coote authored the biography: “Royal Survivor.”
(WSJ, 2/28/00, p.A36)(http://tinyurl.com/hkkln)

1685 Feb 11, David Teniers III (46), Flemish painter, died.
(MC, 2/11/02)

1685 Feb 23, George Frideric Handel (d.1759), composer and musician, was born in Halle, Germany.
(LGC-HCS, p.37)(AP, 2/23/98)(HN, 2/23/98)

1685 Mar 21, Composer Johann Sebastian Bach (d.1750) was born in Eisenach, Germany, the youngest of eight children. 2nd source says Mar 21. He composed cantatas, sonatas, preludes, fugues and chorale preludes, and whose works included “Brandenburg Concerto” and “Well-Tempered Clavier.”
(AP, 3/21/97)(LGC-HCS.p.17)(HN, 3/21/99)

1685 May 28, Pieter de la Court (~67), economist, historian, died.
(MC, 5/28/02)

1685 Jun 11, James Scott, Duke of Monmouth, rebelled against Catholic king James II.
(AP, 6/11/03)

1685 Jun 30, John Gay, playwright, was born. He wrote the Beggars’ Opera which attacked the court of George II,
(HN, 6/30/99)
1685 Jun 30, Dominikus Zimmermann, German architect, painter (Liebfrauenkirche), was born.
(MC, 6/30/02)
1685 Jun 30, Archibald Campbell (~55), Scottish politician, was beheaded.
(MC, 6/30/02)

1685 Jun, Qing Emperor Kangxi sent Manchu, Chinese and Daurian forces in a siege against Russians at Albazino on the far eastern Amur River. Some 100 of 800 Russians were killed on the first day of the attack. The survivors surrendered and returned to Nerchinsk.
(Econ, 12/19/09, p.71)

1685 Jul 6, James II defeated James, the Duke of Monmouth, at the Battle of Sedgemoor, the last major battle to be fought on English soil.
(HN, 7/6/98)

1685 Jul 15, James Scott, the Duke of Monmouth and illegitimate son of Charles II, was executed on Tower Hill in England, after his army was defeated at Sedgemoor.
(HN, 7/15/98)(MC, 7/15/02)

1685 Oct 18, King Louis the XIV signed the Edict of Fontainebleau, revoking the Edict of Nantes that had established legal toleration of France’s Protestant population, the Huguenots. The French Parliament recorded the new edict four days later. The edict signed at Nantes, France, by King Henry IV in 1598, had given the Huguenots religious liberty, civil rights and security. By revoking the Edict of Nantes, Louis XIV abrogated their religious liberties. He declared France entirely Catholic again.
(HN, 4/13/98)(HN, 10/18/98)(AP, 10/18/07)

1685 Oct 26, Domenico Scarlatti (d.1757, composer and harpsichordist was born in Naples, Italy. Scarlatti, son of Alessandro, composed over 550 short, keyboard sonatas or exercises.
(WUD, 1994 p.1275)(LGC-HCS, p.38)(MC, 10/26/01)

1685 Nov 8, Fredrick William of Brandenburg issued the Edict of Potsdam, offering Huguenots refuge.
(HN, 11/6/98)

1685 Dec 3, Charles II barred Jews from settling in Stockholm, Sweden.
(MC, 12/3/01)

1685 Dec 12, Lodovico Giustini, composer, was born.
(MC, 12/12/01)

1685 Sylvestre Dufour published “Traitez Nuveaux et Curieux de Cafe, du The, et du Chocolat.”
(WSJ, 7/7/98, p.A14)

1685 Dutch mapmaker, Johannes van Keulen, produced a map of New York and Long Island. He charted the Hudson and Connecticut rivers with greater accuracy than ever before. Long Island was labeled on the map as “Lange Eyland.”
(WSJ, 11/24/95, p.B-8)

1685 In Canada there was a shortage of currency and playing cards were assigned monetary values for use as money.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1685 The Venetians returned to the Peloponnesus.
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.56)

1685-1712 Celia Fiennes’ journal about her travels throughout England have provided historians with valuable insight into the social conditions of the country in the late 1600s. Celia Fiennes, an enterprising young, single woman, rode side-saddle through every county in England. She traveled alone except for two servants, and the journal she kept, later published as “The Journeys of Celia Fiennes 1685-c.1712,” is the only evidence we have of her travels.
(HNQ, 4/22/01)

c1685-1753 George Berkeley, Irish bishop and philosopher. He argued that the things we see around us exist only as ideas. This was in opposition to naive realism which held that we perceive objects as they really are.
(WUD, 1994, p.140)(WSJ, 8/21/98, p.W13)

1685-1768 Hakuin Ekaku, Japanese Zen painter. His work included “Side View of Daruma.”
(SSFC, 9/23/01, DB p.48)

1686 Jan, A storm arose and sank the French ship “La Belle,” of explorer Rene Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, in Matagorda Bay, Texas. La Salle was off searching for the Mississippi River. This ended La Salle’s plan for a French colony and opened the door to Spain to come and occupy Texas. Archeologists found the ship in 1995 in 12-feet of water and began a recovery project. In 1996 a skeleton was bound onboard. In 2014 the remains of the ship were transported to the Bullock State History Museum in Austin.
(SFC, 11/9/96, p.A12)(SFC, 11/30/96, p.A7)(SFC, 8/16/12, p.A7)(AP, 7/18/14)

1686 Feb 15, Jean Baptiste Lully’s opera “Armide,” premiered in Paris.
(MC, 2/15/02)

1686 Apr 4, English king James II published a Declaration of Indulgence.
(MC, 4/4/02)

1686 May 14, Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit German physicist and instrument maker, was born. He invented the thermometer. [see May 24]
(HN, 5/14/98)

1686 May 24, Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit (d.1736), German physicist, was born. He devised a temperature scale and introduced the use of mercury in thermometers. He assigned the number 32 for the melting point of ice, 96 to the temperature of blood and 212 to the steam point.[see May 14]
(WUD, 1994, p.510)(SFEC, 3/22/98, Par. p.8)(HN, 5/24/98)

1686 Jul 8, The Austrians took Buda, Hungary, from the Turks and annexed the country. Hapsburg rule lasted to 1918.
(HN, 7/8/98)(Sm, 3/06, p.76)

1686 Jul 22, Albany, New York, began operating under an official charter.
(SFEC, 4/2/00, Z1 p.2)

1686 Jul 24, Benedetto Marcello, composer, was born. [see Aug 1]
(MC, 7/24/02)

1686 Aug 1, Benedetto Marcello, Italian author, composer (Lettera Famigliare), was born in Venice, Italy. [see Jul 24]
(MC, 8/1/02)

1686 Dec 19, Robinson Crusoe left his island after 28 years (as per Defoe).
(MC, 12/19/01)

1686 The British Royal Society published “Historia Piscium” by John Ray and Francis Willughby. The expense of the high quality illustrations almost bankrupted the academy.
(Econ, 4/21/12, p.95)

1686 The NYC Charter of this year incorporated the rights of the 1664 New Amsterdam “Articles of Capitulation.”
(WSJ, 3/16/04, p.D6)

1686 The Lenape Indians allegedly sold land along the Lehigh River to William Penn.
(ON, 1/03, p.6)

1686 Two Mohican Indians signed a mortgage for their land in Schaghticoke, New York, with simple markings. It was notarized by Robert Livingston, whose family became one of the greatest agricultural landlords and int’l. merchants in the colony of New York.
(WSJ, 11/19/99, p.W10)

1686 A Spaniard by the name of Francisco Lazcano named a group of about 500 small coral islands east of the Philippines, the Caroline Islands, after King Charles II of Spain who funded the expedition.

1686 Russians returned to Albazino on the far eastern Amur River and were again attacked by the Manchus. After a year’s siege they surrendered with only 40 of 900 alive.
(Econ, 12/19/09, p.71)

1687 Feb 19, Johann Adam Birkenstock, composer and sandal designer, was born.
(MC, 2/19/02)

1687 Feb 22, Jean-Baptiste Lully, composer, died in Paris. Lully, Paris Opera director, had stabbed himself in the foot with a baton and died of blood poisoning.
(SFC, 8/21/99, p.B3)(MC, 2/22/02)

1687 Mar 19, French explorer Robert Cavelier (b.1643), Sieur de La Salle, the first European to navigate the length of the Mississippi River, was murdered by mutineers while searching for the mouth of the Mississippi, along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico in present-day Texas.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ren%C3%A9-Robert_Cavelier,_Sieur_de_La_Salle)(AP, 3/19/97)

1687 Mar 28, Constantine Huygens (90), diplomat, poet, composer (Bluebottles), died.
(MC, 3/28/02)

1687 Apr 4, King James II ordered his Declaration of Indulgence read in church.

1687 Jul 5, The first volume of Isaac Newton’s “Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica” (“Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy”) was published in Latin by Edmund Halley. His invention of differential and integral calculus is here presented. Here also are stated Newton’s laws of motion, that obliterated the Aristotelian concept of inertia.
1) Every physical body continues in its state of rest, unless it is compelled to change that state by a force or forces impressed upon it.
2) A change of motion is proportional to the force impressed upon the body and is made in the direction of the straight line in which the force is impressed.
3) To every action there is always opposed an equal reaction.
Book Three of the Principia opens with two pages headed “Rules of Reasoning in Philosophy.” There are four rules as follows:
1) We are to admit no more causes of natural things than such as are both true and sufficient to explain the appearances. [A restatement of Ockham’s Razor: “What can be done with fewer is done in vain with more.”]
2) Therefore to the same natural effects we must, as far as possible, assign the same causes.
3) The qualities of bodies which are found to belong to all bodies within the reach of our experiments, are to be esteemed the universal qualities of bodies whatsoever.
4) In experimental philosophy we are to look upon propositions inferred by general induction from phenomena as accurately or very nearly true notwithstanding any contrary hypothesis that may be imagined, till such time as other phenomena occur, by which they may either be made more accurate, or liable to exceptions.
(V.D.-H.K.p.207-10)(http://tinyurl.com/6772jj)(Econ, 4/21/12, p.95)

1687 Aug 12, At the Battle of Mohacs, Hungary, Charles of Lorraine defeated the Turks.
(HN, 8/12/98)

1687 Sep 26, The Venetian army attacked the Acropolis in Athens while trying to eject Turks. Marauding Venetians sent a mortar through a gable window of the Parthenon and ignited a Turkish store of gunpowder. This damaged the northern colonnade of the Parthenon. The Parthenon was destroyed in the war between Turks and Venetians.
(SFEC, 6/6/99, p.A26)(MC, 9/26/01)

1687 Sep 28, Venetians took Athens from the Turks.
(MC, 9/28/01)

1687 Oct 20, In Peru a massive earthquake leveled most of Lima. It triggered a tsunami and overall about 5,000 people died.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1687_Peru_earthquake)(SSFC, 11/3/13, p.A6)

1687 Oct 27, The Connecticut colony’s charter was stolen during a public meeting in which Gov. Robert Treat defended the colony against demands by Sir Edmund Andros. It was soon hidden under an oak tree (the Charter Oak) in Hartford to protect it from seizure by agents of the King James II.

1687 Nov 13, Nell [Eleanor] Gwyn (37), mistress of Charles II of England, died.
(MC, 11/13/01)

1687 Dec 5, Francesco Xaverio Geminiani, composer, was born.
(MC, 12/5/01)

1687 Dec 16, William Petty (b.1623), English designer, inventor and pioneering economist, died in London. He came up with the “quantity theory of money” and was the first to measure gross domestic product (GDP).
(Econ, 12/21/13, p.116)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Petty)

1687 Giovanni Battista Foggini created a portrait bust of “Cosimo III de’ Medici.”
(WSJ, 1/29/02, p.A18)

1687 William Penn authored “The Excellent Privilege of Liberty and Property Being the Birth-Right of the Free-born subjects of England.”
(www.magnacartaworldheritage.com/magna-carta-us-history/)(Econ, 12/20/14, p.35)

1687 The Austrian Army captured Petrovaradin (Serbia) after 150 years of Turkish control during the Great Turkish War. The Austrians began to tear down the old fortress and build new fortifications according to contemporary standards.

1687 Clocks began to be made with 2 hands for the first time
(SFEC, 9/7/97, Z1 p.5)

1687 James II, a Roman Catholic, supported unpopular policies that, by 1687, led to many English subjects urging William to intervene. With the birth of a son to James in 1688, fears of a Roman Catholic succession led to opponents sending an invitation to William in July.
(HNQ, 12/28 /00)

1687 Newton declared that time is absolute… “It flows equably without relation to anything external.” This view was held until Einstein’s relativity in 1905.
(NG, March 1990, J. Boslough p. 118)

1687-1691 Suleiman II succeeded Mehmed IV in the Ottoman House of Osman.
(Ot, 1993, xvii)

1688 Feb 18, At a Quaker meeting in Germantown, Pa, German Mennonites penned a memorandum stating a profound opposition to Negro slavery. Quakers in Germantown, Pa., adopted the fist formal antislavery resolution in America.
(HN, 2/18/99)(www.germanheritage.com/Publications/cronau/cronau4.html)

1688 Apr 15, Johann Friedrich Fasch, composer, was born.
(MC, 4/15/02)

1688 Apr 27, King James II issued another Declaration of Indulgence: “conscience ought not to be constrained nor people forced in matters of mere religion.”

1688 May 21, Alexander Pope (d.1744), England, poet (Rape of the Lock), was born. His “Essay on Criticism” contains the line: “A little learning is a dangerous thing…”
(NH, 9/97, p.24)(MC, 5/21/02)

1688 May 25, Christian August Jacobi, composer, was born.
(SC, 5/25/02)

1688 Jun 10, Mary of Modena, the wife of Britain’s King James II, gave birth to a male heir. This placed England, much to the dismay of Parliament, in line for a succession of Catholic monarchs.
(Econ, 2/4/06, p.77)(ON, 7/06, p.10)

1688 Jun 30, A jury proclaimed 7 English bishops not guilty of seditious libel against James II. They had refused to comply with his April 27 Declaration of Indulgence because it had not been approved by Parliament.

1688 Aug 15, Frederick-William I, king of Prussia (1713-1740), was born.
(MC, 8/15/02)

1688 Aug 31, John Bunyan, preacher, novelist (Pilgrim’s Progress), died.
(MC, 8/31/01)

1688 Sep 6, Imperial troops defeated the Turks and took Belgrade, Serbia.
(HN, 9/6/98)

1688 Oct 1, Seven British noblemen sent a letter to Prince William of Orange inviting him to invade England and rescue the country from James’ “popery.” William accepted.
(Econ, 2/4/06, p.77)(ON, 7/06, p.10)

1688 Oct 27, King James II fired premier Robert Spencer.
(MC, 10/27/01)

1688 Nov 1, William of Orange set sail for England at the head of a fleet of 500 ships and 30,000 men. He intended too oust his father-in-law King James II. The Dutch parliament, the States General, funded William with 4 million guilders. Amsterdam financiers provided another 2 million. Some of this was used to print 60,000 copies of his “Declaration” (of the reasons inducing him to appear in arms in the Kingdom of England), which were distributed in England. In 2008 Lisa Jardine authored “Going Dutch: How England Plundered Holland’s Glory.”
(WSJ, 8/28/08, p.A13)

1688 Nov 5, William of Orange landed in southern England and marched with his army nearly unopposed to London.
(WSJ, 8/28/08, p.A13)

1688 Nov 24, General strategist John Churchill met William III.
(MC, 11/24/01)

1688 Nov 25, Princess Anne fled from London to Nottingham.
(MC, 11/25/01)

1688 Nov 26, King James II escaped back to London.
(MC, 11/26/01)
1688 Nov 26, Louis XIV declared war on the Netherlands.
(HN, 11/26/98)

1688 Dec 4, General strategist John Churchill (later Duke of Marlborough) joined with William III.
(MC, 12/4/01)

1688 Dec 9, King James II’s wife and son fled England for France.
(MC, 12/9/01)

1688 Dec 11, King James II attempted to flee London as the “Glorious Revolution” replaced him with King William (of Orange) and Queen Mary. James attempted to flee to France, first throwing the Great Seal of the Realm into the River Thames. He was, however, caught in Kent. Having no desire to make James a martyr, the Prince of Orange let him escape on December 23, 1688. James was received by Louis XIV, who offered him a palace and a generous pension. In 2007 Michael Barone authored “Our First Revolution: The Remarkable British Upheaval That Inspired America’s Founding Fathers.”
(HN, 12/11/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_II_of_England)

1688 Dec 18, William of Orange made a triumphant march into London as James II fled in the “Glorious Revolution.” William of Orange, son of William II (Prince of Orange) and Mary (daughter of Charles I of England), was fourth in line to the English throne. In 2006 Edward Valance authored “The Glorious Revolution: 1688 – Britain’s Fight for Liberty.”
(WSJ, 2/6/02, p.A16)(Econ, 2/4/06, p.77)(ON, 12/10, p.12)

1688 Dec 23, English King James II fled to France.
(MC, 12/23/01)
1688 Dec 23, Jean-Louis Lully (21), composer, died.
(MC, 12/23/01)

1688 Dec 25, English king James II landed in Ambleteuse, France.
(MC, 12/25/01)

1688 French writer Pierre d’Ortigue de Vaumoriere published anonymously his book, “The Art of Pleasing Conversation.”
(WSJ, 5/13/05, p.W6)(http://tinyurl.com/d8tac)

1688 Joseph de la Vega published his work “Confusion de Confusiones.” It offered trading strategies to speculators and was built around a conversation between a merchant, a philosopher, and a shareholder. The book was republished in 1996.
(WSJ, 3/5/96, p. A-12)

1688 The Notre-Dame-des-Victoires, the oldest stone church in North America, was built in Quebec City, Canada.
(SSFC, 7/30/06, p.G8)

1688 In England Edward Lloyd opened a London coffee shop where shipping insurance was bought and sold.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1688 In France a blind Benedictine monk named Dom Perignon discovered the fermentation process that led to champagne. [see 1662] He later devised a cork stopper to hold the bubbles.
(WSJ, 10/16/98, p.W13)(Hem., 10/97, p.103)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1688 Persecuted Huguenots, French Protestants, arrived in South Africa and improved the quality of wine production.
(SSFC, 12/3/00, p.T6)

1688-1689 James II was replaced by the Dutch King William. This process was masterminded by the group of seven, which included the Earl of Devonshire, who was then promoted to Duke in reward. William of Orange was a good Dutch Protestant and Mary was his queen. From this point on the king was but a figurehead and Parliament ruled England.
(NG, Nov. 1985, M. Girouard, p.671), (V.D.-H.K.p.222,300)

1688-1763 Pierre Marivaux, French playwright and master of super-subtle dialogue.
(WSJ, 10/20/95, p. A-12)

1689 Jan 18, Charles Louis de Montesquieu (d.1755), French philosopher and writer (Letters Persanes), was born. “In most things success depends on knowing how long it takes to succeed.” He authored “The Spirit of the Laws,” the 1st great comparative study of civilizations.
(AP, 4/13/99)(WSJ, 11/1/00, p.A24)(MC, 1/18/02)

1689 Jan 22, England’s “Bloodless Revolution” reached its climax when parliament invited William and Mary to become joint sovereigns. A specially-called parliament declared that James had abdicated and offered the throne to William and Mary. In 1938 G.M. Trevelyan authored “The English Revolution.” In 2009 Steve Pincus authored “The First Modern Revolution.”
(HN, 1/22/99)(HNQ, 12/28/00)(Econ, 10/17/09, p.97)

1689 Feb 13, The British Parliament adopted the Bill of Rights. It limited the right of a king to govern without the consent of Parliament.
(MT, Dec. ’95, p.16)(ON, 12/10, p.12)

1689 Feb 14, English parliament placed Mary Stuart and Prince William III on the throne.
(MC, 2/14/02)

1689 Feb 23, Dutch prince William III was proclaimed King of England.
(MC, 2/23/02)

1689 Mar 12, Former English King James II landed in Ireland.
(MC, 3/12/02)

1689 Mar, In Northern Ireland the gates of Londonderry were shut in the face of Catholic forces. The event was later celebrated by the Protestant Apprentice Boys as the Lundy’s Day demonstration. [see August 1, 1689]
(SFEC,12/14/97, p.A26)

1689 Apr 11, (OS) William III and Mary II were crowned as joint sovereigns of Britain. As part of their oaths, the new King William III and Queen Mary were required to swear that they would obey the laws of Parliament. At this time, the Bill of Rights was read to both William and Mary. “We thankfully accept what you have offered us,” William replied, agreeing to be subject to law and to be guided in his actions by the decisions of Parliament.
(AP, 4/11/97)(www.bessel.org/billrts.htm)

1689 Apr 15, French king Louis XIV declared war on Spain.
(MC, 4/15/02)

1689 Apr 18, George Jeffreys, 1st Baron Jeffreys of Wem, infamous judge, died.
(MC, 4/18/02)

1689 Apr 19, Residents of Boston ousted their governor, Edmond Andros.
(HN, 4/19/97)
1689 Apr 19, Christina (b.1626), Queen of Sweden (1644-54), died. In 2004 Veronica Buckley authored “Christina: Queen of Sweden.”
(www.sweden.se)(WSJ, 10/29/04, p.W10)

1689 Apr 21, (NS) William III and Mary II were crowned joint king and queen of England, Scotland and Ireland.
(HN, 4/21/98)(HNQ, 12/28/00)

1689 May 11, The French and English naval battle took place at Bantry Bay.
(HN, 5/11/98)

1689 May 12, England’s King William III joined the League of Augsburg and the Netherlands. The “Grand Alliance” was formed to counter the war of aggression launched by Louis XIV against the Palatinate states in Germany. This is known as The War of the League of Augsburg (1689-97) also The Nine Years’ War, and the War of the Grand Alliance.

1689 May 24, English Parliament passed the Act of Toleration, protecting Protestants. Roman Catholics were specifically excluded from exemption.
(HN, 5/24/99)

1689 May 26, Mary Wortley Montagu, English essayist, feminist, eccentric, was born.
(MC, 5/26/02)

1689 Jul 27, Government forces defeated the Scottish Jacobites at the Battle of Killiecrankie.
(HN, 7/27/98)

1689 Jul, Maryland colonist known as the Protestant Associators marched on St. Mary’s City and seized the State House while Lord Baltimore was in England. They went on to take over his plantation at Mattapany.
(Arch, 1/05, p.49)

1689 Aug 1, A siege of Londonderry, Ireland, by the Catholic Army of King James II ended in failure. The Protestants were victorious and the event led to the annual Apprentice Boy’s March. The group is named in honor of 13 teenage apprentices, all Protestants, who bolted the city gates in front of the advancing Catholic forces at the start of the 105-day siege.
(SFEC, 8/11/96, p.A13)(HN, 8/1/98)(AP, 8/13/06)

1689 Aug 4-5, War between England and France led them to use their native American allies as proxies. In retaliation for the French attack on the Seneca in 1687, one thousand, five hundred Iroquois, with English support, attacked Lachine down river from the mission of the Mountain of Ville-Marie (Montreal), killing some 400. They put everything to fire and axe. Some suggest that this is a gross exaggeration and that only 24-25 were killed and likely 90 were captured by the Iroquois, but never returned.

1689 Aug 19, Samuel Richardson (d.1761), English novelist (Pamela, Clarissa), was born in Derbyshire.
(MC, 8/19/02)

1689 Aug 25, Battle at Charleroi: Spanish and English armies chased the French.
(MC, 8/25/02)
1689 Aug 25, The Iroquois took Montreal.
(MC, 8/25/02)

1689 Sep 1, Russia began taxing men’s beards.
(MC, 9/1/02)

1689 Oct 11, Peter the Great became tsar of Russia.
(MC, 10/11/01)

1689 Dec 16, English Parliament adopted a Bill of Rights after Glorious Revolution. The Bill of Rights included a right to bear arms. William and Mary gave it Royal Assent which represented the end of the concept of divine right of kings.
(WSJ, 8/6/02, p.D6)(www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon49.html)

1689 Dec 30, Henry Purcell’s opera “Dido and Aeneas,” premiered in Chelsea.
(MC, 12/30/01)

1689 “Memorable Providences, Related to Witchcrafts and Possessions,” published by Cotton Mather, contributed to the hysteria that led to the Salem witch trials of 1692. Mather was a Puritan clergyman and the eldest son of Increase Mather. While Cotton Mather advised witch trial judges that executions would not be necessary, during the mass executions he remained uncritical. In his 1693 Wonders of the Invisible World Mather defended the verdicts of various trials.
(HNQ, 10/31/98)

1689 John Locke returned to England with his two Treatises which were published late in the same year. He also published his letter on Toleration, in opposition to the strong religious intolerance then prevalent.



Timeline 18th Century: 1700-1724

1700 Jan 1, Russia replaced the Byzantine with the Julian calendar, which remained in effect until the adoption of the Gregorian calendar in 1918.

1700 Jan 26, A magnitude 9.0 earthquake shook Northern California, Oregon, Washington and British Colombia. It triggered tsunami that damages villages in Japan.
(AP, 2/27/10)

1700 Jan 27, A tsunami hit Honshu Island, Japan. It was later estimated that wave was triggered by a 9.0 magnitude earthquake in California.
(CW, Spring ‘99, p.32)

1700 Jan 29, Daniel Bernoulli, mathematician (10 time French award), was born in Basel, Switzerland.
(MC, 1/29/02)

1700 Feb 22, Augustus II (the Strong), elector of Saxony (1694-1733) and King of Poland (1697-1706, 1709-1733), with the help of the Saxon army attacked Swedish controlled Riga. This began the Northern War (1700-1721).
(LHC, 2/22/03)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/August_II_the_Strong)

1700 Feb 27, The Pacific Island of New Britain was discovered. It is the largest of group of islands in the South Pacific, NE of New Guinea.
(HN, 2/27/98)(WUD, 1994, p.962)

1700 May 1, John Dryden (b.1631), English poet, playwright (Rival Ladies), died. He had written that repentance was virtue of weak minds and the want of power to sin.
(MC, 5/1/02)(Econ, 7/24/04, p.70)

1700 May 7, Gerard van Swieten, Dutch botanist, was born.
(MC, 5/7/02)
1700 May 7, William Penn began monthly meetings for Blacks advocating emancipation.
(MC, 5/7/02)

1700 Jun 23, Russia gave up its Black Sea fleet as part of a truce with the Ottoman Empire.
(HN, 6/23/98)

1700 Jul 15, Johann Christoph Richter, composer, was born.
(MC, 7/15/02)

1700 Sep 11, James Thomson, Scottish poet and songwriter, was born. He wrote the song “Rule Britannia.”
(HN, 9/11/00)(MC, 9/11/01)

1700 Sep, In Mexico Juan Bautista and Jacinto de los Angeles informed Spanish authorities of an Indian religious ceremony and were killed by fellow Indians. Christian officials decapitated and quartered 15 men and staked their body parts by the roadside as a warning. In 2002 Bautista and Angeles were beatified by Pope John Paul II.
(AP, 7/30/02)

1700 Nov 20, Sweden’s 17-year-old King Charles XII defeated the Russians at Narva.
(HN, 11/20/98)

1700 William Congreve, an Anglo-Irishman playwright, published his last play, “The Way of the World.”
(WSJ, 11/20/98, p.W6)

c1700 Richard Gough, an aged English lawyer, authored “History of Myddle.”
(SFC, 4/3/01, p.C3)

1700 Castle Howard, Yorkshire, England, designed by Sir John Vanbrugh as the baroque home of the earls of Carlisle was begun.
(NG, Nov. 1985, M. Girouard, p.665)

1700 Around 1700 during a 50-year period of brutal winters, the Thule abandoned Ellesmere Island in the Canadian Arctic for Greenland.
(NG, 6/1988, p.763)

1700 British settlers began arriving to the Cayman Islands.
(AP, 5/10/03)

c1700 The English slave ship Henrietta Marie sank near Key West.
(WSJ, 6/2/98, p.A20)

1700 Germany adopted the Gregorian calendar established in 1582.
(SFEC, 9/27/98, BR p.5)

1700 India, with a population of some 165 million, was the world’s biggest economy and leading cotton producer.
(Econ, 9/24/11, SR p.4)

1700 The inventory of Medici instruments for 1700 establishes that at least one piano, created by Bartolomeo Cristofori (1655-1731), had been completed by this date. Cristofori began work on the “harpsichord with soft and loud” in 1698.

1700 The Spanish crown monopolized the Aquardiente industry in Colombia.
(AP, 9/2/03)

1700-1750 The blunderbuss is a firearm with a short, large caliber barrel which is flared at the muzzle and frequently throughout the entire bore, and used with shot and other projectiles of relevant quantity and/or caliber. One source, describing arms from the early to middle 17th century, lists the barrel length of a wheel lock dragon at around 11 inches (28 cm), compared to a 16-inch (41 cm) length for a blunderbuss.

1700s In Senegal female slave traders, called signare, prospered by conducting business with European men.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1700s In Spain bullfighting emerged in its modern form.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

c1700-1800 Anton Graff, 18th cent. German painter.
(SFEC, 10/9/96, C2)

c1700-1800 Giuseppe Nogari, Italian artist, painted “Old Woman With a Cup.” In 1997 it became the focus of a sting operation on Sotheby’s auction house which arranged its illegal export from Italy to New York.
(SFC, 2/7/97, p.A18)

1700-1800 The expression “putting on the dog” derived from the fact that in the 18th century, the finest dancing shoes were made of dog skin, which could be worn out in one night of vigorous footwork.
(HNQ, 2/4/99)

1700-1800 The Kabala of Isaac Luria provided the inspiration for the revolutionary 18th century Jewish revivalist movement in Eastern Europe, Hasidism. It included the idea known as “tikkun olam” whereby the world is repaired by identifying the spark of God in every living thing.
(WSJ, 5/22/98, p.W11)

1700-1800 The Gaon of Vilna, Lithuania, excommunicated the Hasidic Jews after they cast aside the traditional Jewish prayer book, replacing it with one composed by Isaac Luria.
(WSJ, 5/22/98, p.W11)

c1700-1800 In Malaysia Monosopiad, an 18th cent. warrior, collected some 42 human skulls. His house near Sandakan is known as the House of Skulls.
(SFEC, 10/17/98, p.T11)

1700-1800 Mauritius was settled by the French in the18th cent. The island was seeded with sugar and slaves were brought from Africa to work the plantations.
(SFC, 6/24/96, p.A8)

1700s In England Thomas Sheraton invented twin beds in the late 1700s.
(SFEC, 3/15/98, Z1 p.8)

1701 Jan 18, Frederick III, the elector of Brandenburg, became the king of Prussia.
(HN, 1/18/99)

1701 Feb 19, Philip V of Spain made his ceremonial entry into Madrid.
(HN, 2/19/99)

1701 Mar 9, In Birzai Augustus II and Russia’s Czar Peter I signed a treaty.

1701 May 23, Scottish-born sea captain William Kidd was hanged on the banks of the Thames after being found guilty of piracy and murder. Kidd had reluctantly became a privateer for England in 1696 and was expected to fight pirates on the open sea, seize their cargoes, and provide a hefty share of the spoils to the Crown. According to his British accusers, Kidd turned to piracy himself as the deadline for reporting to his employers in New York approached and he had not taken enough booty to fulfill his commission. Kidd himself did not know he was a wanted man until he dropped anchor in the West Indies in April 1699. He chose to surrender to the authorities and submit to a London trial, believing to the end that he could clear his name. Important evidence in his favor was suppressed and he was hanged.
(AP, 5/23/97)(HNPD, 8/27/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Kidd)

1701 May 31, Alexander Cruden, compiler of a concordance to King James Bible, was born.
(HN, 5/31/98)

1701 Jul 6, William Kidd, English-US buccaneer, was hanged. [see May 23]
(MC, 7/6/02)(PC, 1992, p.272)

1701 Jul 24, Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac (d.1730), aged 43, established Fort Ponchartrain for France on the future site of the city of Detroit, Michigan, in an attempt to halt the advance of the English into the western Great Lakes region.
(HN, 7/24/98)(DFP, 7/24/01)

1701 Sep 6, James II [Stuart], king of England (1685-88), died at 68.
(MC, 9/6/01)

1701 Sep 7, England, Austria, and the Netherlands formed an Alliance against France.
(HN, 9/7/98)

1701 Oct 9, The Collegiate School of Connecticut — later Yale University — was chartered in New Haven, Conn. It was the first US school to award a doctorate degree. [see Oct 16]
(SFC, 5/25/96, p.A9)(SF C, 3/8/96, p.E3)(AP, 10/9/97)

1701 Oct 13, Andreas Anton Schmelzer, composer, died at 47.
(MC, 10/13/01)

1701 Oct 16, Yale University was founded as The Collegiate School of Kilingworth, Connecticut by Congregationalists who considered Harvard too liberal. [see Oct 9]
(HN, 10/16/00)

1701 Oct 28, William Penn presented a Charter of Privileges for the Province of Pennsylvania during his 2nd and last visit to the colony. Among its provisions was one establishing total religious freedom and tolerance to those who wanted to live in peace in the colony. It remained as Pennsylvania’s constitution until the outbreak of the American Revolution (1775-1783).

1701 Nov 27, Anders Celsius (d.1744), Swedish astronomer who devised the centigrade temperature scale, was born in Uppsala.
(WUD, 1994, p.238)(AP, 11/27/06)

1701 The Act of Settlement established the order of succession to the English throne.
1701 In England presiding Chief Justice Lord Hold (1642-1710) ruled that “As soon as a Negro comes into England, he becomes Free.”
(ON, 12/08, 8)(http://tinyurl.com/9jhg29)
1701 The English slave ship Henrietta Marie sank 35 miles off Key West, Florida, on its way back to Europe. It had delivered 188 captured Africans to a slave broker in Jamaica in exchange for sugar and other goods bound for England. The wreck was found in 1972.
(SFC, 8/12/96, p.C5)(WSJ, 6/2/98, p.A20)(SSFC, 2/8/04, p.C12)
1701 Jethro Tull (1674-1741), a farmer in Berkshire, England, created a horse-drawn mechanical drill to plant seeds in a row.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)(www.berkshirehistory.com/bios/jtull.html)

1701 German artisans created an amber room for King Frederick I of Prussia. He presented it as a gift to Peter the Great in 1712 [see 1712, 1716].
(SFC, 3/22/97, p.A16)(SFC, 4/30/98, p.E6)(WSJ, 1/20/00, p.A20)
1701 German alchemist Johann Friedrich Bottger (1682-1719) escaped from Berlin, where he faced arrest for claiming he could turn lead into gold. He was arrested in Wittenberg and sent to Dresden where Augustus the Strong, Elector of Saxony, ordered him to replicate his alleged feat. Bottger soon befriended Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus, who was interested in creating true white porcelain. In 1705 Augustus allowed Bottger to work with Tschirnhaus on making porcelain.
(ON, 8/10, p.8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johann_Friedrich_B%C3%B6ttger)

1701 Spain’s medieval kingdom of Aragon again rebelled against Madrid.
(Econ, 11/8/08, SR p.10)
1701 The War of Spanish Succession began and continued to 1714.

1702 Jan 17, Thomas Franklin, English smith and uncle of B. Franklin, died.
(MC, 1/17/02)

1702 Mar 8, William III of Orange (51), Dutch King of England (1689-1702), died after falling from his horse and catching a chill. Anne Stuart (37), his sister-in-law, succeeded to the throne of England, Scotland and Ireland and reigned until 1714.
(PCh, 1992, p.272)(MC, 3/8/02)(AP, 3/8/98)

1702 Mar 11, The Daily Courant, the first regular English newspaper was published.
(HN, 3/11/99)

1702 Mar 21, Queen Anne Stuart addressed the English parliament.
(MC, 3/21/02)

1702 Apr 27, Jean Bart (51), French captain, sea hero (Escape out of Plymouth), died.
(MC, 4/27/02)

1702 Oct 12, [British] Admiral Sir George Rooke defeated the French fleet off Vigo.
(HN, 10/12/98)

1702 Oct 27, English troops plundered St. Augustine, Florida.
(MC, 10/27/01)

1702 Nov 4, John Benbow, English vice-admiral (Santa Marta), died.
(MC, 11/4/01)

1702 Nov 26, Colley Cibber’s “King Imposter” made its premier.
(MC, 11/26/01)

1702 Dec 14, In Japan 47 samurai stormed the palace of a high-ranking lord in Edo and beheaded him. They were ordered to commit seppuku, a ritual suicide by disembowelment. Stone monuments at the Sengakuji temple marked the graves of the 47 ronin (samurai with no master).
(SFC, 1/14/15, p.A5)

1702 Lord Cornbury, Queen Anne’s cousin, was made governor of New York and gave Trinity Church some land.
(SFEC, 1/10/99, p.A13)

1702 Omori Yoshikiyo, Japanese ehon artist, created his work “Trailing Willows,” which depicted the working women in the government sanctioned pleasure quarter of Kyoto.
(WSJ, 1/4/07, p.B11)
1702 In Japan the Ozawa family began making sake at its Ozawa Shuzo Brewery in Ome.
(SSFC, 4/26/15, p.L4)
1702 Meijin Dosaku, go-master to the shogun of Japan, died. He was the 4th head of the Honimbo go school and is held by many Japanese to have been the game’s greatest player.
(Econ, 12/18/04, p.129)
1702 Basho Matsuo, Japanese poet, died.
(SFC, 11/28/96, p.C16)

1702 Georg Everhard Rumpf, German botanist, died. He was employed by the Dutch East India Company and compiled the “Ambonese Herbal,” even after going blind in 1670. The work was published in Amsterdam between 1741 and 1755.
(Econ, 9/25/04, p.94)

1702-1711 Old Mobile, Alabama, was the first French settlement at Mobile.
(AM, Vol. 48, No. 3)

1703 Apr 26, Georg Christoph Leuttner (58), composer, died.
(MC, 4/26/02)

1703 May 18, Dutch and English troops occupied Cologne.
(SC, 5/18/02)

1703 May 26, Samuel Pepys (b.1633), English diarist, died. In the 1930s Sir Arthur Bryant authored a 3-volume biography. In the 1970s Richard Ollard authored a single volume biography. In 2001 Stephen Coote authored “Samuel Pepys: A Life” and another was expected by Claire Tomalin. In 2002 Claire Tomalin authored “Samuel Pepys: The Unequaled Self.”
(WSJ, 6/2/99, p.A24)(HN, 2/23/01)(SSFC, 12/22/02, p.M3)(MC, 5/26/02)

1703 May 27, Peter the Great founded St. Petersburg (Leningrad) as the capital of Russia. It was built on a swampy settlement ceded by Sweden and occupied by about 150 people.
(WSJ, 1/28/97, p.A16)(www.worldpress.org/Europe/1938.cfm)(MT, Winter/03, p.12)

1703 Jun 17, John Wesley (d.1791), English evangelist and theologian, was born. He founded the Methodist movement. He spent a brief period in Georgia (1738) as a missionary.
(HN, 6/17/99)(WSJ, 6/13/03, p.W19)

1703 Jul 31, English novelist Daniel Defoe was made to stand in the pillory as punishment for offending the government and church with his satire “The Shortest Way With Dissenters.”
(HN, 7/31/01)

1703 Sep 23, Jean-Marie Leclair, composer, was born.
(MC, 9/23/01)

1703 Sep 30, The French, at Hochstadt in the War of the Spanish Succession, suffered only 1,000 casualties to the 11,000 of their opponents, the Austrians of Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I.
(HN, 9/30/98)

1703 Oct 5, Jonathan Edwards (d.1758), US, theologian and philosopher (Original Sin), was born. He helped promote the “Great Awakening” of religious fervor that broke out in Protestant churches in New Jersey in the 1720s and spread to New England in the 1730s.
(WUD, 1994, p.454)(SSFC, 7/8/01, p.B5)(MC, 10/5/01)

1703 Oct 23, In Malmesbury, England Hannah, Twynnoy (33) teased a tiger at a circus. The tiger broke loose and killed her.
(SFEC, 1/2/00, Z1 p.2)

1703 Nov 19, The “Man in the Iron Mask,” a prisoner in Bastille prison in Paris, died.
(MC, 11/19/01)

1703 Nov 26-27, Heavy storms hit England and 1000s were killed. Bristol, England, was damaged by the hurricane. The Royal Navy lost 15 warships.
(MC, 11/26/01)

1703 Dec 30, Tokyo was hit by Earthquake and some 37,000 people died.
(MC, 12/30/01)

1703 Francois Boucher, French painter, was born. He painted “Diana.”
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.174)

1703 Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (d.1792), Islamic theologian and founder of Wahhabism, was born in Arabia. He set out his ideas in “The Book of Unity” (1736). Wahhabism, a puritan branch of Sunni Islam, was founded by al-Wahhab in a poor part of Arabia called Najd. Saudi armies helped to spread Wahhabi Islamic reform. A Salafi, from the Arabic word Salaf (literally meaning predecessors or early generations), is an adherent of a contemporary movement in Sunni Islam that is sometimes called Salafism or Wahhabism. Salafis themselves insist that their beliefs are simply pure Islam as practiced by the first three generations of Muslims and that they should not be regarded as a sect. [see 1744]
(WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)(www.concise.britannica.com)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salafi)

1703 Sir Isaac Newton, English scientist, became president of the Royal Society.
(Econ, 1/9/10, p.57)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isaac_Newton)

1703 Johann Sebastian Bach obtained his first position as organist for the city of Arnstadt, Thuringia, Germany.
(Hem., Nov.’95, p.114)

1703 L’Aquila in central Italy was again devastated by an earthquake.
(Econ, 10/27/12, p.80)

1703 A pair of lovers committed suicide in Osaka. The story of the courtesan and young merchant was quickly depicted in the Kabuki play “The Love suicides at Sonexaki” by Chikamatsu Monzaemon (1653-1725).
(SFC, 6/20/05, p.C5)

1703-1730 Ahmed III succeeded Mustafa II in the Ottoman House of Osman.
(Ot, 1993, xvii)

1704 Feb 19, In Japan Kabuki actor Ichikawa Danjuro I (b.1660, the first of the Danjuro line, was murdered by a rival on stage.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ichikawa_Danj%C5%ABr%C5%8D_I)(Econ, 2/16/13, p.44)

1704 Feb 24, Marc-Antoine Charpentier, French composer (church music), died.
(MC, 2/24/02)

1704 Feb 28, Indians attacked Deerfield, Mass. killing 40 and kidnapping 100.
(HN, 2/28/98)

1704 Apr 24, The Boston News-Letter was established, first successful newspaper in U.S.
(HN, 4/24/98)

1704 May 1, Boston Newsletter published the 1st US newspaper ad.
(MC, 5/1/02)

1704 May 20, Elias Neau formed a school for slaves in NY.
(MC, 5/20/02)

1704 Jul 24, Admiral George Rooke took Gibraltar from the Spanish.
(HN, 7/24/98)

1704 Aug 4, In the War of Spanish Succession, an Anglo-Dutch fleet captured Gibraltar.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Gibraltar)(AP, 9/19/06)

1704 Aug 13, The Battle of Blenheim, Germany, was fought during the War of the Spanish Succession, resulting in a victory for English and Austrian forces. The Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene of Austria defeated the French Army at the Battle of Blenheim. In 1705 Joseph Addison wrote the poem “The Campaign” for the Duke of Marlborough to commemorate the military victory over France and Spain at the Battle of Blenheim: “Do you not think an angel rides in the whirlwind and directs this storm.”
(AP, 8/13/97)(HN, 8/13/98)(SSFC, 1/21/01, p.A6)

1704 Sep 28, Maryland allowed divorce if a wife displeased the clergyman or preacher.
(MC, 9/28/01)

1704 Oct 28, John Locke (b.1632), English philosopher, Oxford academic and medical researcher, died. He authored 2 treatises on government.

1704 Oct, Scottish buccaneer Alexander Selkirk (1676-1721) isolated himself on the desert island of Mas a Tierra off the coast of Chile to protest the irrational actions of the Captain Thomas Stradling of the English privateer Cinque Ports. He remained on the island until Feb 1, 1709, and his story inspired Daniel Defoe’s “Robinson Crusoe.”
(ON, 6/12, p.6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Selkirk)

1704 In England Daniel Defoe (1660-1731) began publishing “The Review.” Defoe in this year also authored “The Storm” in which he organized the winds into categories of scale.
(WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A12)(NH, 11/1/04, p.51)

1704 English forces attacked Apalachee Indians in Florida driving them into slavery and exile. Some 800 Apalachee fled west to French-held Mobile.
(WSJ, 3/9/05, p.A1)

1704 John Churchill, first duke of Marlborough, was victorious at Blenheim in Bavaria, and was rewarded with the Blenheim Palace in Oxfordshire, England.
(NG, Nov. 1985, M. Girouard, p.671)

1705 Jan 8, Georg F. Handel’s 1st opera “Almira,” premiered in Hamburg.
(MC, 1/8/02)

1705 Jan 17, John Ray (b.1627), British naturalist and theologian, died. He had spent three years traveling in Europe collecting material for his book “Historia Plantarum.” The classification in his 1682 book “Methodus Plantarum Nova” is based on overall morphology. Ray’s plant classification system was the first to divide flowering plants into monocots and dicots.
(www.1911encyclopedia.org/John_Ray)(WSJ, 5/10/08, p.W8)

1705 Feb 15, Charles A. Vanloo, French painter, was born.
(MC, 2/15/02)

1705 Apr 16, Queen Anne of England knighted Isaac Newton at Trinity College.
(HN, 4/16/98)(MC, 4/16/02)

1705 Apr 23, Richard Steele’s “Tender Husband,” premiered in London.
(MC, 4/23/02)

1705 May 5, Leopold I von Hapsburg (b.1640), Emperor of Holy Roman Empire, died.

1705 Aug 4, Vaclav Matyas Gurecky, composer, was born.
(MC, 8/4/02)

1705 Oct 14, The English Navy captured Barcelona in Spain.
(HN, 10/14/98)

1705 Nov 23, Nicholas Rowe’s “Ulysses,” premiered in London.
(MC, 11/23/01)

1705 Dec 29, Prosper Jolyot’s “Idomenee,” premiered in Paris.
(MC, 12/29/01)

1705 Joseph Addison wrote the poem “The Campaign” for the Duke of Marlborough to commemorate the military victory over France and Spain at the Battle of Blenheim.
(SSFC, 1/21/01, p.A6)

1705 The first steam engine was built.
(WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R18)

1705 Luca Giordano (b.1634), Neopolitan baroque painter, died. He had studied under Spanish-born teacher Jusepe de Ribera and late in life spent 10 years in Spain.
(WSJ, 1/15/02, p.A14)

c1705 Yodoya Tatsugora, Japanese merchant, died. He was a member of the 5th generation of a family that became rich as silk traders and rice merchants. The Shogunate claimed that his wealth was unbecoming and confiscated it. Many government officials owed him money.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1705-1782 Carlo Broschi (a.k.a. Farinelli), Italian castrato, said to be able to produce 250 notes in a single breath. A film depicting his life was made in 1995, directed by Gerard Corbiau and features Stefano Dionisi as Farinelli.
(SFC, 4/28/95, p.C-3)

1706 Jan 17, Benjamin Franklin (d.1790), American statesman, was born in Boston, the youngest boy in a family of 17 children. He helped draft the Declaration of Independence and wrote “Poor Richard’s Almanac.” Carl Van Doren portrays Franklin as a harmonious rationalist in his classic biography. David Morgan writes of Franklin’s darker side in: “The Devious Dr. Franklin, Colonial Agent.” And Robert Middlekauff describes Franklin as a trickster in his: “Benjamin Franklin and his Enemies.” Franklin believed in white superiority and said: “why increase the Sons of Africa by planting them in America, when we have so fair an opportunity, by excluding all the Blacks and Tawneys, of increasing the lovely white.?” “If you would not be forgotten, as soon as you are dead and rotten, either write things worth reading, or do things worth the writing.”
(WSJ, 8/8/95, p. A12)(SFC,12/897, p.A27)(AP, 1/17/98)(AP, 4/17/98)(HN, 1/17/99)(HNQ, 11/19/01)

1706 Jan 28, John Baskerville, English typographer and inventor of the “hot-pressing” method of printing. He also manufactured lacquered ware.
(HN, 1/28/00)(WUD, 1994 p.124)

1706 Feb 27, John Evelyn, diarist, died.
(MC, 2/27/02)

1706 Mar 3, Johann Pachelbel (b.1653), German organist and composer best remembered for his “Canon in D,” died Nuremberg at age 52.
(WUD, 1994 p.1034)(AP, 3/3/06)

1706 Mar 8, Vienna’s Wiener Stadtbank was established.
(MC, 3/8/02)

1706 Apr 23, Spanish Gov. Francisco Cuervo y Valdes founded a new villa consisting of 35 families and named it in honor of the viceroy of New Spain, who was also the Duke of Albuquerque, a town in southwestern Spain. The 1st r was later dropped and in 2006 Albuquerque, NM, celebrated its 300th anniversary.
(SSFC, 5/22/05, p.E12)

1706 Apr 24, Giovanni Battista Martini, composer (Padre Martini), was born.
(MC, 4/24/02)

1706 May 23, Battle of Ramillies: Marlborough defeated the French and 17,000 were killed.
(MC, 5/23/02)

1706 Jul 10, In Virginia Grace Sherwood (d.1740), aka the Witch of Pungo, was forced to undergo a trial by water under accusations of being a witch. She floated, a sign of guilt, and was imprisoned for nearly 8 years. In 2006 the governor of Virginia officially cleared her name.
(http://tinyurl.com/k42jq)(WSJ, 9/15/06, p.A1)(http://carolshouse.com/witch/)

1706 Dec 28, Pierre Bayle (59), French theologist (History of Criticism), died.
(MC, 12/28/01)

1706 Bishop White Kennet printed his “Complete History of England with the Lives of All the Kings and Queens Thereof, Vol. 3” in London.
(SFC, 5/10/97, p.A8)

1706 The First Presbyterian church was organized in Philadelphia. It had begun in Scotland and the British Isles by John Knox around 1560.
(SFC, 7/21/97, p.A11)

1706 Pi, the 16th letter of the Greek alphabet, was 1st used as a mathematical symbol by William Jones of Wales. Pi represents the approximate ratio of a circle’s circumference to its diameter.
(SFEC, 3/14/99, p.C5)(WSJ, 3/15/05, p.B1)

1706 Isaac Newton published the results of his 40 years of experiments with light in the “Opticks.”

1706 San Felipe Church in Albuquerque, N.M., was founded.
(WSJ, 12/15/95, p.A-1)

1706 The Treaty of Union between Scotland and England was set up. Daniel Defoe worked as a British agent in Scotland and sent back reports on agitation against the yielding of autonomy.
(WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A12)

1706 Thomas Twinings opened his tea shop in London.
(SFEC, 9/12/99, p.T2)

1707 Jan 16, Scotland ratified the Treaty of Union by a majority of 110 votes to 69. The Acts created a new state, the Kingdom of Great Britain, by merging the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland together.

1707 Feb 25, Italian playwright Carlo Goldoni (d.1793) was born in Venice. “He who talks much cannot always talk well.”
(AP, 6/1/98)(AP, 2/25/07)

1707 Mar 3, Aurangzeb (88), Emperor of India (1658-1707), died.
(SC, 3/3/02)

1707 Mar 7, Stephen Hopkins, signer of the Declaration of Independence, was born.
(HN, 3/7/98)

1707 Apr 6, Willem Van de Velde (b.1633) the Younger, Dutch marine painter, died. His work included “fishing Boats by the Shore in a Calm” (1660-1605).
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Willem_van_de_Velde_the_Younger)(SFC, 7/9/11, p.E1)

1707 Apr 22, Henry Fielding (d.1754), English novelist and essayist, was born in Sharpham Park, Somerset, England. His work included “Tom Jones.”
(WUD, 1994 p.528)(AP, 4/22/07)

1707 Apr 25, At the Battle of Almansa, Franco-Spanish forces defeated Anglo-Portuguese.
(HN, 4/25/98)

1707 Apr 29, English-Scottish parliament accepted Act of Union and formed Great Britain. [see May 1]
(MC, 4/29/02)

1707 May 1, Effective on this day Scotland and England were united by an act of Parliament. England, Wales and Scotland were united to form Great Britain.
(WSJ, 4/16/97, p.A13)(HN, 5/1/98)

1707 May 9, Dietrich Buxtehude (~69), German organist, composer, died.
(MC, 5/9/02)

1707 May 23, Carolus Linnaeus [Carl von Linné], Swedish botanist, was born.
(HN, 5/23/01)

1707 Aug 31, The Treaty or Convention of Altranstädt was signed between Charles XII of Sweden and Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor. It settled the rights of Protestants in Silesia and forced Augustus the Strong to yield the Polish throne to Stanis?aw Leszczy?ski (1677-1766).

1707 Sep 7, George-Louis Leclerc (d.1788), Comte de Buffon, French naturalist and theoretical biologist. He commented on the origins of marine invertebrate fossils in the hills of France. He also wrote a 35 volume work titled “Histoire Naturelle, Generale, et Particuliere,” that was an attempt to record all that was known of the world of nature.
(DD-EVTT, p.114)(WSJ, 8/28/97, p.A12)(MC, 9/7/01)

1707 Oct 17, German composer Johann S. Bach married his niece Maria Bach.
(MC, 10/17/01)

1707 Oct 23, The first Parliament of Great Britain, created by the Acts of Union between England and Scotland, held its first meeting.
(AP, 10/23/07)

1707 Dec 1, Jeremiah Clarke, composer, died.
(MC, 12/1/01)

1707 Dec 5, The Society of Antiquaries of London was founded at the Bear Tavern in the Strand by John Talman, the son of an architect, Humfrey Wanley, a student of ancient inscriptions and Anglo-Saxon, and John Bagford, an eccentric shoemaker and dealer in books. They met for the purposes of forming a Society for the study of British antiquities, whose agreed aim was to further the study of British history prior to the reign of James I.

1707 Dec 18, Charles Wesley, co-founder of the Methodist movement, was born.
(MC, 12/18/01)

1707 Moses Chaim Luzzato (d.1746), Hebrew playwright, was born in Padua. His work included the Mesillat Yesharim (1740), essentially an ethical treatise but with certain mystical underpinnings.

1707 Jonathan Swift, novelist, said: “Laws are like cobwebs, which may catch small flies, but let wasps and hornets break through.”
(SFEC, 5/14/00, Z1 p.2)

1707 Handel composed his first opera, “Almira.” He went to Rome and was nicknamed Il Sassone, the Saxon. Legend has it that he had a harpsichord and organ duel with Domenico Scarlatti at the house of Cardinal Ottoboni. They tied on the harpsichord but Handel won easily on the organ. Handel also composed “Dixit Dominus” in this year.
(LGC-HCS, p.38)(WSJ, 5/11/99, p.A20)

1707 England granted Scotland 400,000 pounds to clear debts from the Darien disaster.
(Reuters, 2/16/12)

1707 Kondraty Bulavin led a Cossack uprising.
(SFC,10/28/97, p.A8)

1707 Japan’s Mount Fuji erupted. It produced only 2% as much ash as the 1815 Mount Tambora eruption.
(SFC, 2/14/98, p.A12)(Econ., 4/11/15, p.23)

1708 Jan 5, German alchemist Johann Friedrich Bottger, under the tutelage of Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus, succeeded in creating samples resembling pure porcelain at the Jungfernbastei castle in Dresden. Augustus the Strong, Elector of Saxony, had ordered Bottger to re-create the formula for oriental porcelain. Bottger was imprisoned and joined physicist Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus in a search for the formula. Tschirnhaus died in Oct, 1708. Within 2 years a factory was established in Meissen’s Albrechtsburg and Meissenware became Europe’s first hard-paste porcelain.
(Hem, 6/96, p.111)(SSFC, 4/25/04, p.D12)(Econ, 4/3/10, p.88)(ON, 8/10, p.9)

1708 Feb 28, A slave revolt in Newton, Long Island, NY, left 11 dead.
(MC, 2/28/02)

1708 Mar 6, Francis de Laval (b.1623), the first bishop of Quebec, died. He was beatified in 1980 and canonized in 2014.

1708 Mar 23, English pretender to the throne James III landed at Firth of Forth.
(SS, 3/23/02)

1708 Apr 23, Friedrich von Hagedorn, German poet (Versuch einiger Poem), was born.
(MC, 4/23/02)

1708 Apr 30, Simon de Vries, book seller, writer (Unequal), died.
(MC, 4/30/02)

1708 Jun 8, The San Jose, a 62-gun, three-masted Spanish galleon, was trying to outrun a fleet of British warships off Colombia’s Baru peninsula, when a mysterious explosion sent it to the bottom of the sea with gold, silver, emeralds and 600 men. 14 men survived. In 1979 Sea Search signed a deal with Colombia giving Sea Search exclusive rights to search for the San Jose and 50 percent of whatever they find. In 1982 Sea Search announced to the world it had found the San Jose’s resting place 700 feet below the water’s surface, a few miles from the historic Caribbean port of Cartagena. In 1984 Colombian President Belisario Betancur signed a decree reducing Sea Search’s share from 50% to a 5% “finder’s fee.” By 2007 the treasure was valued at more than $2 billion. In July, 2007, Colombia’s highest court ruled that the ship must first be recovered before an international dispute over the fortune can be settled. In 2007 Carla Rahn Phillips authored “The Treasure of San Jose: Death at Sea in the War of the Spanish Succession.” In 2015 experts confirmed that they found the San Jose on November 27 in a place never before referenced by previous research. The Remus 6000, an underwater autonomous vehicle operated by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, assisted in the operation.
(AP, 6/3/07)(AP, 7/6/07)(WSJ, 1/31/07, p.D6)(AP, 12/6/15)(AP, 5/22/18)

1708 Jul 4, Swedish King Karel XII beat Russians.

1708 Jul 11, The French were defeated at Oudenarde, Malplaquet, in the Netherlands by the Duke of Marlborough and Eugene of Savoy.
(HN, 7/11/98)

1708 Aug 29, French Canadian and Indian forces attacked the village of Haverhill, Mass., killing 16 settlers.
(AP, 8/29/08)

1708 Sep 28, At the Battle at Lesnaya the Russian army captured a Swedish convoy.
(MC, 9/28/01)

1708 Oct 1, John Blow, composer (Venus & Adonis), died at 59.
(MC, 10/1/01)

1708 Oct 11, Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus (b.1651), German physicist, died. Three days after Von Tschirnhaus’s death, there was a burglary at his house and, according to a report by Böttger, a small piece of porcelain was stolen. This report suggests that Böttger himself recognized that Von Tschirnhaus already knew how to make porcelain, a key piece of evidence that Von Tschirnhaus and not Böttger was the inventor of white porcelain.
{Germany, Physics, Ceramics}
(ON, 8/10, p.9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ehrenfried_Walther_von_Tschirnhaus)

1708 Oct 16, Albrecht von Haller, Swiss experimental physiologist, was born.
(MC, 10/16/01)

1708 Oct, London’s St. Paul’s Cathedral, designed by Sir Christopher Wren, was completed. The “topping out” of the cathedral (when the final stone was placed on the lantern) took place. The cathedral was declared officially complete by Parliament on 25 December 1711 (Christmas Day). In 2008 Leo Hollis authored “The Phoenix: St Paul’s Cathedral and the Men Who Made Modern London.”
(Econ, 6/7/08, p.97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St_Paul%27s_Cathedral)

1708 Nov 15, William Pitt the Elder, Secretary of State of England whose strategies helped win the Seven Years War, was born. He served as Whig PM from 1756-61 and 66-68.
(HN, 11/15/98)(MC, 11/15/01)

1708 Dec 21, French forces seized control of the eastern shore of Newfoundland after winning a victory at St. John’s.
(HN, 12/21/98)

1708 Thomas Corneille mentioned Camembert cheese in his geographical dictionary.
(Econ, 7/26/03, p.79)

1708 A map was made that depicted Towasa Indian Lamhatty’s account of his enslavement in colonial America. It was one of 75 documents in the 1997 book “Another America” by Mark Warhus.
(NH, 5/97, p.11)

1708 Mir Wais, a forerunner of Afghan independence, made Kandahar independent of Safavid Persia that had ruled it since 1622.

1708 The German Baptist Brethren were founded as a band of Pietists in the village of Schwarzenau. Due to persecution they soon migrated to America. The Holy Spirit whispers to every believer but can only be heard by those who sacrifice self-will to god’s will. They observe the rite of the “holy kiss” and have no leaders.
(WSJ, 8/3/01, p.W13)

1708 The Great Buddha Hall at Nara’s Todaiji Temple, the world’s largest wooden structure, was rebuilt at two thirds of the original scale.
(Hem, 9/04, p.46)

1708 Gobind Singh, the 10th Sikh guru died in India. He named the “Granth Sahib” holy book as his eternal successor before his death.
(AP, 9/1/04)

1709 Jan 5, Sudden extreme cold killed 1000s of Europeans.
(MC, 1/5/02)

1709 Jan 10, Abraham Darby (1678-1717) in Coalbrookdale, England, began using coke to provide carbon for making iron. This led to the end of the use of charcoal for making iron.
(Econ, 8/29/09, p.69)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham_Darby_I)

1709 Feb 1, British sailor Alexander Selkirk was rescued after being marooned on a desert island for 5 years. His story inspired “Robinson Crusoe.”

1709 Feb 8, Giuseppi Torelli (50), Italian composer, died.
(MC, 2/8/02)

1709 Mar 8, William Cowper/Cooper (~62), English anatomist, died.
(MC, 3/8/02)

1709 Apr 12, The Tatler magazine in England published its 1st edition. It used the names of coffee houses as subject headings for articles.
(MC, 4/12/02)(Econ, 12/20/03, p.89)

1709 Jun 28, Russians defeated the Swedes and Cossacks at the Battle of Poltava. [see July 8]
(HN, 6/28/98)

1709 Jul 5, Etienne de Silhouette, French minister of finance, outline portrait artist, was born.
(HN, 7/5/98)

1709 Jul 8, Peter the Great defeated Charles XII at Poltava, in the Ukraine, effectively ending the Swedish empire. [see June 28]
(HN, 7/8/98)

1709 Sep 3, The 1st major group of Swiss and German colonists reached the Carolinas.
(MC, 9/3/01)

1709 Sep 11, John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough, won the bloodiest battle of the 18th century at great cost, against the French at Malplaquet.
(HN, 9/11/98)

1709 Sep 17, Samuel Johnson, lexicographer and writer (Boswell’s Tour Guide), was born. [see Sep 18]
(MC, 9/17/01)

1709 Sep 18, Samuel Johnson (d.1784), English lexicographer, essayist, poet and moralist best known for “The Dictionary of the English Language,” was born. “Patriotism is the last refuge of a scoundrel.” — (To which Ambrose Bierce replied, “I beg to submit that it is the first.”) Boswell wrote the celebrated “Life of Johnson.” In 1955 Walter Jackson Bate (d.1999 at 81) published “The Achievement of Samuel Johnson” and in 1977 the biography “Samuel Johnson.” “The lawyer has no business with the justice or injustice of a cause. The justice or injustice is to be decided by the judge.” [see Sep 17]
(AP, 10/8/97)(BS, 5/3/98, p.13E)(HN, 9/18/98)(SFEC, 1/10/99, Par p.10)(SFC, 7/27/99, p.A17)

1709 Oct 20, Marlborough and Eugene of Savoy took Mons in the Netherlands.
(HN, 10/20/98)

1709 Nov 22, Frantisek Benda, composer, was born.
(MC, 11/22/01)

1709 Dec 1, Franz Xaver Richter, composer, was born.
(MC, 12/1/01)

1709 Dec 8, Thomas Corneille (74), French dramatist, died.
(MC, 12/8/01)

1709 Dec 18, Elizabeth, empress of Russia (to Peter the Great & Catherine I), was born. [see Dec 29]
(MC, 12/18/01)

1709 Dec 29, Elisabeth Petrovna, daughter of Peter the Great and Catherine, was born. She became tsarina of Russia (1741-1762).

1709 Boston minister Thomas Bannister donated the book “Complete History of England with the Lives of All the Kings and Queens Thereof, Vol. 3” to Harvard Univ. It was written by Bishop White Kennet and printed in 1706 in London.
(SFC, 5/10/97, p.A8)

1709 Handel composed his opera “Agrippina.”
(WSJ, 4/17/02, p.D7)

1709 Britain passed its first copyright act [see April 10, 1710].
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1709 Qing emperor Qianlong built the gardens of Yuanmingyuan (the garden of perfection and light) on the outskirts of Beijing as the imperial summer palace. In 1860 Lord Elgin’s cavalry set fire and let the gardens burn for 3 days and nights.
(www.china.org.cn/english/features/beijng/31186.htm)(Econ, 11/26/05, p.18)

1709 In Paris representatives of the Comedie-Francaise tore down the loges at the Foire de Saint-Germain. The loges were quickly rebuilt and the Comedie-Francasie people came back enraged and burned them. The theaters were rebuilt in a week and plays resumed.
(PNM, 1/25/98, p.4)

1710 Jan 1, Cölln, a town on the Spree River, united with neighboring Berlin under the latter name.

1710 Jan 4, Giovanni Battista Pergolesi (d.1736), Italian composer (Il Prigioniero Superbo), was born.
(MC, 1/4/02)(SFC, 6/24/02, p.B6)

1710 Feb 4, August II with the support of the Russian army was recognized by the parliament in Warsaw as King of Lithuania and Poland.
(LHC, 2/4/03)

1710 Feb 7, William Boyce, English organist, composer of Cathedral music, was born.
(MC, 2/7/02)

1710 Feb 15, Louis XV (d.1774), King of France, was born. He ruled from 1715-1774.
(HN, 2/15/98)(WUD, 1994, p.848)

1710 Mar 27, Joseph Marie Clement dall’ Abaco, composer, was born.
(MC, 3/27/02)

1710 Apr 10, Britain’s Queen Anne gave her assent to an act “for the encouragement of learning.” It upheld Parliament’s 1709 copyright act, which set a limit of 21 years for books already in print and 14 years for new ones with an additional 14 years if the author was still alive when the first term ran out.
(Econ, 4/10/10, p.16)

1710 Oct 16, British troops occupied Port Royal, Nova Scotia.
(MC, 10/16/01)

1710 Nov 14, Gottfried W. Leibniz (b.1646-1716), German philosopher and theologian, authored “Theodicy” in which he tried to resolve the theological problem of evil.
(www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Leibniz.html)(WSJ, 12/15/05, p.D8)

1710 Nov 21, Barnardo Pasquini (72), composer, died.
(MC, 11/21/01)

1710 Nov 22, Wilhelm Friedemann Bach, composer, son of JS Bach (Sinfonias 64), was born.
(MC, 11/22/01)

1710 French artist Jean-Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) painted “The Fortune Teller” about this time.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean-Antoine_Watteau)(SFC, 5/26/18, p.E2)
1710 “The Narrow Road” by Basho Matsuo (d.1702), Japanese poet, was first published.
(SFC, 11/28/96, p.C16)

1710 Handel returned from Italy to Hanover and was appointed as court musician to the Elector of Hanover. Later that year he first went to London. He wrote opera in the Italian style and was very successful.
(LGC-HCS, p.35)(WSJ, 8/7/01, p.A12)
1710 Louis-Nicolas Clerambault composed his cantata “Medee.”
(SFC, 6/6/96, E3)
1710 The original Chapel of San Miguel in Santa Fe, New Mexico, was erected. (AWAM, Dec. 94, p.69)
1710 St. Peter’s Roman Catholic Church was built in Malacca, Malaysia.
(SFEC, 3/19/00, p.T8)
1710 The Elector of Hanover commissioned the Hanover Cistern and Fountain, a silver buffet service intended to cool wine. In 1997 it had an estimated value of $2-3 million.
(SFC, 10/8/97, Z1 p.4)
1710 In Germany Baron Johann Bottger invented the Meissen hard-paste porcelain at the Meissen factory on the river Elbe under the auspices of Augustus, King of Poland. [see 1709] Kandler was a virtuoso sculptor and brilliant artist at Meissen and was responsible for the figurine of Mazzetin and Columbine, 2 characters from the Italian comedia dell ‘arte. In 2008 Maureen Cassidy-Geiger edited “Fragile Diplomacy,” an illustrated look at Meissen porcelain.
(WSJ, 8/28/98, p.W10)(WSJ, 2/16/08, p.W11)
1710 Mohawk and Mohican chiefs from Canada visited Queen Anne in London on a diplomatic mission.
(Econ 7/1/17, p.29)
1710 Umbrellas became popular in London.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)
1710 Wazir Khan, governor of Sirhind, died. He administered a territory of the Mughal Empire between the Sutlej and Yamuna rivers. He had a Persian background and was amongst the most loyal vassals of Aurangzeb.

1710-1784 Wilhelm Friedemann Bach, oldest son of J.S. Bach.
(LGC-HCS, p.31)

1710-1895 Muslim rulers led the Kong Empire, also known as the Wattara or Outtara Empire, which spread across West Africa. It embraced a diversity of religious groups straddling what later became Burkina Faso and Ivory Coast.
(Econ, 4/23/11, p.51)

1711 Feb 14, Handel’s opera Rinaldo premiered. He composed his opera “Rinaldo,” with the Italian librettist Giacomo Rossi. It was his 1st opera for London.
(LGC-HCS, p.41)(WSJ, 11/13/00, p.A32)(MC, 2/14/02)

1711 Mar 1, “The Spectator” began publishing in London.
(SC, 3/1/02)

1711 Mar 19, War was declared between Russia and Turkey.
(AP, 3/19/03)

1711 Apr 26, David Hume (d.1776), Scottish historian and philosopher, was born. His work included the “Treatise of Human Nature” and the 6-volume “History of England.” Use of the new calendar puts his birthday on May 7.
1711 May 7, David Hume (d.1776), Scottish historian and philosopher, was born. His work included the “Treatise of Human Nature” and the 6-volume “History of England.” The old style calendar puts his birthday on April 26.

1711 May 18, Ruggiero G. Boscovich [Rudzer J Boskovic], Italian astronomer, was born.
(SC, 5/18/02)

1711 Jun 1, The Queen Anne Act, known as The British Post Office Act of 1710, took effect in North America on June 1, 1711. It created a formula that was used to improve the colonial postal system and remained in effect in North America until 1789. Colonists came to view the postal rates set forth in the act as an excessive and unwelcome form of taxation. The rates were revised by a later act, which took effect on October 10, 1765.

1711 Jul 21, Russia and Turkey signed the Treaty of Pruth, ending the year-long Russo-Turkish War.
(HN, 7/21/98)

1711 Aug 1, Czar Peter the Great fled Azov after being surrounded.
(MC, 8/1/02)

1711 Aug 23, A British attempt to invade Canada by sea failed.
(HN, 8/23/98)

1711 Sep 6, Heinrich Melchior Muhlenberg, founder of the US Lutheran church, was born.
(MC, 9/6/01)

1711 Sep 22, The Tuscarora Indian War began with a massacre of settlers in North Carolina, following white encroachment that included the enslaving of Indian children.
(HN, 9/22/98)
1711 Sep 22, A French corsair captured Rio de Janeiro following its surprise appearance in Rio’s harbor on 12 September. Four Portuguese ships of the line were lost, and the city had to pay a ransom to avoid destruction of its defenses.

1711 Nov 3, Ferdinand Tobias Richter (60), composer, died.
(MC, 11/3/01)

1711 Dec 25, London’s St. Paul’s Cathedral, designed by Sir Christopher Wren, was declared officially complete by Parliament. In fact construction was to continue for several years after that, with the statues on the roof only being added in the 1720s. In 2008 Leo Hollis authored “The Phoenix: St Paul’s Cathedral and the Men Who Made Modern London.”

1711 Dec 31, Duke of Marlborough was fired as English army commander.
(MC, 12/31/01)

1711 The city of Beaufort, SC, was founded. It was later hailed as the state’s 2nd oldest city.
(SSFC, 1/19/03, p.C12)

1711 Horse racing began at the Royal Ascot track west of London. The 1st four day royal meeting was held there in 1768.
(SFC, 6/21/06, p.A2)(www.icons.org.uk/nom/nominations/royal-ascot)
1711 Daniel Defoe, author and enthusiast of Latin America, persuaded the British government to set up the South Sea Company to trade with the region. Speculation fueled value in the company’s shares, but the bubble crashed in 1720. In 1960 Virginia Cowles authored “The Great Swindle: The Story of the South Sea bubble.”
(Econ, 11/13/10, p.87)
1711 English ships captured the Spanish galleon San Joaquin, part of a fleet returning to Spain from Portobelo under Don Miguel Augustin de Villanueva, who was mortally wounded. New World wealth was on another ship, which managed to return to Spain.
(WSJ, 1/31/07, p.D6)

1711 Marin Marais, a great French virtuoso on the viola da gamba, composed a pair of suites.
(SFC, 6/10/98, p.D1)

1712 Jan 24, Frederick II (d.1786), Frederick the Great, the Hohenzollern King of Prussia (1740-1786), was born. He was noted for his social reforms and leading Prussia in military victories.
(WUD, 1994, p.565)(HN, 1/24/99)(WSJ, 4/27/00, p.A24)(MC, 1/24/02)

1712 Feb 8, L. Joseph de Montcalm de Saint-Veran, French general in America, was born. [see Feb 29]
(MC, 2/8/02)

1712 Feb 29, Marquis Louis Joseph de Montcalm, Commander of French Forces in North America during French and Indian War, was born. [see Feb 8]
(HN, 2/29/00)

1712 Apr 7, There was a slave revolt in New York City. A slave insurrection in New York City was suppressed by the militia and ended with the execution of 21 blacks. [see Jul 4]
(HN, 4/7/97)(HNQ, 6/10/98)

1712 Jun 7, The Pennsylvania Assembly banned the importation of slaves.
(HN, 6/7/98)

1712 Jun 28, Jean-Jacques Rousseau (d.1778), writer and philosopher, was born in Geneva, Switzerland. His books include “The Social Contract” (1762) and Emile (1762).
(www.infed.org/thinkers/et-rous.htm)(HN, 6/28/99)

1712 Jul 4, Twelve slaves were executed for starting a slave uprising in New York that killed nine whites. [see Apr 7]
(HN, 7/4/98)(PCh, 1992, p.278)

1712 Jul 12, Richard Cromwell (85), English Lord Protector (1658-59), died.
(MC, 7/12/02)

1712 Jul 30, Abraham Elsevier, publisher, died.
(MC, 7/30/02)

1712 Oct 4, Utrecht banished poor Jews.
(MC, 10/4/01)

1712 Oct 30, Christian Wilhelm Ernst Dietrich, German painter, was born.
(MC, 10/30/01)

1712 Nov 4, The Bandbox Plot, an attempt to kill Robert Harley, Earl of Oxford and Lord Treasurer, was foiled by Jonathan Swift (the author of Gulliver’s Travels), who happened to be visiting Harley.
(Econ, 11/6/10, p.74)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bandbox_Plot)

1712 The poem “The Rape of the Lock” by English poet Alexander Pope (1688-1744) was anonymously published in Lintot’s Miscellany. It was revised, expanded and reissued under Pope’s name in 1714.

1712 The English tract “Onania; or the Heinous Sin of Self-Pollution, and All Its Frightful Consequences in Both Sexes, Considered, With Spiritual and Physical Advice to Those Who Have Already Injur’d Themselves by This Abominable Practice,” was published. It was later attributed to a quack doctor named John Marten.
(SSFC, 5/18/03, p.E7)

1712 Handel composed his operas “Il Pastor Fido” and “Teseo.”
(LGC-HCS, p.41)

1712 South Carolina law required church attendance and prohibited work or travel on Sundays.
(AH, 4/07, p.30)

1712 English Tories introduced a stamp tax, which taxed newspapers per sheet. Papers were then published as broadsheets, single sheets with huge pages
(Econ, 6/12/04, p.18)
1712 Robert Walpole, later British prime minister, served a spell in the Tower of London on charges of financial impropriety.
(Econ, 2/10/07, p.89)
1712 Englishman Thomas Newcomen created a piston system to separate the steam from the water.
(HNQ, 1/18/01)

1712 In Mexico Maria de Ortiz Espejo was convicted by the Inquisition of telling women that hummingbirds and earthquakes could help them get pregnant. She got off with a warning.
(SFC, 9/18/96, p.A11)

1712 In Russia Peter the Great married Catherine.
(WSJ, 6/28/99, p.A27)

1712-1793 Francesco Guardi, Italian painter. He painted “A Seaport and Classic Ruins in Italy.”
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.627)

1712-1862 England taxed soap with the declaration that it was a frivolous luxury of the aristocracy.
(SFC, 4/17/99, p.B3)

1713 Jan 8, Arcangelo Corelli (59), composer, violinist (Concerti Grossi), died.
(MC, 1/8/02)

1713 Feb 25, Frederik I (b.1657), King of Prussia (1701-13), died.

1713 Mar 15, Nicolas Louis de Lacaille, astronomer who mapped the Southern Hemisphere, was born.
(MC, 3/15/02)

1713 Apr 11, The Peace of Utrecht was signed, France ceded Maritime provinces to Britain. The French colony of Acadia, now Nova Scotia, was ceded to Great Britain. The Acadians had come from western France to fish and farm. Those who would not swear allegiance to the crown were deported. Many of these deportees went to the bayou country of Louisiana.
(WUD, 1994, p.7)(WSJ, 9/4/96, p.A12)(HN, 4/11/98)(WSJ, 11/29/99, p.A29)
1713 Apr 11, Spain ceded the 2.5-sq. mile Gibraltar in perpetuity to Britain under the Treaty of Utrecht.
(WSJ, 11/29/99, p.A29)(SFC, 2/19/02, p.A2)

1713 Apr 21, Louis Duke de Noailles, marshal of France, was born.
(MC, 4/21/02)

1713 May 25, John Stuart 3rd earl of Bute, English premier (1760-63), was born.
(SC, 5/25/02)

1713 Jul 7, The 1st performance of Georg F Handel’s “To Deum” & “Jubilate.”
(MC, 7/7/02)

1713 Jun 13, Arcangelo Corelli (~49), Italian violinist, composer, died.
(MC, 6/13/02)

1713 Oct 5, Denis Diderot (d.1784), French encyclopedist (Dictionnaire Encyclopedique), was born in Langres, Champagne, France. Age of Enlightenment philosopher, writer who with his friend Voltaire, scoffed at organized religion, ultimately bringing on the French Revolution. “The aims of the encyclopedia seem harmless enough to us. But authoritarian governments don’t like dictionaries. They live by lies and bamboozling abstractions, and can’t afford to have words accurately defined.”

1713 Oct 10, Johann Ludwig Krebs, composer, was born. [see Oct 12]
(MC, 10/10/01)

1713 Oct 12, Johann Ludwig Krebs, composer, was born. [see Oct 10]
(MC, 10/12/01)

1713 Nov 20, Thomas Tompion, English clock maker (cylinder tunnel), died.
(MC, 11/20/01)

1713 Nov 24, Junipero Serra (d.1784), Spanish Roman Catholic missionary to the Indians in California and Mexico was born on the Spanish isle of Palma de Mallorca. He came to the New World in 1749 accompanied by 14 other Mallorcans including the geographer Crespi and Father Francisco Palou, biographer of Serra and historian of the missions. Serra was beatified in 1988.
(SFC, Z1, 4/28/96, p.6)(SFEC, 9/14/97, p.A18)(www.beachcalifornia.com/carmel2.html)
1713 Nov 24, Laurence Sterne (d.1768), novelist and satirist (Tristram Shandy), was born in Ireland. “Free thinkers are generally those who never think at all.”
(MC, 11/24/01)(AP, 6/19/97)

1713 Joseph Addison, English writer, authored the play “Cato.”
(SFC, 12/1/00, p.A3)

1713 Bach composed his Brandenburg Concerto No. 3.
(WSJ, 10/5/98, p.A21)
1713 European white porcelain was put up for general sale for the first time at the Leipzig trade fair.
(ON, 8/10, p.10)

1713 Andrew Robinson built the first schooner. In New England “to scoon” meant “to skim.”
(SFC, 5/17/97, p.E3)

1713 Most European powers vowed to respect the 1713 royal pronouncement of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI, called the Pragmatic Sanction, in which he declared that if he had no direct male heir upon his death, his Austrian domains would go to his eldest daughter, Maria Theresa.
(HNQ, 7/29/99)

1713 The plague in Vienna ended. The Karlskirche Church, designed by Johann Bernard Fischer von Erlach was built to commemorate this event. It is considered to be Vienna’s greatest Baroque church.
(Hem., Dec. ’95, p.69)

1713-1791 Kang Se-hwang, Korean painter.
(SFC, 7/26/97, p.E1)

1714 Jan 7, A typewriter was patented by Englishman Henry Mill. It was built years later.
(MC, 1/7/02)

1714 Mar 6, the Treaty of Rastatt ended the war between Austria and Spain. It complemented the Treaty of Utrecht, which had, the previous year, ended hostilities with Britain and the Dutch Republic. The Spanish Netherlands became the Austrian Netherlands, and Spain gave up her possession in Italy, Luxembourg and Flanders. A third treaty, the Treaty of Baden (Sep 7, 1714), was required to end the hostilities between France and the Holy Roman Empire.
(PCh, ed. 1992, p.279)(http://tinyurl.com/b8uxbje)

1714 Mar 8, Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (d.1788), German composer, son of J.S. Bach, was born. He played keyboard at the court of Frederick the Great for 28 years, and succeeded Telemann at Hamburg. Because he was left-handed he did not play the violin. He represented the elegant, noncontrapuntal style gallant that was developed by the Mannheim composers and led into Haydn and Mozart.
(LGC-HCS, p.31)(MC, 3/8/02)

1714 Jul 2, Christoph Willibald Ritter von Gluck, composer, was born in Erasbach, Germany.
(SC, 7/2/02)

1714 Jul, Britain’s Parliament passed the Longitude Act. It established the Board of Longitude and offered monetary rewards (Longitude Prize) for anyone who could find a simple and practical methods for the precise determination of a ship’s longitude.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Longitude_Act)(Econ, 5/16/15, p.72)

1714 Aug 1, Queen Anne (1702-1714) of Britain died at age 48. By the 1701 Act of Settlement Prince George Louis (54) of Hanover succeeded her as King George I (d.1727).
(PCh, 1992, p.279)(www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon53.html)

1714 Sep 7, In Baden, Switzerland, Charles VI signed the Treaty of Baden, also called the Peace of Baden, on behalf of the Holy Roman Empire. It was one of the agreements that concluded the War of the Spanish Succession.

1714 Sep 11, The Bourbon monarchy suppressed Catalonia’s medieval institutions following the end of the War of Spanish Succession. The Kingdom of Aragon troops that fought in support of the Habsburg dynasty’s claim to the Spanish throne were finally defeated at the Siege of Barcelona by the army of the Borbon king Philip V of Spain after 14 months of siege. This became the National Day of Catalonia (Diada) first celebrated in 1886.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Day_of_Catalonia)(Econ, 11/24/12, p.25)

1714 Sep 25, Jean-Benoit Leclair, composer, was born.
(MC, 9/25/01)

1714 Oct 20, Georg Ludwig of Hanover was crowned as George I of England. Queen Anne of England died and was succeeded by the Elector of Hanover. The Hanoverian dynasty ruled to 1901.
(LGC-HCS, p.36)(HN, 10/20/98)(WUD, 1994, p.644)

1714 Nov 11, A highway in Bronx was laid out. It was later renamed East 233rd Street.
(MC, 11/11/01)

1714 Bernard de Mandeville, Dutch philosopher, achieved widespread fame with his lengthy poem “The Fable of the Bees: Private Vice, Publick Benefits.”
(NH, 7/02, p.74)

1714 Tobias Swinden (1659-1719), English vicar, authored “an Enquiry into the Nature and Place of Hell.”
(Econ, 12/22/12, p.26)
1714 A British comedy called “The Winder” was staged.
(Econ, 12/19/09, p.132)
1714 Henry Mill received the first recorded patent for a typewriter in England.
(SJSVB, 3/25/96, p.27)
1714 Henrietta Howard (b.1689-1767) traveled with her husband to Hanover to the court of George Louis, heir to the English throne. In 1720 she was appointed as Woman of the Bedchamber to Princess Caroline and in 1723 became a royal mistress. In 2007 Tracy Borman authored “Henrietta Howard: King’s Mistress, Queen’s Servant.”
(Econ, 10/6/07, p.99)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henrietta_Howard,_Countess_of_Suffolk)

1714 In France Dom Perignon invented champagne. [see 1688]
(SFEC, 2/1/98, Z1p.8)

1714 In Japan Ando Kaigetsudo (1671-1743) was banished to the island of Oshima. He was the founder of the Kaigetsudo school of ukiyo-e (scenes of the transient world of daily life) painters and print designers.
(www.ready-to-hang.com/LCP_ArtNotes/Kaigetsudo_Ando_Bio.htm)(SSFC, 11/20/05, p.M1)

1714 In Northern Russia the Church of the Transfiguration was built by the Kizhi community on an island on Lake Onega. The wooden church with 22 onion domes was built without nails.
(WSJ, 9/16/06, p.P18)
1714 Peter the Great instituted the Order of St. Catherine in honor of his wife, Catherine. It was the highest Russian honor awarded exclusively to women. Only 12 women outside the royal family could be members of the Order at a time.
(WSJ, 6/11/99, p.W14)(WSJ, 6/28/99, p.A27)
1714 Peter the Great of Russia founded Oktyabar, a pharmaceutical firm. In 1995 US ICN Pharmaceuticals increased its investment in the firm to 75% from 41%.
(ICN, 1995 An. Rep., p.11)

1715 Jan 26, Claude Helvétius, French philosopher, was born. He advanced the theory that sensation is the source of all intellectual activity.
(HN, 1/26/99)

1715 Mar 7, Ewald Christian von Kleist, German lyric poet (Der Freuhling), was born.
(MC, 3/7/02)

1715 Mar, William Dampier (b.1651), English explorer and privateer, died. In 2004 Diana and Michael Preston authored “A Pirate of Exquisite Mind: Explorer, Naturalist and Bucaneer,” a biography of Dampier.
(WSJ, 4/16/04, p.W8)

1715 Apr 15, Uprising of Yamasse Indians in South Carolina.
(MC, 4/15/02)

1715 Apr 20, Nicholas Rowe’s “Tragedy of Lady Jane Gray,” premiered in London.
(MC, 4/20/02)

1715 May 3, Edmund Halley observed a total eclipse phenomenon: “Baily’s Beads.”
(MC, 5/3/02)

1715 May 4, A French manufacturer debuted the first folding umbrella.
(HN, 5/4/98)

1715 Jul 20, The Riot Act went into effect in England.
(HFA, ’96, p.34)(HN, 7/20/01)

1715 Jul 30, Eleven of twelve Spanish ships carrying gold and silver disappeared in a hurricane near Vero Beach, Florida.

1715 Sep 1, Louis XIV (b.1638), “the Sun King,” king of France (1643-1715), died of gangrene. His wife was Madame de Maintenon, founder of the convent academy Maison St. Cyr. In 2006 Antonia Fraser authored “Love and Louis XIV.”
(THC, 12/3/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_XIV_of_France)(WSJ, 11/4/06, p.P10)

1715 Sep 6, A pro-James III uprising took place in Scotland.
(MC, 9/6/01)

1715 Sep 30, Etienne B. de Condillac, French philosopher (sensualism, Cours d’etudes), was born.
(MC, 9/30/01)

1715 Oct 2, Peter II, czar of Russia (1727-30), was born.
(MC, 10/2/01)

1715 Nov 12, Forces of King George I fought a rebel army at Preston, Lancashire. The rebels were defeated as government reinforcements arrived the next day. 1468 rebels, including over 1000 Scots, were taken prisoner. William Maxwell (36), Fifth Earl of Nithsdale, was soon condemned to death and taken to the Tower of London.
(ON, 8/20/11, p.9)(www.information-britain.co.uk/famdates.php?id=323)

1715 Nov 13, English and Scottish rebels supporting James Francis Edward Stuart surrendered following the battle at Preston, Lancashire.
1715 Nov 13, The English fought the Scots at the Battle of Sheriffmuir in Scotland. The battle was inconclusive with both sides claiming victory. However in strategic terms Argyll had halted the Jacobite advance.

1715 Nov 24, The Thames River froze.
(MC, 11/24/01)

1715 Nov 25, England granted the 1st patent to an American. It was for processing corn.
(MC, 11/25/01)

1715 Handel composed the opera “Amadigi di Gaula.” It was about the sorceress Melissa and her attempts to seduce the hero Amadigi.
(WSJ, 3/24/97, p.A16)
1715 Daniel Parker (~1700-1775), English violin maker, visited Stradivari’s workshop about this time in Cremona, Italy, and acquired an abundance of the master’s secrets in making violins.
(Econ, 1/2/10, p.11)(www.amacviolins.com/amac/gallery/doc/makers.htm)

1715 The Ottomans recaptured the Peloponnesus from the Venetians.
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.56)

1715 Mir Wais died peacefully, and lies in a mausoleum outside of Kandahar.

1715 In Russia Peter the Great held a funeral for his favorite court dwarf. Lines of ecclesiastics were followed by 24 pair of male and female dwarves.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R4)

1715-1721 Colen Campbell and William Kent built the Burlington House in London, England. In 1854 the Cavendish family sold it to the government. Lady Cavendish had complained that its rooms were too narrow for hooped-skirted ladies to waltz in.
(Econ, 10/6/07, p.19)

1715-1774 In France Louis XV, great-grandson of Louis XIV, ruled as king.
(WUD, 1994, p.848)(PCh, 1992, p.279)

1716 Jan 15, Philip Livingston, Declaration of Independence signer, was born.
(HN, 1/15/99)

1716 Feb 23, Lady Nithsdale (25) planned and executed the escape of her husband, William Maxwell (36), Fifth Earl of Nithsdale, as he awaited execution in the Tower of London. They both escaped to France and settled in Rome as members of James Francis Stuart’s court-in-exile.
(ON, 8/20/11, p.10)(http://tinyurl.com/7hdz7oe)

1716 Mar 13, Georg Gabriel Schutz (46), composer, died.
(MC, 3/13/02)

1716 Apr 4, John Evangelist Schreiber, composer, was born.
(MC, 4/4/02)

1716 Apr 12, Felice de’ Giardini, composer, was born.
(MC, 4/12/02)

1716 May 29, Louis J.M. Daubenton, French zoologist, was born.
(SC, 5/29/02)

1716 Jun 6, The 1st slaves arrived in Louisiana.
(MC, 6/6/02)

1716 Jul 18, A decree ordered all Jews expelled from Brussels.
(MC, 7/18/02)

1716 Sep 2, Johann Trier, composer, was born.
(MC, 9/2/01)

1716 Sep 14, The 1st lighthouse in the US was lit in Boston Harbor. It was blown up by the British in 1776 and was replaced in 1783.
(www.lighthouse.cc/boston/history.html)(Econ, 3/31/12, p.41)

1716 Sep 24, Medici Grand Duke Cosimo III passed a law limiting and regulating the area of wine production in Tuscany, thus creating the 1st “Appelation Controlee” wine.
(Carmignano, 1997)

1716 Nov 3, In the Pacification Treaty of Warsaw Czar Peter the Great (1672-1725) guaranteed Saxon monarch August I’s (1682-1718) Polish kingdom.
(DoW, 1999, p.373)

1716 Nov 14, Gottfried W. Leibniz (Leibnitz b.1646), German philosopher and theologian, died. In 2005 Matthew Stewart authored “The Courtier and the Heretic: Leibniz, Spinoza, and the Fate of God in the Modern World.
(www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Leibniz.html)(WSJ, 12/15/05, p.D8)

1716 Nov 26, The 1st lion exhibited in America was in Boston.
(MC, 11/26/01)

1716 Dec 26, Thomas Gray, English poet, was born: Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard: “The paths of glory lead but to the grave.”; also: “…where ignorance is bliss/’Tis folly to be wise.”

1716 Agostino Cornacchini created the porcelain version of his sculpture “Sleeping Endymion.”
(WSJ, 1/29/02, p.A18)

1716 In the summer of 1716, a Cornish cabin boy named Thomas Pellow (11) and fifty-one of his comrades were captured at sea by Barbary corsairs. Ali Hakem and his network of Islamic slave traders had declared war on the whole of Christendom. Thousands of Europeans had been snatched from their homes and taken in chains to the great slave markets of Algiers, Tunis, and Salé in Morocco, where they were sold at auction to the highest bidder. Pellow and his shipmates were bought by the sultan of Morocco, Moulay Ismail, who was constructing an imperial palace of such scale and grandeur that it would surpass every other building in the world. In 2005 Giles Milton authored “White Gold,” an account of the trade in white slaves.
(SSFC, 6/19/05, p.C3)(http://tinyurl.com/7wv2s)
1716 Thomas Fairchild brushed with a feather pollen from a sweet William over the stigma of a carnation, creating the first human-made hybrid plant.
(www.orangepippin.com/articles/yorkshireapples.aspx)(SSFC, 4/19/09, Books p.J7)

1716 John Law established a private bank in France called Law & Co. with the promise that his notes were redeemable on demand for coin. He had persuaded the regent of infant King Louis XV to establish a national bank , and to decree that all taxes and revenues be paid in its notes.
(WSJ, 7/19/00, p.B1)(Econ, 4/29/17, p.56)

1716 St. John Island in the West Indies was settled by the Danes.
(NG, Jan, 1968, C. Mitchell, p. 71)

1716 The Virginia Colonial Assembly passed a law that required every householder to plant at least ten grapevines.
(WSJ, 9/9/96, p.A16)

1716 Frederick William I of Prussia presented his amber room, made as a gift by German artisans in 1701, to Peter the Great. In exchange he received his wish: 55 very tall Russian soldiers. Catherine the Great later added four marble panels from Florence, that were inlaid with precious stones. German troops dismantled it in 1941 and moved it to Konigsberg in 1945, where it was lost during WW II. One of the marble panels turned up in Bremen in 1997. In 1979 the Soviet government initiated a reconstruction, which was unveiled in 2003.
(SFC, 3/22/97, p.A16)(SFC, 4/30/98, p.E6)(WSJ, 1/20/00, p.A20)(AP, 5/13/03)

1716-1788 Charles III, (Carlos III) king of Spain from 1759-1788, was born in Madrid. He was a member of the Bourbon-Parma dynasty. He was King of Naples from 1734-1759 and authorized expeditions from Mexico to California.
(WUD, 1994, p.249)(SFC, 6/7/00, p.A15)

1716-1800 Ito Jakuchu, Japanese artist. He created the “Vegetable Parinirvana,” a hanging scroll that recasts the Buddha as a languishing radish surrounded by other vegetable onlookers.
(WSJ, 12/1/98, p.A20)

1717 Jan 30, Surrounded by the Russian army the Lithuanian-Polish parliament reduced its army by half and acknowledged Russian protection.
(LHC, 1/30/03)

1717 Apr 26, Pirate Black Sam Bellamy died along with 143 others when their ship, the Whydah, sank off of Wellfleet, Cape Cod. 2 men on the Whydah survived as did 7 others aboard the Mary Anne, a smaller ship loaded with Madeira wine. The slave ship Whydah had just been captured by Bellamy in February as it left Ouidau, Benin, with a load of sugar and indigo as well as chests of silver and gold. 6 or the 9 survivors were later hanged for piracy in Boston. In 1984 the wreck of the ship was discovered by Barry Clifford.
(SFC, 3/4/96, p.A4)(WSJ, 9/12/07, p.D9)

1717 May 13, Maria Theresa was born in Vienna. She later became Archduchess of Austria, a Queen of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia, and a Holy Roman Empress.

1717 Jun 4, The Freemasons established their Grand Lodge in London. They had begun in the 13th century as a guild of masons, who worked in soft stone called freestone.
(HN, 6/4/98)(WSJ, 2/6/02, p.A16)

1717 Jun 19, Johann Wenzel Anton Stamitz, composer, was born.
(MC, 6/19/02)

1717 Jul 17, Handel’s “Water Music” was played for George I on the occasion of a royal barge trip on the Thames.
(LGC-HCS, p.40)(Internet)

1717 Aug 4, A friendship treaty was signed between France and Russia.
(HN, 8/4/98)

1717 Aug 22, The Austrian army forced the Turkish army out of Belgrade, ending the Turkish revival in the Balkans.
(HN, 8/22/98)

1717 Sep 24, Horace Walpole (1797), son of Robert Walpole, author and Fourth Earl of Orford, was born. He was a life time collector of bibelots and authored one of the first Gothic novels: “The Castle of Otranto” (1764). “The whole secret of life is to be interested in one thing profoundly and in a thousand things well.” Wilmarth Lewis (d.1979) later edited Yale’s 48-volume edition of Walpole’s correspondence. He created the Gothic novel genre.
(AP, 1/13/98)(WSJ, 10/19/99, p.A24)(HN, 9/24/00)

1717 Nov 17, Jean Le Rond d’Alembert (d.1783), French mathematician, philosopher and physicist, was born. He and Denis Diderot (1713-1784) designed and edited the “Encyclopedie,” a massive reference work and polemical attempt to reform French society. In 1998 Andrew Crumey authored the novel “D’Alembert’s Principle: A Novel in Three Panels.”
(SFEC, 12/27/98, BR p.5)(www.nndb.com/people/405/000087144/)

1717 Dec 9, Johann J. Winckelmann, German archaeologist (History of Ancient Art), was born.
(MC, 12/9/01)

1717 The 1st New Orleans levee, 3 feet tall, was built on the Mississippi River.
(WSJ, 8/31/05, p.B1)

1717 Isaac Newton, England’s master of the mint, recommended a temporary freeze on the value of the gold guinea to establish an appropriate ratio between the prices of gold and silver and their supply.
(WSJ, 11/9/00, p.A24)
1717 Thomas Coke, the first Earl of Leicester, purchased a manuscript made by Leonardo da Vinci that came to be know as the Codex Leicester. It was sold in 1980 to Armand Hammer.
(SFC, 10/29/96, p.F3)(NH, 5/97, p.11)

1717 Wang Hui (b.1632), Chinese master painter, died.
(WSJ, 10/29/08, p.D9)

1717 Louis Liger (b.1658), French writer, died. His 1700 book “Oeconomie Generale de la Campagne, ou Nouvelle Maison Rustique” included a chapter on French viticulture.
(SFC, 10/21/04, p.F3)(www.rappaport.it/catalogo.htm)
1717 The French notes of John Law’s bank were made receivable for taxes and other royal revenue.
(WSJ, 7/19/00, p.B4)
1717 In France John Law proposed a company with exclusive rights to trade with and exploit the resources of the Mississippi territory and to pay down the government’s debt from company profits. The regent and Parliament approved and the Companie d’Occident (Company of the West) was established.
(WSJ, 7/19/00, p.B4)(Econ, 8/15/09, p.63)

1717 Johann Martin Schubart, former student of JS Bach, succeeded Bach as organist at the court of Weimar.
(SFC, 9/1/06, p.E10)

1717 Ono Pharmaceutical was founded by Ichibei Fushimiya as an apothecary in Osaka, Japan. In 1947 Ono Pharmaceutical was established. Its shares listed on the Osaka Securities Exchange in 1962 and the Tokyo Stock Exchange in 1963.
(Econ, 2/12/11, p.72)

1717 Dzungar tribes of Mongolia invaded Tibet, and a period of internal strife and civil war followed. The Kangxi emperor sent armies into the area for 20 years, and local leaders were forced to pledge their allegiance to the Qing Empire. In 1724, the regions of Amdo and Kham were made into the province of Kokonor, with parts of Eastern Kham incorporated into neighboring Chinese provinces.

1717-1718 Voltaire (1694-1778), French writer, was imprisoned in the Bastille for his lampoons of the Regency.

1717-1723 J.S. Bach worked under Prince Leopold at Anhalt-Cothen. During this period he composed the 1st book of the Well-Tempered Clavier, the Brandenburg Concertos and the sonatas for solo violin. Bach likely composed his “Six Suites for Unaccompanied Cello” during this period, when he served as a Kapellmeister in Cothen. They were later acclaimed as some of the greatest works ever written for solo cello. In 2010 Eric Siblin authored “The Cello Suites: J.S. Bach, Pablo Casals and the Search for a Baroque Masterpiece.”
(WSJ, 8/3/00, p.A12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cello_Suites_%28Bach%29)(Econ, 1/9/10, p.82)

1718 Jan 7, Israel Putnam, American Revolutionary War hero, was born. He planned the fortifications at the Battle of Bunker Hill and told his men, “don’t fire until you see the whites of their eyes.”
(HN, 1/7/99)

1718 Apr 26, Esek Hopkins, first U.S. commander-in-chief, was born.
(HN, 4/26/98)

1718 May 7, La Nouvelle-Orleans (New Orleans) was founded by the French Mississippi Company, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, on land inhabited by the Chitimacha. It was named for Philippe II, Duke of Orleans, the Regent of France.

1718 May 15, James Puckle, a London lawyer, patented the world’s 1st machine gun.
(MC, 5/15/02)

1718 May 23, William Hunter (d.1783), obstetrician, surgeon, anatomy teacher, was born near Glasgow, Scotland. In 1768 he opened a medical school. The Glasgow Hunterian Museum opened in 1807.
(MC, 5/23/02)(http://www.hunterian.gla.ac.uk/index.html)

1718 May, Edward Teach, aka Blackbeard, used his 40-gun, captured French flagship (La Concorde), renamed as Queen Anne’s Revenge, to blockade the harbor at Charleston, S.C.
(www.qaronline.org/history/search.htm)(AM, May/Jun 97 p.21)

1718 Jun 5, Thomas Chippendale, English furniture maker was baptized.
(MC, 6/5/02)

1718 Jun 10, Blackbeard’s ship, the Queen Anne’s Revenge, ran aground about this time and soon sank off the coast of Beaufort, NC. In 1997 underwater archeologist raised a canon believed to be from this ship.
(SFC, 3/4/96, p.A4)(SFC,10/24/97, p.A3)(www.qaronline.org/history/search.htm)

1718 Jun 26, Alexius Petrovich (28), the son of Peter the Great, died in St. Petersburg from wounds inflicted for an imagined rebellion.
(PC, 1992 ed, p.281)

1718 Jul 21, The Turkish threat to Europe was eliminated with the signing of the Treaty of Passarowitz between Austria, Venice and the Ottoman Empire.
(HN, 7/21/98)

1718 Jul 30, William Penn, English Quaker, colonizer (No cross, no crown), died.
(MC, 7/30/02)

1718 Aug 25, Hundreds of French colonists arrived in Louisiana, with some of them settling in present-day New Orleans.
(AP, 8/25/97)

1718 Nov 13, John Montagu (d.1792), fourth Earl of Sandwich and purported inventor of the sandwich, was born. In 2012 the town of Sandwich staged a dramatic re-enactment of the moment when the earl was said to have invented the sandwich, to mark the 250th anniversary of the bread-based snack.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Montagu,_4th_Earl_of_Sandwich)(AFP, 5/13/12)

1718 Nov 18, Voltaire’s “Oedipe” premiered in Paris.
(MC, 11/18/01)

1718 Nov 22, A force of British troops under Lt. Robert Maynard captured English pirate Edward Teach (b.~1682), better known as “Blackbeard” (aka Captain Drummond), during a battle near Ocracoke Island, off the North Carolina coast. They beheaded him. The governor of Virginia had put a price of 100 pounds on his head.
(AP, 11/22/97)(www.outerbankschamber.com/relocation/history/ocracoke.cfm)

1718 Dec 11, Charles XII, King of Sweden (1697-1718), was shot dead.
(MC, 12/11/01)

1718 James Puckle patented a machine gun that utilized a revolving block for firing square bullets.

1718 Handel composed his opera “Silla.”
(LGC-HCS, p.41)

1718 Jean Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville, French-Canadian explorer, founded New Orleans.
(Hem., 1/97, p.63)

1718 The “Casket Girls” of New Orleans began to arrive from France with casket full of dowry articles to marry settlers.
(SFC, 1/24/98, p.E5)

1718 Edward Teach, aka Blackbeard, began to pillage settlements along the Atlantic coast and around the Caribbean.
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.21)

1718 In France John Law’s Bank was made the state-royal-bank. The Law bank bought the French tobacco monopoly.
(WSJ, 7/19/00, p.B4)
1718 The Paris Meridian was first plotted. It was recalculated in the early 1800s by Arago.
(SSFC, 1/25/04, p.C12)

1718 Dutch planters introduced coffee to their Suriname colony.
(ON, 10/2010, p.12)

1718 Czar Peter the Great imposed a tax on the entire male peasant population while exempting the wealthiest, the nobles and the merchants. Lords, villages and town officials were responsible for collecting the tax.
(SFC, 5/3/00, p.A12)

1718-1719 The French artist Watteau, known for his draftsmanship, created “Woman in Black” and “Head of a Man.”
(WSJ, 12/9/99, p.A24)

1718-1736 Russian Czar Peter the Great, having conquered Estonia in the Great Northern War, constructed the baroque, peach and white Kadriorg Palace on the outskirts of Tallinn.
(Hem, 4/96, p.23)(CNT, 3/04, p.145)

1718-1780 In Connecticut Colonel Samuel Browne operated his 30-square-mile New Salem plantation. Evidence of slave labor was later found.
(AM, 9/01, p.10)

1719 Jan 23, Principality of Liechtenstein was created within the Holy Roman Empire.

1719 Mar 13, German alchemist Johann Friedrich Bottger (b.1682) died. He was generally acknowledged as the inventor of European porcelain. Sources later ascribed this to Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus. Böttger is still credited with the industrial manufacturing process of Meißen porcelain.
(ON, 8/10, p.10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johann_Friedrich_B%C3%B6ttger)

1719 Mar 22, Frederick William abolished serfdom on crown property in Prussia.
(AP, 3/22/99)

1719 Mar 30, Sir John Hawkins, author of the first history of music, was born.
(HN, 3/30/98)

1719 Apr 7, Jean-Baptiste de la Salle (67), French priest, explorer, saint, died.
(MC, 4/7/02)

1719 Apr 15, In France Madame de Maintenon (b.1635), the wife of former King Louis XIV, died. In 1930 Maud Cruttwell authored the biography “Madame de Maintenon.” In 2008 Veronica Buckley authored “Madame de Maintenon: The Secret Wife of Louis XIV.”
(WSJ, 5/12/07, p.P10)(http://tinyurl.com/32xq5o)(Econ, 7/26/08, p.96)

1719 Apr 25, Daniel Defoe’s novel “Robinson Crusoe” was published in London. Crusoe was based on the story of Alexander Selkirk (167601721), a man who was voluntarily put ashore on a desert island (1704-1709).
(WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robinson_Crusoe)

1719 Jun 11, Scottish rebels, aided by Spanish troops, who are defeated at Glenshiels surrendered.
(AP, 6/11/03)

1719 Jun 17, Joseph Addison (47), English poet, writer, secretary of state, died.
(MC, 6/17/02)

1719 Sep 23, Liechtenstein declared independence from the German empire.
(MC, 9/23/01)

1719 Sep, John Law announced that he would buy the entire debt of France.
(WSJ, 7/19/00, p.B4)

1719 Nov 14, Johann Georg Leopold Mozart, composer, was born.
(MC, 11/14/01)

1719 Dec 2, Pasquier Quesnel (85), French theologian (La Foi), died.
(MC, 12/2/01)

1719 Dec 11, The first recorded sighting of the Aurora Borealis took place in New England.
(AP, 12/11/99)

1719 Dec 18, Thomas Fleet published “Mother Goose’s Melodies For Children.”
(MC, 12/18/01)

1719 Tiepolo painted “Scipio Africanus Freeing Massiva,” a 9 x 16 foot painting that now resides at Walters Art Gallery in Baltimore. The painting required much restoration after having fallen into New York Harbor and being dripped on from a leak in the Walters roof.
(WSJ, 5/21/96, p.A-16)

1719 The bawdy ballad “The Ball of Kirriemuir” was first published at least this far back. The poem was later used by T.S. Eliot.
(WSJ, 9/12/96, p.A14)

1719 Chikamatsu Monzaemon created his Kabuki Theater masterpiece ‘Shankun: The Exile on Devil’s Island.”
(SFEC, 9/8/96, DB p.7)

1719 In New Hampshire the first potato in America was planted in Londonderry Common Field.
(SFC, 1/29/00, p.E3)

1719 James Bradley, English astronomer, identified the star Castor (Alpha Geminorum) as a double star.
(SCTS, p.162)

1719 The Zwinger Palace was erected in Dresden, Germany.
(SSFC, 4/25/04, p.D12)

1719 The French government gave the Law company the right of coinage. By this time John Law controlled the mint, public finances, the bank, the sea trade, Louisiana, tobacco, and salt revenues.
(WSJ, 7/19/00, p.B4)
1719 In Paris, France, the fair theaters were closed through the intrigues of their enemies.
(PNM, 1/25/98, p.4)
1719 The French captured and burned the Spanish settlement Presidio Santa Maria de Galve (later Pensacola, Flordia), but handed Pensacola back to Spain three years later. Hurricanes forced the Spanish to repeatedly rebuild.
(AP, 3/24/06)

1720 Jan 26, Guilio Alberoni was ordered out of Spain after his abortive attempt to restore his country’s empire.
(HN, 1/26/99)

1720 Jan-1720 Aug, Speculators in London bid up the price of the South Sea Co., which had been granted a trading monopoly with South America and the Pacific. The South Sea Bubble burst and London markets crashed. Speculation in government chartered trading companies had led to artificially inflated equity prices with high leverage. The average stock dropped 98.5%. It reportedly took 100 years for markets to recover. In 1999 Edward Chancellor published “Devil Take the Hindmost: A History of Financial Speculation.” In 2002 Malcolm Balen authored “The Secret History of the South Sea Bubble.”
(SFEC, 8/16/98, p.B2)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(WSJ, 6/1/99, p.A20)(Econ, 1/3/04, p.42)

1720 Feb 10, Edmund Halley was appointed 2nd Astronomer Royal of England.
(MC, 2/10/02)

1720 Feb 17, Spain signed the Treaty of the Hague with the Quadruple Alliance ending a war that was begun in 1718.
(HN, 2/17/99)

1720 Mar 24, In Paris, banking houses closed in the wake of financial crisis. The “Mississippi Bubble” burst as panicked investors withdrew their money from John Law’s bank and Mississippi Company [see South Sea Bubble, Jan, 1720].
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)(HN, 3/24/99)(WSJ, 7/19/00, p.B4)

1720 May 21, The French government issued an edict that devalued all the notes and shares of the Law company and fixed their prices. The edict was repealed after a week but the economy was severely damaged and John Law resigned as comptroller general.
(WSJ, 7/19/00, p.B4)

1720 May 25, “Le Grand St. Antoine” reached Marseille, plague killed 80,000.
(SC, 5/25/02)

1720 Jun 9, The British Parliament passed the Bubble Act following the collapse of the South Sea Company. It is also known as the Royal Exchange and London Assurance Corporation Act 1719, because those companies were incorporated under it. It delayed the development of the joint-stock company by over a century.
(Econ, 3/2/13, p.66)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bubble_Act)

1720 Jun 10, Mrs. Clements of England marketed the 1st paste-style mustard.
(MC, 6/10/02)
1720 Jun 10, The French state bank reopened after a 10 day closure and some people were crushed to death in the rush to get in.
(WSJ, 7/19/00, p.B4)

1720 Jul 17, In France Barricades, placed at the state bank, incited a crowd and 12 people were killed.
(WSJ, 7/19/00, p.B4)

1720 Oct, A government sloop, commissioned by the governor of Jamaica to capture pirates, attacked and captured the pirate ship of Captain Calico Jack Rackham.
(ON, 12/01, p.12)

1720 Sep 12, Frederick Philipse III, NYC, land owner (Bronx, Westchester & Putnam), was born.
(MC, 9/12/01)

1720 Nov 17, Pirates Mary Read, Anne Bonny (b.~1700) and Captain Calico Jack Rackham were tried by an admiralty court in Jamaica. Rackham was found guilty and hanged the next day. Read and Bonny were also found guilty and sentenced to hang but pleaded pregnancy. Their sentences were commuted until they gave birth. Bonny was later pardoned but Read died in prison on Apr 28, 1721. Bonny, an Irish American pirate, had plied her trade in the Caribbean and died around 1782.
(ON, 12/01, p.12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anne_Bonny)

1720 Nov 18, John Rackham (b.1682), English pirate captain also known as Calico Jack, died in Port Royal, Jamaica. He had operated in the Bahamas and in Cuba during the early 18th century. His nickname was derived from the calico clothing that he wore. Jack is a nickname for “John”.

1720 Nov 27, In France John Law’s bank closed for the last time.
(WSJ, 7/19/00, p.B4)

1720 Dec 20, Charles Edward Stuart, [Bonnie Prince Charlie, Young Pretender], was born. [see Dec 31]
(MC, 12/20/01)

1720 Dec 31, Charles Edward Stuart, grandson of James II, known as the Young Pretender and Bonnie Prince Charlie, was born. [see Dec 20]
(HN, 12/31/98)

1720 Dec, John Law left France and returned to England.
(WSJ, 7/19/00, p.B4)

1720 J.S. Bach composed his Double Violin Concerto in D Minor.
(SI-WPC, 12/6/96)

1720 Handel composed his opera “Radamisto.” It dealt with the tyrant Tiridate, King of Armenia, and his insatiable pursuit of a woman who is not his wife.
(LGC-HCS, p.41)(WSJ, 7/5/00, p.A20)

1720 Handel composed his oratorio “Esther” based on the 1689 drama by Racine.
(WSJ, 5/12/98, p.A20)

1720 The time setting for “Moll Flanders.”
(SFC, 6/14/96, p. C3)

1720 England passed a law that prohibited the emigration of skilled craftsmen and the export of machinery, models and plans.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)

1720 Paris, France, had 380 coffee houses by this time. Due to strict curbs on the press handwritten newsletters were exchanged there and government spies were common.
(Econ, 12/20/03, p.90)
1720 French Captain Gabriel Mathieu de Clieu (33) was posted to Martinique. In 1723 he obtained coffee while traveling back to Paris and planted them on his return to Martinique. In 1725 he reaped almost 2 pounds and sowed them on his estate and those of some friends.
(ON, 10/2010, p.12)

1720 In Ireland the first yacht club appeared in Cork Harbor.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1720 The world’s 1st futures exchange began in Osaka, Japan, with trade in 3-months forward contracts in rice.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R51)

1720 The last major eruption of the Popocatepetl volcano outside Mexico City.
(SFC, 7/3/97, p.C5)

1720 On Dominica beginning in this year the island’s administration shifted between the French and the British until the early 19th century.
(SFEC, 2/15/98, p.T6)

1720 Sardinia, held by Catalan conquerors since 1354, was handed over to Piedmont’s Savoy Kingdom.
(SFEC, 1/30/00, p.T5)

1720 The Spanish quashed Chamorro resistance and forcibly evacuated to Guam all Chamorros on Saipan and the other Northern Marianas islands.
(SFEC, 3/7/99,Z1 p.4)

1720s The Ephrata Cloister communal society in Amish country near Philadelphia was founded by a former elder of the German Dunkers (German Baptists who later became the Church of the Brethren).
(Hem, 6/96, p.107)(http://www.cob-net.org/cloister.htm)

1720s Timothy Hanson took a seeds of a European perennial grass known as hay from New York to the Carolinas. The hay is called Timothy.
(SFEC, 11/17/96, zone 1 p.2)

1720-1778 Giovanni Battista Piranesi, Italian artist. His fame rests on fantastic and often nightmarish etchings of ruins and prisons. He restored the church of Santa Maria in Aventino.
(WSJ, 3/31/98, p.A20)

1720- 1790 The great period of Castrato singing. Singers such as Nicolo Grimaldi (Nicolini), Francesca Bernardi (Senesino), Gaetano Maiorano (Caffarelli), and the greatest Carlo Broschi (Farinelli).
(LGC-HCS, p.44)

1720-1800 The American counterpart to the religious movement in Europe known as Pietism and Quietism was known as the Great Awakening. The Great Awakening was a religious revival in the American colonies in the early 18th century. It was one of the first great movements to give colonists a sense of unity and special purpose in God’s providential plans. The Great Awakening was part of a religious ferment that swept across Western Europe that was know on the Continent among Protestants and Roman Catholics as Pietism and Quietism. In England it was referred to as Evangelicalism.
(HNQ, 8/31/98)

1720-1806 Carlo Gozzi, Italian fantasist, playwright.
(WSJ, 10/20/95, p. A-12)

1721 Jan 25, Czar Peter the Great ended the Russian orthodox patriarchy.
(MC, 1/25/02)

1721 Mar 19, Tobias George Smollett, Scottish satirical author and physician (Roderick Random, Humphrey Clinker), was born (baptized).
(HN, 3/19/01)(MC, 3/19/02)

1721 Mar 24, In Germany, the supremely talented Johann Sebastian Bach published the Six Brandenburg Concertos.
(HN, 3/24/99)

1721 Mar 29, Charles Vane (b.1680), English pirate, died at Port Royal, Jamaica. He operated in the Bahamas during the end of the Golden Age of Piracy.

1721 Apr 13, John Hanson, first U.S. President under the Articles of Confederation, was born in Maryland.
(HN, 4/13/98)(MC, 4/13/02)

1721 Apr 14, William Augustus duke of Cumberland, English army leader (“Butcher of Culloden”), was born.
(MC, 4/14/02)

1721 Apr 19, Roger Sherman (d.1793) of Connecticut, signer of the Declaration of Independence, was born in Newton, Massachusetts. Sherman was among the first to declare that Parliament had no right to legislate for the colonies. He was a delegate to the Continental Congress, served in the first U.S. House of Representatives and was a U.S. senator.
(HN, 4/19/97)(HNQ, 7/10/99)

1721 Apr 26, The smallpox vaccination was 1st administrated. Lady Mary Wortley Montegu had returned to England following a stay in Turkey with her ambassador husband. She had learned of a procedure to inoculate against smallpox and began a campaign to have the procedure established.
(ON, 9/01, p.1)(MC, 4/26/02)

1721 May 25, John Copson became America’s 1st insurance agent.
(SC, 5/25/02)

1721 May 29, South Carolina was formally incorporated as a royal colony.
(HN, 5/29/98)

1721 Jun 26, Dr. Zabdiel Boylston gave the 1st smallpox inoculation in Boston. The epidemic had arrived by ship from Barbados.
(ON, 3/05, p.4)

1721 Jul 18, Jean Antoine Watteau (b.1684), French rococo painter, died. His work included “Le Mezzetin.”
(WUD, 1994 p.1614)(MC, 10/10/01)(MC, 7/18/02)

1721 Jul 21, Doctors in Boston raised objections to a new practice of using live smallpox to inoculate patients against the disease. A smallpox epidemic had recently broken out in Boston and Cotton Mather (58), following some study, encouraged the inoculation technique to prevent death from the disease.
(ON, 3/05, p.4)

1721 Aug 3, Grinling Gibbons (b.1648), Dutch-British sculptor and wood carver, died. He was known for his work in England.

1721 Aug 30, The Peace of Nystad ended the Second Northern War between Sweden and Russia, giving Russia considerably more power in the Baltic region.
(HN, 8/30/98)

1721 Oct 6, Deaths from smallpox in Boston reached 203 with 2,757 people infected.
(ON, 3/05, p.5)

1721 Oct 22, Czar Peter the Great became “All-Russian Imperator.”
(MC, 10/22/01)

1721 Dec 29, Madam Jeanne Poisson de Pompadour, influential mistress of Louis XV, was born. She was later blamed for France’s defeat in the Seven Years’ War.
(HN, 12/29/00)

1721 Samuel Johnson published his “Dictionary of the English Language.” [good job for one only 12 years old]
(SFEC, 10/18/98, BR p.7)

1721 Handel composed his opera “Floridante. ”
(LGC-HCS, p.41)

1721 Abdul Qadir Bedil (b.1644), Afghanistan Sufi poet, died. In 2000 Afghan cab drivers in Washington DC began meeting to discuss his work in a program called “An Evening of Sufism.”
(WSJ, 7/10/06, p.A1)(http://devoted.to/bedil)

1721 Robert Walpole (1676-1745) began serving as England’s first lord of the treasury and chancellor of the exchequer. He shared power with John Carteret (later 1st Earl Granville) until 1724 and with Townshend, whom he left in charge of foreign affairs, until 1730. Thereafter his ascendancy was complete until 1742.

1721 In France the bandit Cartouche (The Cartridge) took refuge in a Belleville cabaret, Le Pistolet. He was captured while sleeping and was hung at the Place de Greve in the center of Paris.
(SFEC, 6/28/98, p.T8)

1721-1785 Reigen Eto, Japanese Zen painter. His work included “White-Robbed Kannon.”
(SSFC, 9/23/01, DB p.48)

1722 Jan 24, Czar Peter the Great capped his reforms in Russia with the “Table of Rank” which decreed a commoner could climb on merit to the highest positions.
(HN, 1/24/99)

1722 Feb 10, Black Bart (b.1682), Welsh pirate, died. He raided shipping off the Americas and West Africa between 1719 and 1722.

1722 Mar 8, Afghan monarch Mir Mahmud occupied Persia.
(MC, 3/8/02)

1722 Mar 29, Emanuel Swedenborg (b.1688), Swedish scientist and clairvoyant, died in London. In 1744 he entered into a spiritual phase in which he experienced dreams and visions. The foundation of Swedenborg’s theology was laid down in “Arcana Cœlestia” (Heavenly Secrets), published in eight volumes from 1749 to 1756.

1722 Apr 5, On Easter Sunday Dutch explorer Jacob Roggeveen discovered a Polynesian Island 1400 miles from the coast of South America and named it Easter Island. He noted that the island was treeless and wondered how its massive statues were erected. Much of the population was later wiped out and the island became a possession of Chile. An indigenous script called rongorongo survived but by 2002 was still not deciphered. In 2005 Steven Roger Fischer authored “Island at the End of the World: The Turbulent History of Easter Island.”
(WSJ, 1/7/05, p.W1)(http://islandheritage.org/eihistory.html)(Econ, 7/23/05, p.77)

1722 Apr 6, In Russia Peter the Great ended tax on men with beards.
(MC, 4/6/02)

1722 Apr 11, Christopher Smart, English journalist and poet, was born.
(HN, 4/11/01)(MC, 4/11/02)

1722 Apr 12, Pietro Nardini, composer, was born.
(MC, 4/12/02)

1722 Apr 22, In Batavia, Indonesia, 19 VOC “komplotteurs” were executed.
(MC, 4/22/02)

1722 Apr 30, Game of Billiards was mentioned in New England Courant.
(MC, 4/30/02)

1722 Jun 16, John Churchill (b.1650), first Duke of Marlborough, English military strategist, died. In 2008 Richard Holmes authored “Marlborough: England’s Fragile Genius.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Churchill%2C_1st_Duke_of_Marlborough)(Econ, 6/21/08, p.99)

1722 Sep 12, The Treaty of St. Petersburg put an end to the Russo-Persian War.
(HN, 9/12/98)

1722 Sep 27, Samuel Adams (d.1803), American propagandist, political figure, revolutionary patriot and statesman who helped to organize the Boston Tea Party, was born. He was Lt. Gov. of Mass. from 1789-94.
(AHD, 1971, p.14)(HN, 9/27/98)(MC, 9/27/01)

1722 Oct 12, Shah Sultan Husayn surrendered the Persian capital of Isfahan to Afghan rebels after a seven month siege. Mir Wais’ son, Mir Mahmud of Afghanistan, had invaded Persia and occupied Isfahan. At the same time, the Durranis revolted, and terminated the Persian occupation of Herat.
(www.afghan, 5/25/98)(HN, 10/12/98)

1722 Oct 19, French C. Hopffer patented the fire extinguisher.
(MC, 10/19/01)

1722 Nov 7, Richard Steele’s “Conscious Lovers,” premiered in London.
(MC, 11/7/01)

1722 Nov 24, Johann Adam Reincken (99), German organist and composer, died.
(MC, 11/24/01)

1722 Daniel Defoe wrote his novel “Moll Flanders.”
(SFC, 10/11/96, p.C1)
1722 Daniel Defoe published his novel “A Journal of the Plague Year.” The novel posed as a historical document and covered the London in 1665 as it was hit by bubonic plague.
(WSJ, 9/9/06, p.P8)

1722 Cotton Mather authored “An Account of the Method and Success of Inoculating the Small-Pox…” This followed work in support of inoculation trials in Boston.
(WSJ, 11/22/08, p.W11)

1722 John Hamilton Moore published “The Practical Navigator.”
(AH, 12/02, p.22)

1722 Legend has it that the Arkansas “Little Rock” rock was first discovered at this time by the French explorer Jean Baptiste Benard de La Harpe. It was the first outcropping of any size on a 118-mile stretch of the Arkansas River.

1722 The original Iroquois League, often known as the Five Nations (the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca nations) became the Six Nations after the Tuscarora nation joined the League.

1722 Jonathon Swift, author and pamphleteer, urged his fellow countrymen to boycott English goods and “burn everything that came from England, except their people and their Coals.”
(SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1 p.6)

1722 Yongzheng followed Kangxi and was the 2nd of three Qing emperors who reigned over China for 133 years (1662-1795). He was followed by Qianlong.
(Econ, 11/5/05, p.90)

1722 In Paris three disgruntled playwrights, Lesage, Fuzelier, and Dorneval, bought a dozen marionettes and set themselves up at the Foire de Saint-Germain to give plays of their own composition.
(PNM, 1/25/98, p.4)

1722 A French Jesuit got into the Jingdezhen, a gated porcelain producing city in China, and sent home detailed letters on porcelain production. Within decades France developed its own porcelain production plant at Sevres.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)

1722 Russia’s Peter the Great granted nobility status to the Stroganoff family.
(WSJ, 9/7/00, p.A24)
1722 Russian troops fought against Chechen tribes for the 1st time.
(SSFC, 11/10/02, p.A11)
1722 Peter the Great exploited the chaos in the Persian Empire to lead an expedition into Transcaucasia, he struck an alliance with Vakhtang VI, the Georgian ruler of Kartli.

1722-1735 Britain’s PM Walpole built his Palladian house in Norfolk.
(Econ, 2/10/07, p.89)

1722-1780 Bernardo Belotto (Il Canaletto), Italian topographical view painter. He was the nephew of Antonio Canal. He later worked as court painter in Dresden and Warsaw.
(WSJ, 9/13/01, p.A18)

1723 Feb 5, John Witherspoon, Declaration of Independence signer, was born.
(HN, 2/5/99)

1723 Apr 14, John Wainwright, composer, was born.
(MC, 4/14/02)

1723 Jun 5, Economist Adam Smith (d.1790) was baptized in Kirkcaldy, Scotland. He was the author of “An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations.” Smith studied at the Univ. of Glasgow, and then went to Balliol College, Oxford. He then returned to the Univ. of Glasgow as a Prof. of logic and then of moral philosophy. He promoted Laissez faire economics and wrote “An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations.” His most famous statement is: “It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer, or the baker, that we expect our dinner, but from their regard to their own interest. We address ourselves, not to their humanity, but to their self-love.” He also wrote the Theory of Moral Sentiments in 1759. In 1995 Ian Simpson Ross wrote a biography of Smith titled: The Life of Adam Smith. Smith also wrote “The Theory of Moral Sentiments.” In 1999 Charles L. Griswold wrote “Adam Smith and the Virtues of Enlightenment.
(WSJ, 11/30/95, p.A-20)(AP, 6/5/97)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R20)(WSJ, 2/09/99, p.A20)(MC, 6/5/02)

1723 Jun 20, Adam Ferguson, Scottish man of letters, philosopher, historian, and patriot, was born. He wrote “Principals of Moral and Political Science.”
(HN, 6/20/99)

1723 Jul 10, William Blackstone (d.1780), English jurist (Blackstone’s Commentaries), was born in England. He wrote that: “Husband and wife are one, and that one is the husband.” His “Commentaries on the Laws of England” were a dominant source for the men who ratified the US Constitution.
(WUD, 1994, p.155)(SFC, 7/18/98, p.A15)(WSJ, 1/25/99, p.A19)(MC, 7/10/02)

1723 Jul 16, Sir Joshua Reynolds, British portrait painter and first president of the royal Academy of Arts, was born.
(HN, 7/16/98)

1723 Aug 26, Anton van Leeuwenhoek (b.1632), Dutch biologist, inventor (microscope), died in Delft, Netherlands. [Aug 30 also given as a birthdate]

1723 Oct 31, Cosimo III de’ Medici (81), ruler of Florence (1670-1723), died.
(MC, 10/31/01)

1723 Handel composed his operas “Ottone ” and “Flavio.”
(LGC-HCS, p.41)(WSJ, 4/15/03, p.D8)

1723 Marivaux wrote his comedy play “La Double Inconstance” (The Inconstant Lovers).
(WSJ, 5/9/96, p.A-16)

1723 Dominicus Montagnana made a viola, later acquired by the Chicago Symphony, valued at $1 million. He was one of the greatest Venetian violin makers.
(SFC, 6/23/98, p.A3)

1723 Britain’s Black Act, under the government of PM Robert Walpole, directed that anyone convicted of blackening or disguising his face to hunt dear could be hanged.
(Econ, 2/10/07, p.89)
1723 Sir Christopher Wren (b.1632), British astronomer and architect, died. He designed the current St. Paul’s Cathedral in London. In 2003 Lisa Jardine authored “On a Grander Scale: The Outstanding Life of Sir Christopher Wren.”
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.14)(HN, 10/20/98)(SSFC, 2/2/03, p.M1)

1723 Augustus the Strong, ruler of Saxony and King of Poland, ordered the expansion of the Royal Residence Palace treasure chamber in Dresden, long called the Green Vault because of the color of its walls.
(http://tinyurl.com/gp7uy)(Econ, 9/16/06, p.95)

1723 Dimitrie Cantemir (b.1673), 2-time Prince of Moldavia (1693 & 1710-1711), died near Kharkov, Ukraine. He was born in what is now Romania and became a prolific man of letters with talents as a philosopher, historian, composer, musicologist, linguist, ethnographer, and geographer. Between 1687 and 1710 he lived in forced exile in Istanbul, where he learned Turkish and studied the history of the Ottoman Empire at the Patriarchate’s Greek Academy, where he also composed music.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dimitrie_Cantemir)(Econ, 9/15/07, p.104)

1723 Zanabazar (b.1635), Mongolia’s greatest sculptor, died.
(SSFC, 3/27/05, p.F4)

1724 Jan 10, King Philip V shocked all of Europe when he abdicated his throne in favor of his eldest son, Louis. Philip V (1683-1746) was King of Spain from 1700-1746.
(WUD, 1994, p.1081)(HN, 1/10/99)

1724 Apr 1, Jonathan Swift published Drapier’s letters.

1724 Apr 7, Johann S. Bach’s “St. John Passion” premiered in Leipzig.
(MC, 4/7/02)

1724 Apr 22, Immanuel Kant (d.1804), German philosopher (Critique of Pure Reason), was born in Konigsberg (Kaliningrad). He held that space is just a “form of sensibility” that our minds impose on experience to give it structure. His work included the essay “Perpetual Peace.”
(V.D.-H.K.p.40)(HN, 4/22/98)(WSJ, 8/21/98, p.W13)(WSJ, 1/7/98, p.A10)

1724 May 18, Johann K. Amman (54), Swiss-Dutch doctor for deaf-mutes, died.
(SC, 5/18/02)

1724 Jun 8, John Smeaton, English engineer, was born.
(HN, 6/8/01)

1724 Nov 16, Jack Sheppard, English robber, was hanged.
(MC, 11/16/01)

1724 Dec 9, Colley Cibber’s “Caesar in Aegypt,” premiered in London.
(MC, 12/9/01)

1724 Dec 24, Benjamin Franklin arrived in London.
(MC, 12/24/01)

1724 Captain Samuel Johnson’s “General History of the Pirates” was 1st published. “Johnson” may have been a pseudonym for journalist Daniel Defoe.
(ON, 12/01, p.12)

1724 Handel composed his operas “Giulio Cesare” and “Tamerlano.” The Julius Caesar opera premiered in London. [see Mar 2 and Nov 11, 1725]
(LGC-HCS, p.41)(WSJ, 4/15/99, p.A20)(WSJ, 3/1/00, p.A24)

1724 Brattleboro became the first permanent English settlement in Vermont.
(Reuters, 8/25/06)

1724 Malta passed a law that would send women, who procure an abortion, to prison for up to three years.
(Econ, 7/27/19, p.44)

1724 Jesuit padre Jaime Bravo set up a visiting mission in the southern Baja peninsula for the nomadic Guaicura Indians.
(SSFC, 11/4/01, p.T12)



Timeline of the Eighteenth Century: 1725-1749 2

1746 Sep 20, Bonnie Prince Charlie fled to France from Scotland. [see Oct 1]
(MC, 9/20/01)

1746 Sep 21, A French expeditionary army occupied Labourdonnais. Colonial governor Joseph Francois Dupleix occupied Madras.
(PCh, 1992, p.298)(MC, 9/21/01)

1746 Oct 1, Bonnie Prince Charlie fled to France. [see Sep 20]
(MC, 10/1/01)

1746 Oct 7, William Billings, hymn composer (Rose of Sharon), was born in Boston, Mass.
(HN, 10/7/00)(MC, 10/7/01)

1746 Oct 22, Princeton University in New Jersey received its charter as the College of New Jersey. The Univ. later established a reputation for its spring ritual of sophomores running naked at midnight after the first snowfall.
(SFEC, 3/22/98, p.A23)(AP, 10/22/08)

1746 Oct 28, A tsunami caused by the Lima–Callao earthquake destroyed the entire port of Callao. Lima was almost completely destroyed by the earthquake that killed 1,141. The tsunami killed 5-6 thousand people.

1746 Tadeusz Kosciusko (d1817), Polish patriot and general in the American Revolutionary army, was born in Lithuania. [see Feb 4, 1747]
(WUD, 1994 p.794)

1746 Francisco Jose de Goya y Lucientes (d.1828), Spanish painter, was born.
(WSJ, 11/3/95, p.A-12)(WSJ, 4/16/99, p.W2)

1746 Tiepolo painted his “Saint Catherine of Siena.”
(WSJ, 1/23/97, p.A12)

1746 Parisian book publisher Andre Francois Le Breton hired Denis Diderot (32) to work on a project called the Encyclopedie. The plan was to produce a French translation of Ephraim Chamber’s 1728 Cyclopedia. In 1747 he named Diderot co-editor with Jean D’Alembert.
(ON, 4/05, p.8)(WSJ, 6/29/05, p.D8)

1746 The American Presbyterian College of New Jersey was founded.
(HNQ, 7/6/99)

1746 The first lectures on electricity in the American colonies were given by John Winthrop IV at Harvard in 1746. Winthrop, born in 1714, was the professor of mathematics and natural philosophy at Harvard. Benjamin Franklin began his experiments in electricity in 1747.
(HNQ, 7/8/98)

1746 The solitaire of Reunion, a flightless pigeon, was gone by this year.
(NH, 11/96, p.24)

1746 A consortium of London publishers offered Samuel Johnson (36) a modest sum to compose a dictionary of the English Language. He promised to do the job in 3 years, but didn’t finish the 1st edition until 1755.
(WSJ, 10/12/05, p.D13)

1746 Nicholas de Largilliere (b.1656), French painter, died.
(WSJ, 10/30/03, p.D10)

1746 Elisha Nims (26) died from a musket ball at Fort Massachusetts during the French and Indian War. His grave was discovered in 1852 and his last remains were reburied in 2000.
(SFC, 11/11/00, p.A13)

1746 William, the Duke of Cumberland, led an English military force into Scotland to defeat the rebels there.
(SFC, 10/14/00, p.B3)

1746-1818 Gaspard Monge, Comte de Peluse, French mathematician. He served with Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier on the revolutionary commission to devise the metric system.
(WUD, 1994, p.924)(NH, 12/98, p.24)

1746-1828 Francisco Jose de Goya y Lucientes, Spanish painter. 128 of his paintings are at the Prado in Madrid, Spain. Among these are: “La Maja Desnuda,” “La Maja Vestida,” “El Dos de Mayo,” “El Tres de Mayo,” “The Witches Sabboth,” “Saturn eating one of his children,” “La Quinta del Sordo” (House of the Deaf Man) murals (1820-1823) that he applied to the walls of his Madrid rooms. Known as El Rapidisimo, he painted more than 600 works. Other works include: “Los Caprichos,” “Disasters of War,” “Family of Charles IV,” “Boys Climbing a Tree,” “The Kite,” “The Injured Workman,” “The Drunken Workman,” “The Wedding,” “The Duchess of Alba” and “Pinturas Negras.” Goya spent his last years in France.
(WSJ, 5/20/96, p.A-12)(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.612)(WSJ, 5/4/99, p.A20)

1747 Feb 4, Tadeusz Kosciusko, patriot, American Revolution hero (built West Point), was born in Poland. [see 1746]
(MC, 2/4/02)

1747 Mar 4, Casimir Pulaski (d.1779), Count, American Revolutionary War General, was born in Poland. Pulaski led troops in some of the bloodiest fighting of the Revolutionary War.
(HN, 3/4/98)(SC, 3/4/02)

1747 Mar 31, Johann Abraham Peter Schulz, German composer (Moon has Risen), was born.
(MC, 3/31/02)

1747 Apr 9, Simon Fraser, 12th baron Lovat (Jacobite), became the last man to be officially beheaded in England.
(MC, 4/9/02)

1747 Jun 19, Alessandro Marcello (77), composer, died.
(MC, 6/19/02)

1747 Jul 2, Marshall Saxe led the French forces to victory over an Anglo-Dutch force under the Duke of Cumberland at the Battle of Lauffeld.
(HN, 7/2/98)

1747 Jul 6, John Paul Jones, naval hero of the American Revolution, was born near Kirkcudbright, Scotland. As a US naval commander he invaded England during the American War of Independence.
(HN, 7/6/98)(MC, 7/6/02)

1747 Jul 9, Giovanni Battista Bononcini (76), Italian opera-composer, died.
(MC, 7/9/02)

1747 Jul 10, Persian ruler Nadir Shah was assassinated at Fathabad in Persia. The Afghans rise rose again in revolt under the leadership of Ahmad Shah Abdali and retook Kandahar to establish modern Afghanistan.
(www.afghan, 5/25/98)(HN, 7/10/98)

1747 Jul 30, Antonio Benedetto Maria Puccini, composer, was born.
(MC, 7/30/02)

1747 Sep 16, The French captured Bergen-op-Zoom, consolidating their occupation of Austrian Flanders in the Netherlands.
(HN, 9/16/98)

1747 Dec 9, England and Netherlands signed a military treaty.
(MC, 12/9/01)

1747 Mark Catesby, English naturalist, used his 220 watercolors for etchings in his work on the flora and fauna of North America. The paintings were purchased by George III in 1768 and preserved in the Royal Library. In 1997 they were reproduced in the book: “Mark Catesby’s Natural History of America: Watercolors from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle” by Henrietta McBurney.
(NH, 6/97, p.12)

1747 Thomas Gray wrote: “Where ignorance is bliss, tis folly to be wise.”
(SFC, 4/22/00, p.E3)

1747 Samuel Foote, an out of work actor, established himself as the first stand-up comedian.
(SFC, 4/22/00, p.E3)

1747 Nadir Shah (head of Persia) was assassinated, and the Afghans rose once again. Afghans, under the leadership of Ahmad Shah Abdali (Durrani) retook Kandahar, and established modern Afghanistan.
(NG, 10/1993, p. 66)(https://www.afghan-web.com/history/chronology/)
1747 Ahmad Shah Abdali (d.1773) consolidated and enlarged Afghanistan. He defeated the Moghuls in the west of the Indus, and he took Herat away from the Persians. Ahmad Shah Durrani’s empire extended from Central Asia to Delhi, from Kashmir to the Arabian sea. It became the greatest Muslim empire in the second half of the 18th century.

1747 The British government swiftly acted to break Scots’ resistance. The wearing of tartan, teaching Gaelic and even playing the bagpipes were outlawed by the Act of Proscription.
(Reuters, 2/16/12)
1747 In Britain a tax was imposed on carriages.
(SFC, 4/22/00, p.E3)

1747 Parisian book publisher Andre Francois Le Breton, producer of the Encyclopedie, named Denis Diderot co-editor with Jean D’Alembert. In 2005 Philipp Blom authored “Enlightening the World,” an account of the project.
(WSJ, 6/29/05, p.D8)
1747 In France the National School of Bridges and Roads was founded.
(Econ, 4/23/15, p.43)

c1747 In Germany man-made dykes were built in the Oderbruch region north of Frankfurt an der Oder around land that was drained and cleared for farming. The dykes faced disaster in 1997 during heavy July rains.
(SFC, 7/26/97, p.A12)

1747 Carlo Bergonzi, the last of the great Cremonese violin makers, died.
(Econ, 7/30/05, p.78)

1747 The Iglesia de Nuestra Senora de la Paz was built in Todos Santos on the southern Baja peninsula.
(SSFC, 11/4/01, p.T12)

1747 A Scottish chemist found out that beets contained sugar.
(SFC, 4/22/00, p.E3)

1747-1830 Madame Dorothee Deluzy, French actress: “We believe at once in evil, we only believe in good upon reflection. Is this not sad?”
(AP, 9/21/00)

1747-1838 Lorenzo Da Ponte, wrote the libretto for Mozart’s Don Giovanni.

1747-1773 Rule of Ahmad Shah Abdali (Durrani). Ahmad Shah consolidated and enlarged Afghanistan. He defeated the Moghuls in the west of the Indus, and he takes Herat away from the Persians. Ahmad Shah Durrani’s empire extended from Central Asia to Delhi, from Kashmir to the Arabian sea. It became the greatest Muslim empire in the second half of the 18th century.
(www.afghan, 5/25/98)

1748 Feb 5, Christian Gottlob Neefe, German composer, conductor, tutor of Beethoven, was born.
(MC, 2/5/02)

1748 Feb 15, Jeremy Bentham (d.1832), philosopher, originator (Utilitarian), was born in London, England.

1748 Mar 10, John Playfair, clergyman, geologist, mathematician, was born in Scotland.
(MC, 3/10/02)

1748 Mar 19, English Naturalization Act was passed granting Jews right to colonize US.
(MC, 3/19/02)

1748 Apr 1, The ruins of Pompeii were found. The city of Pompeii, buried in 79AD, was discovered.
(SFEC, 4/12/98, p.T3)(OTD)

1748 Apr 12, William Kent (b.c1685), English sculptor and architect (Kensington Palace), died. Kent introduced the Palladian style of architecture into England with the villa at Chiswick House.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Kent)(Econ, 3/22/14, p.83)

1748 Apr 28, Lorenz Justinian Ott, composer, was born.
(MC, 4/28/02)

1748 Jun 28, A riot followed a public execution in Amsterdam and over 200 were killed.
(MC, 6/28/02)

1748 Aug 15, United Lutheran Church of US was organized.
(MC, 8/15/02)

1748 Aug 30, Jacques-Louis David (d.1825), Neo-classical painter (Death of Marat), was born. He painted “Madame Hamelin.” He also painted a portrait of Napoleon crossing the St. Bernard Pass on a rearing horse. Jean Ingres began his career as a pupil of David.
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.369)(WSJ, 5/19/97, p.A16)(WSJ, 5/28/99, p.W12)(MC, 8/30/01)

1748 Sep 24, Philipp Meissner, composer, was born.
(MC, 9/24/01)

1748 Oct 18, The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle brought the war of Austrian Succession, which began in 1840, to an end and upheld the Pragmatic Sanction.
(HNQ, 7/29/99)(MC, 10/18/01)

1748 Nov 1, Christoph Rheineck, composer, was born.
(MC, 11/1/01)

1748 Robert Feke, American painter, created his portrait of “Mrs. Charles Apthorp.”
(SFC, 2/28/01, p.E3)

1748 Samuel Richardson wrote his novel “Clarissa.” In 1976 Robin Holloway composed a 2-act opera based on the novel that was premiered in 1990 by the English National Opera.
(SFEC, 12/6/98, DB p.35)

1748 British Commodore George Anson published an account of his trip to China.
(WSJ, 9/4/98, p.W12)

1748 Handel composed his oratorio “Solomon.”
(SFEC, 9/6/98, DB p.11)

1748 Lord Fairfax, Virginia land owner, commissioned a survey of the Patterson Creek Manor, which later became part of West Virginia. The surveyor was accompanied by the nephew of Lord Fairfax and the nephew’s best friend, George Washington (16). The survey was unusually erroneous.
(WSJ, 4/21/06, p.R8)

1748 In Denmark the Royal Theater was inaugurated.
(SFEC, 11/1/98, p.T3)

1748 Henri Francois d’Aguesseau, chancellor of France, granted an official license for the new Encyclopedie following a presentation by Denis Diderot.
(ON, 4/05, p.8)
1748 French police started a file on Voltaire (1694-1778).

1748 In Germany an oil painting by Elias Gottlob Haussmann showed bewigged composer Johann Sebastian Bach aged around 60 holding the score to one of his canons.
(AFP, 6/12/15)

1748 The city of Pompeii, buried in 79AD, was discovered.
(SFEC, 4/12/98, p.T3)

1748 Scottish economist David Hume wrote an essay setting out the first coherent theory of the links between money, inflation and growth.
(Econ, 9/13/14, p.84)

1748-1758 Santa Prisca church in Taxco, Mexico, was built by the wealthy miner Jose de la Borda. It has twin towers of pink stone and an adjacent tiled dome.
(SFEC, 11/10/96, p.T6)

1748-1813 Alexander Fraser Tytler. He wrote “The Decline and Fall of the Athenian Republic.” He stated that democracy collapses when voters begin selecting candidates who promise the most financial benefits.
(SFEC, 10/25/98, p.D6)

1748-1828 Henry Livingston, poet. He is alleged to have written “A Visit from St. Nicholas” better known as “The Night Before Christmas.” [see 12/23/1823]
(AH, 4/01, p.12)

1748-1979 In Chile the Cathedral of Santiago was built. The current structure replaced three earlier ones destroyed by fires or earthquakes.
(SFEC, 10/27/96, p.T8)

1749 Jan 16, Vittorio Alfieri (d.1803), Italian dramatist and tragic poet famous for Cleopatra and Parigi Shastigliata, was born. “Often the test of courage is not to die but to live.”
(HN, 1/16/99)

1749 Jan 19, Isaiah Thomas, US printer, editor, publisher, historian, was born.
(MC, 1/19/02)

1749 Feb 7, Andre Cardinal Destouches (76), composer, died.
(MC, 2/7/02)

1749 Feb 8, Jan van Huysum (66), Dutch still life painter, died.
(MC, 2/8/02)

1749 Feb 28, The 1st edition of “The History of Tom Jones: A foundling” was published. Henry Fielding (1707-1754) wrote the book and a film based on the novel was made in 1963. A TV production premiered in 1998.
(SFEM, 11/24/96, p.59)(SFC, 4/2/98, p.E1)(MC, 2/28/02)(ON, 9/03, p.9)

1749 Mar 23, Hugo Franz Karl Alexander von Kerpen, composer, was born.
(SS, 3/23/02)
1749 Mar 23, Pierre-Simon Laplace (d.1827), French mathematician, astronomer, physicist, was born.
(WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre-Simon_Laplace)

1749 Mar, Jean Godin, French geographer, left Quito, part of the Viceroyalty of Peru (later Ecuador), in an attempt to reach France to settle his family estate. He traveled by an eastern route across South America and became stranded in French Guiana for over 20 years. In 2004 Robert Whitaker authored “The Mapmaker’s Wife: A True Tale of Love, Murder, and Survival in the Amazon.” It was an account of Jean Godin (d.1792), French mapmaker, and his wife, Isabel Godin. They managed to reunite in 1770.
(Econ, 5/15/04, p.81)(ON, 5/05, p.4)

1749 May 19, George II granted a charter to the Ohio Company to settle Ohio Valley.
(DT internet 5/19/97)

1749 May 17, Edward Jenner, physician, discoverer of vaccination, was born.
(HN, 5/17/98)

1749 Jun 19, Jean-Marie Collot d’Herbois, French revolutionary (Committee of Public Safety), was born.
(MC, 6/19/02)

1749 Jul 20, Earl of Chesterfield said: “Idleness is only refuge of weak minds.”
(MC, 7/20/02)

1749 Jul 24, Denis Diderot was arrested in Paris during a government crackdown on writers and publishers of subversive books. He was released Nov 3 to continued his work on the Encyclopedie.
(ON, 4/05, p.8)

1749 Jun 25, Massachusetts residents were asked to fast due to a severe drought.
(SFC, 6/25/09, p.D8)

1749 Aug 28, German author Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (d.1832), “the master spirit of the German people,” was born at Frankfurt am Main. Scientist, philosopher, novelist, and critic as well as lyric, dramatic, and epic poet, he was the leading figure of his age after Napoleon. He had early pretensions in the visual arts and was an avid draftsman into old age. He is best known for “Faust.” : “True excellence is rarely found, even more rarely is it cherished.”
(V.D.-H.K.p.239)(AP, 8/28/97)(WSJ, 7/16/98, p.A16)(HN, 8/28/98) (AP, 9/4/98)

1749 Sep 10, Emilie du Chatelet (b.1706), writer and mathematician, died from an infection that followed a pregnancy. Her work included a translation of Newton’s Principia from Latin to French. She met Voltaire in 1733 and they soon began living together. In 1957 Nancy Mitford authored “Voltaire in Love.” In 2006 David Bodanis authored “Passionate Minds: The Great Enlightenment Love Affair” and Judith P. Zinsser authored “La Dame d’Esprit.”
(www.math.wichita.edu/history/women/chatelet.html)(WSJ, 12/9/06, p.P12)

1749 Oct 26, The Georgia Colony reversed itself and ruled slavery to be legal.
(MC, 10/26/01)

1749 Nov 2, The English Ohio Trade Company formed its 1st trade post.
(MC, 11/2/01)

1749 Nov 23, Edward Rutledge, (Gov-SC), attorney and signer of Declaration of Independence, was born.
(MC, 11/23/01)

1749 Nov 27, Balthasar Schmid (44), composer, died.
(MC, 11/27/01)
1749 Nov 27, Gottfried Heinrich Stolzel (59), composer, died.
(MC, 11/27/01)

1749 Giovanni Battista Piranesi began his painting “The Gothic Arch.’
(WSJ, 4/28/00, p.W8)

1749 King George commissioned Handel’s “Music for the Royal Fireworks” to highlight the end of the War of the Austrian Succession.
(WSJ, 6/25/97, p.A20)

1749 Rameau’s composition “Zoroastre,” a lyric tragedy, was first performed in Paris. It did not do well and the composer reworked it with his librettist, Louis de Cahusac, for a Les Arts performance in 1756.
(WSJ, 4/13/98, p.A20)

1749 Henry Fielding, novelist and magistrate, commissioned a half dozen constables known as the Bow Street Runners. The runners vanished in 1829 with the creation of the Metropolitan Police, who established their headquarters at Scotland Yard.
(SFC, 7/14/06, p.A2)

1749 Marie-Thérèse Geoffrin launched her weekly dinners and provided the Enlightenment Republic of Letters a ‘center of unity’. The Republic of Letters emerged in the 17th century as a self-proclaimed community of scholars and literary figures that stretched across national boundaries but respected differences in language and culture.

1749-1803 Vittorio Alfieri, Italian dramatist. “Often the test of courage is not to die but to live.”
(AP, 3/27/01)



Timeline of the Eighteenth Century: 1725-1749

1725 Jan 28, Peter I “the Great” Romanov (52), Czar of Russia (1682-1725), died. [see Feb 8]
(MC, 1/28/02)

1725 Feb 8, Peter I (52) “the Great” Romanov, czar of Russia (1682-1725), died. [see Jan 28]
(MC, 2/8/02)

1725 Feb 20, New Hampshire militiamen partook in the first recorded scalping of Indians by whites in North America. 10 sleeping Indians were scalped by whites for scalp bounty.
(HN, 2/20/99)(MC, 2/20/02)

1725 Mar 2, Georg F. Handel’s opera “Giulio Cesare in Egitto” premiered in London.
(SC, 3/2/02)

1725 Apr 2, Giovanni Casanova, Italian adventurer, was born. [see Apr 5]
(HN, 4/2/01)

1725 Apr 5, Giacomo Casanova, Italian writer, philanderer, adventurer, was born. [see Apr 2]
(MC, 4/5/02)

1725 Apr 25, Mir Mahmud was mysteriously killed after going mad. Afghans started to lose control of Persia.

1725 Apr 30, Spain withdrew from the Quadruple Alliance.
(HN, 4/30/98)

1725 May 8, John Lovewell, US Indian fighter, died in battle.
(MC, 5/8/02)

1725 Oct 17, John Wilkes (d.1797), English journalist, was born. He became a MP, Lord Mayor of London and called for independence of Britain’s American colonies.

1725 Oct 22, Alessandro Scarlatti (65), composer, died.
(MC, 10/22/01)

1725 Nov 11, Georg F. Handel’s opera “Tamerlano,” premiered in London.
(MC, 11/11/01)

1725 Nov, William Bradford, an English-born Quaker, established the New York Gazette.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R43)

1725 Dec 11, George Mason (d.1792), American Revolutionary statesman, was born at Gunston Hall Plantation, situated on the Potomac River some 20 miles south of Washington D.C. Mason framed the Bill of Rights for the Virginia Convention in June 1776. This was the model for the first part of fellow Virginian Thomas Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence and the basis of the first 10 Amendments to the federal Constitution. Mason died at Gunston Hall on October 7, 1792.
(HNQ, 2/18/99)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Mason)

1725 Jean-Baptiste Greuze (d.1805), French artist, was born.
(WSJ, 1/15/98, p.W11)(WSJ, 5/14/02, p.D7)

1725 Handel composed his opera “Rodelinda.” The libretto by Francesco Haym told a tale of female constancy under great adversity.
(WSJ, 6/12/01, p.A18)

1725 John Law (d.1729) moved to Venice and made a modest living gambling.
(WSJ, 7/19/00, p.B4)

1725 The first fossil salamander was found in Germany. It was at first identified as human but later correctly identified as the extinct cryptobranchid named Andrias scheuchzeri and dated to 15 million years of age.
(PacDis, Winter ’97, p.36)

1725 August II, elector of Saxony and King of Poland, gifted a selection of Meissen porcelain from his own collection to the king of Sardinia.
(WSJ, 11/21/07, p.D10)

1725 Czar Peter the Great chose Vitus Bering (44), a Danish seaman in the Russian navy, to lead an expedition to discover whether or not Asia was connected to America.
(ON, 2/06, p.1)

1725-1774 Sir Robert Clive, soldier of fortune. Known as “Clive of India” he wrested Bengal away from the French on behalf of the British East India Co. [see 1757]
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1725-1809 Paul Sandby, considered to be the father of English watercolorists.
(Hem., 3/97, p.92)

1726 Jan 25, Guillaume Delisle (50), French geographer (Atlas geographique), died.
(MC, 1/25/02)

1726 Feb 15, Abraham Clark, Declaration of Independence signer, was born.
(HN, 2/15/98)

1726 Feb 20, William Prescott, U.S. Revolutionary War hero, was born.
(HN, 2/20/98)

1726 Feb 26, Maximilian II, M. Emanuel, elector of Bavaria, governor of Netherlands, died.
(SC, 2/26/02)

1726 Apr 8, Lewis Morris, signer of the Declaration of Independence), was born.
(HN, 4/8/98)

1726 Apr 26, Pasquale Paoli, Corsican freedom fighter, was born.
(MC, 4/26/02)

1726 May 14, Moshe Darshan, Rabbi, author (Torat Ahsam), died.
(MC, 5/14/02)

1726 May 25, Giuseppi Paolucci, composer, was born.
(SC, 5/25/02)

1726 Jun 3, James Hutton, Scottish geologist, was born. He founded the science of geology and wrote “A Theory of the Earth.”
(HN, 6/3/99)

1726 Jul, 10 Benjamin Colman preached an execution sermon to pirates in Boston.
(LSA., Fall 1995, p.19)

1726 Jul 23, Benjamin Franklin sailed back to Philadelphia.
(MC, 7/23/02)

1726 Sep 7, Francois-Andre Danican Philidor, French composer and chess champion, was born.
(MC, 9/7/01)

1726 Oct 11, Benjamin Franklin returned to Philadelphia from England.
(MC, 10/11/01)

1726 Nov 20, Oliver Wolcott, later Conn.-Gov. and signer of Declaration of Independence, was born.
(MC, 11/20/01)

1726 Bishop George Berkeley wrote his poem: On the Prospect of Planting Arts and Learning in America, which included the line “Westward the course of empire takes its way.” The poem was written on behalf of a plan to build an English college in Bermuda.
(SFC, 3/28/03, p.A3)
1726 Jonathan Swift (1667-1745), Irish born clergyman and English writer, authored Gulliver’s Travels.
(Econ, 3/2/13, p.14)
1726 Britain’s Admiralty Building was built on a block of the Middle East section of London.
(Econ, 6/21/14, p.58)

1726 In Paris the puppet show “La Grandmere amoureuse” by Fuzelier and Dorneval was a spoof on French opera based on Lully’s tragic 1676 opera “Atys.” It was revived in 1998 by the SF Bay Area team of Magnificat and the Carter Family Marionettes. It made reference to a current dispute between the physicians and surgeons of Paris.
(SFEC, 1/18/98, DB p.33)(PNM, 1/25/98)

1726 Telemann published his collection of 72 sacred cantatas: “Der Harmo-nischer Gottes-Dienst.” In it pietistic poetry or paraphrase of Biblical verse was set in the latest [musical] style. He wrote a sequel in 1731.
(EMN, 1/96, p.4)

1726 Francois Couperin composed his collection “Les Nations” with “La Francoise.”
(SFC, 6/8/96, p.E1)

1726 St. -Louis-en-l’Ile Church was built on the Ile St. -Louis on the Seine in Paris. It was vandalized during the French Revolution.
(SFEC, 6/22/97, p.T8)

1726 Montevideo, the capital city of Uruguay, was founded.
(Hem., 2/96, p.23)

1726 Michael-Richard de Lalande (b.1657), French composer, died. He served as the court composer for Louis XIV.
(SFC, 3/20/04, p.E1)(Internet)

1727 Jan 2, James Wolfe, commanded British Army (captured Quebec), was born.
(MC, 1/2/02)

1727 Feb 22, Francesco Gasparini (58), composer, died.
(MC, 2/22/02)

1727 Mar 14, Johann Gottlieb Goldberg, composer, was born.
(MC, 3/14/02)

1727 Mar 20, Sir Isaac Newton (b.1642), physicist, mathematician and astronomer, died in London. Michael White wrote the 1998 biography “Isaac Newton” in which he revealed Newton’s passion for alchemy. In 2003 James Gleick authored the biography “Isaac Newton.” In 2011 Edward Dolnick authored “The Clockwork Universe: Isaac Newton, Royal Society, and the Birth of the Modern World.” In 2014 Sarah Dry authored “The Newton Papers: The Strange and True Odyssey of Isaac Newton’s Manuscripts.”
(AP, 3/20/97)(WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)(SSFC, 6/1/03, p.M1)(Econ, 3/12/11, p.99)(Econ, 6/21/14, p.81)

1727 Apr 29, Jean-Georges Noverre, French dancer, choreographer (ballet d’action), was born.
(MC, 4/29/02)

1727 May 7, Jews were expelled from Ukraine by Empress Catherine I of Russia.
(MC, 5/7/02)

1727 May 10, Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot, French minister of Finance, was born.
(MC, 5/10/02)

1727 May 14, Thomas Gainsborough (d.1788), English painter, was baptized. His work included “The Blue Boy” (1770).
(HN, 5/14/01)(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.579)(SSFC, 9/23/18, p.A11)

1727 May 17, Catherine I (b.1683), Empress of Russia (1725-27), died.

1727 May 18, Peter II Alekseyevich (1715-1730) was proclaimed autocrat of Russia.

1727 Jun 6, Francesca Cuzzoni and Faustina Bordoni, female vocalists, attacked each other during a performance of Bononcini’s Astianatte in London.
(LGC-HCS, p.44)

1727 Jun 11, George I died on a journey to Hanover. George II became king of England.

1727 Aug 14, William Croft (b.1678), English composer, died.
(MC, 8/14/02)

1727 Aug 30, Giandomenico Tiepolo (d.1804), Venetian painter, was born. His subjects included troupes of traveling players from northern Italy.
(Econ, 4/10/04, p.72)(www.britannica.com)

1727 Oct 11, George II was crowned as king of England.

1727 Nov 15, NY General assembly permitted Jews to omit phrase “upon the faith of a Christian” from abjuration oath.
(MC, 11/15/01)

1727 Dec 22, William Ellery, US attorney and signer of the Declaration of Independence, was born.
(MC, 12/22/01)

1727 Brazil planted its first coffee.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1727 The 1st English-language recipe for “English Katchop” was published in “E. Smith’s Compleat Housewife, or Accomplished Gentlewoman’s Companion.”
(SFC, 8/27/03, p.E4)
1727 Georg Friedrich Handel, German-born composer, became by act of Parliament a naturalized British citizen.
(LGC-HCS, p.41)(AP, 4/14/97)(SFC, 9/16/97, p.E1)(Econ, 3/21/09, p.89)

1727 In Munich the “Die Andächtige Pilgerfahrt” (The Devout Pilgrimage) by Vincentius Briemle was published. The 2 illustrated volumes consisted of travel writing of journeys to Italy, Austria and the Holy Land.
(Econ, 1/20/07, p.93)(www.dartmouth.edu/~wessweb/nl/Fall05/pinews.html)

1727 An earthquake on Martinique devastated the local cocoa plantations. Landowners replanted fields with coffee from French Captain Gabriel Mathieu de Clieu.
(ON, 10/2010, p.12)

1727 Moulay Ismail the Bloodthirsty (b.~1645), Moroccan ruler, died. The Alaouite sultan is said to have fathered 888 children through a harem of 500 women. He ruled from 1672 to 1727 succeeding his half-brother Moulay Al-Rashid who died after a fall from his horse.
(Econ, 12/20/08, p.128)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moulay_Ismail)

1727 The Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS) was founded.
(Econ, 1/31/09, p.74)

1728 Jan 29, The Beggar’s Opera by John Gay (d.1732), with music arranged by John Christopher Pepusch, had its premier at the Lincoln’s Inn Fields in London. Gay intended it to be a parody of Italian opera and a satirization of the Walpole administration. He wrote new lyrics to popular tunes and his “ballad opera” was a great success.
(LGC-HCS, p.45)(ON, 2/04, p.11)

1728 Feb 10, Peter III Fyodorovich (d.1762), czar of Russia (1761-62), was born in Germany. He married Catherine, who succeeded him following a coup. [see Feb 21]
(WUD, 1994 p.1077)(WSJ, 2/14/02, p.A18)(MC, 2/10/02)

1728 Feb 21, Peter III, Russian Tsar (1762), husband of Catherine, was born in Kiel Germany. [see Feb 10]
(MC, 2/21/02)

1728 Feb 25, Peter II Alekseyevich (1715-1730) was crowned as czar of Russia.

1728 Feb 28, Georg F. Handel’s opera “Siroe, re di Persia,” premiered in London.
(MC, 2/28/02)

1728 Apr 2, Franz Asplmayr, composer, was born.
(MC, 4/2/02)

1728 Apr 13, Johann Christoph Schmidt (63), composer, died.
(MC, 4/13/02)

1728 Apr 16, Joseph Black, Scottish chemist and physicist, was born.
(HN, 4/16/01)

1728 May 4, Georg F. Handel’s opera “Tolomeo, re di Egitto,” premiered in London.
(MC, 5/4/02)

1728 May 7, Rosa Venerini (b.1656), Italian nun and founder of the Congregation of the Holy Venerini Teachers, died. In 2006 Pope Benedict XVI named her a saint.
(SFC, 10/16/06, p.A2)(www.korazym.org/news1.asp?Id=19552)

1728 Jul 16, Henri Moreau, composer, was born.
(MC, 7/16/02)

1728 Oct 3, Charles G. Chevalier d’Eon de Beaumont, French duelist, spy and transvestite, was born.
(MC, 10/3/01)

1728 Oct 7, Caesar Rodney (d.1784), Delaware, judge and signer (Declaration of Independence), was born in Dover, Delaware. He led opposition to British laws for many years while serving in the provincial assembly. He was elected to the Continental Congresses of 1774 and 1775. In 1777, he commanded the Delaware militia, and the next year he was elected president of the state for a three-year term. Rodney on horseback represents Delaware, the first of the original 13 states to ratify the Constitution, on a new .25-cent piece.
(HNQ, 2/24/99)(MC, 10/7/01)

1728 Oct 27, Captain James Cook (d.1779), explorer, was born in a small village near Middlesbrough, Yorkshire. His discoveries included the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii).

1728 Ephraim Chambers (1680-1740) produced his Cyclopedia, a popular British reference work. An expanded French translation began in 1746.
(WSJ, 6/29/05, p.D8)(www.nndb.com/people/027/000094742/)

1728 The French Count de Boulainvilliers wrote a life of Muhammad that described him as “an enlightened and wise lawgiver.”
(WSJ, 12/12/01, p.A15)

1728 The Muslim Kampung Hulu Mosque was built in Malacca, Malaysia.
(SFEC, 3/19/00, p.T8)

1728 The first diamonds found in Brazil reached Lisbon, Portugal.
(USA Today, OW, 4/22/96, p.13)

1728 Vitus Bering (47), Danish explorer in the Russian navy, discovered the Bering Strait between Asia and North America.
(PCh, 1992, p.286)(ON, 2/06, p.1)

1729 Jan 12, Edmund Burke (d.1797), British politician and author, was born in Dublin. Burke advocated consistent and sympathetic treatment of the American colonies: “A very great part of the mischiefs that vex this world arises from words.”
(V.D.-H.K.p.224)(AP, 7/20/97)(AP, 11/29/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Burke)

1729 Jan 19, William Congreve (58), English dramatist (Love for Love), died.
(MC, 1/19/02)

1729 Mar 21, John Law, Scottish gambler and financier (57 or 58), died in Venice. An inventory of his wealth included 488 paintings with works by Titian, Raphael, Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci. His story was told in 2000 by Cynthia Crossen in “The Rich and How They got That Way.”
(WSJ, 7/19/00, p.B4)(MC, 3/21/02)

1729 Apr 15, Johann S. Bach’s “Matthew Passion” premiered in Leipzig.
(MC, 4/15/02)

1729 Apr 21, Catharina II, the Great, writer, empress of Russia (1762-96), was born. [see May 2]
(MC, 4/21/02)

1729 May 2, Catherine the Great (d.1796), (Catherine II), empress (czarina) of Russia (1762-1796), was born. She succeeded her husband Peter III to the throne in 1762. “I am one of the people who love the why of things.” [see Apr 21]
(AP, 9/4/97)(HN, 5/2/99)(WSJ, 2/14/02, p.A18)

1729 May 13, Henry William Stiegel, early American glassmaker, was born.
(HN, 5/13/98)

1729 May 25, Jean de Neufville, Dutch-US merchant (started 4th English war), was born.
(SC, 5/25/02)

1729 Jul 25, North Carolina became a royal colony.
(SC, 7/25/02)

1729 Jul 30, The city of Baltimore was founded.
(AP, 7/30/97)

1729 Sep 6, Mozes Mendelssohn, German enlightened philosopher (Haksalah), was born. [see Sep 26]
(MC, 9/6/01)

1729 Sep 26, Moses Mendelssohn, German philosopher, critic, Bible translator, was born. [see Sep 6]
(MC, 9/26/01)

1729 Nov 28, Natchez Indians massacred most of the 300 French settlers and soldiers at Fort Rosalie, Louisiana.
(HN, 11/28/98)

1729 Dec 1, Giuseppe Sarti, composer, was born.
(MC, 12/1/01)

1729 Dec 3, Padre Antonio Francisco J. Jose Soler, composer (Fandango), was born in Olot, Spain.
(MC, 12/3/01)

1729 Newton’s “Principia Matematika” was published in English.

1729 The first constitution of American Presbyterianism was adopted.
(HNQ, 7/6/99)

1729 James Bradley discovered the aberration of starlight, an apparent shift in the position of a star caused by the finite speed of light and the motion of the Earth in orbit around the Sun. He uses this to determine the speed of light to be 308,3 00 km/sec, remarkably close to the modern value of 299,792 km/sec.

1729 Seborga was consolidated by sale within the Principality of Piedmont.
(SFEC, 3/30/97, p.T7)

1729 In China opium smoking was banned.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1729 Voltaire and Charles Marie de la Condamine engaged in a bond fund scheme to take advantage of bonds issued by the French government.
1729 Ruinart, a French Champagne house, was founded. In 2006 it remained the oldest Champagne house in the world.
(SFC, 10/13/06, p.F2)

1729 In Italy Filippo Juvarra designed the Palazzina di Caccia, a “little hunting palace” at Stupingi for King Vittorio Amedeo II.
(WSJ, 8/18/99, p.A17)

1729-1742 The building of the Cathedral at Zacateca, Mexico. It has been called the “Parthenon of the Mexican Baroque.”
(SFEC, 11/10/96, p.T3)

1729-1781 Gotthold Lessing, German writer, dramatist-critic, saw Faust’s pursuit of knowledge as noble, and in an unfinished play he arranged for a reconciliation between God and Faust. “Think wrongly if you please, but in all cases, think for yourself.”
(V.D.-H.K.p.239)(AP, 9/9/99)

1729-1801 The Danish East India Company was chartered to carry on trade in the East Indies.
(WUD, 1994, p.449)

1729-1814 William Howe, 5th Viscount, British general in the American Revolutionary War.
(WUD, 1994, p.689)

1730 Jan 14, William Whipple, Declaration of Independence signer, was born.
(HN, 1/14/99)

1730 Jan 23, Joseph Hewes, US merchant (Declaration of Independence signer), was born.
(MC, 1/23/02)

1730 Jan 30, Peter II Alekseyevich (1715-1730), czar of Russia, died.

1730 Apr 9, The 1st Jewish congregation in US formed the synagogue, “Sherith Israel, NYC.”

1730 May 10, George Ross, signer of the Declaration of Independence, was born.
(HN, 5/10/98)

1730 May 13, Marquess of Rockingham, British Prime Minister, was born.
(HN, 5/13/98)

1730 May 15, Robert Walpole became the sole minister in the English cabinet following the resignation of Lord Townshend.
(HN, 5/15/99)

1730 May 29, William Jackson, composer, was born.
(SC, 5/29/02)

1730 Jul 8, A magnitude 8.7 earthquake in Valparasio, Chile, killed at least 3,000 people.
(AP, 2/27/10)

1730 Jul 12, Josiah Wedgwood (d.1795), pottery designer, manufacturer (Wedgwood), was baptized in Burslem, England.

1730 Jul 21, States of Holland put a death penalty on “sodomy.”
(MC, 7/21/02)

1730 Aug 10, Sebastien de Brossard (74), French composer, died. He authored the “Dictionnaire de musique” (Paris, 1703).
(MC, 8/10/02)(Internet)

1730 Sep 1, Benjamin Franklin married Miss Read.
(MC, 9/1/02)

1730 Sep 17, Friedrich von Steuben, Prussian and US inspector-general of Washington’s army, was born.
(MC, 9/17/01)

1730 Nov 6, Hans Hermann von Katte, Prussian lieutenant, was beheaded.
(MC, 11/6/01)

1730 Nov 10, Oliver Goldsmith, playwright, was born. His work includes “She Stoops to Conquer.”
(HN, 11/10/00)

1730 Jean Baptiste Simeon Chardin (1699-1779), French painter, painted “Still Life With Plums.”
(WSJ, 12/5/96, p.A16)

1730 “Argippo,” the only opera Vivaldi (1678-1741) actually wrote for Prague, was staged just one time in Prague. The score was found in 2006 and another staging was set for 2008.
(AFP, 5/1/08)

1730 In Maryland William Fell, a Quaker ship’s carpenter, purchased a swampy promontory that became known as Baltimore’s Fell’s Point.
(WSJ, 12/1/07, p.W11)

1730 Benjamin Franklin became the official printer for Pennsylvania. He ultimately became the official printer for several colonial governments.
(AH, 2/06, p.48)

1730 Smallpox returned to Boston, but by this time inoculation was recognized as a viable means of preventing death from the disease.
(ON, 3/05, p.5)

1730 The French arrived in Swanton, Vermont, and the plague followed. The local Abenaki Indians faded into the woods.
(SFC, 12/13/02, p.J7)

1730 Jean Baptiste Oudry and Pierre-Josse Perrot, artists in the court of King Louis XV, created a drawing for the wall tapestry “Le Coq et Le Perle.” The tapestry was made by French weaving house Savonnerie and went on auction in 1997 for $300-400 thousand.
(WSJ, 2/21/97, p.B10)

1730 Jesuits founded San Jose del Cabo in Baha, Ca.
(SSFC, 2/6/05, p.F8)

1730 The monastery of Saint Serafim Sarofsky in the village of Deveyevo, Russia, was constructed. In 1927 the 266 year old complex was liquidated by the communists and used to store lumber and vegetables until 1991 when it was returned to the church.
(SFC, 5/18/96, p.A-11)

1730 Edward Scarlett, a London optician, began anchoring eyeglasses to the ears with rigid side pieces called temples.
(SFEC, 8/2/98, Z1 p.8)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R21)
1730 Britain’s Stephenson Clarke Shipping Ltd was established. The company was forced to liquidate in 2012.
(Reuters, 8/9/12)

1730 In Germany A. Ketterer invented the cuckoo clock.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1730 The first legally recognized futures market opened in Japan.
(Wired, 9/96, p.36)

1730 Diamonds were discovered in Brazil, which became the leading supplier until the 1866 discovery in South Africa. [see 1728]
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1730 Empress Anna Ivanovna, Peter the Great’s daughter, came to the Russian throne. She recalled Abram Petrovich Gannibal from exile and appointed him to a new post as a captain of military engineering.

1730 Makhtum Kuli, one of Turkmenistan’s greatest poets, was born. He died in the 1880s.

1730s Tiepolo painted “Alexander and Campaspe in the Studio of Apelles,” one of his 3 paintings on this theme.
(WSJ, 2/11/00, p.W6)

1730s The Hudson Bay Company built a stone fortress on the western shore of the Hudson Bay in Canada for the Chipewyan fur trade.
(NH, 7/96, p.4)

1730s In Buckinghamshire, England, the Palladian Bridge was built in the Stowe Landscape Gardens. Lancelot “Capability Brown did the landscaping.
(SSFC, 3/16/03, p.C6)

1730s German gun makers located in Pennsylvania began producing the Kentucky rifle, so named because it was intended for use on the Kentucky frontier. Its gunpowder was ignited with sparks struck when the hammer, containing a piece of flint, was released. The flintlock Kentucky rifle, with its extra long barrel and small caliber, was the most accurate rifle of its day and was used widely in the French and Indian Wars and American Revolution.
(HNQ, 12/21/99)

1730-1754 Mahmud I succeeded Ahmed III in the Ottoman House of Osman.
(Ot, 1993, xvii)

1730-1785 William Whipple (b. Jan 14, d. Nov 28) Judge/Jurist, Revolutionary, Declaration of Independence signer.
(DT internet 11/28/97)

1730-1820 The period of the third of four waves of rising prices over the last 800 years as described by David Hackett Fisher in his 1996 book: “The Great Wave: Price Revolutions and the Rhythm of History.”
(WSJ, 12/19/96, p.A16)

1731 Jan 20, Antonio Farnese (b.1679), the eighth and ultimate Farnese Duke of Parma and Piacenza, died. The Farnese art collection passed to Charles III, king of Naples.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_Farnese,_Duke_of_Parma)(Econ, 3/12/11, p.100)

1731 Mar 11, Robert Treat Paine, Declaration of Independence signer, was born.
(HN, 3/11/98)

1731 Apr 8, William Williams, signer of the Declaration of Independence, was born.
(HN, 4/8/98)

1731 Apr 26, Daniel Defoe (~70), English author, died. His work included the novels “Robinson Crusoe,” “Roxana” and the pamphlet “The Shortest Way With Dissenters.” In 1998 Richard West published the biography “Daniel Defoe: The Life and Strange Surprising Adventures.”
(WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A12)(MC, 4/24/02)(MC, 4/26/02)

1731 May 28, All Hebrew books in Papal State were confiscated.
(MC, 5/28/02)

1731 May 29, Orazio Mei composer, was born.
(SC, 5/29/02)

1731 Jun 2, Martha Dandridge, the first First Lady of the United States. Widow of Daniel Park Custis, she married George Washington in 1759.
(HN, 6/2/00)

1731 Jul 1, The “Instrument of Association” for the Library Company of Philadelphia was signed under the leadership of Benjamin Franklin. It was America’s first circulating library.
(www.librarycompany.org/Lemay1.pdf)(AH, 2/06, p.56)

1731 Sep 1, Pierre Danican Philidor (50), composer, died.
(MC, 9/1/02)

1731 Oct 10, Henry Cavendish, English physicist, was born. He later discovered hydrogen.
(HN, 10/10/98)(MC, 10/10/01)

1731 Nov 9, Benjamin Banneker was born in Maryland and grew up a free black man. From his farm near Baltimore, Banneker spent much of his time studying the stars. Although he lacked much of a formal education, he taught himself with borrowed books and became a noted mathematician, astronomer and inventor. Carving its gears with a pocket knife, he built a wooden clock in 1770 that was believed to have been the first built in America. Banneker began publishing scientific almanacs in 1791 after accurately predicting a solar eclipse. President George Washington appointed him to the District of Columbia Commission in 1789 to help survey the new capital city of Washington, D.C. Banneker, who died in 1806, also corresponded with Thomas Jefferson about his views against slavery.
(HNPD, 11/9/98)

1731 Nov 15, William Cowper, English lawyer and poet (John Gilpin), was born. [see Nov 26]
(MC, 11/15/01)

1731 Nov 26 William Cowper, English pre-romantic poet (His Task), was born. [see Nov 15]
(MC, 11/26/01)

1731 Dec 8, Frantisek Xaver Dusek, composer, was born.
(MC, 12/8/01)

1731 Dec 28, Christian Cannabich, German composer and royal chaplain master, was born.
(MC, 12/28/01)

1731 Luis Berrueco, Mexican painter, painted “The Martyrs of Gorkum,” a detailed work depicting the 1572 martyrdom of 19 Catholics in Gorinchem, Netherlands, during the Dutch war for independence.
(SFC, 3/5/11, p.E2)(http://tinyurl.com/5s8wnz2)

1731 Giovanni Paolo Panini, Italian artist, made his painting “Interior of St. Peter’s, Rome.”
(WSJ, 9/8/00, p.W2)

1731 A pioneering collection of graffiti appeared in London titled: “The Merry-Thought: or, the Glass-Window and Bog-House Miscellany.” The editor used the pseudonym Hurlo Thrumbo.
(Econ, 12/18/04, p.94)
1731 Henry Fielding wrote his ballad-opera “The Lottery.”
(Econ, 7/10/10, SR p.15)

1731 Telemann wrote a sequel to his 1726 collection: “Forsetzung des Harmonischen Gottesdienstes.”
(EMN, 1/96, p.4)

1731 Fort Vincennes, later Fort Sackville, was built by the French near present-day Vincennes, Indiana. It was captured by Colonel George Rogers Clark in 1779.
(HNQ, 7/24/00)

1731 In Malta the Manoel Theater was constructed.
(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.40)

1731-1795 Francis Marion, American Revolutionary General. Banastre Tarleton gave American partisan leader Francis Marion the nickname of “The Swamp Fox.” Tarleton, a young lieutenant colonel of British cavalry, had triumphed in a series of bold and lightning-fast attacks against Rebel forces. He was sent by Cornwallis to stop the increasingly troublesome Marion whose strikes on Tory patrols, British convoys and encampments had grown from a minor annoyance to a major problem for British supply lines. Given information on Marion‘s camp, Tarleton hunted the rebel general and his men through about 25 miles of barely passable terrain. Tarleton finally halted at a body of murky water called Ox Swamp and decided to give up the chase. “Come my boys!” he declared to his men. “Let us go back, as for this damned old fox, the devil himself could not catch him.” He spurred his horse and led his men away from the swamp leaving behind the nickname by which Marion is still remembered.
(WUD, 1994 p.877)(HNQ, 7/31/00)

1731-1800 William Cowper, English poet: “No man can be a patriot on an empty stomach.”
(AP, 11/28/99)

1731-1802 Erasmus Darwin, noted physician and grandfather of biologists Charles Darwin and Francis Galton, explored evolutionary concepts in his work “Zoonomia” or the “Laws of Organic Life” that were related to those of French biologist Jean Baptiste Lamarck. Darwin believed that species modified themselves to their environment in a purposeful way. Combining 18th Century values of materialism with simple observations, he is usually noted as a transitional figure in evolutionary theory.
(HNQ, 9/14/00)

1732 Jan 17, Stanislaw II August Poniatowski, last king of Poland (1764-95), was born.
(MC, 1/17/02)

1732 Jan 20, Richard Henry Lee, American Revolutionary patriot and signer of the Declaration of Independence, was born.
(HN, 1/20/99)

1732 Jan 24, Pierre Caron de Beaumarchais (d.1799), French dramatist, was born. He was best remembered for his plays “Barber of Civil” and “Marriage of Figaro.” He was a conduit for French gold and arms to American Revolution, persecuted by mob during French Rev. “It is not necessary to understand things in order to argue about them.”
(AP, 12/21/99)(www.theatrehistory.com/french/beaumarchais001.html)

1732 Feb 17, Louis Marchand (63), composer, died.
(MC, 2/17/02)

1732 Feb 22, George Washington (1732-1799), first U.S. President, was born in Westmoreland, Virginia. He is revered as the “Father of His Country” for the great services he rendered during America’s birth and infancy–a period of nearly 20 years. He spent most of his boyhood at Ferry Farm, across from the village of Fredericksburg. He later married Martha Custis, a widow with 2 sons. They had no children together. Martha Washington is credited with originating the first US bandanna. He held 317 slaves and once said: “To set the slaves afloat at once would… be productive of much inconvenience and mischief?”. Washington commanded the Continental Army that won American independence from Britain in 1783. In 1787, Washington was elected president of the Constitutional Convention that created the form of American democratic government that survives to this day. Washington was also elected in 1787 as the first president of the United States, serving two terms. One of his officers, “Light-horse Harry” Lee, summed up how Americans felt about George Washington: “First in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen.” George Washington died at his Mount Vernon home on December 14, 1799, at the age of 67.
(A & IP, ESM, p.10)(AHD, p.1446)(SFC, 3/8/96, p.A21)(Hem., 3/97, p.101) (SFC,12/897, p.A27)(HN, 2/22/98)(HNPD, 2/22/99)

1732 Feb 26, The 1st mass celebrated in American Catholic church was at St Joseph’s Church, Philadelphia.
(SC, 2/26/02)

1732 Mar 5, Joseph-Francois Salomon (82), composer, died.
(MC, 3/5/02)

1732 Mar 31, Joseph Haydn (d.1809), Austrian composer who helped develop the classical style, was born. In his career he composed 104 symphonies, 82 string quartets and 60 piano sonatas. He also wrote some 175 baritone pieces for his patron, the Hungarian prince Nickolaus Esterhazy, who played the complex stringed instrument. The Canadian scholar David Schroeder wrote: “Haydn and the Enlightenment.”
(CFA, ’96,Vol 179, p.42)(WUD, 1994, p.651)(WSJ, 8/26/97, p.A14)(HN, 3/31/98)

1732 Apr 5, Jean Honore Fragonard (d.1806), France, painter, was born. He painted “The Shady Grove.” Hubert Robert was a painter friend and the painting “La Jardinaire” was painted by one or the other.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean-Honor%C3%A9_Fragonard)(AAP, 1964)(WSJ, 2/19/99, p.W12)

1732 Apr 13, Frederick Lord North, British prime minister (1770-82) , was born.
(HN, 4/13/98)

1732 Apr 17, The 2nd Kamchatka Expedition was announced in the Russian Senate and Vitus Bering was named as captain commander. I.K. Kirilov, chief secretary of the senate, expanded Bering’s mandate to include astronomical and scientific observations, to explore the seas between Siberia and Japan and to establish trade relations with peoples encountered.
(ON, 2/06, p.1)

1732 May 13, Theodor Schwarzkopf (72), composer, died.
(MC, 5/13/02)

1732 Jun 3, Pieter Vuyst, Dutch gov-gen. of Ceylon, was executed.
(MC, 6/3/02)

1732 Jun 9, Royal charter for Georgia was granted to James Oglethorpe.
(MC, 6/9/02)

1732 Jun 21, Johann Christoph Frederic Bach (d.1795), composer, was born. He is known as the Buckeburg Bach for serving in that city his whole life.
(LGC-HCS, p.31)(MC, 6/21/02)

1732 Aug 13, Voltaire’s “Zaire,” premiered in Paris.
(MC, 8/13/02)

1732 Sep 2, Pope Clement XII renewed anti-Jewish laws of Rome.
(MC, 9/2/01)

1732 Sep 24, 21 homosexuals were burned in South Horn.
(MC, 9/24/01)

1732 Nov 8, John Dickinson (d.1808), US statesman and publicist, was born. He authored “The Liberty Song” in 1768.
(WUD, 1994 p.400)(SFC, 11/2/02, p.D2)

1732 Nov 14, 1st US professional librarian, Louis Timothee, was hired in Phila.
(MC, 11/14/01)

1732 Dec 4, John Gay (47), English poet (Beggar’s Opera), died.
(MC, 12/4/01)

1732 Dec 6, Warren Hastings, England, 1st governor-General of India (1773-84), was born.
(MC, 12/6/01)

1732 Dec 19, Benjamin Franklin began publishing “Poor Richard’s Almanack.” [see Dec 28]
(AP, 12/19/97)(MC, 12/19/01)

1732 Dec 23, Richard Arkwright (d.1792), English inventor (spinning frame) and industrialist, was born into a poor family in Preston. He amassed one of the first factory fortunes. He invented a water-powered cotton-spinning machine that became the basis for huge cotton mills.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R4,8)(MC, 12/23/01)

1732 Dec 28, The first Poor Richard’s Almanac was published along with the 1st known ad in the Pennsylvania Gazette. The Almanack was published by Richard Saunders (really Ben Franklin). [see Dec 19]
(HFA, ’96, p.20)(MC, 12/28/01)

1732 William Hogarth published his engravings of “The Harlot’s Progress.” They were wildly popular.
(Econ, 2/11/12, p.83)

1732 Marivaux, a French playwright, wrote the play “Le Triomphe de l’amour.” In 1997 it was redone as the musical “Triumph of Love.”
(WSJ, 10/29/97, p.A20)

1732 Handel composed his opera “Ezio.” It was about the hero Ezio, who returned to Rome after conquering Attila the Hun only to be wrongly condemned for treason. The libretto was by Metastasio and the work failed. It was stopped by Handel after 5 performances.
(SFC, 3/5/97, p.E3)(SFEC, 4/20/97, BR p.9)(SFC, 4/28/97, p.B3)

1732 The Kaiserbrunn (emperor’s brook) was discovered by Emperor Charles VI while on a hunting expedition. It later supplied over half of Vienna’s daily requirement of drinking water, through a 130-km-long, rock-cut tunnel called the First Vienna Mountain Spring Pipeline, constructed in 1873.

1732 In Scotland the Beggar’s Benison Club was founded by members of the upper middle-class. It was devoted to “the convivial celebration of male sexuality.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Beggar%27s_Benison)(Econ, 2/11/12, p.82)

1732-1762 Nicola Salvi, sculptor, spent 30 years on the Fontana de Trevi in Rome. It was the terminus of Agrippas Aqua Virgo.
(SFEC, 7/2/00, p.T4)

1733 Jan 13, James Oglethorpe and 130 English colonists arrived at Charleston, SC.
(MC, 1/13/02)

1733 Feb 1, Augustus the Strong, Elector of Saxony, Grand Duke of Lithuania (1697-1706) and twice King of Poland (1697-1706, 1709-1733), died in Warsaw.

1733 Feb 4, In England the widow Mrs Lydia Duncomb (80), her long term infirm companion Mrs Harrison (60), and servant Ann Price (26) were murdered during a robbery. The servant Sarah Malcolm (22) of County Durham was indicted. She strongly defended herself but was convicted and executed on Mar 7.
(Econ, 9/28/13, p.80)(http://tinyurl.com/kcbjla7)

1733 Feb 12, English colonists led by James Oglethorpe founded Savannah, Ga. Gen. James Edward Oglethorpe sailed up the Savannah River with 144 English men, women and children and in the name of King George II chartered the Georgia Crown Colony. He created the town of Savannah, to establish an ideal colony where silk and wine would be produced, based on a grid of streets around six large squares.
(SFC, 6/25/95, p.T-7)(SFEC,11/30/97, p.T4)(AP, 2/12/98)

1733 Feb 27, Johann Adam Birkenstock (46), composer and sandal designer, died.
(MC, 2/27/02)

1733 Mar 13, Joseph Priestly (d.1804), English chemist, author and clergyman, was born. He is credited with the discovery of oxygen.
(HN, 3/13/99)(WUD, 1994 p.1142)

1733 May 6, 1st international boxing match: Bob Whittaker beat Tito di Carni.
(MC, 5/6/02)

1733 May 12, Maria Theresa was crowned queen of Bohemia in Prague.
(MC, 5/12/02)

1733 May 17, England passed the Molasses Act, putting high tariffs on rum and molasses imported to the colonies from a country other than British possessions.
(MC, 5/17/02)

1733 May 18, Georg Bohm (71), German organist, composer, died.
(SC, 5/18/02)

1733 Jul 30, Society of Freemasons opened their 1st American lodge in Boston.
(MC, 7/30/02)

1733 Aug 24, David Traugott Nicolai (d.1799), composer, was born.
(MC, 8/24/02)

1733 Sep 11, Francois Couperin, French composer (Le Grand), died at 64. [see Sep 12]
(MC, 9/11/01)

1733 Sep 12, Francois Couperin “Le Grand”, French composer, died at 64. [see Sep 11]
(MC, 9/12/01)

1733 Oct 10, France declared war on Austria over the question of Polish succession.
(HN, 10/10/98)

1733 Nov 5, John Peter Zenger (b.1697), German-born immigrant, published the 1st issue of the New York Weekly Journal. Zenger, the partner of William Bradford, had left the Gazette to form the rival New York Weekly Journal. Attorney James Alexander hired Zenger in order to publish anonymously his criticism of NY Governor William Cosby.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R43)(ON, 11/04, p.9)

1733 Voltaire authored his “Lettres Anglaises” in which he hailed England as a “nation of philosophers” and recognized the English Enlightenment.
(WSJ, 12/5/00, p.A24)

1733 Handel’s opera “Orlando” was first performed. The libretto was drawn from Orlando Furioso, the 16th century epic by Ariosto that loosely translates as Orlando goes nuts. The tale follows the fortunes of the Christian warrior Roland, nephew of Charlemagne and defender of the faith against the Moors.
(WSJ, 2/28/96, p.A-16)
1733 The opera “Hippolyte et Aricie” by Rameau had its premiere. The libretto was by Abbe Simon-Joseph Pellegrin and was based on Racine’s 1677 drama Phèdre.
(WSJ, 5/21/97, p.A12)
1733 Vivaldi’s opera, “Motezuma” was first performed. The score came to light in 2002 when Hamburg-based musicologist Steffen Voss found a copy of the score in the archives of a Berlin-based choral society.
(AFP, 5/1/08)

1733 In New Mexico La Iglesia de Santa Cruz de la Canada was built. It is the oldest and most formal of the 6 adobe missions scattered along the western shoulder of the Sangre de Cristo mountains between Taos and Santa Fe. It features the art work of primitive artist Jose Rafael Aragon, who was buried here in 1862. The book “La Iglesia de Santa Cruz de la Canada, 1733-1983” covered this period. It was edited and published by poet and writer Jim Sagel (d.1998 at 50). Sagel received the Governor’s Award for the book in 1984.
(SFC, 5/12/96, p.T-5)(SFC, 4/9/98, p.C14)

1733 The Pennsylvania city of Reading became one of America’s first producers of iron and was for nearly a century the foremost in the country. Settled in 1733 by the sons of William Penn, the city is situated on the Schuylkill River in the southeastern part of the state. The Reading foundries furnished cannon for the American forces in the Revolutionary War and the Union during the Civil War.
(HNQ, 5/6/98)

1733 Gen. James Edward Oglethorpe sailed up the Savannah River with 144 English men, women and children and in the name of King George II chartered the Georgia Crown Colony. He created the town of Savannah, to establish an ideal colony where silk and wine would be produced, based on a grid of streets around six large squares.
(SFC, 6/25/95, p.T-7)(SFEC,11/30/97, p.T4)
1733 John Kay, a British weaver, invented the flying shuttle, allowing the production of wider pieces of cloth.
(Econ 7/1/17, p.15)
1733 Dr. W. Houston, British botanist, died.
(WUD, 1994, p.689)

1733 In Paris the pompiers began fighting fires on the initiative of Louis XV.
(Econ, 12/11/10, p.66)

1733 St. Croix island was purchased from the French by the Dutch West India and Guinea Company.
(NG, Jan, 1968, C. Mitchell, p. 84)

1733-1740 In Malta the Cathedral Museum in Mdina was built as a seminary opposite the Mdina Cathedral. Traces of the classical city of Melite were later found beneath it.
(AM, 7/97, p.48)

1733-1795 Maruyama Okyo, artist, pictured a 50 mile scene in “Both Banks of the Yodo River.”
(WSJ, 12/1/98, p.A20)

1733-1808 Hubert Robert, painter. He painted “The Old Bridge.”
(AAP, 1964)

1734 Jan 24, In Cracow the 2nd last king of Lithuania and Poland, August III, was crowned.
(LHC, 1/24/03)

1734 Jan 31, Julien-Amable Mathieu, composer, was born.
(MC, 1/31/02)
1734 Jan 31, Robert Morris, Declaration of Independence signer, was born.
(HN, 1/31/99)

1734 Mar 9, The Russians took Danzig (Gdansk) in Poland.
(HN, 3/9/99)

1734 Mar 10, Spanish army under Don Carlos (III) drew into Naples.
(MC, 3/10/02)

1734 Mar 21, Gunther Jacob Wenceslaus (48), composer, died.
(MC, 3/21/02)

1734 Apr 1, Louis Lully (69), French composer, died.
(MC, 4/1/02)

1734 May 23, Friedrich (Franz) Anton Mesmer (d.1815), physician and hypnotist, was born.
(HN, 5/23/98)(WSJ, 5/30/00, p.A24)

1734 Oct 14, Francis Lightfoot Lee, US farmer and signer of the Declaration of Independence), was born.
(MC, 10/14/01)

1734 Oct 22, NY Gov. William Cosby ordered the hangman and whipper of NY to burn 4 back issues of the New York Weekly Journal.
(ON, 11/04, p.9)

1734 Nov 2, Daniel Boone, American frontiersman, was born.
(HFA, ’96, p.18)(HN, 11/2/98)

1734 Nov 17, John Zenger was arrested for libel against NY colonial governor William Cosby. Zenger was later acquitted.
(ON, 11/04, p.9)

1734 Dec 18, Jean-Baptiste Rey, composer, was born.
(MC, 12/18/01)

1734 Filippo della Valle created his sculpture “Allegorical Figure of Temperament.” It was a smaller version of a larger marble statue.
(WSJ, 1/29/02, p.A18)

1734 In Canada a black slave named Marie-Joseph Angelique was hanged for setting fire to the Montreal home of her master. She became the title character in a 1999 play by Lorena Gale.
(WSJ, 6/22/99, p.A24)(SFC, 2/12/10, p.A18)

1734 Holkham Hall in Norfolk, England, was begun by Thomas Coke, later Earl of Leicester. He was a great agricultural reformer and pioneered farming techniques that increased yields from tenants nine fold in 40 years. He held sheep shearings where thousands of farmers also compared notes on new plows and seed.
(NG, Nov. 1985, p.689,691)

1734 Father Nicholas Tamaral attempted to enforce a ban polygamy among the Pericu Indians in Baha California. The Pericu beat him in return and apparently burned him alive.
(SSFC, 2/6/05, p.F8)

1734 Charles III was crowned King of the Two Sicilies. He ordered the island of Ponza rebuilt as part of his defenses. Major Winspeare of the British Royal Army Corp was the engineer of the project and the design was by Carpi, a Neapolitan architect.
(SFEC, 11/8/98, p.T12)

1734-1802 George Romney, English painter. He painted “Miss Willoughby.”
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1243)

1734-1823 Adam Czartoryski, a friend of Rousseau and Ben Franklin and luminary of the enlightenment in Poland, was an art collector and displayed his art at the family estate at Pulawy.
(WSJ, 7/30/97, p.A13)

1735 Jan 1, Paul Revere (d.1818), U.S. patriot who rode through the streets of Boston during the American Revolution, warning of the British landings, was born to Apollos Rivoire and Deborah Hitchbourne, one of 13 children.
(HN, 1/1/99)(HNQ, 6/27/02)

1735 Feb 18, The 1st opera performed in America, “Flora,” in Charleston, SC.
(MC, 2/18/02)

1735 Feb 27, Dr. John Arbuthnot (b.1667), English physician, satirist and polymath, died. In 1712 he invented the figure of John Bull, a national personification of Great Britain in general and England in particular, especially in political cartoons and similar graphic works.

1735 Jun 10, John Morgan, physician-in-chief of Continental Army, was born.
(HN, 6/10/98)

1735 Aug 4, A jury acquitted John Peter Zenger of the New York Weekly Journal of seditious libel.
(AP, 8/4/97)

1735 Aug 18, The Evening Post began publishing in Boston, Mass.
(MC, 8/18/02)

1735 Sep 5, Johann Christian Bach (d.1782), composer, son of JS Bach, was born. He is known as the London Bach. He traveled to Italy, became a Catholic, and went to England where he was mentor to the young Mozart. He also represented the Style Gallant.
(LGC-HCS, p.31)(MC, 9/5/01)

1735 Sep 22, Robert Walpole became the 1st British PM to live at 10 Downing Street.
(MC, 9/22/01)

1735 Oct 30, John Adams, second president of the United States (1797-1801), was born in Braintree (Quincy), Mass.
(AP, 10/30/97)(HN, 10/30/98)(MC, 10/30/01)

1735 William Hogarth made drawings for “The Rake’s Progress.”
(SFEC, 1/25/98, DB p.7)

1735 Samuel Johnson (1709-1784) translated a book on Abyssinia by a Portuguese Jesuit: “A Voyage to Abyssinia.” In 1759 Johnson authored his prose fiction “The History of Rasellas, Prince of Abissinia.” In the novel morality and happiness are shown not as matters of simple alternatives but sometimes impossible ones.

1735 Henry Fielding set up his own theater company at the Little Theater in London’s Haymarket. His 1st production was Pasquin.
(ON, 9/03, p.8)

1735 Handel composed his operas “Ariodante” and “Alcina.” The librettos were drawn from an episode of Orlando Furioso, the 16th century Italian epic by Ariosto.
(WSJ, 2/28/96, p.A-16)(WSJ, 12/8/98, p.A20)

1735 Jean-Philippe Rameau composed his rococo opera-ballet “Les Indes Galantes,” (The Amorous Indies).
(WSJ, 10/21/99, p.A20)

1735 Just-Aurele Meissonier, a royal silversmith, made a Rococo soup tureen for the Duke of Kingston. It later passed to J.P. Morgan and in 1998 was valued at over $8 million.
(WSJ, 5/8/98, p.W12)

1735 Antigua built a prison to hold 150 inmates. In 2016 it held some 400 inmates.
(Econ, 3/12/15, p.34)

1735 In London, England, Col. Sir Thomas De Veil began dispensing justice from a house on Bow Street. De Veil was succeeded by Henry Fielding.
(SFC, 7/14/06, p.A2)

1735 A French expedition to South America was led by Charles-Marie de la Condamine. It produced the earliest maps of the northern part of the continent and led to the introduction of platinum and rubber to Europe. In 2004 Robert Whitaker authored “The Mapmaker’s Wife: A True Tale of Love, Murder, and Survival in the Amazon.” It was an account of Jean Godin (d.1792), the expedition’s mapmaker, and his wife, Isabel Grameson. The couple married in Quito in 1741.
(Econ, 5/15/04, p.81)(ON, 5/05, p.1)

1735 Lady Hyegyong was born in Korea. At age 9-10 she married Crown Prince Sado (~10), who was murdered by his father, King Yongjo, in 1762. Hyegyônggung Hong Ssi later authored her memoir “Hanjungnok.”
(Econ, 9/11/04, p.79)(www.financial-book-review.com)

1735 Jehan-Jacques Blancpain started making watches in Villeret, Switzerland. The firm later became part of the Swatch Group.

c1735-1736 Jean Baptiste Simeon Chardin (1699-1779), French painter, painted “The Young Schoolmistress.”
(WSJ, 6/19/00, p.A42)

1735-1826 John Adams, 2nd president of the US from 1797-1801.
(AHD, 1971, p.14)(A&IP, Miers, p.17)

1736 Jan 19, James Watt, Scottish inventor of the steam engine who gave his name to a unit of power, was born. [see 1705]
(AP, 1/19/98)(HN, 1/19/99)

1736 Jan 27, Stanislaw Lesheinski gave up the Polish-Lithuanian throne.
(LHC, 1/27/03)

1736 Feb 19, Georg F. Handel’s “Alexander’s Feast,” premiered.
(MC, 2/19/02)

1736 Feb 29, Anna Lee, founder of the Shaker movement in America, was born.
(HN, 2/29/00)

1736 Mar 10, NY colonial Gov. William Cosby died. George Clarke became the new governor.
(ON, 11/04, p.10)(www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/zenger/chronology.html)

1736 Mar 16, Giovanni Battista Pergolesi (b.1710), Italian composer (Il Prigioniero Superbo, Stabat Mater), died. Marvin Paymer (d.2002), an expert on Pergolesi, later edited the 26-volume “The New Pergolesi Edition.”
(MC, 1/4/02)(SFC, 6/24/02, p.B6)(MC, 3/16/02)

1736 Mar 23, Iman Willem Falck, Dutch Governor of Ceylon (1765-83), was born.
(SS, 3/23/02)

1736 May 26, British and Chickasaw Indians defeated the French at the Battle of Ackia. In northwestern Mississippi the Chickasaw Indians, supported by the British, defeated a combined force of French soldiers and Chocktaw Indians, thus opening the region to English settlement.
(AHD, 1971, p.11)(HN, 5/26/98)

1736 May 29, Patrick Henry (d.1799), American Colonial patriot, orator and governor of Virginia, was born. He was a slave-owner and justified the fact by saying: “I am driven along by the general inconvenience of living here without them.” He later said “Give me liberty or give me death.”
(SFC,12/897, p.A27)(HN, 5/29/01)

1736 Aug 8, Mahomet Weyonomon, a Mohegan sachem or leader, died of smallpox while waiting to see King George II to complain directly about British settlers encroaching on tribal lands in the Connecticut colony. The tribal chief was buried in an unmarked grave in a south London churchyard.
(AP, 11/22/06)(http://tinyurl.com/ymbn3c)

1736 Sep 10, Carter Braxton, US farmer and signer of the Declaration of Independence, was born.
(MC, 9/10/01)

1736 Sep 16, Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit (b.1686), Gdansk-born German physicist, died in the Netherlands. He discovered that water boils at 212F and freezes at 32F.

1736 Nov 18, Carl Friedrich Christian Fasch, composer, was born.
(MC, 11/18/01)

1736 Nov 26, Charles-Joseph Panckoucke, French publisher (Mercure de France), was born.
(MC, 11/26/01)

1736 Gian Domenico Ferretti (1692-1767) created his painting “The Brazen Serpent.”

1736 Henry Fielding presented his play “The Historical Register for the Year 1736,” a pointed attack on the British government of PM Walpole.
(ON, 9/03, p.8)

1736 J.S. Bach played weekly concerts at Zimmerman’s coffeehouse in Leipzig on Friday evenings from 8 to 10.
(LGC-HCS, p.25)

1736 Jean Marie Leclair organized the Recreation de Musique.
(EMN, 1/96, p.4)

1736 Early expansion of American Presbyterianism was spurred by the founding of “log colleges,” especially the one formed in this year by Rev. William Tennent, Sr. at Neshaminy.
(HNQ, 7/6/99)

1736 Georgia’s founder, General James Edward Oglethorpe, established Fort Frederica on the northern tip of St. Simon Island off the coast of Georgia.
(SFC, 4/28/96, p.T-7)

1736 Britain’s Mortmain Act (literally meaning ‘dead hand’) was introduced to protect the rights of heirs and frustrate benefactors determined to disinherit their families. It invalidated charitable gifts of land or buildings unless they were made in the last year of the donor’s life.
1736 Samuel Baldwin of Hampshire, England, had his body cast into the ocean. He requested this so that his wife could not carry out her threat to dance on his grave.
(SFEC, 11/14/99, Z1 p.2)

1736 Filippo Juvarra (b.1678), Italian baroque architect, died in Madrid.

1736 Nadir Shah (head of Persia) occupied southwest Afghanistan, and southeast Persia.

1736-1795 The period of Emperor Qianlong’s (Ch’ien-lung) reign over China. Qianlong was a painter and calligrapher and showed an insatiable appetite for collecting art. His collection formed the core of the later National Palace Museum.
(SFEC, 10/6/96, DB p.36)(SFC, 10/14/96, p.B3)(WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)

1737 Jan 12, John Hancock, first signer of the Declaration of Independence, was born. [see Jan 23]
(HN, 1/12/99)

1737 Jan 21, Ethan Allen, American Revolutionary commander of the “Green Mountain Boys” who captured Fort Ticonderoga in 1775, was born.
(HN, 1/21/99)

1737 Jan 23, John Hancock (d.1793), American statesman and first Governor of Massachusetts, was born. He was governor twice: (1780-1785 and 1787-1793). His was the first signature in large script at the bottom of the US Declaration of Independence. [see Jan 12]
(HFA, ’96, p.22)(AHD, p.597)

1737 Jan 29, Thomas Paine, political essayist, was born in England and went on to write “The Rights of Man” and “The Age of Reason.” He lived his final years in poverty and obscurity, and died June 8, 1809.
(HN, 1/29/99)(HNQ, 9/21/99)

1737 Feb 20, French minister of Finance, Chauvelin, resigned.
(MC, 2/20/02)

1737 Mar 12, Galileo’s body was moved to Church of Santa Croce in Florence, Italy.
(MC, 3/12/02)

1737 Mar 28, Francesco Zanetti, composer, was born.
(MC, 3/28/02)

1737 Apr 27, Edward Gibbon (d.1794), historian, writer of “Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire,” was born. [see May 8, 1737]
(HN, 4/27/98)

1737 May 8, Edward Gibbon, English historian, author of “Decline and Fall of Roman Empire,” was born. [see April 27, 1737] “All that is human must be retrograde if it does not advance.”
(HN, 5/8/98)(AP, 2/27/00)

1737 May, Sir Robert Walpole argued for censorship of a play in the House of Commons of a satire called “The Golden Rump.” Walpole pressed through Parliament a Licensing Act that lasted over 200 years.
(WSJ, 10/14/97, p.A22)(ON, 9/03, p.8)

1737 Jul 9, Gian Gastone b.1671), the last Medici to rule Tuscany, died. With his death Florence ended its era as an independent state. Tuscany fell to Francis of Lorraine (later Holy Roman Emperor Francis I), husband of Maria Theresa of Austria, in exchange for Lorraine, which went to Stanislaus I of Poland.
(http://tinyurl.com/mylnlb)(SFEC,11/30/97, p.T3)(AM, 7/05, p.39)

1737 Jul 18, The Turkish army beat the Austrians in the Battle at Banja Luka.
(MC, 7/18/02)

1737 Sep 14, Johann Michael Haydn (d.1806), composer and younger brother of Franz Joseph, was born in Austria.

1737 Sep 19, In India’s Bay of Bengal a cyclone destroyed some 20,000 ships. It was estimated that more than 300,000 people died in the densely populated area called the Sundarbans. Later research indicated the population of Calcutta at the time to be around 20,000. An estimate of the number of deaths was revised down to about 3,000.

1737 Dec 18, Antonio Stradivari, the most renowned violin maker in history, died in Cremona, Italy. He made about 1200 violins of great quality of which half still survive. In 2006 Joseph Nagyvary, a Texas biochemist and violin maker, put forward evidence that the quality of sound in a Stradivari violin was due to chemicals used to protect the wood from wood-eating worms.
(WSJ, 10/17/94, p.1)(AP, 12/18/98)(SFC, 12/28/06, p.A20)

1737 Sep 19, Charles Carroll (d.1832), American patriot and legislator, was born. He was the only Roman Catholic signer of the Declaration and his signature read Charles Carroll of Carrollton. He lived in Maryland where, as a Roman Catholic he was forbidden from voting and holding public office. However, the wealthy Carrolls moved in the highest social circle and entertained George Washington and the Marquis de Lafayette at their estate.
(HNQ, 1/14/99)(MC, 9/19/01)

1737 Oct 2, Francis Hopkinson, US writer and lawyer, was born. He designed the Stars & Stripes.
(MC, 10/2/01)

1737 Oct 7, 40 foot waves sank 20,000 small craft and killed 300,000 in Bengal, India.
(MC, 10/7/01)

1737 Oct 22, Vincenzo Manfredini, composer, was born.
(MC, 10/22/01)

1737 The French annual art exhibition known as the Salon was inaugurated.
(WSJ, 11/19/03, p.D12)

1737 The English puppet opera “The Dragon of Wantley” was written with music by John Frederick Lampe and libretto by Henry Carey.
(ST, 5/20/04, p.C8)

1737 Frenchman Jacques de Vaucanson created a mechanical, flute playing “android.”
(Econ, 3/26/05, p.17)

1737 Handel experienced some mental turbulence after a stroke.
(LGC-HCS, p.46)

1737 Richmond, Virginia was founded.
(WSJ, 12/21/95, p.A-5)

1737 London officials worried about the large amount of British government bonds held by Dutch investors.
(WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-23)

1737 Rev. Andrew Le Mercier, a Huguenot living in Boston, set the first horses out to graze on Sable Island, 100 miles east of Nova Scotia. A few decades later Thomas Hancock of Boston plundered some 60 horses from Acadian settlers expelled from Nova Scotia by British overlords, and settled them on Sable Island. Hardy descendants of the horses still thrived in 1998.
(SFC, 7/23/98, p.C3)

1737 Florence ended its era as an independent state.
(SFEC,11/30/97, p.T3)

1737 French Captain Gabriel Mathieu de Clieu (1687-1774) was appointed governor of Martinique and the neighboring island of Guadeloupe.
(ON, 10/2010, p.12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gabriel_de_Clieu)

1738 Apr 15, The bottle opener was invented.
(MC, 4/15/02)

1738 May 9, John Pindar, [Peter], physician, poet, was born.
(MC, 5/9/02)

1738 May 24, The Methodist Church was established.
(HN, 5/24/98)

1738 May 28, Dr. Joseph Ignace Guillotine, French inventor of the guillotine, was born.
(HN, 5/28/98)

1738 Jun 4, George III was born (d.1820). He was the King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1760-1820, and the King of Hanover from 1815-1820. He was responsible for losing the American colonies. He passed the Royal Marriages Act, which made it unlawful for his children to marry without his consent.
(HFA, ’96, p.32)(AHD, 1971, p.552)(WSJ, 5/23/96, p.A-10)

1738 Jul 3, John Singleton Copley, finest colonial American artist, was born in Mass.
(MC, 7/3/02)

1738 Oct 10, Benjamin West, painter (Death of General Wolfe), was born.
(MC, 10/10/01)

1738 Nov 15, Sir William Hershel, British astronomer who discovered Uranus, was born.
(HN, 11/15/98)

1738 Dec 9, Jews were expelled from Breslau, Silesia.
(MC, 12/9/01)

1738 Dec 31, Charles Lord Cornwallis (d.1805), soldier and statesman, was born. “Fire when ready Gridley.”
(MC, 12/31/01)

1738 Benjamin Franklin wrote in Poor Richard’s Almanack “Sell not virtue to purchase wealth, nor Liberty to purchase power.”

1738 Handel composed his opera “Serse” and his oratorio “Saul.” Handel’s “Xerxes” was first performed. The original Italian libretto was by Nicolo Minato and Silvio Stampiglia.
(LGC-HCS, p.41,46)(WSJ, 3/25/96, p.A-15)

1738 French inventor Jacques de Vaucanson built a mechanical duck that could quack, flap,, paddle, drink, eat and “digest” grain.
(SFC, 1/23/15, p.A10)
1738 Jacques de Vaucanson exhibited a mechanical flute player that actually breathed.
(WSJ, 8/23/02, p.W8)

1738 Pope Clement XII issued a bull against the Freemasons forbidding Catholics to join under threat of excommunication.
(WSJ, 2/6/02, p.A16)

c1738 In Russia the Vaganova Ballet Academy was founded. It was later attached to St. Petersburg’s Kirov Ballet.
(WSJ, 3/10/98, p.A1)

1738 Robert Locklear was king of the Cheraw Indians. This tribe is thought by many to be ancestral to what is now called the Lumbee Indian Tribe of North Carolina. The Lumbees have been called Croatan Indians, the Indians of Robeson County, the Cherokee Indians of Robeson County, and since 1952, the Lumbee Indians.
(WSJ, 11/13/95, p.A-1, 5)

1738 Daniel Bernouilli (1700-1782), Swiss physicist and mathematician, son of Johan explained how lift is created, as in a backward spinning golf ball, by a difference of air pressures. He is known for the Bernouilli equation.
(WUD, 1994, p.141)(SFEC, 6/14/98, p.A12)

1738 Nadir Shah (head of Persia) took Kandahar.

1738-1789 Jan 10, Ethan Allen was born. He was the American Revolutionary commander of the Green Mountain Boys in Vermont.
(HFA, ’96, p.22)(AHD, p.34)

1738-1815 John Singleton Copley, American painter. He painted the elite of colonial Boston. His portraits lacked facility but he developed an exceedingly direct approach to his art. His paintings include portraits of Epes Sargent, Moses Gill, Nathaniel Sparhawk, Mary Royall and Samuel Adams.
(WSJ, 6/14/95, p.A-14)

1738-1822 Sir William Herschel, British astronomer, one of the first to formulate the hypothesis that the stellar system to which our Sun belongs occupies a lenticular volume, with the Sun located somewhere inside, near the plane of the lens.
(SCTS, p.136)

1739 Feb 7, Joseph Pouteau, composer, was born.
(MC, 2/7/02)

1739 Mar 16, George Clymer, US merchant (signed Declaration of Independence and Constitution), was born.
(MC, 3/16/02)

1739 Mar 20, Eligio Celestino, composer, was born.
(MC, 3/20/02)
1739 Mar 20, In India, Nadir Shah of Persia occupied Delhi and took possession of the Peacock thrown. King Nadir Shah later took the golden Peacock Throne back to Persia.
(HN, 3/20/99)(SFEC, 5/21/00, p.T8)

1739 Apr 10, Dick Turpin was executed in England for horse stealing.
(MC, 4/10/02)

1739 May 12, Johann Baptist Vanhal, composer, was born.
(MC, 5/12/02)

1739 Jul 24, Benedetto Marcello, composer, died on 53rd birthday.
(MC, 7/24/02)

1739 Sep 1, 35 Jews were sentenced to life in prison in Lisbon, Portugal.
(MC, 9/1/02)

1739 Sep 7, Joseph Legros, composer, was born.
(MC, 9/7/01)

1739 Sep 9, A slave revolt in Stono, SC, led by an Angolan slave named Jemmy, killed 20-25 whites. Three slave uprisings occurred in South Carolina in 1739. Whites soon passed black codes to regulate every aspect of slave life.
(SFC, 12/18/96, p.A25)(www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part1/1p284.html)(AH, 2/05, p.66)

1739 Sep 13, Grigory Potemkin (d.1791), Russian army officer, statesman, Catherine II’s lover, was born. [see Sep 24]
(MC, 9/13/01)

1739 Sep 18, Turkey and Austria signed peace treaty-Austria ceding Belgrade to Turks. [see Sep 23]
(MC, 9/18/01)

1739 Sep 23, The Austrians signed the Treaty of Belgrade after having lost the city to the Turks. [see Sep 18]
(HN, 9/23/98)

1739 Sep 24, Grigorij A. Potemkin (d.1791), Monarch of Tauris and friend of Catherine II, was born. [see Sep 13]
(MC, 9/24/01)(WSJ, 2/14/02, p.A18)

1739 Oct 3, Russia signed a treaty with the Turks, ending a three-year conflict between the two countries.
(HN, 10/3/98)

1739 Oct 17, King George II granted Thomas Coram, retired sea captain, a royal charter to establish “a hospital for the reception, maintenance and education of exposed and deserted young children.”
(ON, 9/02, p.8)

1739 Oct 19, England declared war on Spain over borderlines in Florida. The War is known as the War of Jenkins’ Ear because a member of Parliament waved a dried ear and demanded revenge for alleged mistreatment of British sailors. British seaman Robert Jenkins had his ear amputated following a 1731 barroom brawl with a Spanish Customs guard in Havana and saved the ear in his sea chest.
(EWH, 4th ed, p.555)(HN, 10/19/98)(PCh, 1992, p.292)

1739 Nov 2, Karl Ditters von Dittersdorf, composer, was born.
(MC, 11/2/01)

1739 Nov 22, Adm. Edward Vernon captured the Spanish city of Portobello, Panama, with a force of 6 British ships.
(PCh, 1992, p.292)

1739 Dec 25, Chevalier de Saint-Georges (d.1799) was born on the Caribbean island of Guadeloupe. He was the first African American musician to achieve international renown as a classical composer, violinist and conductor.

1739 Handel composed his oratorio “Israel in Egypt.” Text was taken from the books of Exodus and Psalms. The first of the 3 parts is actually a funeral ode written the previous year for Queen Caroline. The gender of the pronouns were changed to serve as a lament for the death of Joseph.
(LGC-HCS, p.46)(SFEC, 9/15/96, BR p.7)(SFC, 9/23/96, D3)
1739 Rameau composed his opera “Dardanus.”
(SFC,10/21/97, p.E3)
1739 In northern California and Oregon some sort of extreme climactic event slowed the growth of redwood and other trees according to later tree ring studies by researchers.
(SFC, 8/14/13, p.A9)

1739-1740 The Peacock Throne (containing parts of the famous royal Mogul seat) is supposed to have been brought by Nadir Shah to Iran from Delhi. Lord Curzona (father of Ms. Ravensdale) asserted that the throne was discovered in a broken and piecemeal condition by Aga Mohammed Shah, and that he had it made up into the throne of modern shape.
(NG, Sept. 1939, Baroness Ravensdale, p.326,331)

1739-1823 William Bartram, American Quaker naturalist. His work included: “Travels Through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and West Florida” (1791), “Observations on the Creek and Cherokee Indians” and “Some Account of the Late Mr. John Bartram of Pennsylvania.” “A Seminole chief named Cowkeeper… gave him the name of Puc Puggy or “flower hunter”.”
(Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.10-12)

1740 Feb 3, Charles de Bourbon, King of Naples, invited the Jews to return to Sicily.
(MC, 2/3/02)

1740 Feb 7, Adam-Philippe Custine, French earl, general, MP, was born.
(MC, 2/7/02)

1740 Feb 8, Clement XII (87), [Lorenzo Corsini], blind Pope (1730-40), died.
(MC, 2/8/02)

1740 Feb 16, Giambattista Bodoni, printer, typeface designer (Bodoni), was born in Saluzzo, Italy.
(MC, 2/16/02)

1740 May 6, John Penn, signer of the Declaration of Independence, was born.
(HN, 5/6/98)

1740 May 9, Giovanni Paisiello, Italian composer (Barber of Seville), was born.
(MC, 5/9/02)

1740 May 31, Frederick II (1712-1786) ascended to the throne as King of Prussia.

1740 Jun 2, Donatien Alphonse Francois, writer, Marquis de Sade, was born in Paris. He was the French nobleman who was imprisoned for holding orgies in which he whipped and sodomized prostitutes. He wrote “The 120 Days of Sodom” and “Justine.” In 1998 Francine du Plessix Gray authored “At Home With the Marquis de Sade.”
(http://www.geocities.com/SoHo/Atrium/3539/)(WUD, 1994, p.1259)(WSJ, 2/7/96, p.A-12)(WSJ, 11/5/98, p.A20)(WSJ, 2/7/96, p.A-12)(HN, 6/2/99)

1740 Jun 22, King Frederick II of Prussia ended torture and guaranteed religion and freedom of the press.
(MC, 6/22/02)

1740 Jul 8, Pierre Vigne (b.1670), Frenchman, died. He founded the Congregation of Sisters of the Most Holy Sacrament. In 2004 he was beatified by Pope John Paul VI.
(AP, 10/3/04)(www.catholic-forum.com)

1740 Aug 1, Thomas Arne’s song “Rule Britannia,” which celebrated Britain’s military and commercial prowess, was performed for the 1st time. It grew to become the unofficial anthem.
(HN, 8/1/98)(Econ, 2/3/07, SR p.3)

1740 Aug 26, Joseph-Michel Montgolfier, French inventor, born. He and his brother Jacques-Etienne invented the hot air balloon in 1783.
(RTH, 8/26/99)

1740 Sep 11, The first mention of an African American doctor or dentist in the colonies was made in the Pennsylvania Gazette.
(HN, 9/11/98)

1740 Oct 20, Maria Theresa became ruler of Austria, Hungary and Bohemia upon the death of her father, Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI.
(AP, 10/20/06)

1740 Oct 29, James Boswell, Samuel Johnson’s biographer, was born in Scotland.
(MC, 10/29/01)

1740 Dec 16, Prussia’s Frederick the Great seized Silesia from the newly crowned Archduchess of Austria. She sent troops to reconquer Silesia. A showdown battle occurred on April 10, 1741, in Silesia at Mollwitz. Most of Silesia was seized by King Frederick the Great of Prussia in the War of the Austrian Succession.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silesia)(Econ 6/3/17, p.48)

1740 Henry Fielding began working as a lawyer and read “Pamela or Virtue Rewarded” by Samuel Richardson. Fielding soon authored his satire “Shamela” in response.
(ON, 9/03, p.1)
1740 Boston merchant Peter Faneuil offered to build a public market house as a gift to the city on a site where slaves had previously been auctioned.
(SFC, 8/1/18, p.A6)
1740 A slave plot was uncovered in Charleston that resulted in the hanging of 50 blacks.
(HNQ, 6/10/98)
1740 The ignoring of the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 led to the War of the Austrian Succession in 1740. When Charles VI died in 1740, Maria Theresa’s claim was ignored by Elector Charles Albert of Bavaria, Augustus III of Saxony and Poland, and Philip V of Spain, igniting a general European war.
(HNQ, 7/29/99)
1740 The British sent a huge amphibious force to attack the Spanish in Santiago de Cuba as part of the War of Jenkin’s Ear. Of 28,000 men, 22,000 were dead within a year due to disease. Only about 1,000 perished in combat.
(Econ, 8/13/11, p.80)
1740 A dark oak room from Rouen, France, was later transferred to the Legion of Honor Art Museum in San Francisco, Ca.
(WSJ, 11/16/95, p.A-18)
1740 Frederick the Great awarded what is believed to be the first medal for combat bravery, the Pour le Merite, nicknamed the Blue Max.
(WSJ, 4/23/99, A1)

1740s Frederick the Great built a summer palace in Potsdam named Sans-souci (without worries).
(SFEC, 7/27/97, p.T11)

1740s Antonio de Solis, a Spanish priest, found the ruins of Palenque, Mexico, while planting a field.
(SSFC, 5/5/02, p.C5)

1740-1790 The period that approximates the years of the Scottish Enlightenment. It centered on the intellectual environment of Glasgow and Edinburgh, Scotland, where men such as Adam Smith and David Hume produced work that greatly influenced James Madison and Alexander Hamilton. This environment is well described in The Life of Adam Smith by Ian Simpson Ross in 1995.
(WSJ, 11/30/95, p.A-20)

1740-1794 Nicolas Chamford, French writer: “The public! the public! How many fools does it take to make up a public?”
(AP, 6/9/98)

1740-1807 John Frere, English archeologist, one of the earliest students of prehistory.
(OAPOC-TH, p.71)

1741 Jan 14, Benedict Arnold, U.S. General turned traitor, was born.

1741 Feb 8, Andre-Ernest-Modeste Gretry, composer, was born.
(MC, 2/8/02)

1741 Feb 9, Henri-Joseph Rigel, composer, was born.
(MC, 2/9/02)

1741 Feb 13, Andrew Bradford of Pennsylvania published the first American magazine. Titled “The American Magazine, or A Monthly View of the Political State of the British Colonies.” Bradford introduced his American Magazine just days before Benjamin Franklin founded his periodical called General Magazine in Philadelphia. Bradford’s survived 3 months while Franklin’s survived for 6 months.
(HFA, ’96, p.24)(HNQ, 9/3/98)(AP, 2/13/01)

1741 Feb 16, Benjamin Franklin’s General Magazine (2nd US Mag) began publishing.
(MC, 2/16/02)

1741 Mar 4, English fleet under Admiral Ogle reached Cartagena, Colombia.
(SC, 3/4/02)

1741 Mar 13, Jozef II, arch duke of Austria, Roman Catholic German emperor (1765-90), was born.
(MC, 3/13/02)

1741 Mar 25, The London Foundling Hospital opened in temporary accommodations in Hatton Garden following extensive efforts by former sea captain Thomas Coram (1668-1751).

1741 Apr 8, Jose B. da Gama, Portuguese poet (O Uraguai), was born.
(MC, 4/8/02)

1741 Apr 13, Dutch people protested the bad quality of bread.
(MC, 4/13/02)

1741 Apr 15, Charles Wilson Peale (d.1827), American portrait painter and inventor, was born. His 2nd teacher was John Singleton Copley.
(SFC, 1/25/97, p.E3)(HN, 4/15/98)

1741 Apr 11, A Russian commission found regent Count Biron guilty of treason and sentenced him to death by quartering. The sentence was commuted to banishment for life in Siberia.
(PCh, 1992, p.294)

1741 Apr 17, Samuel Chase, signer of the Declaration of Independence, was born.
(HN, 4/17/98)

1741 May 8, France and Bavaria signed the Covenant of Nymphenburg.
(MC, 5/8/02)

1741 May 10, Johann Michael Schmidt, composer, was born.
(MC, 5/10/02)

1741 May 29, Johann Gottfried Krebs, composer, was born.
(SC, 5/29/02)

1741 Jun 11, Austria ceded most of Silesia to Prussia by Treaty of Breslau.
(AP, 6/11/03)

1741 Jun 22, Alois Luigi Tomasini, composer, was born.
(MC, 6/22/02)

1741 Jul 15, George Steller, an observer with Vitus Bering (1680-1741), claimed to see the American mainland (Alaska). Bering, a Danish-born mariner, was on an exploratory mission on behalf of Russia.
(WSJ, 9/12/00, p.A24)(SFEC, 3/23/97, p.T5)(ON, 2/06, p.2)

1741 Jul 16, Vitus Bering (1680-1741) first sighted Mt. St. Elias, the second highest peak in Alaska at 18,008 feet.
(AAM, 3/96, p.84)(WUD, 1994 p.140)

1741 Aug 31, Johann Paul Aegidius Martini, composer, was born.
(MC, 8/31/01)

1741 Sep 14, George Frederick Handel (1685-1759) finished “Messiah” oratorio, after working on it in London non-stop for 23 days. Messiah premiered April 13, 1742.
(LGC-HCS, p.41)( http://www.gospelcom.net/chi/GLIMPSEF/Glimpses/glmps147.shtml)

1741 Sep 17, In Colombia Blas de Lezo (b.1689), Spanish admiral, died of typhus four months after leading Spaniards in resisting a siege by a combined British force under the command of Admiral Edward Vernon.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blas_de_Lezo)(SSFC, 10/18/15, p.P5)

1741 Oct, George Wilhelm Steller, German naturalist on the Bering voyage, discovered large sea cows (Hydrodamalis gigas) on Bering Island. Within 20 years the creatures were eaten to extinction.
(CW, Jun 03, p.13)

1741 Nov 20, Melchior de Polignac, French diplomat and clergyman, died.
(MC, 11/20/01)

1741 Nov 27, Jean-Pierre Duport, composer, was born.
(MC, 11/27/01)

1741 Dec 6, Russian princess Elisabeth Petrovna (1709-1762) seized power with the help of the Preobrazhensky Regiment. Petrovna (31), the daughter of Peter the Great, and her husband led a coup d’etat, deposed the infant Czar Ivan VI, had him imprisoned and reigned until her death in 1762.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth_of_Russia)(PCh, 1992, p.294)

1741 Dec 8, Vitus Bering, Danish-born explorer and commander in the Russian navy, died on an island off the Kamchatka Peninsula, later named Bering Island.
(ON, 2/06, p.4)

1741 Dec 25, Astronomer Anders Celcius introduced the Centigrade temperature scale.
(MC, 12/25/01)

1741 Dec 30, Bartolomeo Giacometti, composer, was born.
(MC, 12/30/01)

1741 Nathanael Greene (d.1786), American Revolutionary War General, was born.
(ON, 12/01, p.12)

1741 Voltaire (1694-1778), French playwright, wrote the play “Fanaticism, or Mahomet the Prophet.” He used the founder of Islam to lampoon all forms of religious frenzy and intolerance.
(WSJ, 3/6/06, p.A10)

1741 Rameau composed his “Pieces de clavecin en concerts.”
(SFC, 6/6/96, E3)

1741 Renowned New England theologian Jonathan Edwards delivered the famous sermon “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” at the height of the Great Awakening, a religious revival movement that swept the colonies during the mid-eighteenth century.
(HNQ, 8/5/98)

1741 A slave revolt in New York caused considerable property damage but left people unharmed. Rumors of a conspiracy among slaves and poor whites in New York City to seize control led to a panic that resulted in the conviction of 101 blacks, the hanging of 18 blacks and four whites, the burning alive of 13 blacks and the banishment from the city of 70. In 2005 Anne Farrow, Joel Lang and Jennifer Frank authored “Complicity: The North Promoted, Prolonged and Profited from Slavery,” which included a chapter on the 1941 NYC slave revolt.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York_Conspiracy_of_1741)(SFC, 12/18/96, p.A25)(SSFC, 10/2/05, p.F3)

1741 British troops briefly occupied Cuba’s Guantanamo Bay while warring against Spanish trade interests.
(SSFC, 1/20/02, p.A7)

1741 The Vieuxtemps Guarneri is a violin built about this time in Cremona by the renowned Italian instrument maker Giuseppe Guarneri. In 2012 it was auctioned for an estimated $16 million. The buyer later made the violin available for life to American violinist Anne Akiko Meyers.
(Econ 5/13/17, p.72)

1741 In Sweden Anders Berch became the first professor of economics in Uppsala.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1741-1801 Johann Kaspar Lavater, Swiss theologian: “I am prejudiced in favor of him who, without impudence, can ask boldly. He has faith in humanity, and faith in himself. No one who is not accustomed to give grandly can ask nobly and with boldness.”
(AP, 1/2/99)

1741-1825 (John) Henry Fuseli, English painter, illustrator and essayist. He was born in Switzerland. His work included The Nightmare (c.1790).
(WUD, 1994, p.576)(SFC, 10/31/96, p.E1)

1742 Jan 14, English astronomer Edmond Halley, who observed the comet that now bears his name, died at age 85. In 2005 Julie Wakefield authored “Halley’s Quest,” in which she covered Halley’s travels to Brazil to map the Atlantic’s magnetic declinations and hopefully solve the problem of calculating longitude.
(AP, 1/14/98)(WSJ, 12/20/05, p.D8)

1742 Jan 24, Charles VII was crowned Holy Roman Emperor during the War of the Austrian Succession.
(AP, 1/24/07)

1742 Apr 13, George Frideric Handel’s “Messiah” was first performed publicly, in Dublin, Ireland.
(AP, 4/13/97)
1742 Apr 13, Giovanni Veneziano (59), composer, died.
(MC, 4/13/02)

1742 May 11, Francesco Stradivari (70), Italian violin maker, son of Antonius, died.
(MC, 5/11/02)

1742 May 17, Frederick great (Emperor of Prussia) beat Austrians.
(MC, 5/17/02)

1742 May 28, 1st indoor swimming pool opened at Goodman’s Fields, London.
(MC, 5/28/02)

1742 Jun 17, William Hooper, signer of the Declaration of Independence, was born.
(HN, 6/17/98)

1742 Jun 26, Arthur Middleton, signer of the Declaration of Independence, was born.
(HN, 6/26/98)

1742 Jul 7, A Spanish force invading Georgia ran headlong into the colony’s British defenders. A handful of British and Spanish colonial troops faced each other on a Georgia coastal island and decided the fate of a colony.
(HN, 5/3/98)(HN, 7/7/99)

1742 Jul 11, Benjamin Franklin invented his Franklin stove.
(MC, 7/11/02)
1742 Jul 11, A papal decree was issued condemning the disciplining actions of the Jesuits in China.
(HN, 7/11/98)

1742 Aug 7, Nathanael Greene, American Revolutionary War General, was born.
(MC, 8/7/02)

1742 Aug 29, Edmond Hoyle (1672-1769) published his “Short Treatise” on the card game whist.
(MC, 8/29/01)

1742 Sep, Boston’s Faneuil Hall, a public market house gifted to the city by merchant and slave owner Peter Faneuil (1700-1743), opened to the public. On January 14, 1761, the building burned completely, leaving only its brick shell standing. It was rebuilt by the town in 1762.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faneuil_Hall)(SFC, 6/19/18, p.A7)

1742 Oct 12, Johan Peter Melchior, German sculptor, was born.
(MC, 10/12/01)

1742 Nov 12, The British warship Centurion, commanded by Commodore George Anson, sailed into Macao with a crew of some 200 sick with scurvy.
(ON, 4/01, p.7)

1742 Dec 1, Empress Elisabeth ordered the expulsion of all Jews from Russia.
(MC, 12/1/01)

1742 Dec 9, Carl W. Scheele, Swedish pharmacist and chemist (lemon acid), was born.
(MC, 12/9/01)

1742 Henry Fielding authored his novel “Joseph Andrews.” It dealt seriously with moral issues using a comic approach and was later regarded as a milestone in English literature.
(ON, 9/03, p.1)

1742 England’s “Compleat Housewife” cookbook was published in North America.
(SFC, 8/27/03, p.E4)
1742 Sir Robert Walpole resigned from his duties as British prime minister in order to avoid impeachment.

1742 In Italy Giuseppe Guarneri, aka Guarneri del Gesu, created the violin later dubbed “The Cannon” by Paganini.
(SFEC, 10/24/99, DB p.36)

1742 General James Edward Oglethorpe led a victory over the Spanish at Bloody Marsh on St. Simons Island off the coast of Georgia.
(SFC, 4/28/96, p.T-7)

1742 Edmund Hoyle popularized the card game later called bridge.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1742 Taylor-Wharton began operations as an American colonial iron forge. In 1953 it was absorbed into Harsco, an American engineering and industrial service company.
(Econ, 12/18/04, p.105)

1742 Russia’s Empress Elisaveta Petrovna presented lands south of Pskov to the A.P. Gannibal (1696-1781), an African who had been adopted by Peter the Great and served Peter in various important capacities including spy and privy councilor.
(http://gotorussia.vand.ru/19.phtml?gorod=19&id=11&num=235)(SSFC, 6/18/06, p.M3)

1742-1765 In Arabia Muhammad bin Saud Al Saud allied with Wahhabists and expanded the family domain.
(Econ, 1/7/06, Survey p.6)

1742-1803 Thomas Jones, amateur British painter.
(SFC, 6/4/96, p.E5)

1742-1823 William Combe, English writer. He wrote “The English Dance of Death” that discussed the vice of feasting.
(MT, 6/96, p.9)

1743 Jan 21, John Fitch, inventor (had a working steamboat years before Fulton), was born.
(MC, 1/21/02)

1743 Feb 7, Lodovico Giustini (57), composer, died.
(MC, 2/7/02)

1743 Feb 19, [Rodolfo] Luigi Boccherini, Italian composer, cellist (Minuet), was born.
(MC, 2/19/02)

1743 Feb 23, Meyer Amschel Rothschild, banker and founder of the Rothschild dynasty in Europe, was born.
(HN, 2/23/98)

1743 Mar 3, Peter Faneuil (b.1700), American colonial merchant, slave trader, and philanthropist, died in Boston of dropsy.

1743 Mar 14, The first recorded town meeting in America was held, at Faneuil Hall in Boston.
(AP, 3/14/97)

1743 Mar 23, George Frideric Handel’s oratorio “Messiah” had its London premiere. During the “Hallelujah Chorus,” Britain’s King George II, who was in attendance, stood up — followed by the entire audience.
(AP, 3/23/08)

1743 Apr 13, Thomas Jefferson (d.1826), the third president of the United States (1801-1809), was born in present-day Albemarle County, Va. He called slavery cruel but included 25 slaves in his daughter’s dowry, took enslaved children to market and had 10-year-old slaves working 12-hour days in his nail factory. He stated that blacks were “in reason inferior” and “in imagination they are dull, tasteless and anomalous.” “Were it left to me to decide whether we should have a government without newspapers, or newspapers without a government, I should not hesitate a moment to prefer the latter.” “History, in general, only informs us what bad government is.”
(AP, 4/13/97)(SFC,12/897, p.A27)(AP, 4/13/98)

1743 Apr 24, Edmund Cartwright, inventor of the power loom, was born.
(HN, 4/24/98)

1743 May 20, [Francois D] Toussaint L’Ouverture, leader (Haiti), was born.
(MC, 5/20/02)

1743 May 24, Jean-Paul Marat, French revolutionist, was born. He advocated extreme violence and was assassinated in his own bath.
(HN, 5/24/99)

1743 Jun 8, Alessandro Cagliostro, adventurer, was born in Palermo, Italy.
(MC, 6/8/02)

1743 Jun 20, The British warship Centurion under Commodore George Anson engaged and overcame the Spanish treasure galleon, Nuestra Senora de Covadonga, near the Philippines. 58 Spaniards were killed and 83 wounded. Anson captured over 1 million Spanish silver dollars and 500 pounds of native silver.
(ON, 4/01, p.7)

1743 Jun 27, King George of the English defeated the French at Dettingen, Bavaria. English armies were victorious over the French at Dettingen. This event was celebrated by Handel in his composition “Dettingen Te Deum.”
(BLW, Geiringer, 1963 ed. p. 317)(HN, 6/27/98)

1743 Aug 17, By the Treaty of Abo, Sweden ceded southeast Finland to Russia, ending Sweden’s failed war with Russia.
(HN, 8/17/98)

1743 Aug 19, Marie Jeanne Becu Comtesse du Barry (d.1793), last mistress of Louis XV, was born.
(MC, 8/19/02)

1743 Aug 26, Antoine Laurent Lavoisier, the father of modern chemistry, was born. He discovered “dephlogisticated air” which he called oxygen and was executed by the revolution in 1794.
(HN, 8/26/99)(RTH, 8/26/99)

1743 Sep 14, Nicolas Lancret, French artist, died. He was a brilliant depicter of light comedy which reflected the tastes and manners of French society under the regent Orleans. His work included “Study of a Woman Seated on the Ground” and “Study of a Man.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicolas_Lancret)(SFC, 7/13/13, p.E3)

1743 Sep 17, Marquis Marie Jean de Condorcet (d.1794), French mathematician and philosopher, a leading thinker in the Enlightenment, was born.
(HN, 9/17/98)(WSJ, 6/22/99, p.A22)

1743 Dec 6, Franz Nikolaus Novotny, composer, was born.
(MC, 12/6/01)

1743 Giovanni Battista Tiepolo painted “The Triumph of Flora.”
(SFEC, 6/7/98, Z1 p.2)

1743 Edward Pococke (1604-1691), English Orientalist, authored his travel book “Description of the East.”
(Econ, 12/21/13, p.127)

1743 Joseph Nicolas Pancrace Royer created the opera-ballet: “Le Pouvoir de l’Amour.” Royer was later remembered for his harpsichord works.
(WSJ, 3/12/02, p.A24)

1743 Benjamin Franklin and John Bartram founded the American Philosophical Society in Philadelphia as an American counterpart to the British Royal Society.
(WSJ, 4/25/09, p.W3)(www.amphilsoc.org/library/exhibits/nature/stork.htm)

1743 Huguenots in Spitalfields, England, who had fled persecution in France as Calvinists, built their Nueve Eglise place of worship at Fournier Street and Brick Lane. Their community lasted until 1809. The church was later inherited by Methodists. In 1898 it became a synagogue for Jews fleeing pogroms in Russia. In 1976 it was transformed into a mosque for the Bangladeshis and Pakistanis who escaped poverty in South Asia.
(Econ, 12/20/03, p.85)(Econ, 6/30/12, SR p.8)
1743 “Kitchup” was declared a kitchen staple in a British housekeeper’s guide. Fish, mushroom and walnut emerged as the 3 main ketchups.
(SFC, 8/27/03, p.A1)
1743 Gen’l. James Oglethorpe of England departed Georgia following some small scandal.
(SFEC,11/30/97, p.T4)

1743 British Commodore George Anson reached China in his man-of-war.
(WSJ, 9/4/98, p.W12)

1743 In France Louis XV commissioned an elevator installed at Versailles to link his apartment to that of his mistress.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)(SFC, 8/23/08, p.F4)
1743 French champagne maker Moet was founded.
(Econ, 3/6/04, Survey p.6)

1743 The Frauenkirche was built in Dresden, Germany. It was destroyed by allied bombs in 1945, but plans for rebuilding were scheduled for completion by 2006, the 800th birthday of Dresden. A reconstructed version was consecrated in 2005.
(SFEC, 7/27/97, p.T6)(SSFC, 10/30/05, p.A16)

1743 In Mosul as many as 150 monks who refused to convert to Islam were massacred at St. Elijah’s Monastery by a Persian general.
(AP, 1/20/16)

1743 In Mexico La Cathedral de Nuestra Senora de la Asuncion in Veracruz was dedicated.
(SFEC, 5/17/98, p.T12)

1743-1826 Thomas Jefferson was born in Virginia. Jefferson had his slave Sally Hemings as his lover for 38 years. He wrote the Northwest Ordnance that outlawed the spread of slavery into the trans-Appalachian territories.
(V.D.-H.K.p.224)(WSJ, 2/11/97, p.A18)

1744 Feb 9, Battle at Toulon: French-Spanish faced the English fleet of Adm. Matthews.
(MC, 2/9/02)

1744 Feb 15, John Hadley, inventor (sextant), died.
(MC, 2/15/02)

1744 Feb 21, The British blockade of Toulon was broken by 27 French and Spanish warships attacking 29 British ships.
(HN, 2/21/98)

1744 Mar 13, David Allan, Scottish painter, was born.
(MC, 3/13/02)

1744 Apr 4, Sarah Inglish was arrested and convicted at the Old Bailey for stealing a cloak, three linen aprons and about 7 yards of cloth from a home where she was babysitting. She was sentenced to transport for a term of 7 years.
(SFEC, 10/27/96, p.T9)

1744 May 11, In Britain Elizabeth Robinson of Middlesex and 2 other women were tried and convicted at the Old Bailey on charges of stealing 104 imported China oranges from a grocer’s warehouse with the intent to sell them. She was sentenced to transport for a term of 7 years. She was pregnant and gave birth on ship.
(SFEC, 10/27/96, p.T9)

1744 May, Jack Campbell, captain of the Justicia, transported convicted British criminals to the US and sold them as indentured servants.
(SFEC, 10/27/96, p.T10)

1744 Jun 15, The warship Centurion under British Commodore George Anson returned to England with a treasure valued at £800,000. In 1748 Anson authored “A voyage Around the World.”
(WSJ, 9/4/98, p.W12)

1744 Aug 1, Jean-Baptiste-Pierre-Antoine Monnet de Lamarck, French zoologist, was born.
(MC, 8/1/02)

1744 Aug 25, Johann G. von Herder, German philosopher, theologist, poet, was born.
(MC, 8/25/02)

1744 Oct 4, The HMS Victory sank in the English Channel with at least 900 men aboard. The 175-foot sailing ship had separated from its fleet during a storm. In 2009 Odyssey Marine Exploration reported finding the vessel about 330 feet beneath the surface and more than 50 miles from where anybody would have thought it went down.
(AP, 2/1/09)

1744 Nov 11, Abigail Smith Adams, 2nd 1st lady (1797-1801), was born.
(MC, 11/11/01)

1744 Nov 25, Austrian forces pillaged and killed Jews of Prague.
(MC, 11/25/01)

1744 Handel composed his opera “Semele” based on Ovid’s account of one of Jupiter’s tangled love affairs.
(WSJ, 12/21/00, p.A16)

1744 Rules for cricket set the wicket to wicket pitch at 22 yards. The 1727 Articles of Agreement had set the distance at 23 yards.

1744 The Iroquois sachem (chief) Cannasatego advised the American colonists to from a union like that of the Iroquois. Benjamin Franklin acknowledged the admonition in 1751 and applied it in his Albany Plan of 1754.
(WSJ, 4/10/97, p.A15)

1744 The title Lordship of Wimbledon was bestowed to the Spencer family of Britain.
(WP, 6/29/96, p.F3)

1744 This was the era of London’s gin fever.
(SFEC, 10/27/96, p.T9)

1744 Fort Richelieu was built in Sete on the French Mediterranean coast of the Languedoc region.
(SSFC, 6/17/01, p.T10)

1744 The Royal Porcelain Manufactory of Vienna began to use an upside down shield, resembling a beehive, as its emblem. Royal Vienna porcelain was made until 1864.
(SFEC, 10/9/96, Z1 p.8)(SFC, 10/17/07, p.G2)

1744 In Arabia Muhammad Ibn Saud, local ruler of Ad-Dar’ia forged a political and family alliance with Muslim scholar and reformer Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab. Abdul Aziz, the son of Ibn Saud, married the daughter of Imam Muhammad.
(NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)

1744-1812 Mayer Rothschild, banker, rose from a ghetto in Frankfurt to become the banker to Prince William of Prussia. His son, Nathan Rothschild, worked in London as a banker and invested Prussian money in the Napoleonic Wars and smuggled it to Wellington in Spain. His 4 other sons established banks in Vienna, Naples and Paris.
(WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R18)

1744-1818 Abigail Adams, American first lady, writer of letters and wife of John Adams: “These are times in which a genius would wish to live. It is not in the still calm of life, or the repose of a pacific station, that great characters are formed…. Great necessities call out great virtues.”
(AHD, 1971, p.14)(AP, 6/29/97)

1744-1840 Caspar David Friedrich, romantic painter. His work included “Coffin on a Grave.”
(SFC, 11/16/98, p.E3)

1745 Jan 7, Jacques Etienne Montgolfier (d.1799), French inventor, was born. He and his brother, Joseph (1740-1810), launched the first successful hot-air balloon in 1783.
(HN, 1/7/99)(WUD, 1994 p.928)

1745 Jan 8, England, Austria, Saxony and the Netherlands formed an alliance against Russia.
(HN, 1/8/99)

1745 Jan, Handel’s oratorio “Hercules,” written in 1744, premiered at the King’s Theater in London. The libretto was based on writings by Sophocles and Ovid.
(WSJ, 2/22/06, p.D12)(http://tinyurl.com/gdt6w)

1745 Feb 15, Colley Cibber’s “Papal Tyranny,” premiered in London.
(MC, 2/15/02)

1745 Feb 18, Count Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta (d.1827), Italian physicist, inventor (battery), was born.
(AHD, 1971 p.1436)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alessandro_Volta)
1745 Feb 18, Bonnie Prince Charlie’s troops occupied Inverness, Scotland.
(MC, 2/18/02)

1745 Feb 20, Johann Peter Salomon, composer, was born.
(MC, 2/20/02)
1745 Feb 20, Bonnie Prince Charlie’s troops occupied Fort August, Scotland.
(MC, 2/20/02)

1745 Mar 9, Bells for 1st American carillon were shipped from England to Boston.
(MC, 3/9/02)

1745 Mar 18, Robert Walpole (68), 1st British premier (1721-42), died. His children found that he had run up debts of over £50,000. In 2007 Edward Pearce authored “The Great Man – Sir Robert Walpole: Scoundrel, Genius and Britain’s First Prime Minister.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Walpole)(Econ, 2/10/07, p.89)(Econ, 5/18/13, p.89)

1745 Mar 31, Jews were expelled from Prague.
(MC, 3/31/02)

1745 Apr 20, Philippe Pinel (d.1826), French physician and founder of psychiatry, was born.
(WUD, 1994, p.)(HN, 4/20/98)

1745 Apr 22, Peace of Fussen was signed, restoring the status quo of Germany.
(HN, 4/22/98)

1745 Apr 29, Oliver Ellsworth, third Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, was born.
(HN, 4/29/98)

1745 May 9, Tomaso Antonio Vitali (82), composer, died.
(MC, 5/9/02)

1745 May 11, French forces defeated an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army at Fontenoy.
(HN, 5/11/98)

1745 Jun 4, Frederick the Great of Prussia defeated the Austrians & Saxons.
(MC, 6/4/02)

1745 Jun 16, English fleet occupied Cape Breton on St. Lawrence River.
(MC, 6/16/02)

1745 Jun 17, American New Englanders captured Louisburg, Cape Breton, from the French. The ragtag army captured France’s most imposing North American stronghold on Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia.
(HN, 5/17/98)(WSJ, 10/5/99, p.A24)(MC, 6/17/02)

1745 Jul 23, Charles Stuart (1720-1788), the Younger, and 7 companions landed at Eriskay Island, in the Hebrides.

1745 Aug 16, Skirmish at Laggan: Glengarry beat the Royal Scots.
(MC, 8/16/02)

1745 Aug 20, Bonnie Prince Charlie reached Blair Castle, Scotland.
(MC, 8/20/02)

1745 Sep 17, Edinburgh was occupied by Jacobites under Young Pretenders.
(MC, 9/17/01)

1745 Sep 21, A Scottish Jacobite army commanded by Lord George Murray routed the Royalist army of General Sir John Cope at Prestonpans.
(HN, 9/21/98)

1745 Sep 22, Bonnie Prince Charlie’s army returned to Edinburgh.
(MC, 9/22/01)

1745 Sep 28, Bonnie Prince Charlie became “king” of Scotland.
(MC, 9/28/01)

1745 Oct 19, Jonathan Swift (b.1667), Irish born clergyman and English writer (Gulliver’s Travels), died. In 1963 Prof. Edward Rosenheim (1918-2005) authored “Swift and the Satirist’s Art.” In 1998 Victoria Glendinning published the biography: “Jonathan Swift: A Portrait.” In 2017 John Stubbs authored “Jonathan Swift: The Reluctant Rebel”.
(WUD, 1994, p.1437)(SFEC, 8/1/99, BR p.8)(SFC, 12/1/05, p.B7)(Econ, 2/18/17, p.69)

1745 Nov 11, Bonnie Prince Charlie’s army entered England.
(MC, 11/11/01)

1745 Nov 18, Bonnie Prince Charlie’s troops occupied Carlisle. [see Nov 29]
(MC, 11/18/01)

1745 Nov 28-29, French troops attacked Indians at Saratoga, NY.
(MC, 11/28/01)

1745 Nov 29, Bonnie Prince Charlie’s army moved into Manchester and occupied Carlisle.
(MC, 11/29/01)

1745 Dec 4, Bonnie Prince Charles reached Derby.
(MC, 12/4/01)

1745 Dec 6, Bonnie Prince Charlie’s army retreated to Scotland.
(MC, 12/6/01)

1745 Dec 12, John Jay, first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, was born. He became a diplomat and governor of NY, served as the first Supreme Court Head Justice, and negotiated treaties for the United States
(HN, 12/12/98)(MC, 12/12/01)

1745 Dec 17, Bonnie Prince Charlie’s army retreated to Scotland. [see Dec 6]
(MC, 12/17/01)

1745 Dec 20, Bonnie Prince Charlie’s army met de Esk.
(MC, 12/20/01)

1745 Dec 22, Jan Dismas Zelenka (66), composer, died.
(MC, 12/22/01)

1745 Dec 24, Benjamin Rush, American medical pioneer and signer of the Declaration of Independence, was born in Byberry, Pa.
(HN, 12/24/98)(MC, 12/24/01)

1745 Dec 25, Prussia and Austria signed the Treaty of Dresden. This gave much of Silesia to the Prussians.
(MC, 12/25/01)

1745 Dec 31, Bonnie Prince Charlie’s army met with de Esk.
(MC, 12/31/01)

1745 Schneur Zalman Boruchovitch of Liadi (d.1813), founder of the Jewish Chabad-Lubavitch Chassidic Movement, was born. He labored for 20 years to complete the Tanya before it was printed in 1796. In 1814, the Rav’s Shulchan Aruch fast became regarded by all scholars of Jewish law as a major source and reference guide in the study and application of Jewish law. In 2003 Sue Fishkoff authored “The Rebbe’s Army,” a study of the sect.
(Internet, 7/18/03)(WSJ, 7/18/03, p.W17c)

1745 William Hogarth made his print series “Marriage A-la-Mode” in which he made fun of the new social mobility.
(SFC, 1/28/98, p.E1)

1745 French composer Jean-Philippe Rameau wrote the lyric comedy “Platee.” It was an amalgam of song, dance and spectacle based on a simple plot where Jupiter tries to cure Juno of her jealousy. It was a parody of late-Baroque opera. It was staged on the occasion of the Dauphin Louis’ marriage to Princess Maria Teresa of Spain. It was about a lovesick frog.
(WSJ, 10/1/97, p.A20)(SFC, 1/20/98, p.E1)(SFEM, 6/7/98, p.8)(WSJ, 6/16/98, p.A17)(WSJ, 10/30/01, p.A21)
1745 The French opera “Le Temple de la Gloire” (The Temple of Glory) by composer Jean-Philippe Rameau premiered at Versailles. The libretto was written by Voltaire.
(SFC, 4/27/17, p.E9)

1745 Georges Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, suggested that another body such as a giant comet had hit the sun, knocking from it the spinning gas and matter that became the planets.
(DD-EVTT, p.100)

1745 The Habeas Corpus Suspension Act 1745 was an Act of Parliament of the Parliament of Great Britain passed in 1745, and formally repealed in 1867.

1745 In France the renowned Champagne house of Moët & Chandon was established in the city of Epernay.
(SFEC,12/28/97, p.A12)
1745 Richard Hennessey arrived in France from Ireland as an exile from wars with England.
(SSFC, 10/16/11, p.N4)

1745 During the Jacobite uprising some prisoners captured by the Jacobites were kept at Doune Castle, Scotland. These included John Witherspoon, who later moved to the American colonies, became president of Princeton, a delegate to the Continental Congress and a signer of the American Declaration of Independence.
(SSFC, 11/23/03, p.C6)

1745-1796 Anthony Wayne, American General in the Revolutionary War, also known as Mad Anthony Wayne. [The HFA says he attacked Stony Point in 1799]
(HFA, ’96, p.34)(AHD, 1971, p.1450)

1745-c1806 Kim Hong-do, Korean artist, created genre paintings.
(WSJ, 8/10/98, p.A12)

1745-1829 John Jay, US statesman and jurist. He served as the governor of New York and was the first chief justice of the US Supreme Court (1789-1795).
(WUD, 1994, p.764)(WSJ, 8/7/98, p.W13)

1745-1833 Hannah More, English religious writer: “The world does not require so much to be informed as reminded.” “Obstacles are those frightful things you see when you take your eyes off the goal.”
(AP, 4/28/97)(AP, 9/9/97)

1746 Jan 8, Bonnie Prince Charlie’s troops occupied Stirling. [see Jan 19]
(MC, 1/8/02)

1746 Jan 17, Charles Edward Stuart, the young pretender, defeated the government forces at the battle of Falkirk in Scotland.
(HN, 1/17/99)

1746 Jan 19, Bonnie Prince Charlie’s troops occupied Stirling. [see Jan 8]
(MC, 1/19/02)

1746 Jan 24, Gustav III, king during Swedish Enlightenment (1771-92), was born.
(MC, 1/24/02)

1746 Feb 20, Bonnie Prince Charlie occupied the Castle of Inverness. [see Mar 3]
(MC, 2/20/02)

1746 Feb 27, Gian Francesco Fortunati, composer, was born.
(MC, 2/27/02)

1746 Mar 3, Bonnie Prince Charlie occupied the Castle of Inverness. [see Feb 20]
(SC, 3/3/02)

1746 Mar 5, Jacobin troops left Aberdeen, Scotland.
(MC, 3/5/02)

1746 Mar 8, Cumberland’s troops occupied Aberdeen, Scotland.
(MC, 3/8/02)

1746 Mar 27, Carlo Bonaparte, Corsican attorney, father of emperor Napoleon, was born.
(MC, 3/27/02)

1746 Apr 16, Bonnie Prince Charles was defeated at the battle of Culloden, the last pitched battle fought in Britain. King George II won the battle of Culloden. Bonnie Prince Charlie used English rifleman and virtually annihilated the sword-wielding, rebellious, Highlander clans of Scotland at Culloden. It was the last major land battle fought on British soil. The Battle of Culloden was a crushing defeat for Bonnie Prince Charlie and the Highlander clans that backed him.
(PCh, 1992, p.297)(SFC, 6/25/95, p.T-7)(SFC, 12/4/96, p.B1)(SFEC,12/797, p.T4)(HN, 4/16/99)

1746 Jul 28, Thomas Heyward, soldier, signed Declaration of Independence, was born.
(SC, 7/28/02)
1746 Jul 28, John Peter Zenger, journalist involved in 1st amendment fight, died.
(SC, 7/28/02)

1746 Jun 29, Bonnie Prince Charlie fled in disguise to Isle of Skye.
(PC, 1992, p.297)



Timeline of the Eighteenth Century: 1750-1774 2

1769 Apr 20, Ottawa Chief Pontiac (bc1720) was murdered by an Indian in Cahokia.
(WUD, 1994, p.1117)(HN, 4/20/98)

1769 Apr 22, Madame du Barry became King Louis XV’s “official” mistress.
(MC, 4/22/02)

1769 Apr 24, Arthur Wellesley, general, Duke of Wellington, was born. [see May 1]
(HN, 4/24/98)

1769 May 1, Arthur Wellsley, Duke of Wellington “Iron Duke,” was born. He defeated Napoleon at Waterloo and later became the British prime minister (1828-30). [see Apr 24]
(HN, 5/1/99)(MC, 5/1/02)

1769 May 7, Giuseppe Farinelli, composer, singer, was born.
(MC, 5/7/02)

1769 Jun 3, British navigator, Captain James Cook, British astronomer Charles Green and Swedish naturalist Daniel Solander observed and recorded a transit of Venus across the sun on the island of Tahiti during Cook’s first voyage around the world.

1769 Jun 7, Daniel Boone first began to explore the present-day Bluegrass State as recognized by Kentucky’s Historical Society. [see June 7, 1767]
(AP, 6/7/97)

1769 Jun 11, Anne Newport Royall, American newspaper reporter, was born.
(HN, 6/11/01)

1769 Jul 14, Don Gaspar de Portola led 63 men north from San Diego in search of Monterey and arrived there in late September.
(SFC, 11/7/15, p.C2)

1769 Jul 16, Father Junipero Serra founded Mission San Diego de Alcala, the 1st mission in Calif. The Franciscan friars soon planted cuttings of olive trees. California’s first olive press was established in Ventura County in 1871. Serra went on to build nine missions along the coast and to take over tribal lands.
(http://missions.bgmm.com/sdiego.htm)(SSFC, 8/27/06, p.F2)(SFC, 1/23/15, p.A12)

1769 Aug 15, Napoleon Bonaparte (d.1821), Emperor of France (1804-1813, 1814-1815) and continental Europe, was born on the island of Corsica.
(WUD, 1994, p.950)(AP, 8/15/97)(HN, 8/15/02)(MC, 8/15/02)

1769 Aug 18, Gunpowder in Brescia, Italy, church exploded and some 3,000 were killed.
(MC, 8/18/02)

1769 Aug 29, Edmond Hoyle (b.1672), English games expert, died.
(MC, 8/29/01)

1769 Sep 14, Baron Freidrich von Humboldt (d.1859), German naturalist and explorer who made the first isothermic and isobaric maps, was born.
(HN, 9/14/98)

1769 Sep 18, John Harris built the 1st spinet piano in the US.
(MC, 9/18/01)

1769 Oct 30, Captain Portola and his party camped at what is now Linda Mar Beach, Pacifica. They climbed the ridge above Linda Mar and saw the Farallon Islands as well as the cliffs of Point Reyes. Portola camped in San Pedro Valley and sent Sergeant Jose Ortega out to survey what was ahead.
(SFC, 5/19/96, City Guide, p.16)(Ind, 6/13/00,16A)(SFC, 11/7/15, p.C2)

1769 Nov 1-1769 Nov 3, Sgt. Jose Francisco Ortega with his scouting party first looked upon SF Bay from the vicinity of Point Lobos.
(SFEC, 2/9/97, p.W4)

1769 Nov 4, Portola received reports of a large bay ahead and went to see for himself. He crossed Sweeney Ridge in San Mateo County and saw the SF bay. Francisco de Ulloa was a navigator and member of the party.
(SFC, 5/19/96,City Guide, p.16)(SFEC, 9/21/97, p.C7)

1769 Dec 13, Dartmouth College, in New Hampshire, received its charter.
(AP, 12/13/97)

1769 Los Angeles was born as El Pueblo de Nuestra de Los Angeles.
(SFEC,12/797, p.T3)

1769 Gluck completed his opera “Paride ed Elena.” It was the last of 3 collaborations with librettist Raniero de’ Calzabigi. It deals with the seduction of Helen by Paris.
(WSJ, 7/14/04, p.D14)

1769 Construction of Britain’s Kew Observatory, built within the Old Deer Park of the former Richmond Palace in Richmond, Surrey, was completed. It was an astronomical and terrestrial magnetic observatory founded by King George III.
(ON, 4/12, p.6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kew_Observatory)
1769 The Swinford toll bridge in Oxfordshire was built across the River Thames. In 2009 it was up for auction offering buyers a tax-free investment with a bit of historic charm. It has been free of income tax since the 18th century, when Parliament granted ownership of the bridge and its tolls to the Earl of Abingdon and “to his heirs and assignees for ever.”
(AP, 11/18/09)

1769 Wolfgang von Kempelen of Hungary invented the Automoton Chess Player. It was 1st demonstrated to the Austrian court in 1770. In 2001 the deception was analyzed by James W. Cook in his book “The Arts of Deception.” In 2002 Tom Standage authored “The Turk,” an examination of the 18th century fascination with automatons.
(WSJ, 7/12/01, p.A14)(WSJ, 4/12/02, p.W12)

1769 The Writer, built by Geneva watchmakers, was a crafted mechanical puppet that sits at a mahogany desk and is able to write a 40-word sentence with a quill pen.
(Hem., 2/96, p.112)

1769 Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot, a French military engineer, invented an ungainly, steam-powered tricycle and practical steam locomotives and steamboats appeared early in the next century, eventually superceded by the internal combustion engine.
(HNQ, 1/18/01)

1769 In Morocco the Sea Gate (Porte de la Marine) was built in Mogador, later renamed Essaouira, to link the harbor to the medina. About this time Sultan Sidi Mohammad Ibn Abdelah transformed Mogador into an open city and encouraged its growth as a commercial port.
(SFEC, 1/2/00, p.T4)

1769 Bhaktapur, Nepal, fell and the triumphant Gurkhas took Kathmandu as their capital.
(SSFC, 9/21/03, p.C8)

1769-1772 Samuel Hearne, explorer for the Hudson Bay Company, maintained an journal and his notes of the land are still a standard reference.
(NH, 5/96, p.30)
1769-1772 A handful of Russian troops of General Totleben battled against Turkish invaders in Imereti and Kartl-Kakheti.

1769-1775 Prithvi Narayan Shah, with whom we move into the modern period of Nepal’s history, was the ninth generation descendant of Dravya Shah (1559-1570), the founder of the ruling house of Gorkha.

1769-1821 Napoleon Bonaparte, self-crowned emperor of France.
(V.D.-H.K.p.232)(WSJ, 11/18/96, p.A10)

1769-1830 Sir Thomas Lawrence, English painter. He painted “Pinkie.”
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.812)

1769-1843 Howqua, aka Wu Bingjian, Chinese merchant. His father was permitted to trade silk and porcelain with foreigners. He lent large sums in silver dollars to foreign traders in exchange for a share of their shipments. He donated 1.1 million silver dollars toward reparations after the First Opium War.
(WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R18)

1769-1849 Mehemet Ali, viceroy of Egypt from 1805-1848.
(WUD, 1994, p.892)

1769-1852 Apr 29, The First Duke of Wellington was born. This was the title of Arthur Wellesley, also known as the Iron Duke. He was a British soldier and statesman and defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. He became Prime Minister and served from 1828-1830. [see 1815, Napoleon & 1828-1830, Wellington]
(CFA, ’96, p.44)(AHD, p.1454)

1770 Feb 22, Jan Matyas Nepomuk August Vitasek, composer, was born.
(MC, 2/22/02)

1770 March 5, British troops taunted by a crowd of colonists fired on an unruly mob in Boston and killed five citizens in what came to be known as the Boston Massacre. The fracas between a few angry Boston men and one British sentry ended with five men dead or dying in the icy street corner of King Street and Shrimton’s Lane. Captain Thomas Preston did not order the eight British soldiers under his command to fire into the hostile crowd. The nervous soldiers claimed to be confused by shouts of “Why do you not fire?” coming from all sides. Versions of the event rapidly circulated through the colonies, bolstering public support for the Patriot cause. The British Captain Preston and seven soldiers were defended by John Adams. The captain and five of the soldiers were acquitted, the other two soldiers were found guilty of manslaughter and were branded on the hand with a hot iron. The first colonist killed in the American Revolution was the former slave, Crispus Attucks, shot by the British at the Boston Massacre. The event was later illustrated by Boston engraver Paul Revere.
(HFA, ’96, p.26)(A&IP, Miers, p.18)(SFC, 12/18/96, p.A25)(AP, 3/5/98)(HN, 3/5/98)(HNPD, 3/5/99)(WSJ, 4/12/08, p.W14)

1770 Mar 27, Giovanni B. Tiepolo (73), Italian painter (Banquet of Cleopatra), died.
(MC, 3/27/02)

1770 Apr 7, William Wordsworth, English poet laureate, was born. He wrote “The Prelude” and “Lyrical Ballads.” In 1998 Kenneth R. Johnston published “The Hidden Wordsworth: Poet, Lover, Rebel, Spy.” The biography covered the first 30 years of the poet’s life. In 1896 Emile Legouis also published a biography of the poet’s youth. The poet was responsible for such phrases as: “love of nature,” “love of man,” and “emotion recollected in tranquility.”
(V.D.-H.K.p.230)(WSJ, 6/23/98, p.A18)(SFEC, 8/23/98, BR p.5)(HN, 4/7/99)

1770 Apr 9, Captain James Cook discovered Botany Bay on the Australian continent.
(HN, 4/9/98)

1770 Apr 11, George Canning, British prime minister (1827) , was born.
(HN, 4/11/98)

1770 Apr 12, British Parliament repealed the 1967 [Townshend] Townsend Acts that put duties on certain products imported to the US.
(WUD, 1994, p.1499)(HN, 4/12/98)

1770 Apr 19, Capt. James Cook first saw Australia. [see Apr 9]
(MC, 4/19/02)

1770 Apr 20, Captain Cook arrived in New South Wales, Australia.
(HN, 4/20/98)

1770 Apr 28, Marie AC de Camargo (60), Spanish-Italian-Belgian dancer, died.
(MC, 4/28/02)

1770 Apr, Cockfighting in Puerto Rico, introduced by Spain in the 16th century, was officially recognized for the first time.
(AP, 7/23/12)

1770 May 10, Charles Avison (61), composer, died.
(MC, 5/10/02)

1770 May 16, Marie Antoinette (14), married the future King Louis XVI of France (15).
(AP, 5/16/97)(HN, 5/16/98)

1770 Jun 3, Father Junipero Serra founded Mission San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo on the shores of Monterey Bay as a chapel for the new Spanish Presidio of Monterey. A year later he moved the mission to Carmel.
(SSFC, 11/25/01, p.C5)(www.sancarloscathedral.net/)

1770 Jun 7, Earl of Liverpool, (C) British PM (1812-27), was born.
(SC, 6/7/02)

1770 Jul 7, The entire Ottoman fleet was defeated and destroyed by the Russians at the 3-day battle of Chesme [Cesme] on the Aegean Sea. The Ottoman fleet was commanded by Kapudan Pasha Mandalzade Hüsameddin, in the fourth ship from the front (north end) of the line, with Hasan Pasha (1713-1790) in the first ship, Real Mustafa, and Cafer Bey in the seventh.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Chesma)(WSJ, 4/29/99, p.A24)

1770 Jun 11, Capt. James Cook, commander of the British ship Endeavour, discovered the Great Barrier Reef off Australia by running onto it.
(AP, 6/11/97)(HN, 6/11/98)

1770 Jul 18, Isabel Godin, having traveled from Ecuador the length of the Amazon, reunited with her husband Jean Godin in French Guiana.
(ON, 5/05, p.4)

1770 Aug 1, William Clark, American explorer, was born in Charlottsville, VA. He led the Corps of Discovery with Meriwether Lewis.
(HN, 8/1/00)(MC, 8/1/02)

1770 Aug 24, Thomas Chatterton (b.1752), English poet (Revenge), committed suicide.
(MC, 8/24/02)

1770 Aug 27, The German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831) was born in Stuttgart. He wrote “The Science of Logic.” Hegel greatly influenced Karl Marx. His method was to metaphysicize everything, that is, to discern in concrete reality the working of some Idea or Universal Mind. Hegel proposed that all change, all progress, is brought about by the conflict of vast forces. A world-historical figure or nation or event lays down a challenge. This thesis, as he called it, is opposed by an antithesis. The conflict between them is resolved, inevitably, by a synthesis of the two forces on a higher plane of being.
(V.D.-H.K.p.258)(AP, 8/27/97)(HN, 8/27/98)

1770 Nov 13, George Grenville (58), British premier (1763-65), Stamp Act, died.
(MC, 11/13/01)

1770 Nov 19, Albert Bertel Thorvaldsen, sculptor (Dying Lion), was born in Copenhagen, Denmark.
(MC, 11/19/01)

1770 Dec 9, Gottlieb Theophil Muffat (80), composer, died.
(MC, 12/9/01)

1770 Dec 12, The British soldiers responsible for the “Boston Massacre” were acquitted on murder charges.
(HN, 12/12/98)

1770 Dec 16, Ludwig Von Beethoven (d.1827), German composer best known for his 9th Symphony, was born in Bonn. His Sixth Symphony “Pastorale” was in F-Major. Locks of his hair were cut off after his death and preserved by a number of collectors.
(CFA, ’96, p.60)(WUD, 1994, p.134)(WSJ, 5/29/96, p.A1,5)(AP, 12/16/97)(SFC, 7/7/98, p.B3)(HN, 12/16/98)

1770 Dec 17, Johann Friedrich Schubert, composer, was born.
(MC, 12/17/01)

1770 Dec 26, Pierre earl de Cambronne, French general (Waterloo, Elba), was born.
(MC, 12/26/01)

1770 Thomas Gainsborough (1727-1788), English painter, exhibited his “Portrait of a Young Gentleman”, soon dubbed “Blue Boy,” at the Royal Academy Exhibition.
(SSFC, 9/23/18, p.A11)
1770 George Stubbs, Britain’s finest painter of animals, did a portrait of the Duke of Richmond’s imported yearling bull moose. It was commissioned by anatomist William Hunter (1718-1783) to see if the moose was related to the fossil Irish giant deer.
(NH, 8/96, p.17)

1770 The “New England Psalm-Singer” by William Billings was released.
(WSJ, 10/17/96, p.A20)

1770 Capt. George Cartwright, a British adventurer and entrepreneur, established the fishing village of Cartwright on the east coast of Labrador, Canada.
(NH, 6/96, p.56)

1770 In India a famine wiped out a third of the population of Bengal. This hardened opinion against the British East India Company.
(Econ, 12/17/11, p.111)

c1770 A monastery was built in Cartagena, Colombia, that served as the seat of the Inquisition Tribunal for Spain. It later became the Hotel Santa Clara.
(SSFC, 5/18/03, p.C12)

1770 Francois Boucher (b.1703), French painter, died. He painted “Diana.”
(Econ, 10/9/04, p.79)

1770-1772 John Copley painted the portrait of Samuel Adams in Boston.
(WSJ, 6/14/95, p.A-14)

1770-1779 William Addis invented the toothbrush in the 1770s while a prisoner in Newgate Prison.
(SFC, 7/14/99, Z1 p.3)
1770-1779 Blacks were 1st brought to Argentina in the 1770s to toil on large haciendas and work as domestic servants.
(SSFC, 11/27/05, p.A24)

1771 Apr 13, Richard Trevithick, inventor of the steam locomotive, was born in Cornwall, England.
(ON, 4/04, p.4)

1771 Apr 29, Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli (b.1700), Italian architect, died in St. Petersburg. He was born in Paris and spent his entire career in Russia. His work included the Winter Palace (1754-1762) in St. Petersburg, which later became the Hermitage Museum.

1771 May 14, Robert Owen (d.1858), English factory owner, socialist, was born in Newtown, Wales.
1771 May 14, Thomas Wedgwood, English physicist, was born. He is acknowledged as the first photographer.
(HN, 5/14/99)

1771 Jun 3, Sydney Smith, preacher, reformer, author, was born in Woodford, Essex.
(MC, 6/3/02)

1771 Jun 12, Patrick Gass, Sgt. of Lewis & Clark Expedition, was born in Falling Springs, PA.
(MC, 6/12/02)

1771 Jun 24, E.I. Du Pont, chemist, was born.
(HN, 6/24/98)

1771 Jul 12, James Cook sailed Endeavour back to Downs, England.
(MC, 7/12/02)

1771 Jul 14, Father Junipero Serra founded the Mission San Antonio de Padua in California.
(SFEC, 3/12/00, p.T4)(MC, 7/14/02)

1771 Jul 30, Thomas Gray (54), English poet, died. His work included “Elegy Written in a Country Church Yard” (1751).
(MC, 7/30/02)

1771 Aug 15, Sir Walter Scott (d.1832), Scottish novelist who wrote “Ivanhoe” and “Rob Roy,” was born.
(WUD, 1994, p.1281)(HN, 8/15/98)

1771 Sep 8, Mission San Gabriel Archangel was formed in California.
(MC, 9/8/01)

1771 Sep 10, The Scottish explorer Mungo Park (d.1806) was born. He settled the question as to the direction of flow of the Niger River as he traced the northern reaches of the African river in the 1790s. Park was one of the first explorers sponsored by England’s African Association. He died in 1806 on another expedition to determine if the Niger linked with the Congo River. He reportedly drowned while fleeing attackers near Bussa, which is in present-day Nigeria.
(HNQ, 6/6/98)

1771 Sep 17, Tobias George Smollett, novelist (Adventures of Roderick Random), died at 50.
(MC, 9/17/01)

1771 Nov 4, Carlo Goldoni’s “Le Bourru Bienfaisant,” premiered in Paris.
(MC, 11/4/01)

1771 Nov 6, Alois Senefelder, inventor (lithography), was born.
(MC, 11/6/01)

1771 Nov 11, Ephraim McDowell, surgeon (pioneered abdominal surgery), was born.
(MC, 11/11/01)

1771 Dec 26, Claude A. Helvétius (56), French encyclopedist (L’esprit), died.
(MC, 12/26/01)

1771 Fedot Ivanovich Choubine, Russian sculptor and painter, carved a bust of Catherine the Great.
(Econ, 12/23/06, p.126)(http://tinyurl.com/y4ydna)

1771 A color engraving from this year of the fish Acarauna is on display at the Mariner’s Museum Library in Newport News, Va., USA.
(Civil., Jul-Aug., ’95, p.97)
1771 Mark Catesby had his work: “The Natural History of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands” printed in London.
(WSJ, 7/7/98, p.A14)
1771 In California Father Junipero Serra moved the Mission San Carlos Borromeo de Rio Carmelo over from Monterey. The Carmel mission was his 7th.
(SFEC, 3/12/00, p.T5)
1771 Benjamin Banneker, black mathematician and surveyor, helped create the initial boundaries of Washington D.C.
(SFC, 5/26/96, T-7)

1771 By this time some 50,000 British convicts were dumped on American shores. Most of them came from Middlesex, the county that includes London.
(SFEC, 10/27/96, p.T9)
1771 A group of 79 underwriters established their Society of Lloyd’s, Lloyd’s of London, at the Lloyd’s coffee shop.
(Econ, 12/20/03, p.89)
1771 Britain’s Parliament named Benjamin Franklin to a committee to investigate how lightning rods might help protect gunpowder.
(WSJ, 8/15/05, p.D8)
1771 Joseph Priestley, English minister, grasped the rudiments of the carbon cycle after his experiments showed that mint in a sealed jar refreshed the air.
(NG, Feb, 04, p.28)

1771 Luigi Galvani (1737-1798), Italian physician and physicist, discovered that the muscles of dead frogs legs twitched when struck by a spark.
(Econ, 6/16/12, p.102)

1771 In Mexico Father Toribio Basterrechea, vicar of Huachinango, was convicted by the Inquisition of officiating at the marriage of two dogs. He was sentenced to 4 months of fasting and penance.
(SFC, 9/18/96, p.A11)

1771-1858 Johann Baptist Cramer, composer and pianist, played Bach in public before 1800.
(LGC-HCS, p.32)

1772 Feb 10, Louis Tocque (75), French painter, died.
(MC, 2/10/02)

1772 Apr 2, Father Juan Crespi looked out over a bay, later called Suisun Bay, and believed he had found the fabled Northwest Passage, a shortcut to the Colorado River. After Father Serra established a mission in Monterey, Ca, Pedro Fages and Father Juan Crespi had set out to explore the SF Bay by land.
(SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W34)(SFC, 5/3/13, p.D1)

1772 Mar 10, Friedrich Von Schlegel (d.1829) was born. He was a German romantic poet and critic whose books included “Philosophy of History” and “History of Literature.” “A historian is a prophet in reverse.”
(AP, 5/25/97)(HN, 3/10/99)

1772 Apr 11, Manuel Jose Quintana, Spanish author, poet (El Duque de Viseo), was born.
(MC, 4/11/02)

1772 May 10, British Parliament passed the Tea Act, taxing all tea in the colonies. [see Apr 27, 1973]
(HN, 5/10/98)

1772 May 11, Joseph Kerckhoff, Limburg surgeon, robber captain, was hanged.
(MC, 5/11/02)

1772 May 20, William Congreve, English officer (design fire rocket), was born.
(MC, 5/20/02)

1772 Jun 6, Haitian explorer Jean Baptiste-Pointe DuSable settled Chicago. [see Mar 12, 1773]
(MC, 6/6/02)

1772 Jun 9, The 1st naval attack of Revolutionary War took place when residents of Providence, RI., stormed the HMS Gaspee, burned it to the waterline and shot the captain. A Rhode Island ship captain lured the British schooner HMS Gaspee, sent to Narragansett Bay to enforce trade laws, into shallow waters a few miles south of Providence, where it ran aground. Colonists in Providence heard the news and rowed out to it. Later, no one would tell King George III who set fire to the ship.
(WSJ, 6/24/03, p.A1)(AP, 6/7/18)

1772 Jun 22, Slavery was in effect outlawed in England by Chief Justice William Murray, First Earl of Mansfield, following the trial of James Somersett. In 2005 Steven Wise authored “Though the Heavens May Fall: The Landmark Trial that Led to the End of Human Slavery.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Somersett%27s_Case)(Econ, 2/5/05, p.76)(ON, 12/08, p.9)

1772 Jul 13, Capt James Cook began a 2nd trip on the ship Resolution to South Seas.
(MC, 7/13/02)

1772 Aug 11, An explosive eruption blew 4,000 feet off Papandayan, Java, and 3,000 people were killed.
(MC, 8/11/02)

1772 Aug 19, Gustavus III of Sweden eliminated the rule of parties and establishes an absolute monarchy. It had been subordinate to parliament since 1720.
(HN, 8/19/98)(MC, 8/19/02)

1772 Sep 1, Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa formed in California. Father Junipero Serra held the 1st Mass at San Luis Obispo. He left Father Jose Cavalier the task of building the state’s 5th mission.
(SFEC, 10/11/98, p.T6)(MC, 9/1/02)(SSFC, 10/20/02, p.C1)

1772 Sep 26, New Jersey passed a bill requiring a license to practice medicine.
(MC, 9/26/01)

1772 Oct 4, Francois-Louis Pierne, composer, was born.
(MC, 10/4/01)

1772 Oct 21, Samuel Taylor Coleridge (d.1834), English poet and author, was born. His work included “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner” and “Kubla Khan”.
(AP, 9/12/97)(HN, 10/21/00)

1772 Oct 30, Capt. Cook arrived with ship Resolution in Capetown.
(MC, 10/30/01)

1772 Nov 2, The first Committees of Correspondence were formed in Massachusetts under Samuel Adams.
(HN, 11/2/98)

1772 Dec 22, A Moravian missionary constructed the 1st schoolhouse west of Allegheny.
(MC, 12/22/01)

1772 Beaumarchais wrote his “Barber” as an opera. Rossini later adopted it for his opera “Barber of Seville.”
(SFC, 8/13/96, p.B2)

1772 In Maryland Ellicott City was founded as a mill town.
(SFC, 8/1/16, p.A5)

1772 Sep 1, Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa formed in California. Father Junipero Serra held the 1st Mass at San Luis Obispo. He left Father Jose Cavalier the task of building the state’s 5th mission.
(SFEC, 10/11/98, p.T6)(MC, 9/1/02)(SSFC, 10/20/02, p.C1)

1772 Sep 26, New Jersey passed a bill requiring a license to practice medicine.
(MC, 9/26/01)

1772 Oct 4, Francois-Louis Pierne, composer, was born.
(MC, 10/4/01)

1772 Oct 21, Samuel Taylor Coleridge (d.1834), English poet and author, was born. His work included “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner” and “Kubla Khan”.
(AP, 9/12/97)(HN, 10/21/00)

1772 Oct 30, Capt. Cook arrived with ship Resolution in Capetown.
(MC, 10/30/01)

1772 Nov 2, The first Committees of Correspondence were formed in Massachusetts under Samuel Adams.
(HN, 11/2/98)

1772 Dec 22, A Moravian missionary constructed the 1st schoolhouse west of Allegheny.
(MC, 12/22/01)

1772 Beaumarchais wrote his “Barber” as an opera. Rossini later adopted it for his opera “Barber of Seville.”
(SFC, 8/13/96, p.B2)

1772 In Maryland Ellicott City was founded as a mill town.
(SFC, 8/1/16, p.A5)

1772 A group of merchants raised money for the Boston Pier. They owned the land together and shared the rent making this an early example of what later came to be know as a Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT)
(Econ, 9/17/16, p.69)

1772 Daniel Rutherford discovered nitrogen.
(Dr, 7/17/01, p.2)

1772 Shoelaces were invented in England.
(SFC, 8/28/98, p.B4)

1772 The Paris Faculty of Medicine declared potatoes to be an edible food.
(SSFC, 10/5/08, p.A15)
1772 The French Veuve Clicquot champagne was first produced, but the first bottles were laid down for ten years.
(AFP, 7/17/10)

1772 In Germany the silver and most of the silver-gilt in the Green Vault of Dresden was melted down and made into coin.
(Econ, 9/16/06, p.95)

1772 Calcutta became the capital of British India and continued until 1912 when the colonial rulers shifted their base to New Delhi in northern India.
(AFP, 2/18/12)

1772 Upon the partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, or simply Galicia, became the largest, most populous, and northernmost province of Austria where it remained until the dissolution of Austria-Hungary at the end of World War I. Jews accounted for 10% of the 2.6 million population of Galicia.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galicia_(Central_Europe))(Econ, 11/15/14, p.87)

1772-1801 Friedrich von Hardenberg, aka Novalis, visionary Romantic poet, novelist and political theorist. In 1997 a novel by English author Penelope Fitzgerald, “The Blue Flower,” gave an account of his life.
(WSJ, 4/8/97, p.A20)

1772-1811 Rabbi Nachman of Bratslav, the grandson of the founder of Hasidism, used storytelling to teach his followers.
(WSJ, 6/28/99, p.A24)

1772-1823 David Ricardo, English Economist and stockbroker. He postulated that landlords become rich at the expense of society.
(V.D.-H.K.p.253)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R20)

1773 Jan 12, The first public museum in America was established, in Charleston, S.C.
(AP, 1/12/98)

1773 Jan 17, Captain James Cook became the first person to cross the Antarctic Circle (66d 33′ S).
(HN, 1/17/99)(MC, 1/17/02)

1773 Feb 9, William Henry Harrison, the 9th president of the United States (March 4- April 4, 1841), was born in Charles City County, Va.
(HN, 2/9/97)(AP, 2/9/99)(MC, 2/9/02)

1773 Feb 26, Construction was authorized for Walnut St. jail in Philadelphia, (1st solitary).
(SC, 2/26/02)

1773 Mar 12, Jeanne Baptiste Pointe de Sable settled what is now known as Chicago. [see Jun 6, 1772]
(MC, 3/12/02)

1773 Mar 26, Nathaniel Bowditch (d.1838), mathematician, astronomer, polyglot, author (Marine Sextant), was born in Salem, Mass. In 1802 he published “The New American Practical Navigator.”
(SS, 3/26/02)(AH, 12/02, p.22)

1773 Apr 6, James Mill (d.1836), English philosopher, historian (Hist of British India) and economist, was born in Scotland.
(V.D.-H.K.p.253)(WUD, 1994 p.909)(MC, 4/6/02)

1773 Apr 27, British Parliament passed the Tea Act. [see May 10, 1772]
(HN, 4/27/98)

1773 May 10, To keep the troubled East India Company afloat, Parliament passed the Tea Act, taxing all tea in the American colonies.
(HN, 5/10/99)

1773 May 15, Prince Clemens Von Metternich (d.1859), Chancellor of Austria, was born in Coblenz. His policies dominated Europe after the Congress of Vienna.
(HN, 5/15/99)(WUD, 1994 ed., p.903)

1773 Jul 20, Scottish settlers arrived at Pictou, Nova Scotia (Canada).
(MC, 7/20/02)

1773 Jul 21, Pope Clement XIV abolished the Jesuit order. He disbanded, defrocked, and stripped them of their sustenance. They were ignored by other orders and denounced as schemers and plotters. The Jesuits finally regained respectability in 1814after flourishing underground.
(HN, 7/21/98)(MC, 7/21/02)

1773 Sep 1, Phillis Wheatley (d.1834), a slave from Boston, published a collection of poetry, “Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral,” in London. Although she received her freedom soon after, Wheatley’s last years saw only misery.
(HN, 9/1/99)(HNPD, 2/21/00)

1773 Sep 11, Benjamin Franklin wrote “There never was a good war or bad peace.”
(MC, 9/11/01)

1773 Sep 14, Russian forces under Aleksandr Suvorov successfully stormed a Turkish fort at Hirsov, Turkey.
(HN, 9/14/99)

1773 Oct 14, Britain’s East India Company tea ships’ cargo was burned at Annapolis, Md.
(HN, 10/14/98)

1773 Dec 16, Some 50-60 “Sons of Liberty” of revolutionary Samuel Adams disguised as Mohawks defied the 3 cents per pound tax on tea boarded a British East India Tea Company ship and dumped 342 chests of British tea into the Boston Harbor in what became known as the Boston Tea Party. Parliament had passed the 1773 Tea Act not to regulate trade or make the colonies pay their own administrative costs, but to save the nearly bankrupt British East India Tea Company. The Tea Act gave the company a monopoly over the American tea trade and authorized the sale of 17 million pounds of tea in America at prices cheaper than smuggled Dutch tea. In spite of the savings, Americans would not accept what they considered to be taxation without representation. Overreacting to the Boston Tea Party, the British attempted to punish Boston and the whole colony of Massachusetts with the Intolerable Acts of 1774–another in the series of events that ultimately led to American independence. A bill for the tea ($196) was paid Sep 30, 1961.
(HFA, ’96, p.44)(A&IP, Miers, p.18)(SFEC,11/23/97, Par p.14)(AP, 12/16/97)(HNPD, 12/16/98)(MC, 9/30/01)

1773 Dec 26, Expulsion of tea ships from Philadelphia.
(MC, 12/26/01)

1773 Dec 27, George Cayley, founder of the science of aerodynamics, was born in England.
(MC, 12/27/01)

1773 Dmitri Levitsky (1735-1822), Kiev born Russian-Ukrainian artist, painted a portrait of Katerina Khrouchtchova and princess Katerina Khonanskaia.
(Econ, 12/23/06, p.126)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dmitry_Levitsky)

1773 Augustin Pajou, French sculptor, completed his bust of Madame du Barry.
(WSJ, 3/18/98, p.A20)

1773 Thomas Day, English abolitionist, wrote a poem with his friend John Bicknell called “The Dying Negro.”
(Econ, 2/16/13, p.83)

1773 Phillis Wheatley, black poet, published “Poems on Various Subjects.”
(SFEC, 4/30/00, p.C12)

1773 America’s first chamber of commerce was founded in Charleston, South Carolina. In 1912 the Chamber of Commerce of the USA was established.
(Econ, 4/21/12, p.77)

1773 Thomas Jefferson planted Yellow Newtown Pippin apples at his home in Monticello.
(T&L, 10/1980, p.42)

1773 John Harrison (1693-1776) received a monetary award in the amount of £8,750 from the British Parliament for his achievements regarding the invention of the marine chronometer solving the problem of establishing the East-West position or longitude of a ship at sea. He never received the official award, proclaimed in 1714, which was never awarded to anyone.
(Econ, 5/1/10, p.80)(www.surveyhistory.org/john_harrison%27s_timepiece1.htm)
1773 In England Sir Robert Clive was acquitted of embezzlement.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)
1773 A group of English traders broke away from Jonathan’s coffee house and moved to a new building. This became the forerunner of the London Stock Exchange (f.1801).
(Econ, 12/20/03, p.89)
1773 The Samuel Deacon & Co. ad agency opened in London.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1773 A large earthquake destroyed so much of Antigua that the Spanish moved away and built a new capital on a plateau 30 miles away that became Guatemala City.
(NG, 6/1988, p.798) (SFEM, 6/13/99, p.33)

1773 The Royal Captain, a merchant ship of the British East India Co., was lost off a coral reef in the Philippines.
(WSJ, 7/21/00, p.W2)

1773 Iceland held its first census.
(Economist, 8/25/12, p.64)

1773 Captain James Cook found a group of islands 1800 miles northeast of New Zealand. They became known as the Cook Islands. “A couple of years ago, the Cook Islands hired a lawyer from the United States to draft an asset protection statute that instantly made the islands one of the best places in the world to protect assets from creditors.
(Hem, 8/95, p.38)

1773 In Russia the Cossack Yemelyan Pugachev, pretending to be the dead emperor Peter III, incited a widespread rebellion.
(SFC,10/28/97, p.A8)

1773 Samuel Johnson and James Boswell toured the countryside of Scotland.
(SFC, 6/25/95, p.T-1)

1773-1776 In Mexico a mid-sixteenth century church was abandoned in the Quechula locality of southern Chiapas state due to big plagues in the region.
(SSFC, 10/18/15, p.A5)

1773-1777 William Bartram, American Quaker naturalist, was commissioned by Dr. John Fothergill to travel through the American South to hunt plants. Bartram’s travels led to the publication in 1791 of his “Travels Through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and West Florida.”
(Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.10-12)

1773-1785 Warren Hastings served as the British governor-general of India. [see 1787]
(WSJ, 5/1/00, p.A24)(WSJ, 2/22/00, p.A20)

1773-1793 Rule of Timur Shah. The capital of Afghanistan was transferred from Kandahar to Kabul because of tribal opposition. Constant internal revolts occurred.

1773-1827 Elizabeth de Meulan Guizot, French author: “Much misconstruction and bitterness are spared to him who thinks naturally upon what he owes to others, rather than on what he ought to expect from them.”
(AP, 7/18/99)

1773-1833 John Randolph, state representative from Virginia. He said of Edward Livingston, a mayor of NY and later a senator from Louisiana and US Sec. Of State, that he “shines and stinks like rotten mackerel by moonlight.”
(WSJ, 11/4/98, p.A20)

1774 Feb 10, Andrew Becker demonstrated a diving suit.
(MC, 2/10/02)

1774 Feb 17, Raphaelle Peale, U.S. painter, was born.
(HN, 2/17/98)

1774 Feb 22, English House of Lords ruled that authors do not have perpetual copyright.
(MC, 2/22/02)

1774 Mar 4, The 1st sighting of the Orion nebula was made by William Herschel.
(SC, 3/4/02)

1774 Mar 7, A 2nd Boston tea party was held.
(SFEC,11/23/97, Par p.14)
1774 Mar 7, The British closed the port of Boston to all commerce.
(HN, 3/7/98)

1774 Mar 25, English Parliament passed the Boston Port Bill.
(MC, 3/25/02)

1774 Mar 28, Britain passed the Coercive Act against Massachusetts. [see May 20]
(HN, 3/28/98)

1774 Apr 4, Oliver Goldsmith, Irish poet (She Stoops to Conquer), died.
(MC, 4/4/02)

1774 Apr 19, Gluck’s opera “Iphigenia in Aulis,” premiered in Paris.
(MC, 4/19/02)

1774 Apr, NYC patriots dumped 18 chests of tea off Murray’s Wharf.
(WSJ, 10/16/02, p.D8)

1774 May 10, Louis XV (64), King of France (1715-74), died of smallpox and was succeeded by his grandson Louis XVI (19). Louis XVI soon appointed Charles Gravier, comte de Vergennes, as his new foreign minister.
(AP, 5/10/97)(HN, 5/10/99)(PCh, 1992, p.318)(AH, 2/06, p.55)

1774 May 19, Ann Lee and eight Shakers sailed from Liverpool to New York. The religious group originated in Quakerism and fled England due to religious persecution. They become the first conscientious objectors on religious grounds and were jailed during the American Revolution in 1776. In 1998 Suzanne Skees published “god Among the Shakers.” The United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Appearing is the full, proper name for the 19th-century religious group better known as the Shakers. Although they were the largest and best-known communal society a century ago, the Shakers were rarely referred to by their proper name. Outsiders dubbed them “Shakers” for the movements in their ritualistic dance.
(DTnet 5/19/97)(WSJ, 3/27/98, p.W10)(HNQ, 7/2/98)

1774 May 20, The British Parliament passed the Coercive Acts to punish the colonists for their increasingly anti-British behavior. The acts closed the port of Boston. [see Mar 28]
(HN, 5/20/99)

1774 May, The conjunction of the Moon, Mercury, Venus and Jupiter in the same constellation spread panic among the unenlightened in Europe.
(NH, 6/00, p.10)

1774 Jun 1, The Boston Port Bill, the first bill of the Intolerable Acts (called by the Colonists) became effective. It closed Boston harbor until restitution for the destroyed tea was made (passed Mar. 25, 1774).
(DTnet 6/1/97)(HN, 6/1/98)

1774 Jun 2, The Quartering Act, requiring American colonists to allow British soldiers into their houses, was reenacted.
(HN, 6/2/98)

1774 Jun 13, Rhode Island became the 1st colony to prohibit importation of slaves.
(MC, 6/13/02)

1774 Jul 11, Jews of Algiers escaped an attack of the Spanish Army. Jun 11 was also cited for this event.
(MC, 7/11/02)

1774 Jul 12, Citizens of Carlisle, Penn., passed a declaration of independence.
(MC, 7/12/02)

1774 Jul 16, Russia and the Ottoman Empire signed the treaty of Kuchuk-Kainardji, ending their six-year war. This brought Russia for the first time to the Mediterranean as the acknowledged protector of Orthodox Christians.
(HN, 7/16/98)(WSJ, 4/29/99, p.A24)

1774 Jul 17, Capt Cook arrived at New Hebrides (Vanuatu).
(MC, 7/17/02)

1774 Aug 1, British scientist Joseph Priestley succeeded in isolating oxygen from air in Calne, England. He called his new gas “dephlogisticated air.”
(ON, 10/05, p.2)(AP, 8/1/07)

1774 Aug 6, Mother Ann Lee, founder of the Shaker Movement, arrived in NY.
(MC, 8/6/02)

1774 Aug 12, Robert Southey, English poet laureate (1813-1843) and biographer of Nelson, was born.
(HN, 8/12/98)(SC, 8/12/02)

1774 Aug 18, Meriwether Lewis, American explorer, was born in Charlottsville, VA. He led the Corps of Discovery with William Clark.
(HN, 8/18/00)(MC, 8/18/02)

1774 Aug 28, Mother Elizabeth Ann Seton, the first American-born saint and the founder of the Sisters of St. Joseph, was born in New York City. She was canonized in 1975..
(AP, 8/28/97)(HN, 8/28/98)(RTH, 8/28/99)

1774 Sep 5, The first Continental Congress assembled in Philadelphia in a secret session in Carpenter’s Hall with representatives from every colony except Georgia. Tensions had been tearing at relations between the colonists and the government of King George III. The British taking singular exception to the 1773 shipboard tea party held in Boston harbor. The dispute convinced Britain to pass the “Intolerable Acts”- 4 of which were to punish Mass. for the Boston Tea Party. Peyton Randolph of Williamsburg, Va., chaired the 1st Continental Congress. Its first official act was a call to prayer.
(AP, 9/5/97)(HNQ, 6/25/00)(AH, 10/04, p.14)(AH, 4/07, p.31)

1774 Sep 13, Tugot, the new controller of finances, urged the king of France to restore the free circulation of grain in the kingdom.
(HN, 9/13/98)

1774 Sep 26, John Chapman (d.1845), later known as Johnny Appleseed, was born in Massachusetts. A pioneer agriculturalist of early America, Chapman began his trek in 1797, collecting apple seedlings from western Pennsylvania and establishing apple nurseries around the early American frontier. Chapman was a Swedenborgian missionary, a land speculator and an eccentric dresser (he hated shoes and seldom wore them. He planted orchards across western Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Indiana from seed.
(www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=94)(T&L, 10/1980, p.42)(ON, 4/09, p.10)

1774 Oct 14, Patrick Henry, in declaring his love of country in a speech during the First Continental Congress on October 14, 1774, proclaimed, “I am not a Virginian, but an American.”
(HN, 8/2/98)

1774 Oct 20, The Continental Congress ordered the discouragement of entertainment.
(MC, 10/20/01)

1774 Oct 26, The first Continental Congress, which protested British measures and called for civil disobedience, concluded in Philadelphia.
(AP, 10/26/97)(HN, 10/26/98)
1774 Oct 26, Minute Men were organized in the American colonies.
(MC, 10/26/01)

1774 Nov 14, Gaspare Luigi Pacifico Spontini, composer, was born.
(MC, 11/14/01)

1774 Nov 22, British officer and privateer Sir Robert Clive (b.1725), considered by some as the richest man ever, committed suicide.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Clive)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1774 Nov 26, A congress of colonial leaders criticized British influence in the colonies and affirmed their right to “Life, liberty and property.”
(HN, 11/26/98)

1774 Nov, Thomas Paine, English pamphleteer, arrived in Philadelphia. He had been urged to come to America by Ben Franklin.
(ON, 6/2011, p.1)

1774 Dec 2, Johann Friedrich Agricola (54), German court composer and organist, died.
(MC, 12/2/01)

1774 Dec 13, Some 400 colonists attacked Ft. William & Mary, NH.
(MC, 12/13/01)

1774 Dec 16, Francois Quesnay (b.1694), French economist, died. He was the first to think of the economy as a system of interacting parts to be judged by the necessities and conveniences it produces. Quesnay wrote his Tableau Économique (1758), renowned for its famous “zig-zag” depiction of income flows between economic sectors.
(Econ, 8/7/10, p.84)(www.economyprofessor.com/theorists/francoisquesnay.php)

1774 Dec 18, Empress Maria Theresa expelled Jews from Prague, Bohemia and Moravia.
(MC, 12/18/01)

1774 Dec, Capt. Fernando Rivera y Moncada and 4 soldiers climbed Mount Davidson and proceeded north to Lands End.
(GTP, 1973, p.126)(SFC, 12/6/14, p.C1)
1774 Dec, In Paris nearly 100 feet of the Rue d’Enfer (“street of Hell”) collapsed to a depth of 100 feet.
(Hem., 3/97, p.129)

1774 Sir Francis Beaufort (d.1857) hydrogapher, was born near Navan in Co. Meath, Ireland.
(NH, 11/1/04, p.51)

1774 Kaspar David Friedrich (d.1840), German painter and master of numinous landscapes, was born. He painted “Wreck of the Hope.”
(AAP, 1964)(WSJ, 7/16/98, p.A16)

1774 John Singleton Copley, painter, left for England. This allowed his student, Charles Willson Peale, to step in as the most fashionable colonial portraitist.
(SFC, 1/25/97, p.E3)

1774 Thomas Jefferson (31), US President (1801-1809), wrote the widely circulated “Summary View of the Rights of British America ” and retired from his law practice.

1774 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832) published his novel “The Sorrows of Young Werther.” In 1887 French composer Jules Massenet (1842-1912) turned into an opera. The opera premiered at the Imperial Theatre Hofoper in Vienna on February 16, 1892.
(SFC, 9/17/10, p.F1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Werther)

1774 Ann Lee, leader of the United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Appearing, arrived in the New World. She was a young Englishwoman and led the Shakers in their faith which is based on celibacy, confession of sin, and belief in human perfectibility. She never learned to read or write. They withdrew from the world into their own agricultural communities which spread to Ohio & Kentucky and produced a wealth of songs, as many as 10,000. One of the best known is Simple Gifts made famous by Aaron Copland in Appalachian Spring.
(WSJ, 10/16/95, p. A-12)(SFC, 9/21/96, p.E4)

1774 Nicholas Cresswell, Englishman, arrived in the US and spent 3 years traveling and meeting prominent Americans of the time including George Washington, Thomas Jefferson and British Gen. William Howe. Cresswell kept a journal and in 2009 it was published as “A Man Apart: The Journal of Nicholas Cresswell 1774-1781.”
(WSJ, 4/11/09, p.W9)
1774 Tadeusz Kosciusko came to America from Poland after an unsuccessful love affair. He became a hero fighting the British in the American war for Independence.
(SFEC, 11/24/96, T7)

1774 Captain Cook dropped anchor at the Marquesas Islands.
(SFEC, 8/25/96, p.T6)
1774 Capt. Cook discovered the 13-square-mile Norfolk Island 1,000 miles east of Sidney. It was later turned into a penal settlement from which the last prisoner left in 1855.
(AP, 8/12/02)
1774 Captain Cook discovered Norfolk Island, between new Caledonia and new Zealand, and dubbed it “paradise” in his log. The British later turned it into a penal colony and resettled the inhabitants of Pitcairn island there in 1856.
(SFEM, 3/12/00, p.66)

1774 English journalist John Wilkes (1725-1797 was elected Lord Mayor of London.
(ON, 12/11, p.9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Wilkes)
1774 In England Georgiana Spencer (1757-1806) married William Cavendish, the 5th Duke of Devonshire. Spencer was the great-great-great-great-aunt of Princess Diana. In 1999 Amanda Foreman authored “Georgiana,” a biography of Georgiana Spencer.
(WSJ, 1/7/00, p.W4)
1774 Ann Lee, a Manchester Quaker, left for the New World and founded the Shaker movement. The Shakers had originated in England as the United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Appearance.
(SFC, 6/21/01, p.C2)(Econ, 2/20/15, p.74)
1774 Britain banned tontines, a form of life insurance , under the Life Assurance Act 1774, also known as the Gambling Act 1774.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life_Assurance_Act_1774)(Econ 6/17/17, p.69)

1774 Mexico exported 600 tons of the cochineal shell, known as carmine, to Spain. The acid color was extracted from the shell of the tiny red beetle that grew on cactus leaves. It was used to manufacture a red dye that was used in British “redcoats” and by Betsy Ross to color the first US flag.
(WSJ, 10/7/98, p.B1)

1774 A Dutch merchant cobbled together the earliest mutual-style fund, Eendragt Maakt Magt (Unity creates Strength). The first modern mutual fund was launched in Boston in 1924.
(Econ, 4/21/07, p.83)

1774 In northwestern Russia the Dormition church was built on the shores of Lake Onega in the Kondopoga region of Karelia. It was broadly admired as one of the most remarkable examples of Northern Russia’s wooden architecture. On August 10, 2018 it was destroyed by fire.
(AP, 8/10/18)

1774 A Scottish printer finally overturned a copyright monopoly that had allowed English booksellers to lock up the works of Shakespeare and other authors for nearly 2 centuries.
(WSJ, 3/26/04, p.W6)

1774 Spain established a small settlement on the Falkland Islands, which lasted to 1811. An Argentine outpost was established in the 1820s.
(Econ, 4/7/07, p.36)

1774-1781 The British army occupied Manhattan, Staten Island and western Long Island for 7 years. In 2002 Richard M. Ketchum authored “Divided Loyalties,” an account of the Revolutionary spirit in NY; Barnet Schecter authored “The Battle for New York,” and Judith L. Van Buskirk authored “Generous Enemies,” an account of interactions between loyalists and rebels during the war.
(WSJ, 10/16/02, p.D8)

1774-1784 The 1997 film “Beaumarchais” by French director Edouard Molinaro focused on these years.
(SFEC,11/23/97, DB p.14)(SFC,11/28/97, p.C15)

1774-1789 Abdul Hamid I succeeded Mustafa III in the Ottoman House of Osman.
(Ot, 1993, xvii)

1774-1792 In France King Louis XIV ruled.
(WUD, 1994, p.848)

1774-1852 George Chinnery, English watercolorist. He lived and worked in Hong Kong, Macao and Canton.
(Hem., 3/97, p.92)