Timeline 1575-1599

1575 Jan 22, English queen Elizabeth I granted Thomas Tallis and William Byrd a music press monopoly.
(MC, 1/22/02)

1575 Sep 21, A major hurricane hit Puerto Rico on the feast day of St. Matthew and became known as the San Mateo hurricane.
(SSFC, 8/6/06, Par p.24)

1575 Jul 25, Christoph Scheiner, astronomer, was born in Germany.
(SC, 7/25/02)

1575 Nov 8, French Catholics and Huguenots signed a treaty.
(MC, 11/8/01)

c1575 Titian painted “The Flaying of Marsyas.”
(SFC, 8/27/98, p.E3)

1575 Torquatto Tasso, Italian poet, wrote “Jerusalem Liberated,” an epic of the First Crusade.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1575 The Dresden Court Orchestra undertook its first concert tour.
(WSJ, 4/30/96, p.A-12)

1575 Thomas Tallis and Wm. Byrd, English organists and composers, published their Cantiones, a collection of 34 motets, after being granted a royal license to print and sell music.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1575 Stephen Bathory was elected King of Poland, after the defection of Henry, who became King of France.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1575 William of Orange, facing defeat, offered the sovereignty of the Netherlands to Queen Elizabeth, who declined the offer.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1575 Hungarian mines abolished child labor.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1575 In India the Mughal Emp. Akbar conquered Bengal.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1575 In Japan a battle was fought that arrayed 3,000 guns against men on horseback using stirrups. The gun force won and changed the course of Japanese fighting.
(WSJ, 6/9/99, p.A27)

1575 The first European porcelain was produced in Florence, but it was much inferior to the Chinese original. Janet Gleason later published “Arcanum: The Extraordinary Story of the Invention of European Porcelain.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)(WSJ, 8/28/98, p.W10)
1575 Plague swept through Italy and Sicily.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1575 Leyden Univ. was founded to commemorate the great siege.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)
1575 The Bols family arrived in Amsterdam to open ‘het Lootsje’ where they would distill liqueurs. This was the starting point of what would become the world’s oldest distillery. Bols began producing Genever, a Dutch style of gin, in 1664. In 2007 it opened a House of Bols museum in the museum quarter in the Dutch capital. It was dedicated to the history of Jenever (also known as genever or jeniever), the juniper-flavored alcoholic liquor from which gin evolved. The museum is housed on two floors of the Bols headquarters at 14 Paulus Potterstraat. Originally sold as a remedy for lumbago muscular pain, the traditional Dutch and Flemish drink was allegedly invented at the end of the 16th century by Sylvius de Bouve, a chemist, alchemist, renowned scholar and professor at the university of Leyden.
(http://amsterdam.wantedineurope.com/news/news.php?id_n=2999)(www.lucasbols.com/index.asp)(WSJ, 5/31/08, p.A12)

1575 Spain faced bankruptcy and could not pay its troops in the Netherlands.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1575-1649 In Mexico the construction of La Immaculada Concepcion cathedral in Puebla.
(SFEC, 11/8/98, p.T8)

1576 Jan 19, Hans Sachs (81), cobbler, poet, composer, inspiration for Wagner’s “Die Meistersinger”, died.
(MC, 1/19/02)

1576 Feb 3, Henry of Navarre (future Henry IV) escaped from Paris.
(MC, 2/3/02)

1576 Feb 5, Henry of Navarre renounced Catholicism at Tours.
(MC, 2/5/02)

1576 May 6, The peace treaty of Chastenoy ended the fifth war of religion.
(HN, 5/6/98)

1576 Mar 8, Diego Garcia de Palacios, a representative of Spain’s King Felipe II, wrote to the crown with news of the ruins at Copan in western Honduras.
(AP, 3/7/05)

1576 May 29, Spanish army under Mondragón conquered the Zierik sea.
(SC, 5/29/02)

1576 Jul 28, Martin Frobisher, English navigator, discovered Frobisher Bay in Canada. He explored the Arctic region of Canada and twice brought tons of gold back to England that was found to be iron pyrite. Michael Lok, textile exporter, led the financing for the 1st expedition which was made to find a route to China. Lok was later sued for losses from 3 expeditions.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.26)(ON, 12/03, p.7)

1576 Jul, The Spanish ship San Felipe departed Manila for the port of Acapulco. It wrecked on the coast of Baha, California. Artifacts from the wreckage were later used to identify the ship.
(SFC, 8/23/11, p.C1)

1576 Aug 27, The Venetian painter Titian (Tiziano Vecelli), born about 1488, died of the plague. His handling of color and mastery of new oil techniques made him one of the greatest painters of the Renaissance.
(Reuters, 8/28/01)(www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/tita/hd_tita.htm)

1576 Oct 12, Rudolf II, the king of Hungary and Bohemia, succeeded his father, Maximillian II, as Holy Roman Emperor.
(HN, 10/12/98)

1576 Nov 8, All 17 provinces of the Netherlands united in the Pacification of Ghent in the face of Spanish occupation. The 17 provinces of the Netherlands formed a federation to maintain peace.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)(HN, 11/6/98)

1576 Jean Bodin, French political theorist, published his Six Books of the Commonwealth, wherein he argues that the basis of any society is the family.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1576 Carolus Clusius, French botanist, published his treatise on the flowers of Spain and Portugal. It was the first modern work on botany.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1576 The basilica of San Petronio was erected by Egnatio Danti, a mathematician and Dominican friar who worked for Cosimo I dei Medici, the Grand Duke of Tuscany. The structure included a solar observatory. Danti also advised Pope Gregory on calendar reform.
(SFC, 10/25/99, p.A4)

1576 The Theater in Shoreditch, London, was built by James Burbage (d.1597). It was the 1st permanent playhouse in England.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)(ON, 11/03, p.1)

1576 The Fifth War of Religion in France ended with the Peace of Monsieur. The Huguenots were granted freedom of worship in all places except Paris.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)
1576 Francois Viete, French mathematician, introduced the use of letters for quantities in algebra.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1576 An epidemic of plague Venice. In 2006 a well-preserved skeleton was found on the Lazzaretto Nuovo island, north of the lagoon city, amid other corpses buried in a mass grave. Experts said the remains of a woman with a brick stuck between her jaws indicated that she was believed to be a vampire.
(AP, 3/14/09)

1576 Rudolf II was crowned King of the Holy Roman Empire and moved the Imperial Court from Vienna to Prague.
(WSJ, 7/10/97, p.A13)

1576 In Mexico the town of Mineral de Pozos was founded as a mining town. In 1982 the Mexican government declared it a national historic treasure.
(SSFC, 11/30/08, p.E5)

1576 Mutinous Spanish forces sacked Antwerp in “the Spanish Fury.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1576 Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emp., died and was succeeded by his eldest surviving son, Rudolf II.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1577 Feb 8, Robert Burton (d.1640), writer, Anglican clergyman (Anatomy of Melancholy), was born. “A mere madness, to live like a wretch and die rich.”
(AP, 8/19/98)(MC, 2/8/02)

1577 Feb 26, Erik XIV Wasa (43), King of Sweden (1560-69), died.
(SC, 2/26/02)

1577 Jun 28, Pietro Paul Rubens (d.1640), Flemish painter, was born in Germany, the child of protestants exiled from Antwerp. His work included “Helene Fourment” and “The Abduction of the Daughters of Leucippus.”
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1250)(HN, 6/28/01) (Econ, 5/15/04, p.81)

1577 Sep 23, William of Orange made his triumphant entry into Brussels, Belgium.
(HN, 9/23/98)

1577 Oct 17, Cristofano Allori, Italian painter (Judith), was born.
(MC, 10/17/01)

1577 Nov 15, Sir Francis Drake aboard Pelican began his travel from Chile to Washington. [see Dec 13]
(MC, 11/15/01)

1577 Dec 13, Sir Francis Drake of England set out with five ships on a nearly three-year journey that would take him around the world. His mission was to find Terra Australis and raid their Spanish colonies on the west coast of South America. He raided Spanish ships in the Pacific and returned with a 4,500% profit on his investment. [see Nov 15]
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)(AP, 12/13/97)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)(SFC, 10/29/99, p.A6)

1577 The fort of San Marcos was established on Parris Island, South Carolina. It was one of five forts built during the 21-year history of the early settlements of Santa Elena, the first capital of Spanish colonial Florida.
(SFC, 7/27/16, p.A6)

1577 Painter El Greco (36), born in Crete as Domenikos Theotokopoulos, went to Spain and settled there permanently in Toledo.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)(WSJ, 6/18/01, p.A16)

1577 Raphael Holinshed published his “Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1577 London’s 2nd playhouse, The Curtain, opened in Finsbury. The Curtain opened close to London’s first playhouse “The Theatre” and was one of a number of early theatres built outside the city’s walls. The venue took its name from nearby street Curtain Close. It was the main arena for Shakespeare’s plays between 1597 and 1599 until the Globe was completed in Southwark. Archaeologists stumbled upon the Curtain Theatre’s remains on Hewett Street after work began on a regeneration project led by local developers in October 2011.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)(Reuters, 6/6/12)

1577 Javanese fled the spread of Islam and reached Bali where they kept alive early traditions of Indonesian music.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1577 The Sixth War of Religion erupts in France. After five months it ends with the Peace of Bergerac. The Huguenots gain more concessions.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1577 Francisco Hernandez, Spanish explorer traveling through Mexico’s highlands, noted the many uses of the maguey (agave) plant. He cited it as a useful fuel, a material for cloth and ropes, with sap used to make vinegar and wine.
(Arch, 9/02, p.32)

1577 Don John of Austria, Governor of the Netherlands, issued his Perpetual Edict by which all Spanish troops were to be withdrawn from the Netherlands and ancient liberties restored.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1577 Danzig surrendered to Stephen Bathory, King of Poland.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1577 Tsar Ivan the Terrible sent an army to the Volga region with orders to kill as many Cossacks as possible. Robbing bands of Cossacks, including a group under Yermak, had seriously disrupted Russian commerce in the area.
(ON, 2/04, p.1)

1577 Cossacks under Yermak migrated northeast and negotiated a deal with the Stroganoff brothers to serve as “frontier guards” in the Ural Mountains.
(ON, 2/04, p.1)

1577 Fray Luis de Leon, Spanish scholar and poet at Salamanca, was released from prison after serving 5 years for heresy. He greeted his students with the words: “As I was saying, yesterday…”
(SSFC, 6/8/03, p.C8)

1578 Jan 28, Cornelis Haga, Dutch lawyer, ambassador to Constantinople (1611-39), was born.
(MC, 1/28/02)

1578 Feb 9, Giambattista Andreini, Italian playwright, actor (L’adamo), was born.
(MC, 2/9/02)

1578 Mar 31, Juan de Escobedo, secretary of Spanish land guardian Don Juan, was murdered.
(MC, 3/31/02)

1578 Apr 1, William Harvey England (d.1657), discoverer of blood circulation, was born.
(HN, 4/1/99)(WUD, 1994, p.648)

1578 Apr 14, Philip III, king of Spain and Portugal (1598-1621), was born.
(HN, 4/14/97)

1578 Jul 2, In Puerto San Julian, Patagonia, Argentina, English privateer Capt. Francis Drake beheaded his friend John Doughty (b.1545) under accusations of treason and witchcraft.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Doughty_%28explorer%29)(SFC, 8/10/13, p.C3)

1578 Jul 11, England granted Sir Humphrey Gilbert a patent to explore and colonize US.
(MC, 7/11/02)

1578 Dec 5, Sir Francis Drake sailed into the port of Valparaiso. He had renamed his flagship, the Pelican, to the Golden Hind, and ravaged the coasts of Chile and Peru on his way around the world.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)(ON, 7/03, p.7)

1578 Li Shih-Chen summed up Chinese pharmacology in his “Great Pharmacopoeia.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1578 John Lely (Lyly), English dramatist and novelist, began “Eupheus [Euphues], the Anatomy of Wit,” an early novel of manners.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)(Ot, 1993, p.25)

1578 Sebastian, King of Portugal, invaded Morocco and was killed along with the King of Fez and the Moorish Pretender in the Battle of Alcazar. He is succeeded by Cardinal Henry.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1578 The catacombs of Rome were discovered by accident.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1578 Faience, a tin-glazed earthenware, was manufactured at Nevers, France, by the Conrade brothers.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1578 Don John of Austria died of fever. He was succeeded as Governor of the Netherlands by Alessandro Farnese, Duke of Parma.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1578-1657 William Harvey, English physician, discovers the way the heart pumps blood through the arteries and veins of the body.

1579 Jan 6, The Union of Atrecht (French: Arras) was an accord signed in Atrecht (Arras), under which the southern states of the Spanish Netherlands, today in Wallonia and the Nord-Pas-de-Calais (and Picardy) regions in France, expressed their loyalty to the Spanish king Philip II and recognized the landlord, Don Juan de Austria. It is to be distinguished from the Union of Utrecht, signed later in the same month. The Peace of Arras ensured that the southern provinces of The Netherlands were reconciled to Philip II. It joined the Low Country Walloons (Catholics) with those of Hainaut and Artois.
(http://en.allexperts.com/e/u/un/union_of_atrecht.htm)(PCh, 1992, p.200)

1579 Jan 25, The Union of Utrecht brought together seven northern, Protestant provinces of the Netherlands against the Catholics. Known as the United Provinces, they become the foundation of the Dutch Republic. The Treaty of Utrecht was signed, marking the beginning of the Dutch Republic.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)(AP, 1/25/98)

1579 Mar 1, Sir Francis Drake waylaid a Spanish treasure galleon, the Nuestra Senora de la Concepcion, off the coast of Panama.
(ON, 7/03, p.7)

1579 Mar 23, Friesland joined the Union of Utrecht.
(SS, 3/23/02)

1579 Jun 17, Sir Francis Drake sailed into a bay in Northern California and proclaimed English sovereignty over New Albion (California). Some claim that Sir Francis Drake sailed into the SF Bay. Sir Francis Drake claimed the area for England. The location may have been Drake’s Bay or Bolinas Lagoon. In 1999 there were 17 proposed locations for his landing with the latest set in Oregon and described by Bob Ward in the book “Lost Harbor Found.” A brass plate, allegedly left by Drake, was found in 1993, but determined to be a fake in 1977. In 2012 Drake’s Cove in Point Reyes was designated as the site where Drake landed and named a national historic site.
(SFEC, 2/9/97, p.W4)(HN, 6/17/98)(SFEC, 8/22/98, p.T6) (SFC, 10/29/99, p.A3)(SFC, 2/15/03, p.A1)(SFC, 10/20/12, p.A1)
1579 Jun 17, There was an anti-English uprising in Ireland.
(MC, 6/17/02)

1579 Jun 23, Francis Fletcher, the chaplain of the Golden Hind, gave the first-ever Protestant service in North America somewhere around Point Reyes, Ca. The Golden Hind, under the command of English privateer Francis Drake, had stopped here for repairs and supplies after failing to find the fabled Strait of Anian.
(SFC, 8/10/13, p.C3)

1579 Jul 26, Francis Drake left SF to cross Pacific Ocean.
(MC, 7/26/02)

1579 Jul 29, Spain’s King Philip II arrested plotters Antonio Perez and Princess of Eboli.
(MC, 7/29/02)

1579 Nov 21, Thomas Gresham (b.1519), English merchant and financier, died. He worked for King Edward VI of England and for Edward’s half-sister Queen Elizabeth I of England. Gresham’s Law: “Bad money drives out good.” Gresham’s law is commonly stated as: “When there is a legal tender currency, bad money drives good money out of circulation.” Or, more accurately, “Money overvalued by the State will drive money undervalued by the State out of circulation.”

1579 Dec 20, John Fletcher, Elizabethan dramatist (Phylaster) was baptized.
(MC, 12/20/01)

1579 Giambologna began the “Rape of the Sabine,” a remarkable example of Mannerist sculpture.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1579 “Plutarch’s Lives,” biographies of noble Greeks and Romans of the first and second centuries AD, were translated into English from the French.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)
1579 Edmund Spenser, English poet, wrote “The Shepheardes Calender,” an eclogue (pastoral or idyllic poem) for each month of the year.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)
1579 Christopher Saxton published a map of England. His maps were the first to show England in any detail.
(Econ, 4/4/09, p.85)

1579 Portuguese merchants set up trading stations in Bengal.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)
1579 Portuguese explorer Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo discovered San Diego Bay. His mate, Bartolome Ferrelo, continued exploring north. [see 1542]
(SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W34)

1579 Roshan of Afghanistan was killed in a battle with the Moghuls, but his struggle for independence continued.

1579 In Istanbul the astronomical observatory of Takiyuddin Efendi, constructed from 1575-1577, was deemed blasphemous and ordered destroyed by the Sultan. Takiyuddin Rasid (d. 1585), mathematician, physicist and mechanical scientist had united the schools of Maragha, Samarkand and Cairo-Damascus in himself and established the Istanbul Observatory.

1580 Jan 18, Antonio Scandello (63), Italian composer (Passion of John), died.
(MC, 1/18/02)

1580 Mar 15, Spanish king Philip II put 25,000 gold coins on head of Prince William of Orange.
(MC, 3/15/02)

1580 Apr 18, Thomas Middleton, English playwright (Game of Chess), was born.
(MC, 4/18/02)

1580 Jun 10, Luis Camoes (b.1524), Portuguese poet, died. He fought in colonial battles in Morocco and India and lost one eye. He was arrested in a street brawl in Lisbon and left for India. He traveled to Macao and Mozambique after which he published “Os Lusiadas” (The Lusiads, 1572), a poem that glorified Vasco da Gama and the history of Portugal.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lu%C3%ADs_de_Cam%C3%B5es)(SFC, 6/4/99, p.D6)(SSFC, 3/10/02, p.M3)

1580 Jun 18, States of Utrecht outlawed Catholic worship.
(MC, 6/18/02)

1580 Jun 27, Duke of Alba’s army occupied Portugal.
(MC, 6/27/02)

1580 Jul, Some 540 Cossacks under Yermak invaded the territory of the Vogels, subjects to Kutchum, the Khan of Siberia. They were accompanied by 300 Lithuanian and German slave laborers, whom the Stroganoffs had purchased from the Tsar.
(ON, 2/04, p.2)

1580 Aug 19, Andrea Palladio (b.1508), Renaissance architect, writer (Il Redentore, Venice), died. He designed the Teatro Olimpico in Vincenza just before his death. It was completed by Vincenzo Scamozzi. Palladio authored “The Four Books on Architecture.” In 2002 Witold Rybczynski authored “The Perfect House,” on the villas of Palladio.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrea_Palladio)(WSJ, 12/10/98, p.A20)(WSJ, 11/8/02, p.W12)

1580 Aug 25, Spain defeated Portugal in the Battle of Alcantara.
(chblue.com, 8/25/01)

1580 Sep 26, Francis Drake returned to Plymouth, England, at the end of his voyage to circumvent the globe. Drake was knighted and awarded a prize of 10 thousand pounds. His crew of 63 split a purse of 8 thousand pounds.
(TL-MB, p.23)(HN, 9/26/99)(ON, 7/03, p.8)

1580 Nov 9, Spanish troops landed in Ireland.
(MC, 11/9/01)

1580 Nov 26, French Huguenots and Catholics signed a peace treaty. France’s 7th War of Religion broke out and ended with the Peace of Fleix.
(TL-MB, p.23)(PCh, 1992, p.200)(MC, 11/26/01)

1580 Wu Bin (d.1643), Ming Dynasty painter, was born. His work included “Pine Lodge Amid Tall Mountains.”
(SFC, 3/13/03, p.E1)
c1580 Lavinia Fontana of Bologna painted her “Portrait of a Noblewoman.” Her father was Prospero Fontana who collaborated with Giorgio Vasari on decorations for the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence.
(SFC, 3/30/98, p.D1)
1580 Paolo Veronese (1528-1588), Italian painter, completed about this time his oil on canvas “Judith With the Head of Holofernes.”
(SFC, 10/29/11, p.E1)

1580 Michel de Montaigne, French scholar and nobleman, wrote his personal essays entitled “Les Essais.” His 107 essays included “On the Cannibals.”
(Econ, 12/17/11, p.54)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Essays_%28Montaigne%29)

1580 Longleat Estate, Wiltshire, England, originally an Augustinian priory, was completed as an Italianate mansion. Longleat was built by Robert Smythson.
(NG, Nov. 1985, M. Girouard, p.685)(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)
1580 Edmund Campion and Robert Parsons began a Jesuit mission in England.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)
1580 John Dee, mathematician and warden of Manchester College in England, invented the crystal ball.
(SFEC, 1/3/99, z1 p.8)

1580 A 2nd Buenos Aires was founded near the mouth of the Rio de la Plata.
(SSFC, 10/14/01, p.T5)

1580 Austrian Archduke Karl created a royal stud farm for horses in Lipizza.
(SFC, 7/6/02, p.D2)

1580 Carlo Borromeo, Archbishop of Milan, established the first Sunday schools.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

c1580 Tupac Amuru, an Inca leader, held out against the Spanish conquest after most of the empire had been subdued.
(SFC, 12/20/96, p.B4)

1580 In Slovenia 6 stallions were brought from Spain to the stable at Lipica (Lipizza) by a Hapsburg duke. The breed mixed with the Karst horse, native to the region since Roman times, and with others horses to forge the Lipizzaners.
(WSJ, 12/22/98, p.A16)

1580 Sir Francis Drake rounded the promontory of what later became Cape Town, South Africa.
(SFEC, 10/15/00, p.T8)

c1580 The Songhai controlled West Africa’s wealthiest empire.
(ATC, p.122 )

1580 The Duke of Alba invaded Portugal and put it under Spain’s rule. Spain’s Philip II was proclaimed King Philip I of Portugal and united the colonial empires of Spain and Portugal.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)(PCh, 1992, p.200)

1581 Guillaume Postel, French intellectual, mathematician and Kabbalist, died. In 1957 William James Bouwsma (d.2004) authored “The Career and Thought of Guillaume Postel (1510-1581).”

1580-1640 The Azores was occupied by Spain and bullfighting was introduced.
(SFEC, 5/24/98, p.A10)

1580-1850 A Little Ice Age gripped the Northern Hemisphere during this period.
(SFC, 2/10/06, p.A6)

1581 Jan 4, James Ussher (d.1656), Irish prelate and scholar, Archbishop of Armagh, was born. According to Ussher and Dr. John Lightfoot of Cambridge, the world was created on Oct 23, 4004BC, a Sunday, at 9 a.m.
(WUD, 1994, p.1574)(NG, Nov. 1985, edit. p.559)(HN, 10/23/98)(MC, 1/4/02)

1581 Jan 14, The city of Riga joined the Polish-Lithuanian union.
(LHC, 1/14/03)

1581 Jan 16, English parliament passed laws against Catholicism.
(MC, 1/16/02)

1581 Mar 1, The Warsaw government accepted the statutes of the Lithuanian high tribunal.
(LHC, 3/1/03)

1581 Apr 4, Frances Drake completed the circumnavigation of the world and was made a knight.
(HN, 4/4/98)(MC, 4/4/02)

1581 May 6, Frans Francken, the Younger, painter, was born.
(MC, 5/6/02)

1581 Jun 18, Sir Thomas Overbury, English poet and courtier who became involved in numerous scandals in London, was born.
(HN, 6/18/98)

1581 Jul 14, English Jesuit Edmund Campion was arrested.
(MC, 7/14/02)

1581 Oct 15, Commissioned by Catherine De Medici, the 1st ballet “Ballet Comique de la Reine,” was staged in Paris.
(MC, 10/15/01)

1581 Oct 19, Dimitri Ivanovitch, Russian son of Ivan IV “the Terrible,” was born.
(MC, 10/19/01)

1581 Dec 1, Edmund Campion (41), English Jesuit was hanged drawn and quartered at Tyburn, England, for sedition, after being tortured. Other Jesuits were also executed.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)(HN, 12/1/99)(PCh, 1992, p.200)

c1581 Franz Hals (d.1666), painter, was born.
(WUD, 1994 p.640)(SFEC, 9/3/00, p.T7)

1581 Adriaen de Vries (1556-1620), Dutch sculptor, turned up in Florence and began working under the sculptor Giovanni Bologna. Here he mastered the art of bronze casting.
(WSJ, 1/6/98, p.A20)(WSJ, 12/7/99, p.A24)

1581 The first dramatic ballet, “Ballet Comique de la Reyne,” was performed at Versailles.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1581 The flageolet (a small flutelike instrument having a cylindrical mouthpiece, four finger holes, and two thumb holes) was invented by Sieur Juvigny.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1581 Converts to Roman Catholicism in England were subject by law to penalties of high treason.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1581 Pope Gregory XIII attempted in vain to reconcile the Roman and Orthodox churches.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1581 The seven northern provinces of the Netherlands renounced their allegiance to Philip II of Spain.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1581 The Portuguese Cortes (national assembly) submitted to Philip II of Spain.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1581 Akbar, Mughal Emperor of India, conquered Afghanistan.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1581 Stephen Bathory, King of Poland, invaded Russia.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1581 Russia’s Tsar Ivan IV killed his son in a dispute over his son’s bride.
(HC, 9/5/04)

1581 Russia began the conquest of Siberia. Cossacks under Yermak subdued Vogul towns and captured a tax collector of Khan Kutchum.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)(ON, 2/04, p.2)

1581 Bernal Diaz del Castillo (b.1492/93), Spanish conquistador and governor of Santiago de los Caballeros (Antigua, Guatemala), died. He wrote “Verdadera Historia de la Conquista de Nueva España” (True History of the Conquest of New Spain) in response to claims made in the earlier work by Cortes’ chaplain. It was not published until his manuscript was found in Madrid in 1632.
(SSFC, 5/21/06, p.M3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernal_Diaz_del_Castillo)

1581 Sweden and Poland overran Livonia (a territory that included southern Latvia and northern Estonia).
(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1581 Galileo Galilei, Italian scientist, discovered the isochronous (equal time) swing of the pendulum by observing a swinging lamp in Pisa Cathedral.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1582 Jan 15, Russia ceded Livonia and Estonia to Poland, and lost access to Baltic.
(MC, 1/15/02)

1582 Feb 24, Pope Gregory XIII issued a papal bull, or edict, outlining his calendar reforms. The old Julian Calendar had an error rate of one day in every 128 years. This was corrected in the Gregorian Calendar of Pope Gregory XIII, but Protestant countries did not accept the change till 1700 and later. [see 1552 and Oct 4, 1582]
(HFA, ’96, p.22)(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)(HN, 6/7/98)(SFEC, 2/20/00, Par p.7)(AP, 2/24/02)

1582 Apr 8, Phineas Fletcher, poet, was born.
(MC, 4/8/02)

1582 May, Cossacks under Yermak advanced on the capital of Sibir. A coalition of 6 Tatar princes attacked them but lacked guns and were routed after several days of battle.
(ON, 2/04, p.2)

1582 Jun 29, Tatar forces attacked invading Cossacks on the Tobol River but Cossack gunfire again repelled them.
(ON, 2/04, p.2)

1582 Aug 10, Russia ended its 25-year war with Poland. Russia and Poland concluded the Peace of Jam-Zapolski under which Russia lost access to the Baltic and surrendered Livonia and Estonia to Poland.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)(HN, 8/10/98)

1582 Sep 8, A small Belarussian-Lithuanian force overcame a larger Muscovite force.
(SFC, 9/2/96, p.A12)

1582 Sep, Tatar forces that included Voguls and Ostiaks gathered at Mount Chyuvash to defend against invading Cossacks.
(ON, 2/04, p.2)

1582 Oct 1, Cossacks attempted to storm the Tatar fort at Mount Chyuvash, but were held off.
(ON, 2/04, p.4)

1582 Oct 4, The Church Council at Trent, Italy, discussed the error of 10 days in the calendar as referenced to the spring equinox which was used to establish the date for Easter. Pope Gregory announced a correction, “The Gregorian Adjustment,” and had Oct. 4 followed by Oct. 15. The calendar is accurate to a day in 3,323 years. [see 1552]
(K.I.-365D, p.97)(NG, March 1990, J. Boslough)(SFEC, 2/20/00, Par p.7)
1582 Oct 4, Theresa of Avila (b.1515), Spanish mystic writer and saint, died. She co-founded with John of the Cross (1542-1591) the Order of Discalced (barefoot) Carmelites. “Untilled ground, however rich, will bring forth thistles and thorns; so also the mind of man.”
(CU, 6/87)(WUD, 1994, p.769)(AP, 12/8/97)(MC, 10/4/01)

1582 Oct 5, The Gregorian calendar was introduced in Italy, other Catholic countries. Nothing happened. This day was skipped and became Oct 15 to bring the calendar into sync by order of the Council of Trent. In 1998 David Ewing Duncan published “Calendar: Humanity’s Epic Struggle to Determine a True and Accurate Year.” In Bohemia the anti-Gregorian astronomer Michael Mestlin proclaimed that the pope was stealing 10 days from everyone’s life. [see Sep 3, 1752]
(K.I.-365D, p.97)(NG, March 1990)(SFEC, 9/27/98, BR p.5)(MC, 10/5/01)

1582 Oct 5-14, The days when nothing happened.
(SFEC, 9/27/98, BR p.5)

1582 Oct 15, The Gregorian (or New World) calendar was adopted in Italy, France, Luxembourg, Spain, and Portugal; and the preceding ten days were lost to history. This day followed Oct 4 to bring the calendar into sync. by order of the Council of Trent. Oct 5-14 were dropped.
(K.I.-365D, p.97)(NG, March 1990, J. Boslough)(HN, 10/15/98)(SFEC, 10/3/99, Par p.27)

1582 Oct 23, Cossacks attempted to storm the Tatar fort at Mount Chyuvash for a 4th time when the Tatars counterattacked. Over a 100 Cossacks were killed but their gunfire forced a Tatar retreat allowed the capture of 2 Tatar cannons.
(ON, 2/04, p.4)

1582 Nov 1, Maurice of Nassau, the son of William of Orange, became the governor of Holland, Zeeland and Utrecht.
(HN, 11/1/98)

1582 Nov 27, William Shakespeare married Anne Hathaway.
(MC, 11/27/01)

1582 Nov, Tsar Ivan IV sent an official letter to the Stroganoff brothers accusing them of provoking the Voguls and Ostiaks by sending Yermak and his Cossacks into Siberia.
(ON, 2/04, p.5)

c1582 Ludovico Carracci, Italian artist, painted “The Lamentation.”
(WSJ, 9/8/00, p.W8)

1582 Richard Hakluyt, English clergyman and geographer, wrote “Divers Voyages Touching the Discovery of America.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1582 Sir Philip Sidney (1554-1586) completed his collection of sonnets on one theme, “Astrophil and Stella.” He also wrote his “Defense of Poetry” about this time.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1582 Joseph Scaliger devised the Julian Period as a way to measure time. He named day 1 after his father, Julius Scaliger, and it begins on Jan. 1, 4713 BC, the most recent time that the three major cycles (28 year solar cycle, 10 year lunar cycle, and the 15 year indication cycle of the Romans) begin on the same day. It will take 7,980 Julian years for the cycle to complete, the product of 28, 19 and 15.
(CFA, ’96,Vol 179, p.98)

1582 William of Orange escaped an assassination attempt.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1582 The Univ. of Edinburgh was founded.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1582 A Jesuit mission was founded in China.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1582 Mapmakers labeled New England in the New World as Norumbega.
(SFC,12/5/97, p.C3)

1582 Nobunaga, ruler of Japan, was assassinated by Akechi Mitsuhide. He was succeeded by Hideyoshi, who killed Mitsuhide and carried on the work of breaking feudal power.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1582 In Spain Fernando Alvarez de Toledo (b.1507), military and political advisor to Philip II, died. In 2004 Henry Kamen authored “The Duke of Alba.”
(WSJ, 7/1/04, p.D8)

1583 Feb 20, Joseph Sanalbo, Jewish convert in Rome, was burned at stake on 27 Shebat.

1583 Apr 10, Hugo Grotius (d.1645) of Holland, father of international law, was born. Huig de Groot (Latinized as Hugo Grotius), Dutch jurist and statesman, is generally regarded as the founder of international law because of his influential work “On the Law of War and Peace” published in 1625. He became a member of a diplomatic mission to France at age 15 and began practicing law at 16. A liberal Protestant, de Groot became involved in religious disputes in the Netherlands and was arrested in 1618 and sentenced to life imprisonment. He escaped in 1621 and fled to Paris. He served the Swedish government as ambassador to France from 1634-1644.
(HN, 4/10/98)(HNQ, 3/15/00)

1583 Aug 5, Humphrey Gilbert, English explorer, annexed Newfoundland in the name of Queen Elizabeth and founded the first English settlement in the New World. His colony disappeared. He drowned this same year at sea in a storm off the Azores.
(HFA, ’96, p.36)(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.26)

1583 Sep 9, Girolamo Frescobaldi (d.1643, Italian composer, was born.
(MC, 9/9/01)(WUD, 1994 p.568)

1583 Sep 24, Albrecht Eusebius Wenzel von Wallenstein, German general, was born.
(MC, 9/24/01)

1583 Oct 30, Pirro Ligorio (83), Italian architect, painter and archaeologist, died.
(MC, 10/30/01)

1583 Nov, Francis Throckmorton (b.1554) was arrested. He made a full confession of the Throckmorton Plot for the overthrow of Queen Elizabeth I and the restoration of papal authority in England after being tortured on the rack. [see Jul 20, 1584]
(HNQ, 10/8/98)

1583 Albrecht Wenzel von Wallenstein (d.1634), soldier of fortune, was born. He prospered by providing armed regiments to Ferdnand, the Habsburg emperor. He acquired a fortune through marriage to an elderly widow with huge estates in Moravia. He was appointed governor of Bohemia and later was ordered killed by the emperor.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1583 Giovanni da Bologna completed the sculpture “The Rape of the Sabine Women” for the court of the Medicis in Florence.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)
1583 Andrea Cesalpino, Italian botanist, published “De Plantis,” the first modern classification of plants.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)
1583 The painting “Newborn Baby in a Crib” by Lavinia Fontana (1552-1614), Italian artist, was completed about this time.
(WSJ, 12/23/08, p.D7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lavinia_Fontana)

1583 Sir Edmund Tilney, Master of the Revels, formed the Queen’s Company of Players in London.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1583 Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1536-1598), Japan’s unifier and folk hero, laid the foundation for Osaka Castle. It was completed in 1587. Civil war and fire destroyed the castle several times. The castle was rebuilt in 1931 and refurbished in 1997.
(Hem, 9/04, p.41)

1583 The first known life insurance policy was issued in England on the life of Londoner William Gibbons. His life was insured for L383 6s 8d at a premium of eight per cent per annum.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1583 Veronica Franco, a courtesan, was later described in a 1992 dissertation titled “The Honest Courtesan: Veronica Franco, Citizen & Writer in 16th Century Venice” by Margaret F. Rosenthal. In 1997 it was made into the film “Dangerous Beauty” with Catherine McCormick. The film was set in Venice of this year during the annual courtesan festival.
(SFEC, 1/4/98, DB. p.38)(SFC, 2/20/98, p.C8)(WSJ, 11/18/97, p.B1)

1583 Rudolf II moved the Imperial Court of the Holy Roman Empire from Vienna to Prague.
(WSJ, 7/10/97, p.A13)

1583 The Duke of Anjou sacked Antwerp in the “French Fury,” but failed to capture it and retired from the Netherlands to France.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1583 Galileo discovered the parabolic nature of trajectories.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1583 De Espejo explored along the Colorado River.
(NG, 5.1988, Mem For)

1583 Matteo Ricci, an Italian Jesuit, entered China. He was later accused of “going native,” and ignoring his mandate to spread the faith.
(WSJ, 9/4/98, p.W12)

1583 Envoys of Yermak reached Tsar Ivan IV and presented him with valuable bundles of furs from Siberia. Ivan wrote a full pardon for Yermak and his men and promised to send reinforcements and supplies to Siberia.
(ON, 2/04, p.5)

1583 The Scottish Presbyterian Church began discouraging Christmas celebrations as having no basis in the Bible.

1584 Jan 7, This was the last day of the Julian calendar in Bohemia & Holy Roman empire. The 1582 Gregorian (or New World) calendar was adopted by this time in Belgium, most of the German Roman Catholic states and the Netherlands.
(SFEC, 10/3/99, Par p.27)(MC, 1/7/02)

1584 Mar 18, Ivan IV (53), the terrible, Russian tsar (1547-84), died. He was succeeded by his weak-minded son, Fyodor I. Boris Godunov, Fyodor’s brother-in-law, assumed general control. During his rule Ivan replaced the sale of beer and mead with vodka at state-run taverns.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)(MC, 3/18/02)(SFC, 9/5/03, p.A8)

1584 Mar 25, Sir Walter Raleigh, English explorer, courtier, and writer, renewed Humphrey Gilbert’s patent to explore North America. He went on to settle the Virginia colony on Roanoke Island (North Carolina), naming it after the virgin queen.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)(MC, 3/25/02)

1584 Apr 29, Melchior Teschner, composer, was born.
(MC, 4/29/02)

1584 Jul 10, William of Orange (1533-1584), Prince of Orange (1544-1584), Count of Nassau (1559-1584), and first stadholder of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, was assassinated by Burgundian Balthasar Gerard (25) with a handgun. Philip II of Spain had called for a volunteer assassin due to William’s reluctance take a public stand on religious issues. William was succeeded by his 17-year-old son, Maurice of Nassau. In 2006 Lisa Jardine authored “The Awful End of Prince William the Silent.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)(WSJ, 4/5/06, p.D8)

1584 Jul 20, Francis Throckmorton was executed. He was the central figure in the conspiracy involving France and Spain, which called for a French invasion of England and the release from prison of Mary, Queen of Scots. [see Nov, 1583]
(HNQ, 10/8/98)

1584 Nov 23, The English parliament expelled the Jesuits.
(MC, 11/23/01)

1584 Dec 4, John Cotton, English-born Puritan clergyman who wrote “The Way of the Church of Christ in New England,” was born.
(HN, 12/4/98)

1584 Sir Philip Sidney began the radical revision of his pastoral romance “Arcadia.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)
c1584 Miles Standish, head of the Mayflower colonists, was born in England. His precise place of birth was still under dispute in 2004.
(WSJ, 11/24/04, p.A1)
1584 England’s Cambridge University Press began operations.
(Econ, 10/26/13, p.73)

1584 Lavinia Fontana of Bologna painted her “Portrait of the Gozzadini Family.”
(SFC, 3/30/98, p.D1)

1584 The oldest surviving lighthouse (wave-swept) was begun at Cordonau, by the mouth of the Gironde River in France.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1584 Yulgok (b.1536), a Korean Confucian scholar, died. South Korea later celebrated his memory on a 5,000-won note. His mother appeared on a 50,000-won note.
(Econ, 10/26/13, SR p.9)

1584 A Dutch trading post was established at the Russian port of Archangel.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1584 Portugal dominated the world’s sugar trade and sold Brazilian sugar to Europe.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1584 A European public banking system was begun with the establishment of the Banco di Rialto in Venice.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1584 The San Lorenzo del Escorial Palace in Madrid, begun in 1563, was completed. It was consecrated in 1586

1584-1652 John Cotton, US clergyman, colonist and author.
(WUD, 1994, p.331)

1585 Mar 10, Rembert Dodoens (b.1517), Flemish physician and botanist, died. He is also known under his Latinized name Rembertus Dodonaeus. His books included “Stirpium historiae pemptades sex” (1583).

1585 Apr 5, Clemens Crabbeels became bishop of Hertogenbosch.
(MC, 4/5/02)

1585 Jun 7, English sea captain John Davis set sail from Dartmouth to search for a Northwest passage linking the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
(ON, 11/05, p.8)

1585 Jul 7, King Henri III & Duke De Guise signed the Treaty of Nemours: French Huguenots lost all freedoms.
(MC, 7/7/02)

1585 Jul 13, A group of 108 English colonists, led by Sir Richard Grenville, reached Roanoke Island, North Carolina. Roanoke Island near North Carolina became England’s first foothold in the New World. Sir Walter Raleigh sent a detachment of 108 men to build a fort on the island. The detachment included two scientists, Thomas Hariot, a surveyor, mathematician, astronomer and oceanographer, and Joachim Gans, a metallurgist. John White, English artist and surveyor, was part of the expedition.
(NG, Geographica, Jan, 94)(HN, 7/13/98)(ON, 10/01, p.1)

1585 Jul 17, English secret service discovered Anthony Babington’s murder plot against queen Elizabeth I.
(MC, 7/17/02)

1585 Aug 7, Tatar forces of Khan Kutchum attacked a sleeping Cossack expedition under Yermak near the mouth of the Vagay River in Siberia. The Cossacks were decimated and Yermak drowned wearing a suit of armor given him by Tsar Ivan.
(ON, 2/04, p.5)

1585 Sep 9, Duc Armand Jean du Plessis de Richelieu (d.1642), French cardinal and statesman who helped build France into a world power under the leadership of King Louis XIII, was born. He was premier of France from 1624 to 1642.
(HN, 9/9/98)(MC, 9/9/01)
1585 Sep 9, Pope Sixtus V deprived Henry of Navarre of his rights to the French crown.
(HN, 9/9/98)

1585 Oct 8, Heinrich Schutz, German composer, was born. [see Oct 14]
(MC, 10/8/01)

1585 Oct 14, Heinrich Schutz, German royal chaplain master and composer (Daphne), was born. [see Oct 8]
(MC, 10/14/01)

1585 Nov 23, Thomas Tallis, composer, died.
(MC, 11/23/01)

1585 Dec 13, William Drummond (d.1649), Scottish poet and laird of Hawthornden, was born. His chief collection, “Poems,” appeared in 1616. “He, who will not reason, is a bigot; he, who cannot, is a fool; and he, who dares not, is a slave.”
(HN, 12/13/99)(AP, 6/22/00)

1585 Archduke Karl II, ruler of Styria in eastern Austria, granted the Faculties of Arts and Catholic Theology in Graz an official Univ. charter. He entrusted the Jesuits with the administration.
(StuAus, April ’95, p.53)

1585 The Jesuits founded a university in Graz, Austria.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1585 Archbishop of Mexico, Pedro Moya de Contreras, dispatched Spanish captain Francisco Gali to proceed to Manila from Acapulco, and “to reconnoiter down the coast” on his return trip.
(SFC,10/17/97, p.A25)

1585 An obelisk that had been brought from Egypt to Rome by the emperor Caligula was erected at the Vatican.
(RFH-MDHP, p.213, illustration)

1585 The War of the Three Henries [Henry III, Henry of Guise, and Henry of Navarre] began when Henry of Navarre, a Huguenot, became heir to the French throne.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1585 Elizabeth extended her protection to The Netherlands against Spain to avenge the murder of William of Orange.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1585 Antwerp was sacked by the Duke of Parma, resulting in long-lasting loss of trade for that port.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1585 Francis Drake attacked the Spanish ports of Vigo and Santo Domingo. English shipping in Spanish ports was then confiscated as a virtual declaration of war by Spain.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1585 Sir Francis Drake sailed through the Virgin Islands to plunder Spanish ships.
(NG, Jan, 1968, C. Mitchell, p. 69)

1585 Simon Stevin, Dutch mathematician and military and civil engineer, introduces decimals into the mathematical calculations of his physics in Die Thiende.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1585 The Dutch used the first time-bombs in floating mines actuated by clockwork at the siege of Antwerp.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1585 Bartholomew Newsam built the earliest surviving English spring-driven clocks.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1585 John Davis, English explorer, discovered the strait named after him between Greenland and Canada.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1585 Hideyoshi in Japan established a dictatorship.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.24)(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)

1585 The ruler of Morocco captured the Songhai’s salt mines in Taghaza and puts his eye on the Songhai source of gold.
(ATC, p.122)

1585 Luca Cambiaso (b.1527), Genovese Renaissance painter, died in San Lorenzo de El Escorial, Spain, where he was working under commission for King Phillip II.

1586 Jan 1, Francis Drake, who left England on a new voyage to America last September, made a surprise attack on the heavily fortified city of Santo Domingo in Hispaniola, forcing the governor to pay a large ransom.
(HN, 1/1/99)

1586 Jun 19, English colonists sailed from Roanoke Island, N.C., after failing to establish England’s first permanent settlement in America.
(AP, 6/19/97)

1586 Jan 20, Johann Hermann Schein, German composer (Fontana d’Israel), was born.
(MC, 1/20/02)

1586 Jan 25, Lucas Cranach “the Younger” (70), German painter, died.
(MC, 1/25/02)

1586 Feb 8, Jacob Praetorius, composer, was born.
(MC, 2/8/02)

1586 Apr 11, Pietro Della Valle, composer, was born.
(MC, 4/11/02)

1586 Apr 17, John Ford (d.1640), English dramatist (‘Tis Pity She’s a Whore), was born.
(WUD, 1994 p.554)(MC, 4/17/02)

1586 May 7, English sea captain John Davis set sail from Dartmouth with 3 ships in a 2nd attempt to find a Northwest passage linking the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. When Davis returned in October he learned that one ship, the North Star, had been lost with all hands in a gale near the coast of Ireland.
(ON, 11/05, p.9)

1586 Jun 18, English colonists sailed from Roanoke Island, N.C., after failing to establish England’s first permanent settlement in America. The Roanoke colonists returned to England with 2 friendly Indians. They left behind 15 well-provisioned men to maintain the English claim.
(AP, 6/18/07)(ON, 10/01, p.1)

1586 Jun 23, Sir Francis Drake encountered the Roanoke Island Hurricane off the Atlantic coast. Harsh weather caused Drake to evacuate the settlers back to England.
(SFC, 6/23/09, p.D8)

1586 Jul 27, Sir Walter Raleigh returned to England from Virginia with the 1st samples of tobacco.
(HN, 7/27/01)(MC, 7/27/02)

1586 Jul 28, Sir Thomas Harriot introduced potatoes to Europe.
(SC, 7/28/02)

1586 Sep 10, Hans Hannibal Hutter von Hutterhofen, Austrian nobleman, was born. Johannes Kepler later drew up his horoscope.
(SFC, 3/3/99, p.A7)

1586 Sep 20, Anthony Babington, page and conspirator to Mary Stuart, was executed at 24.
(MC 9/20/01)

1586 Oct 14, Mary, Queen of Scots, went on trial in England, accused of committing treason against Queen Elizabeth the First. Mary was beheaded in February 1587.
(AP, 10/14/06)

1586 Oct 17, Philip Sidney (b.1554), English poet and diplomat, died in battle at 32. His work included “Astrophel and Stella” and “Defense of Poesy.” In 2002 Alan Stewart authored “Philip Sidney: A Double Life.”
(MC, 10/17/01)(SSFC, 1/20/02, p.M4)

1586 Adriaen de Vries left Florence for Milan where he began working on the high altar for the Escorial near Madrid.
(WSJ, 1/8/99, p.C13)

1586 El Greco began to paint “The Burial of Count Orgaz.” This depicted the miracle of the saintly count’s funeral, where St. Augustine and St. Stephen personally descend from heaven to bury the corpse with their own hands.
(TL-MB, p.24)(WSJ, 11/6/03, p.D10)

1586 In Japan Kabuki theater began. [see 1603]
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1586 The Lateran Church of St. John, Rome, was rebuilt on the orders of Pope Sixtus V, who succeeded the late Gregory XIII.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1586 In America relations with the local Indians soured after the English soldiers attacked a village, and soon the English returned home.
(NG, Geographica, Jan, 94)
1586 Sir Francis Walsingham, principal secretary to Queen Elizabeth I, uncovered a conspiracy by Mary, Queen of Scots, that called for a rebellion of Catholics, the landing of a foreign army and the assassination of the queen.
(WSJ, 8/17/05, p.D14)
1586 Queen Elizabeth I lost faith in William Cecil, Lord Burghley, when he plotted to accuse Mary Queen of Scots of treason.
(Econ, 4/30/15, p.77)
1586 Ralph Fitch, the first Englishman to record his impressions of Burma, took note of the qualities of the Schwedagon. Archeologists later said the 320-foot high golden pagoda was built in the 10th century by the Mon people.
(WSJ, 2/23/08, p.W14)

1586 Akbar, the greatest Mughal Emperor of India, attempted to establish “Din Illahl” as a universal religion acceptable to his many Hindu subjects. The movement eventually collapsed under the 18th-century Muslim revival.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1586 In Mexico the Mina El Eden (Eden Mine) opened in Zacateca. It yielded a bounty of silver, gold, iron and zinc for over 3 centuries.
(SFEC, 11/10/96, p.T3)

1586 Spanish Captain Francisco Gali died in Manila and Pedro de Unamuno took command of his 2 ships to return to Acapulco. He stopped in Macao where his ships were confiscated by the Portuguese. He obtained a loan from Father Martin Ignacio de Loyola, the nephew of the founder of the Jesuit order, and purchased a small ship to return to Acapulco with 2 priests, a few soldiers, and a crew of Luzon Indians.
(SFC,10/17/97, p.A25)

1586 Stephen Bathory, King of Poland, died and was succeeded by Sigismund III.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1586 The Turks attacked the Hungarian fortress at Eger again. The mercenary occupants capitulated.
(Hem., 6/98, p.126)

1586-1618 In Chile the San Francisco Church was built in Santiago.
(SFEC, 10/27/96, p.T8)

1587 Jan 8, Johannes Fabricius, astronomer who discovered sunspots, was born in Denmark.
(HN, 1/8/99)(MC, 1/8/02)

1587 Feb 1, Elizabeth I, Queen of England, signed the Warrant of Execution for Mary Queen of Scots.
(HN, 2/1/99)

1587 Feb 8, Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots (1560-67), was beheaded at age 44 in Fotheringhay Castle for her alleged part in the conspiracy to usurp Elizabeth I. In 2004 Jane Dunn authored “Elizabeth and Mary: Cousins, Rivals, Queens.” In 2006 studies identified an oil painting of Mary as the only one made of Mary as queen.
(HN, 2/8/99)(PCh, 1992, p.203)(USAT, 2/5/04, p.5D)(SFC, 8/18/06, p.E2)

1587 Mar 1, Peter Wentworth, English parliament leader, was confined in London Tower. [see Mar 12]
(SC, 3/1/02)

1587 Mar 12, Peter Wentworth, English parliament leader, was confined in London Tower. [see Mar 1]
(MC, 3/12/02)

1587 Apr 19, Sir Frances Drake sailed into Cadiz, Spain, and sank the Spanish fleet.
(MC, 4/19/02)

1587 May 18, Felix van Cantalice, Italian saint, died.
(SC, 5/18/02)

1587 May 19, English sea captain John Davis set sail from Dartmouth with 3 ships in a 3rd unsuccessful attempt to find a Northwest passage linking the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. 2 ships spent the journey fishing and managed to cover expenses.
(ON, 11/05, p.9)

1587 Jul 22, A second English colony of 114-150 people under John White, financed by Sir Walter Raleigh, was established on Roanoke Island off North Carolina. The colony included 17 women and 9 children. Croatoan Indians informed them that Roanoke Indians had killed the men from the previous expedition. A three-year draught, the worst in 800 years, peaked during this time.
(AP, 7/22/97)(SFC, 4/24/98, p.A3)(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.23)(ON, 10/01, p.1)

1587 Jul 25, Japanese shogun Toyotomi Hideyoshi banned Christianity in Japan and ordered all Christians to leave. Although the order was not immediately enforced. A decade later, the crackdown began, and 26 Christians were crucified.
(HN, 7/25/98)(AP, 11/21/08)

1587 Aug 13, Gov. White rewarded Manteo, a Croatoan Indian who had accompanied him to England and back, for his many services and declared him Lord of the Roanoke and Dasamonquepeio.
(ON, 10/01, p.2)

1587 Aug 14, Gugliemo Gonzaga (b.1538), Italian composer, died.
(MC, 8/14/02)

1587 Aug 18, In the Roanoke Island colony, Ellinor and Ananias Dare became parents of a baby girl whom they name Virginia Dare, the first English child born on what is now Roanoke Island, N.C., then considered Walter Raleigh’s second settlement in Roanoke, Virginia. Virginia Dare, born to the daughter of John White, became the first child of English parents to be born on American soil. However, the colony she was born into ended up mysteriously disappearing.
(HN, 8/18/98)(PC, 1992, p.203)(AP, 8/18/07)

1587 Aug 19, Sigismund III was chosen to be the king of Poland.
(HN, 8/19/98)

1587 Oct 17, Francesco de’ Medici (46) died 11 days after he fell ill and a few hours before his wife. In 2007 forensic experts reported evidence that they had died of arsenic poisoning. Francesco had ruled from 1574. By all accounts his wife had been his mistress while he was married to his first wife, who is also believed to have died of poisoning.
(AP, 1/3/07)

1587 Oct 18, Spanish Captain Pedro de Unamuno discovered California. He landed at a place he called Port San Lucas, later identified as Morro Bay City, while sailing from Macao to Acapulco with a crew of Luzon Indians.
(SFC,10/17/97, p.A25)

1587 Oct 20, In France, Huguenot Henri de Navarre routed Duke de Joyeuse’s larger Catholic force at Coutras.
(HN, 10/20/98)

1587 Nov 3, Samuel Scheidt, composer, was born.
(MC, 11/3/01)

1587 Nov 4, Samuel Scheidt, German organist and composer, was baptized.
(MC, 11/4/01)

1587 Nicholas Hilliard painted the miniature “Young Man Among Roses.”
(SFEC, 12/1/96, BR p.4)

1587 Giles Everard, a Dutch doctor, authored “Panacea,” extolling the virtues of tobacco. The Latin version was made available in English in 1659.
(WSJ, 11/22/08, p.W11)

1587 A collection of stories about the ancient magi appeared. These stories had been retold during the Middle Ages about such reputed wizards as Merlin, Albertus Magnus, and Roger Bacon. In the first Faustbuch all of these deeds were attributed to Faust… According to the story, Faust had sold his soul to the devil, and he would have to pay for his triumphs by suffering eternal damnation.

1587 Johann Spies completed the “Historia von D. Johann Fausten,” the first published version of the Faust legend.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1587 Christopher Marlowe’s “Tamburlaine the Great” was first produced on stage and published three years later. Marlowe established blank verse as a dramatic form.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.24)
1587 In London the open-air Rose Theater was built. It was demolished after 1606 when the Globe Theater surpassed it in popularity. An office building, later constructed over the site, was suspended by girders to preserve the site. Its exact location was lost until 1989.
(SFC, 4/15/99, p.E5)(Econ, 5/21/05, p.89)

1587 Claudio Monteverdi, Italian composer, published his first book of madrigals.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1587 An early collection of Jewish songs was published in Zeminoth, Israel.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1587 Inigo Jones, English architect and theatrical designer, began building Cobham Hall in Kent. It was finished by the Adam brothers.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1587 In London the open-air Rose Theater was built. It was demolished after 1606 when the Globe Theater surpassed it in popularity. An office building, later constructed over the site, was suspended by girders to preserve the site.
(SFC, 4/15/99, p.E5)

1587 Virginia was initially called Windgancon, meaning “what gay clothes you wear.” The names Cape Fear, Cape Hatteras, the Chowan and Neuse rivers, Chesapeake and Virginia, were all names that date to the first colony there.
(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.23)

1587 Osaka Castle, Japan, whose foundation had been laid by Hideyoshi in 1583 was completed with the help of 30,000 workers.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1587 The Rialto Bridge in Venice was begun by the Italian architect, Antonio da Ponte.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1587 Pope Sixtus V proclaimed a Catholic crusade for the invasion of England. Philip II prepared an invasion fleet but was interrupted by Francis Drake, who “singed the king’s beard” by burning 10,000 tons of shipping in Cadiz harbor.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1587 Portuguese missionaries were banned from Japan by Hideyoshi.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1587 Sir Edward Stafford, English ambassador in Paris, contacted the Spanish ambassador and offered to provide news of Queen Elizabeth’s plans and to offer the English disinformation concerning Spanish plans. Stafford’s brother-in-law was Lord Howard Effingham, commander in chief of the English fleet.
(WSJ, 11/24/98, p.A20)

1587 Hai Rui (b.1514), Chinese statesman during the mid Ming dynasty, died. He is still revered as an impartial judge, reputed to be an honest and fearless official, who dared to give controversial advice to the emperor. He later became subject of a 1960s play, “Hai Rui Dismissed from Office,” that provided Mao Zedong with the pretext to launch the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution.

1587 Abbas I (16) became Shah of Persia following the forced abdication of his father, Shah Muhammad Khodabandeh. A revolt by Qizilbash leaders finally removed Khodabandeh from power and installed his son Abbas as shah.
1587 Mohammad Khodabandeh, Shah of Persia, died.
(PC, 1992 ed, p.203)

1587-1590 The Lost Colony of Roanoke Island disappeared during this period. It consisted of 116 colonists and included Virginia Dare, the first English child born in the New World. When the Roanoke Island colony was running out of supplies, John White was sent back to England for help. His return was delayed by the Spanish Armada‘s attacks against England. When he arrived on Roanoke Island in 1591, the only trace of the colonists were the cryptic messages “CRO” and “CROATOAN” carved on a tree and a palisade post, respectively.
(NG, Geographica, Jan, 94)(HNQ, 7/3/00)

1587-1945 A 3-volume history of Americans of this period was completed by J.C. Furnas (d.2001 at 95) in 1991.
(SFC, 6/14/01, p.A27)

1588 Jan 28, King Sigismund Vaza upheld the 3rd Lithuanian Statute that until 1795 stood as the fundamental code of law. In practice it was active until 1840.
(LHC, 1/28/03)

1588 Feb 12, John Winthrop, English attorney, puritan, 1st gov of Massachusetts Bay Colony, was born.
(HN, 1/12/99)(MC, 2/12/02)

1588 Feb, King Philip II (61) appointed Don Alonzo Perez de Guzman el Bueno (37), the Duke of Medina Sedonia, as Captain General of the High Seas and ordered him to take charge of the Spanish Armada. Philip intended to restore England to Catholicism
(ON, 3/02, p.1)

1588 Apr 5, Thomas Hobbes (d.1679), English philosopher (Leviathan), was born. “The reputation of power IS power.”
(HN, 5/5/97)(AP, 5/31/99)

1588 Apr 9, Paolo Veronese (b.1528), Italian painter, died in Venice. His paintings included “The Choice Between Virtue and Vice.” He was the son of sculptor Gabriele Caliari.
(WSJ, 6/15/06, p.D7)(http://cgfa.sunsite.dk/veronese/veronese_bio.htm)

1588 May 9, Duke Henri de Guise’s troops occupied Paris.
(MC, 5/9/02)

1588 May 11, The Spanish Armada of 130 ships with 30,000 men left Lisbon for England. [see May 19]
(ON, 3/02, p.2)

1588 May 12, King Henry II fled Paris after Catholic League under duke Henry of Guise entered the city. The people of Paris rose against Henry III, who fled to Chartres. Seven months later he had Henry of Guise and his brother, Cardinal de Guise, assassinated.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.24)(HN, 5/12/98)(MC, 5/12/02)

1588 May 19, The Spanish Armada set sail to Lisbon bound for England; it was soundly defeated by the English fleet the following August. [see May 11]
(AP, 5/19/97)(DTnet, 5/19/97)

1588 May 30, Spanish Armada under Medina-Sidonia departed Lisbon to invade England.
(MC, 5/30/02)

1588 Jul 20-22, The Spanish Armada, after month in Corunna, set sail for England. The Duke of Medina Sedonia sailed in the flagship San Martin with Admiral Juan Martinez de Recalde.
(HN, 7/20/01)(ON, 3/02, p.2)

1588 Jul 23, English army assembled at Tilbury to repel invasion of England by Spanish Armada.
(AP, 7/23/97)

1588 Jul 26, Captain John Hawkins was knighted by Queen Elizabeth.
(MC, 7/26/02)

1588 Jul 27, The Spanish anchored off Calais in a crescent-shaped, tightly-packed defensive formation, not far from Parma’s army of 16,000, which was waiting at Dunkirk.

1588 Jul 29, At midnight of July 28th the English set eight fireships (filled with pitch, gunpowder, and tar) alight and sent them downwind among the closely-anchored Spanish vessels. The English attacked the Spanish Armada in the Battle of Gravelines, resulting in an English victory.
(ON, 3/02, p.3)(http://wapedia.mobi/en/Spanish_Armada#1.1.)(AP, 7/29/08)

1588 Jul 30, The English exchanged fire with the Spanish Armada.
(ON, 3/02, p.3)

1588 Aug 1, Sir Francis Drake captured the Nuestra Senora del Rosario, one of the largest Spanish Armada galleons.
(ON, 3/02, p.4)

1588 Aug 2, The English and Spanish fleets exchanged fire all day. The English used up all their ammunition and sailed into nearby ports.
(ON, 3/02, p.4)

1588 Aug 4, The English and Spanish fleets exchanged fire all day off the Isle of Wight.
(ON, 3/02, p.4)

1588 Aug 8, The English Navy destroyed the Spanish Armada. 600 Spaniards were killed in the day’s fighting and 800 badly injured. The Duke of Medina Sidonia led the “invincible” Spanish Armada from Lisbon against England. It was shattered around the coasts of the English Isles by an English fleet under the command of Lord Howard of Effingham with the help of Sir Francis Drake, Sir John Hawkins, and a violent storm (see Aug 18). The victory opened the world for English trade and colonization. In 1959 Garrett Mattingly authored “The Armada.” In 1998 Geoffrey Parker published “The Grand Strategy of Phillip II.” In 2005 Neil Janson authored “The Confident Hope of a Miracle: The True Story of the Spanish Armada,” and James McDermott authored “England & the Spanish Armada: The necessary Quarrel.”
(ON, 3/02, p.5)(SSFC, 2/20/05, p.B2)(Econ, 5/28/05, p.85)

1588 Aug 10, The remnants of the Spanish Armada sailed north to avoid the English fleet.
(ON, 3/02, p.6)

1588 Aug 18, A storm struck the remaining 60 ships of the Spanish Armada under the Duke of Medina Sidonia after which only 11 were left. Many of the ships went to Ireland where most of the Spaniards were killed by the English. 600 Spaniards wrecked in Scotland were later returned to Spain. In 1978 Niall Fallon authored “The Armada in Ireland.”
(ON, 3/02, p.6)

1588 Sep 10, Nicholas Lanier, composer, was born.
(MC, 9/10/01)
1588 Sep 10, Thomas Cavendish returned to England, becoming the third man to circumnavigate the globe.
(HN, 9/10/98)

1588 Sep 21, Medina Sidonia’s Spanish Armada flagship, the San Martin, arrived at Santander, Spain. Almost half of the 130 ships were lost. 20k of 30k men died. 1,500 died in battle, the rest from shipwreck, massacre, starvation or disease. In 1981 David Howarth authored “The Voyage of the Armada.” In 1988 Peter Kemp authored “The Campaign of the Spanish Armada.”
(ON, 3/02, p.6)

1588 Sep 25, A heavy storm drove 3 Spanish ships onto the coast of Ireland. Francisco de Cuellar, an officer on the galleon Lavia, spent the next 6 months evading English forces and getting to Scotland and then the Netherlands. His letter from Antwerp to King Philip on Oct 4, 1589, was later valued for its descriptions of Ireland.
(ON, 5/02, p.12)

1588 Oct 23, Medina Sidonia’s Spanish Armada returned to Santander. [see Sep 21]
(MC, 10/23/01)

1588 Dec 23, Henri de Guise (37), French leader of Catholic League, was murdered.
(MC, 12/23/01)

1588 Dec, Sir William Fitzwilliam, the English Lord Deputy of Ireland, planned an attack against the McClancy clan led by chieftain Dartry. Francisco de Cuellar and a group of stranded Spanish Armada soldiers successfully held the clan’s Rossclogher Castle under a 17-day siege.
(ON, 5/02, p.11)

1588 An eye-witness account of the New World was provided by “A Briefe and True Account of the New Found Land of Virginia,” written by Thomas Harriot. It recounted English attempts from 1584-1588 to colonize what later became known as eastern North Carolina and encouraged further settlement and investment there. In 1590 Flemish engraver Theodor de Bry published an illustrated edition featuring paintings by English colonist John White.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.24)(Arch, 5/05, p.26)

1588 The first shorthand manual, “An Arte of Shorte, Swifte, and Secrete Writing by Character,” was published by English clergyman Timothy Bright.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1588 The Bible was translated into Welsh by Bishop William Morgan.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1588 A volume of funeral orations for Duke August of Saxony and his wife was published.
(Econ, 1/20/07, p.93)

1588 Domenico Fontana, Italian architect and engineer, completed the Vatican library in Rome. He also completed the cupola and lantern of St. Peter’s in Rome.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1588 The British started trading with the Gambians.

1588 Tycho Brahe, Danish astronomer, had his financial support cut by a new Danish king and moved to Prague where his student, Johannes Kepler, aided him and to whom he left all his astronomical data.
1588 Frederick II of Denmark died and was succeeded by his 10 year-old son, Christian IV.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1588 Jacques Le Moyne de Morgues (b.~1533), French artist, died in England. He had painted watercolors of the flora and fauna of Florida, which were lost during a Spanish attack in 1565. Back in France he created new paintings, which were also lost, but engravings made by a Flemish publisher survived. In 2008 Miles Harvey authored “Painter in a Savage Land.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacques_Le_Moyne_de_Morgues)(WSJ, 7/18/08, p.W8)

1588-1593 Shakespeare authored his play Titus Andronicus during this period. It tells the fictional story of Titus, a general in the Roman army, who is engaged in a cycle of revenge with Tamora, Queen of the Goths.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Titus_Andronicus)(Econ, 2/16/13, p.64)

1588-1629 Hendrick ter Brugghen was an artist of the Utrecht School. His paintings included: “St. Sebastian Tended by Irene.”
(SFEM, 8/31/97, p.7)

1588-1652 Giuseppe de Ribera, painter. He painted “St. Jerome.”
(AAP, 1964)

1588-1653 Sir Robert Filmer, author of “Patriarcha,” a vindication of the absolute right of kingship. The book was used in the 1670s to shore up proponents for the so-called divine right of kings.

1589 Jan 5, Catherine de Medici (b.1519), Queen Mother of France, died at age 69. In 2005 Leonie Frieda authored “Catherine de Medici: Renaissance Queen of France.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.24)(AP, 1/5/98)(WSJ, 8/10/05, p.D12)

1589 Mar 19, William Bradford, governor of Plymouth colony for 30 years, was born (baptized).
(HN, 3/19/98)(MC, 3/19/02)

1589 Apr 4, Benedict of Palermo (b.1524), born in Sicily to Ethiopian slaves, died. He was freed at birth and became known for his charity. Invited as a young man to join a Franciscan hermit group, he became the leader. He was beatified by Pope Benedict XIV in 1743 and canonized in 1807 by Pope Pius VII.
(Econ, 2/23/13, p.82)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benedict_the_Moor)

1589 Aug 1, Monk Jacques Clement attempted to murder French King Hendrik III. [see Aug 2]
(MC, 8/1/02)

1589 Aug 2, Henry III, King of France, was assassinated by a Jacobin monk, Jacques Clement. Last of the House of Valois, he named Henry (1553-1610), King of Navarre, to succeed him. During France’s religious war, a fanatical monk stabbed King Henry II to death.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.24)(WUD, 1994, p.662)(HN, 8/2/98)

1589 Aug 10, Pietro Antonio Tamburini, Italian composer, was born.
(MC, 8/10/02)

1589 Sep 21, The Duke of Mayenne of France, head of the Catholic League, was defeated by Henry IV of England at the Battle of Arques.
(HN, 9/21/98)(MC, 9/21/01)

1589 Oct 4, Francisco de Cuellar, a Spanish Armada officer from the wrecked galleon Lavia, wrote a letter from Antwerp to King Philip that was later valued for its descriptions of Ireland. He had spent 6 months evading English forces to get to Scotland where after 6 more months he reached the Netherlands.
(ON, 5/02, p.12)

1589 Michelangelo Merisi de Caravaggio, Italian artist and leader of the Naturist movement, made skilful use of light in his Bacchus to bring into focus many details of suggestive power. He painted the “Beheading of St. John” that was kept in Malta and sent to Florence for restoration.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.24)(SFC, 6/11/96, p.E2)

1589 Thomas Nashe, English satirical pamphleteer and dramatist, wrote “Anatomie of Absurdities,” a criticism of contemporary literature.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1589 Richard Hakluyt wrote the “Principle Navigations, Voyages and Discoveries of the English Nation.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1589 Thoinot Arbeau published “Orchesographie,” an early treatise on dancing, with tunes.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1589 Francis Drake with 150 ships and 18,000 men failed in his attempt to capture Lisbon.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1589 Bernard Palissey, a Huguenot, expressed the opinion that fossils were the remains of living creatures. He was locked up in the dungeons of the Bastille for his opinions and died there.
(SFC, 9/20/97, p.E3)

1589 William Lee, English clergyman, invented the stocking frame, the first knitting machine.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1589 Sir John Harrington, Elizabethan poet, designed the first water closet and installed it at his country house near Bath. In 1596 he installed one at the palace of his godmother Queen Elizabeth I.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.24)(SFC, 7/14/99, p.3)

1589 Boris Godunov asserted Moscow’s Independence from Constantinople.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1589 The first Russian patriarch, lov, was consecrated by Ecumenical Patriarch Jeremias of Constantinople under pressure from Boris Godunov, the brother-in-law of Feodor, the Russian Tsar.
(WSJ, 7/16/97, p.A23)

1589-1610 Henry (1553-1610), King of Navarre, as Henry IV became the first Bourbon King of France, Henry the Great. He switched from Protestantism to Catholicism. “Paris is well worth a Mass.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.24)(WUD, 1994, p.662)(Hem., 1/97, p.101)

1590 Mar 4, Mauritius of Nassau’s ship reached Breda, Netherlands.
(SC, 3/4/02)

1590 Apr 6, Francis Walsingham (b.~1532), English secretary of state, died. He had ensnared Mary, Queen of the Scots and forced her execution. He is remembered as the “spymaster” of Queen Elizabeth I of England. In 2007 Robert Hutchinson authored “Elizabeth’s Spymaster: Francis Walsingham and the Secret War That Saved England.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_Walsingham)(WSJ, 7/26/08, p.W8)

1590 Apr 18, Ahmed I, 14th sultan of Turkey (1603-17), was born.
(MC, 4/18/02)

1590 Apr 25, The Sultan of Morocco launched his successful attack to capture Timbuktu. Morocco sent 4,000 soldiers under the Muslim Spaniard Judar Pasha to conquer Songhai. After a five month journey across the Shara, Pasha arrived with only 1,000 men, but his soldiers carried guns. The 25,000 men of the Songhai were no match for the guns and Gao, Timbuktu and most of Songhai fall.
(ATC, p.122)(HN, 4/25/98)

1590 Jul 6, English admiral Francis Drake took the Portuguese Forts at Taag, Angola.
(MC, 7/6/02)

1590 Aug 15, A fleet commanded by John Wattes arrived at the Outer Banks of the Carolinas. Roanoke Gov. John White was a passenger in the fleet.
(ON, 10/01, p.3)

1590 Aug 16, Captain Spicer and 6 men drowned when their landing boat capsized in heavy surf off Roanoke Island.
(ON, 10/01, p.3)

1590 Aug 17, John White, the leader of 117 colonists sent in 1587 to Roanoke Island (North Carolina) to establish a colony, returned from a trip to England to find the settlement deserted. No trace of the settlers was ever found. White returned to England and died there around 1606.
(ON, 10/01, p.4)(HN, 8/18/02)

1590 Oct 16, Carlo Gesualdo (~1566-1613), prince of Venosa, murdered his bride and her lover after catching them in flagrante delicto. In 1995 Werner Herzog covered this in his purported documentary “Death for Five Voices.” In 2010 Glenn Watkins authored “The Gesualdo Hex: Music, Myth, and Memory.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carlo_Gesualdo)(Econ, 1/23/10, p.79)

1590 Nov 8, Francesco Gonzaga, composer, was born.
(MC, 11/8/01)

1590 Dec 20, Ambroise Pare (80), French surgeon, died.
(MC, 12/20/01)

1590 In Prague Adriaen de Vries began his sculpture “Psyche Born Aloft by Putti.” It was completed in 1592.
(WSJ, 12/7/99, p.A24)

1590 Sir Philip Sidney, brother to the second Countess of Pembroke, composed his prose romance “Arcadia.” In 2008 the idea of Arcadia was examined by Adam Nicolson in his book “Earls of Paradise: England and the Dream of Perfection.”

1590 Fray Jose de Acosta, Spanish Jesuit priest, authored “Historia Natural y Moral de las Indies.” In it he suggested that the Americas were populated by people from Asia.
(Arch, 9/00, p.72)

1590 The microscope was invented.
(SFC, 8/16/97, p.E3)

1590 Bernard Pallissy (b.1510), French ceramicist, painter and writer, died. Pallisy produced his designs by attaching casts of dead lizards, snakes, and shellfish to traditional ceramic forms such as basins, ewers, and plates. He then painted these wares in blue, green, purple, and brown, and glazed them with runny lead-based glaze to increase their watery realism. The style became known as Pallisy ware.

1590 Prince Naresuan (35) became King upon the death of his father (the puppet monarch). Naresuan continued to drive the Burmese from the Kingdom of Ayutthaya (Siam-Thailand).

1590s A six paneled screen painting by Kano Eitoku depicted mythological Chinese lions.
(WSJ, 9/25/96, p.A20)

c1590-1600 In late 16th century Prague Rabbi Judah Bezalel Loew, the Maharal, used clay and the mysticism of the Kabbalah to fashion the Golem, a human-like creature to help avenge Jewish persecution.
(WSJ, 4/17/02, p.D7)

1591 Mar 1, Pope Gregory XIV threatened to excommunicate French king Henri IV.
(SC, 3/1/02)

1591 May 15, Dimitri Ivanovitch (9), Russian son of czar Ivan IV, was murdered.
(MC, 5/15/02)

1591 Jun 21, Aloysius [Luigi] Gonzaga, Prince, Italian Jesuit saint, died.
(MC, 6/21/02)

1591 Jul 20, Anne Hutchinson, religious liberal who was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony for her views, was born.
(HN, 7/20/98)

1591 Aug 24, Robert Herrick, English poet (Gather ye rosebuds) was baptized.
(MC, 8/24/02)

1591 Sep 12, Richard Grenville (b.1542), English vice-admiral and cousin of Sir. Walter Ralegh, died in battle against Spanish ships at age 49. He made 2 voyages to Roanoke Island in 1585 and 1586.
(MC, 9/12/01)(www.nps.gov/fora/grenville.htm)

1591 Sep 21, French bishops recognized Henri IV as king of France.
(MC, 9/21/01)

1591 Dec 14, San Juan de la Cruz (b.1542), Spanish poet, died. He is remembered for his treatise “Dark Night of the Soul.”
(SSFC, 9/3/06, p.M3)(www.newadvent.org/cathen/08480a.htm)

1591 Giuseppe Arcimboldo painted a portrait of Emperor Rudolf II as Vertumnus, the Roman god of seasons.
(WSJ, 9/9/06, p.P9)

1591 Flemish engraver Theodor de Bry published “A Brief Narration of Those Things Which Befell the French in the Province of Florida” in Latin and Germany editions. It focused on the 1564-1565 French settlement of Fort Caroline. The book included 42 engravings said to be based on water color paintings by Jacques de Moyne de Morgues (d.1588), who had accompanied the French expedition. Moyne also provided a narrative and a map. In 1946 Stefan Lorant translated Moyne’s text into English and reproduced his engravings and map in “The New World.”
(Arch, 5/05, p.28)

1591 British sailor Anthony Knivet found himself stranded on Ilhabella island near Santos, Brazil. He was shipwrecked there after sailing as a crew member of a 5-ship flotilla under Sir Thomas Cavendish. The story of his adventures was published in 1625 by Richard Hakluyt, a director of the Virginia Company,
(Econ, 12/17/11, p.54)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthony_Knivet)

1591 Korean Admiral Yi Sun Sin (1545-1598) developed his ironclad “turtle ships.” They were characterized by multiple canons and a fully covered deck designed to deflect cannon fire and keep enemy combatants from boarding.
(LSA, Spring, 2009, p.17)

1591 Philip II of Spain bought the Hieronymus Bosch painting “the Garden of Earthly Delights.” It hung in the Escorial from this time to 1939 when it was moved to the Prado.
(WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A12)

1591 Moroccan invaders sacked Timbuktu (Mali).
(AM, 7/04, p.36)

1591 The encierro (running of the bulls) at Pamplona, Spain, began as a means of moving the bulls to the bull fighting arena. It became known as Los San Fermines. [see 1521]
(SSFC, 6/16/02, p.C6)(SSFC, 7/7/02, p.A2)

1592 Jan 5, Shah Jahan, Mughal emperor of India (1628-58), was born. He later built the Taj Mahal.
(MC, 1/5/02)

1592 Mar 10, Michiel Coxcie, Flemish court painter, carpet designer, died.
(MC, 3/10/02)

1592 Apr 14, Abraham Elsevier, book publisher, was born.
(MC, 4/14/02)

1592 Apr 28, George Villiers, 1st duke of Buckingham, English admiral, was born.
(MC, 4/28/02)

1592 May 23, Toyotomi Hideyoshi sent an army to invade Korea after Korea refused to help him invade China. The initial Imjin invasion was followed by a brief truce in 1596, and a second invasion in 1597. The conflict ended in 1598 with the withdrawal of the Japanese forces from the Korean Peninsula after a military stalemate in Korea’s southern coastal provinces.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)(http://tinyurl.com/gw7u8wm)

1592 Aug 3, The Earl of Cumberland, et al, took the Madre de Dios, A Spanish carrack carrying the largest treasure ever captured for Queen Elizabeth. The earl’s sailors got out of hand and looted items intended for the queen, including a large diamond which eventually found its way to Goldsmith’s Row, London.
(AOL, [email protected])

1592 Sep 13, Michel Eyquem de Montaigne (b.1533), French philosopher (L’Amiti), died of quinsy, a recognized complication of tonsillitis, at the Château de Montaigne.

1592 Nov 29, An admiral’s report said an English warship was lost off the coast of Alderney. A block of mineral was later found on the wreck. In 2013 scientists reported that the rock was likely a sunstone (Iceland spar), used to reveal the sun’s direction and thus assist in navigation.
(Econ, 3/9/13, p.80)

1592 Christopher Marlowe (1564-1593), English dramatist and poet. He wrote “The Tragical History of Dr. Faustus.”
(WUD, 1994, p.878)

1592 “De Plantis Aegypti” by Prosper Alpini published the first picture of a coffee plant.
(WSJ, 7/7/98, p.A14)

1592 Juan de Fuca, a Greek sailing for Spain, sailed into a strait that later became the border between Canada’s Vancouver Island, BC, and the Olympic Peninsula of Washington state. The waterway was later named the Strait of Juan de Fuca.
(NG, 7/04, p.66)

1592 Trinity College in Dublin, Ireland, was founded after small group of Dublin citizens obtained a charter from Queen Elizabeth incorporating Trinity College juxta Dublin.

1592 Korea defenders led by Gen. Jeong Mun-bu scored a victory over an invading Japanese army at Bukgwan. A monument with a description of the fight was raised a century later. During the Russo-Japanese war of 1904-1905 a Japanese general shipped the monument to Japan where it was set in the Yasukuni shrine. It was recognized by a South Korean in 1978 and in 2005 Shinto priests agreed to return it to Seoul.
(Econ, 10/15/05, p.46)

1592-1598 Korean Adm. Yi Sun Sin (1545-1598) employed his ironclad “turtle ships” to fight off an invasion by Japan. Hundreds of Japanese vessels were sunk during the prolonged Japanese invasion.

1592-1605 Pope St. Clement VIII led the Church.
(ITV, 1/96, p.61)

1592-1656 Gerard van Honthorst was an artist of the Utrecht School. His paintings included “The Denial of St. Peter.”
(SFEM, 8/31/97, p.8)

1592-1670 The Moravian prelate Jan Komensky wrote in Latin and German and was offered the presidency of Harvard.
(WSJ, 11/18/96, p.A10)

1593 Jan 8, War elephants of Ayutthaya King Naresuan engaged Burmese forces led by Mingyi Swa. One Siamese account held that there was a formal elephant duel between Naresuan and Swa. [O.S. 29 December 1592].

1593 Jan 27, Vatican opened a 7 year trial against scholar Giordano Bruno.
(MC, 1/27/02)

1593 Mar 19, Georges de la Tour (d.1652), French painter, was born. His night painting “The Penitent Magdelene” features a seated woman contemplating a flame with one hand resting on a skull.
(NH, 10/96, p.39)(MC, 3/19/02)

1593 Mar 23, English Congressionalist Henry Barrow was accused of slander.
(SS, 3/23/02)

1593 Apr 3, George Herbert (d.1633), English metaphysical poet (5 Mystical Songs), was born. “The best mirror is an old friend.”
(AP, 4/16/98)(MC, 4/3/02)

1593 Apr 6, Henry Barrow, English puritan, was hanged.
(MC, 4/6/02)
1593 Apr 6, John Greenwood, English Congressionalist, was hanged.
(MC, 4/6/02)

1593 May 29, John Penry English congressionalist, was executed.
(SC, 5/29/02)

1593 May 30, Christopher Marlowe (b.Feb 26, 1564), British dramatist (Tamburlaine the Great), poet, was murdered. Marlowe reportedly died in a barfight. It was later speculated that his death was faked and that he fled to Italy and continued writing plays that were produced by Shakespeare. In 2004 Rodney Bolt authored “History Play: The Lives and Afterlife of Christopher Marlowe.”
(SFC, 1/2/03, p.E11)(www.canterbury.co.uk)(Econ, 9/4/04, p.78)

1593 Jul 11, Giuseppe Arcimboldo (b.1527), Italian painter, died. Arcimboldo painted representations of objects, such as fruits and vegetables, on the canvas arranged in such a way that the whole collection of objects formed a recognizable likeness of the portrait subject. He painted a portrait of Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II composed entirely of vegetables.
(WUD, 1994, p.78)(WSJ, 7/10/97, p.A13)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giuseppe_Arcimboldo)

1593 Jul 25, France’s King Henry IV converted from Protestantism to Roman Catholicism.
(AP, 7/25/97)

1593 Aug 9, Izaak Walton (d.1683), biographer, fisherman, writer (Compleat Angler), was born in England. “That which is everybody’s business is nobody’s business.”
(AP, 8/29/98)(MC, 8/9/02)

1593 Aug 23, Fulvio Testi, Italian poet (Pianto d’Italia), was born.
(MC, 8/23/02)

1593 Sep 20, Gottfried Scheidt, composer, was born.
(MC 9/20/01)

1593 The Minhogimbukh, a Jewish version of the old Farmers’ Alamanac, was written in Yiddish and published in Venice.
(SFC, 12/6/04, p.B1)

1593 Michel Mercatus, physician to Pope Clement VIII, died. He left manuscripts on his study of Ceraunia, or ancient stone tools which had been thought to be rocks hurled down from the sky by lightning bolts, or rocks struck by lightning.
(RFH-MDHP, p.70)

1593 In Puebla, Mexico, the Convent de La Concepcion was built. It was later turned into the Hotel Camino Real Puebla.
(SSFC, 1/27/08, p.E5)
1593 In Mexico Capt. Don Francisco de Urdiqola started the first vineyard in the valley of Tlaxcaltecas at his El Rosario Hacienda.
(SFEC, 11/7/99, p.T8)

1593-1652/3 Artemisia Gentileschi, whose first known work is “Susanna and the Elders” (1610), was a follower of Caravaggio and his style of dramatic realism. Artemisia, the daughter of Orazio Gentileschi (also influenced by Caravaggio), was taught to paint by her father and landscape artist Agostino Tassi. In 1616, she joined the Academy of Design in Florence. She traveled to various cities, from Rome to London–the latter to visit her father. While there she also gained acclaim as a portrait artist. She eventually settled in Naples.
(HNQ, 3/8/01)

1593-1817 The period of the Spanish Inquisition in Mexico.
(SFC, 9/18/96, p.A1)

1594 Feb 2, Giovanni Perluigi da Palestrina (68), Italian composer, died.
(MC, 2/2/02)

1594 Apr 15, Flemish painter Pieter Stevens was appointed royal painter of Rudolf II in Prague.
(MC, 4/15/02)

1594 May 31, Jacopo Tintoretto (b.1518), Italian artist, died.

1594 Jun 3, Michel Renichon, priest, was executed.
(MC, 6/3/02)

1594 Jun 7, Roderigo Lopez was executed at Tyburn, England, on charges of spying for the king of Spain.
(WSJ, 9/24/04, p.W7)

1594 Jun 14, Orlando di Lasso (b.~1532), Franco-Flemish composer, died in Munich. He was the most famous and influential musician in Europe at the end of the 16th century. Along with Palestrina (of the Roman School), he is considered to be the chief representative of the mature polyphonic style of the Franco-Flemish School.

1594 Oct 16, William Allen (62), English cardinal and founder of the seminary of Douai, died.
(MC, 10/16/01)

1594 Nov 22, Martin Frobisher, English vice-admiral and explorer, died.
(MC, 11/22/01)

1594 Dec 2, Gerardus Mercator (82), Flemish philosopher and cartographer, died. Mercator’s dream was to publish a volume of maps, which would also give a history of the world since creation. Called the ‘Atlas’, the first section came out in 1569. It contained a chronology from creation to 1568.

1594 Dec 9, Gustavus II Adolphus (d.1632), king who made Sweden a major power (1611-32), was born.
(MC, 12/9/01)

1594 Nicolas Poussin (d.1665), known as the founder of French Classicism, was born.
(WSJ, 2/26/96, p.A-10)(AAP, 1964)(SFC,11/22/97, p.D5)

c1594 Caravaggio painted “The Ecstacy of St. Francis.”
(WSJ, 4/28/98, p.A16)

1594 In England James Burbage won the patronage of Lord Chamberlain and established the 25 member Lord Chamberlain’s Men. The group included William Shakespeare.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)
c1594 Sir Walter Raleigh married Elizabeth Throckmorton (1565-1647), a maid of honor to Queen Elizabeth. Her secret marriage and pregnancy led to her being banished from the court.
(WSJ, 1/6/04, p.D10)

1594 The first act of Henry of Navarre, when he entered Paris as Henry IV, was to touch 600 scrofulous [tuberculytic] persons.
(WP, 1951, p.7)
1594 In France Henry IV proposed his “Grande Dessein” to join the Louvre with the nearby Tuileries palace, which had been built under Catherine de Medici.
(WSJ, 10/7/98, p.A20)

1594 The baths at Novi Pazar were built in Serbia’s Sandzak region.
(Econ, 6/7/08, p.65)

c1594-1595 Caravaggio painted “The Cardsharps.”
(WSJ, 4/28/98, p.A16)

1595 Feb 21, Robert Southwell, English-Jesuit poet, was hanged for “treason” being a Catholic.
(HN, 2/21/99)(MC, 2/21/02)

1595 Feb 24, Mathias Casimir Sarbievius, poet and prof. at Vilnius Univ., was born in Sarbev, Poland. He died in Warsaw Apr 2, 1640.
(LHC, 2/23/03)

1595 Apr 2, Cornelis de Houtman’s ships departed to Asia around Cape of Good Hope.
(MC, 4/2/02)

1595 May 26, Philippus Nerius (79), [Filippo Neri], Italian merchant, Jesuit, saint, died.
(MC, 5/26/02)

1595 May 28, It was a shaken and demoralized English column that returned to its northern Irish base at Newry.
(HN, 8/1/98)

1595 Jun 5, Henry IV’s army defeated the Spanish at the Battle of Fontaine-Francaise.
(HN, 6/5/98)

1595 Jul 9, Johannes Kepler inscribed a geometric solid construction of universe.
(MC, 7/9/02)

1595 Jul 23, Spanish soldiers landed at Cornwall, England, and burned Mousehold and Penzance before returning to their ships.
(AP, 7/23/97)

1595 Jul, The Spanish galleon San Agustin departed the Philippines with 130 tons of cargo and 70 men. See Nov, 1595.
(SFC, 9/26/97, p.A21)(SFC, 8/23/11, p.C3)

1595 Aug 24, Thomas Digges, English astronomer (Universe Infinite), died.
(MC, 8/24/02)

1595 Oct 28, Battle at Giurgevo: Sigmund Bathory of Transylvania beat the Turks.
(MC, 10/28/01)

1595 Nov 12, Admiral Sir John Hawkins (also spelled as Hawkyns), English slave trader, died. Hawkins (b.1532) was also a naval commander and administrator, merchant, navigator, shipbuilder and privateer. He was very cognizant of the profits that could be made from the slave trade and he personally made three voyages. Hawkins was from Plymouth, Devon, England and was cousins with Sir Francis Drake. It is alleged that Hawkins was the first individual to make a profit from each leg of the triangular trade. This triangular trade consisted of English goods such as copper, cloth, fur and beads being traded on the African for slaves who were then trafficked on what has become to be known as the infamous Middle Passage. This brought them across the Atlantic Ocean to then be traded for goods that had been produced in the New World, and these goods were then transported back to England.

1595 Nov, The San Agustin, a Spanish galleon from Manila, sank off the coast of northern California near Point Reyes with a load of silks and porcelains from the Orient. Skipper Sebastian Rodriguez Cermeno sailed with survivors in an open boat 2,500 miles to Acapulco.
(SFC, 9/26/97, p.A21)(SFC, 8/23/11, p.C3)

1595 Bogdan Khmelnitsky (d.1657), leader of the Ukrainian Cossacks, was born.
(SSFC, 2/9/03, p.C14)

1595 Queen Elizabeth sent Sir Francis Drake to capture treasure from a wrecked Spanish galleon stored at La Forteleza. Drake failed and returned to Panama.
(HT, 4/97, p.30)

1595 Sir Walter Raleigh explored the South American coast from the Orinoco River to the mouth of the Amazon, an area that he called “Guiana.”
(WSJ, 1/6/04, p.D10)

1595 John Smith on a whaling expedition mapped the eastern seaboard and named the area new England. The area had earlier been called Norumbega. On his return he gave the map to heir apparent Charles Stuart (16) and instructed him to rename the “barbarous” place names. Thus Cape Elizabeth, Cape Anne, the Charles River and Plymouth.
(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.23)

1595-1603 Mehmed III succeeded Murad III in the Ottoman House of Osman.
(Ot, 1993, xvii)

c1595-1624 Dirck van Baburen was an artist of the Dutch Utrecht School.
(SFEM, 8/31/97, p.8)

1596 Jan 28, English navigator Sir Francis Drake died off the coast of Panama of a fever; he was buried at sea.
(HT, 4/97, p.30)(AP, 1/28/98)

1596 Mar 31, Rene Descartes (d.1650), French philosopher, was born in La Haye, France. He proposed a numerical index that represented fundamental notions. He made consciousness the defining feature of the self. Descartes died in Sweden. In 1997 Paul Strathern published: “Descartes in 90 Minutes,” and Keith Devlin published “Goodbye Descartes: The End of Logic and the Search for a New Cosmology of the Mind.” In 1998 the French biography by Genevieve Rodis-Lewis was translated to English: “Descartes: His Life and Thought.”
(V.D.-H.K.p.203)(Wired, 8/96, p.86)(WSJ, 3/18/97, p.A20)(AP, 3/30/97) (WSJ, 7/23/98, p.A14)(WSJ, 8/21/98, p.W13)

1596 May 18, Willem Barents left Amsterdam for Novaya Zemlya.
(SC, 5/18/02)

1596 Jun 21, Mikhail Feodorovich Romanov (d.1645), 1st Romanov Tsar of Russia (1613-45), was born.
(WUD, 1994 p.1242)(MC, 6/21/02)

1596 Jul 1, An English fleet under the Earl of Essex, Lord Howard of Effingham and Francis Vere captured and sacked Cadiz, Spain.
(HN, 7/1/98)

1596 Aug 3, David Fabricius discovered light variation of Mira (1st variable star).
(SC, 8/3/02)

1596 Aug 19, Elisabeth Stuart, English daughter of James I, was born.
(MC, 8/19/02)

1596 Sep 3, Nicolo Amati (d.1684), Italian violin maker, was born. He was the grandson of violin maker Andrea Amati and taught Antonio Stradivari and Andrea Guarneri.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R53)(MC, 9/3/01)

1596 Oct 25, The Spanish fleet sailed from Lisbon to Ireland.
(MC, 10/25/01)

1596 Dec 8, Luis de Carabajal, 1st Jewish author in America, was executed in Mexico. The nephew of Luis Carvajal, a Jewish convert to Catholicism and governor of the province of Nuevo Leon, was accused of relapsing into Judaism. He was tried by Spanish Inquisitors and under torture gave out 116 names of other Judaizers that included his mother and 23 sisters. They were eventually strangled with iron collars and burned to death. A 1997 opera by Myron Fink was composed based on his story. Monterey, Mexico was founded by conquistador Don Luis de Carvajal. He fell in love the wrong man’s daughter and was later denounced to the Mexican Inquisition because of his Jewish heritage.
(SFC, 8/16/96, p.A19)(SFC, 9/18/96, p.A11)(WSJ, 2/25/97, p.A20)(MC, 12/8/01)

1596 Italian artist Jacopo Ligozzi (1547-1627) painted “The Abduction of the Sabine Women.”
(http://tinyurl.com/gt9sxvs)(Econ, 1/30/15, p.53)

1596 In Mexico City the Casa de los Azulejos or House of Tiles (a.k.a. Sanborn’s) was constructed. It was an ornate mansion with hand-painted blue and white tiles.
(Hem., 1/96, p.50)

1596 Ruthenian members of an Orthodox religious group entered into communion with the Roman Catholic Church and became the Uniate Church of the Little Russians.
(WUD, 1994, p.1256)

1596 The first documented official contact between the Cambogee and the West took place. The king of Angkor, Barom Reachea, in fear of attack, sent to the Spanish governor general at Manila a request for the assistance of his musket-armed soldiers. The Spanish governor complied and sent a small expedition to the king of Angkor.
(SFEC, 10/20/96, T5)

1596 Abraham Ortelius, Flemish mapmaker, recorded his belief that the continents had not always been fixed in their positions.
(NH, 10/02, p.79)

1596 The Marquesas Islands were visited by a Spanish ship.
(SFEC, 8/25/96, p.T5)

1596-1597 Italian artist Caravaggio painted “A Boy Bitten by a Lizard.”
(SFC, 9/12/97, p.C8)

c1596-1597 Shakespeare wrote his tragedy “King John.”
(WUD, 1994, p.788)

1597 Jan 19, Maharana Pratap or Pratap Singh (b.1540), Hindu Rajput ruler of Mewar, died. This region in north-western India is in the present day state of Rajasthan (2013). He belonged to the Sisodiya clan of Rajputs. In popular Indian culture, Pratap is considered to exemplify qualities like bravery and chivalry to which Rajputs aspire, especially in context of his opposition to the Mughal emperor Akbar.

1597 Jun 9, Jose de Anchieta, Spanish Jesuit, missionary, died.
(MC, 6/9/02)

1597 Jun 20, Willem Barents, Dutch explorer who discovered Spitsbergen & Bereneil, died. In 1995 Rayner Unwin authored “A Winter Away from Home,” an account of Barents’ Arctic voyages.
(WUD, 1994 p.120)(SSFC, 12/10/00, p.C17)(MC, 6/20/02)

1597 Aug 11, Germany threw out English salesmen in “a noble experiment.”
(MC, 8/11/02)

1597 Sep 28, In Japan the Mimizuka, or Ear Mound, was dedicated in Kyoto. In it was buried the collected ears and noses of victims from the Japanese invasion of Korea that began in 1592.
(SFEC, 9/14/97, p.A25)

1597 Oct 26, Korea’s Admiral Yi Sun-shin (Yi Sun sin), with a fleet of 13 ships, beat back the Japanese Navy, with a fleet of hundreds of ships, at the Battle of Myeongnyang. In 2014 the South Korean film “Roaring Currents,” a depiction of the battle, was released and became the country’s most popular film of all time.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Myeongnyang)(Econ, 10/4/14, p.47)

1597 El Greco (1541-1614), Spanish artist, completed his visionary “View of Toledo” about this time.
(WSJ, 6/28/08, p.W12)

c1597 The “Materia Medica Pharmacopeia” was written and detailed some 1,900 herbs, minerals and animals used by the Chinese to treat ailments through the ages.
(WSJ, 12/3/97, p.A1)

1597 Giovanni Gabrieli composed “Sonata pian’ e forte,” a piece for two antiphonal brass quartets.
(SFC, 1/9/98, p.D7)

1597 Britain’s Tudor establishment, deeply concerned by the possibility of social upheaval brought on by an agricultural crisis and increasing urban migration, introduced the Charitable Uses Act, first in 1597, then a revised act in 1601 to promote philanthropy amongst the country’s aristocracy and burgeoning merchant classes.

1597 Cardinal Odoardo Farnese, the nephew of Pope Paul III, commissioned Annibale Carracci and his workshop to decorate the barrel-vaulted gallery on the piano nobile of the family palace. Work was started in 1597 and was not entirely finished until 1608, one year before Annibale’s death.

1597 In Nagasaki 26 Japanese and Western Christians were crucified. These martyrs were beatified in 1627 and became saints in 1862, among the 42 people from Japan who have been canonized, or reached sainthood.
(SSFC, 8/10/03, p.C11)(AP, 11/21/08)

1597 In Amsterdam the Spinhuis (spinning house) was opened as a workhouse for fallen women.
(SSFC, 1/7/01, p.T9)

1597 King Philip II issued a land grant to Don Lorenzo Garcia to start the first official winery for the new world at the San Lorenzo Hacienda in Mexico.
(SFEC, 11/7/99, p.T8)

1597-1602 Adriaen de Vries, Dutch sculptor, supplied Augsburg, Germany, the cast for the “Hercules Fountain.”
(WSJ, 1/8/99, p.C13)

1597/8-1671 Jan van Bijlert, Dutch painter. He traveled to Rome and was influenced by the work of Caravaggio.
(SFEM, 8/31/97, p.13)

1598 Jan 7, Theodorus I (40), [Feodor Ivanovitch], czar of Russia (1584-98), died. Boris Godunov seized the Russian throne on death of Feodor I.
(MC, 1/7/02)

1598 Jan 8, Genoa, Italy, expelled its Jews.
(MC, 1/8/02)

1598 Feb 17, Boris Godunov, the boyar of Tatar origin, was elected czar in succession to his brother-in-law Fydor.
(HN, 2/17/99)

1598 Apr 13, King Henry IV of France endorsed the Edict of Nantes, which granted political rights to French Huguenots. (The edict was abrogated in 1685 by King Louis XIV, who declared France entirely Catholic again.)

(AP, 4/13/98)(HN, 4/13/98)

1598 May 2, Henry IV signed the Treaty of Vervins, ending Spain’s interference in France.
(HN, 5/2/98)

1598 Jun, A 5-ship Dutch expedition to Japan departed Rotterdam with Will Adams, English ship pilot, as chief navigator.
(ON, 11/02, p.8)

1598 Aug 15, Hugh O’Neill, the Earl of Tyrone, led an Irish force to victory over the British at Battle of Yellow Ford.
(HN, 8/15/98)

1598 Sep 1, Spanish king Philip II (“Scourge of Heretics”) received his last rites sacrament. [see Sep 13]
(MC, 9/1/02)

1598 Sep 13, Philip II (71), King of Spain (1556-98), died. He had ordered the 1588 Spanish Armada attack on England. After its failure he dispatched 3 smaller armadas, but they all failed.
(MC, 9/13/01)(ON, 3/02, p.6)

1598 Sep 18, Toyotomi Hideyoshi (b.1536), Japan’s unifier and folk hero, died. His death left two main rivals for power, Ishida Mitsunari and Tokugawa Ieyasu.

1598 Sep 25, In Sweden, King Sigismund was defeated at Stangebro by his Uncle Charles.
(HN, 9/25/98)

1598 Oct 15, Spanish general strategist Bernardino de Mendoza occupied Fort Rhine.
(MC, 10/15/01)

1598 Dec 7, Giovanni “Gian” Lorenzo Bernini (d.Nov 28, 1680), Italian sculptor, painter, architect, was born. He was the greatest sculptor of the 17th century and worked under the patronage of Pope Urban VII. His work included the “Ecstasy of St. Teresa,” “David” and “Daphne and Apollo.”
(WSJ, 12/4/97, p.A20)(WSJ, 9/15/98, p.A20)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R53)

1598 Dec 28, Richard and Cuthbert Burbage led a crew to begin the demolition of the Theater in London. They and partners that included William Shakespeare used the timbers to build a new theater. The Globe opened in 1599.
(ON, 11/03, p.2)

c1598 A party of Iberian conquistadors overthrew the Cambodian king and set themselves up as governors in the Mekong delta.
(Econ, 1/3/04, p.29)

1598 In China Tang Xianzu, dramatist, wrote his 55-act Kunju opera “The Peony Pavilion.” Kunju is the oldest of China’s 360 opera forms.
(WSJ, 6/22/98, p.A20)

1598 Don Juan de Onate y Salazar (1550-1626), Spanish Conquistador, explorer, and colonial governor, led the first effort to colonize the New Mexico region, establishing Santa Fe de Nuevo México as a province of New Spain. Under Juan de Oñate and his son, the capital of the province was the settlement of San Juan de los Caballeros north of Santa Fe near modern Ohkay Owingeh Pueblo.
1598 Don Juan de Onate visited El Morro for the 1st time as he led some 1,000 settlers from Mexico to New Mexico.
(SSFC, 4/10/05, p.F9)

1598 The first opera was performed in Florence, Italy, in the 16th century. On Jul 3-5, 1998 Vienna celebrated the 400th anniversary of opera. Opera emerged as musicians sought to revive Greek theater.
(SFEC, 5/10/98, p.T3)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1598 Iranian emperor Shah Abbas (1571-1629) moved his capital to Isfahan. English brothers Anthony and Robert Shirley (~1581-1628) soon arrived in Iran with 26 followers and joined the Persian service under Abbas and remaining for a number of years.
(Econ, 2/21/09, p.86)(http://tinyurl.com/cbrsb9)

1598 Sir George Clifford, the third Earl of Cumberland, led an attack on Puerto Rico. He landed east of San Juan at Boqueron Inlet and attacked. The English prevailed and plundered San Juan but their food spoiled and 400 died of dysentery. The survivors burned San Juan and sailed away.
(HT, 4/97, p.30)

1598 The Spanish governor of Manila sent a 2nd small expedition to the king of Angkor in what is now Cambodia.
(SFEC, 10/20/96, T5)

1598-1599 Caravaggio painted “Narcissus.”
(WSJ, 4/28/98, p.A16)

1598-1663? Francisco de Zurbaran, Spanish painter. His work included St. Agatha, which depicted the mutilated martyr with her severed breasts on a tray.
(WUD, 1994, p.1663)(SFEC, 2/16/97, BR p.10)

1598-1666 Nicolas Francois Mansart, French architect. The mansard roof is named after him.
(WUD, 1994, p.873)(SFC, 8/25/99, Z1 p.7)

1599 Feb 13, Alexander VII, Roman Catholic Pope, was born.
(HN, 2/13/98)

1599 Feb 22, Anthony Van Dyck, painter, was born in Antwerp, Belgium. [See Mar 22]
(MC, 2/22/02)

1599 Mar 13, Johannes Berchmans, Jesuit, saint, was born in Belgium.
(MC, 3/13/02)(de Winkler Prins encyclopedia)

1599 Mar 22, Sir Anthony Van Dyck, Flemish artist, was born. He gave his name to the Vandyke beard. [See Feb 22]
(AP, 3/22/99)

1599 Mar 23, Thomas Selle, composer, was born.
(SS, 3/23/02)

1599 Mar 27, Robert Devereux became Lt-general of Ireland.
(MC, 3/27/02)

1599 Apr 25, Oliver Cromwell (d.1658) was born. He was an English military, political and religious leader, and dictator as Lord Protector of the Commonwealth from 1653-1658.
(CFA, ’96, p.44)(AHD, p.315)(HN, 4/25/98)

1599 Jun 6, Velazquez (d.1660), Diego Rodriguez de Silva, Spanish painter of Portuguese ancestry, was born. He painted “Count Duke of Olivares” and “Rokeby Venus” (1647-51) The Venus is at the London National Gallery.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diego_Vel%C3%A1zquez)(SFEC, 2/1/98, p.T8)(WSJ, 1/5/07, p.W12)

1599 Jul 23, Caravaggio received his 1st public commission for paintings.
(MC, 7/23/02)

1599 Sep 7, Earl of Essex and Irish rebel Tyrone signed a treaty.
(MC, 9/7/01)

1599 Sep 21, The Globe Theater had its first recorded performance. The 20-sided timber building for Shakespeare’s plays was constructed on the South Bank of the Thames, England. The troupe Lord Chamberlain’s Men built the Globe Theater. Timbers came from a dismantled old theater and the new structure held some 3,000 spectators in 3 galleries. In 2005 James Shapiro authored “A Year in the Life of William Shakespeare: 1599.”
(Hem, Mar. 95, p.138)(WSJ, 6/17/97, p.A16)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)(Econ, 11/5/05, p.92)

1599 In Ecuador Andres Sanchez Gallque painted the New World’s first signed and dated portrait: “Don Francisco de la Robe and His sons Pedro and Domingo” (The Mulatto Gentlemen of Esmeraldas).
(WSJ, 9/21/06, p.D6)(http://tinyurl.com/zn644)

1599 Adriaen de Vries, Dutch sculptor, supplied Augsburg, Germany, the cast the “Mercury Fountain.”
(WSJ, 1/8/99, p.C13)

1599 Canon Mikalojus Dauksa published his “Postille Catholicka” in Vilnius. He was the first author of Lithuanian Proper.
(DrEE, 9/21/96, p.4)

1599 Jesuits published a guidebook for Jesuit education titled “Ratio Studiorum.” It was revised in 1832.
(GenIV, Winter 04/05)

1599 Jacob Cornelius Van Neck returned to Holland from the Mascarene Islands. A narrative of the Dutch voyage first mentioned the dodo bird.
(NH, 11/96, p.24)

1599 The Dutch East India Company dates to this time. [see 1602-1798]
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1599 The Takeda family, which controlled Hokkaido, changed its name to Matsumae, built a castle by that name and allied itself with Ieyasu Tokugawa, who was on the verge of establishing his Shogunate in Japan.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 218)

1599 Spain sent 400 soldiers, 46 cannon and a new governor, Alonso de Mercado, to rebuild San Juan, Puerto Rico.
(HT, 4/97, p.31)

1599 Francesco Borromini (d.1667), Italian Baroque architect and sculptor, was born.
(SFEC, 7/12/98, p.B9)(WSJ, 6/27/00, p.A28)

1599-1600 “As You Like It,” a pastoral comedy by William Shakespeare, is believed to have been written about this time and first published in the folio of 1623. It included a monologue that begins with the phrase “All the world’s a stage” and catalogues the seven stages of a man’s life, sometimes referred to as the seven ages of man: infant, schoolboy, lover, soldier, justice, pantaloon, and second childhood, “sans teeth, sans eyes, sans taste, sans everything.”



Timeline 1550-1574

1550 Mar 24, France and England signed the Peace of Boulogne. It ended the war of England with Scotland and France. France bought back Boulogne for 400,000 crowns.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)(MC, 3/24/02)

1550 Apr 2, Jews were expelled from Genoa, Italy. [see Jun 15, 1567]
(MC, 4/2/02)

1550 Apr 12, Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford, was born (d.1604). Some claimed that he was responsible for all the 37 plays, 154 sonnets and 2 long narrative poems that are attributed to William Shakespeare. De Vere was first advanced as the author of Shakespeare’s work in 1918 by English schoolmaster J. Thomas Looney.
(SFC, 4/26/97, p.E1)(WSJ, 5/1/97, p.A16)(WSJ, 4/18/09, p.A2)

1550 Apr 28, Powers of Dutch inquisition were extended.
(MC, 4/28/02)

1550 Apr 29, Emperor Charles V gave inquisitors additional authority.
(MC, 4/29/02)

1550 May 25, Camillus de Lellis, Italian soldier, monastery founder, saint, was born.
(SC, 5/25/02)

1550 Jun 27, Charles IX, king of France (1560-74), was born.
(SC, 6/27/02)

1550 Jul 7, Chocolate was introduced (Europe).
(MC, 7/7/02)

1550 Sep 5, William Cecil appointed himself English minister of foreign affairs.
(MC, 9/5/01)

1550 The Flemish Tapestry, “The Bridal Chamber of Herse,” was woven by Willem de Pannemaker. It is now stored in the N.Y. Metropolitan Museum of Art.
(WSJ, 1/5/96, p.A-8)

1550 Michelangelo (75) completed the frescoes of the Cappella Paolina, “the Conversion of Paul” and “The Crucifixion of St. Peter.”
1550 Michelangelo began his painting “The Deposition from the Cross,” which included a self-portrait as Nicodemus.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1550 Japanese Ukiyoe painting, which takes subjects from everyday life, had its beginnings.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1550 Nicholas Udall wrote the first known English comedy: “Ralph Roister Doister.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1550 Giorgio Vasari, Italian architect and painter, published his definitive “Lives of the Artists,” and founded the Fine Arts Academy in Florence.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)(WSJ, 2/5/97, p.A16)

1550 Palladio, Italian architect, designed the Villa Rotunda, Vincenza. It has four porticoes and symmetrical planning and is an example of his search for harmonious proportions.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1550 John Marbeck produced the first musical setting for the English liturgy.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)
1550 John Marbeck, English theologian, published a concordance of the entire English bible.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

c1550 In California later radiocarbon tests indicated human habitation at the bay side foot of San Bruno Mountain up to this time. The Sipliskin Tribe, a northern branch of the Ohlone Indians, occupied the site.
(SFEC,12/29/97, p.A13)

1550 In Washington state Mount St. Helens began almost nonstop eruptions that continued for a century.
(SFEC, 8/16/98, p.A15)

1550 Anton Fugger, Augsburg banker, went bankrupt. This caused financial chaos throughout Europe.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1550 Rhaticus, German mathematician, published a set of trigonometric tables.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

c1550 In Hawaii a Great Wall was built on the Big Island behind which refuge, sanctuary and purification could be sought. Puhonua o Honaunau National Historic Park later marked the area.
(SSFC, 8/26/01, p.T9)

1550 In Italy the Beretta family branched into guns.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1550 Mercury was discovered in Peru.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1550 African slaves were shipped to Brazil to work sugar plantations.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1550 South America shipped rubber to Europe.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1550 Helsinki was founded by the Swedes.
(SFEM, 8/8/99, p.44)

1550s In Moscow Ivan the IV built a stone church to commemorate the triumph of Orthodoxy over Roman Catholicism, Islam and the Uniates, who sought to unite the Catholic and Orthodox churches.
(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.36)

1550-1555 Julius III, Giommaria Ciocci del Monte or Giovanni Maria del Monte, served as Pope 1550-1555.
(WUD, 1994, p.773)
1550-1563 Henry Machyn, a merchant tailor in London, kept a diary over this time that described the funerals of noble persons, the coronation of Queen Elizabeth I, the murder of Arden of Feversham by his wife and her lover, and other London events. A definitive edition of the diaries was in process by English Prof. R.W. Bailey and graduate students at the Univ. of Mich. in 1996.
(MT, 6/96, p.9)(MT, Fall 02, p.22)
c1550-1600 Grace O’Malley led a 200-strong band on Clare Island, Ireland, financed by piracy.
(SFEC, 4/12/98, p.T8)

c1550-1615 Shakespeare was born in England and authored about thirty-five plays. “Man and woman are always the focus of the plays… the medieval world picture fades into the background, and humankind emerges naked and unadorned…he was skillful in comedy as in tragedy, and he even knew how to mix the two… he invaded the life of ordinary families in his plays, revealing to us what we had always known but never faced. ” [see Apr 23, 1564]

1551 Mar 9, Emperor Charles V appointed his son Philip as heir to the throne. Don Philip was recognized as the sole heir of Charles V.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)(MC, 3/9/02)

1551 May 2, William Camden, English historian (Brittania, Annales), was born.
(MC, 5/2/02)

1551 May 12, San Marcos University opened in Lima, Peru. The Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos was founded under Spanish royal charter.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)(AM, 7/01, p.18)(Econ, 10/8/11, p.47)

1551 Jun 27, France promulgated the Edict of Chateaubriand, a crackdown on Protestantism in France. The Edict of Chateaubriand placed severe restrictions on Protestants, including loss of one-third of property to informers and confiscation of all property of those who left France.

1551 Oct 16, Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset, was re-arrested.
(MC, 10/16/01)

1551 Konrad von Gesner wrote the first modern book on Zoology: “Historia Animalium.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1551 Cranmer published his 42 Articles, the basis of Anglican Protestantism.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1551 The term “Xmas” was used at least this early for Christmas. The short form derived from the Greek letters “XP,” chi and rho, as an abbreviation of the Greek symbol for Christ.
(SFC,12/24/97, Z1 p.6)

1551 Leonard Digges, English inventor, described the theodolite (a surveying instrument to measure horizontal and vertical angles) in his posthumously published “Pantometria.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1551 Spanish sailors in the Caribbean became ill after eating a fish stew. Most likely caused by ciguatera, a disease caused by toxins of microorganisms eaten by reef fish.
(NH, 5/96, p.60)
1551 Spaniards in Chile began producing wine.
(SFC, 8/31/07, p.F4)

1551 Printing was introduced into Ireland.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1551 Henry II led French forces against Charles V in Italy.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1551 Persecution of the Jews became widespread in Bavaria.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)
1551 Erasmus Rheinhold, German astronomer, published astronomical tables based on the numerical values provided by Nicolas Copernicus.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1551 Palestrina, Italian composer, was appointed director of music at St. Peter’s in Rome.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)
1551 The Jesuits founded the Papal Univ. in Rome.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1551 Turkish forces captured Tripoli but failed to take Malta.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1551 The National Univ. of Mexico was founded.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1551 Ivan the Terrible built Sviyazhsk, an island fortress on the Volga to help him conquer the Khanate of Kazan. In 2017 the Assumption Cathedral and Monastery on Svyyazhsk were added to the World Heritage list.
(Econ, 10/22/16, SR p.5)(SSFC, 7/30/17, p.F3)

1551 Pope Eugenius IV brought some of the Middle-Eastern Christians back into the Western Christian fold when he established the Chaldean rite of the Catholic Church.
(WSJ, 3/12/00, p.A10)

1552 Jan 15, France signed a secret treaty with German Protestants.
(MC, 1/15/02)

1552 Jan 22, Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset, was beheaded for treason.
(MC, 1/22/02)(MT, Fall 02, p.23)

1552 Jan 23, The 2nd version of Book of Common Prayer became mandatory in England. The Second Prayer Book of Edward VI, more radical than the first, was authorized by a second Uniformity Act.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)(MC, 1/23/02)

1552 Feb 1, Sir Edward Coke, English jurist, was born in Mileham, Norfolk. He helped the development of English law with his arguments for the supremacy of common law over royal prerogative.

1552 Apr 14, Laurentius Andreae, [Lars Andersson], Swedish church reformer, died.
(MC, 4/14/02)

1552 Jul 18, Rudolf II of Habsburg, emperor of Germany (1576-1612), was born.
(MC, 7/18/02)

1552 Aug 2, The treaty of Passau gave religious freedom to Protestants living in Germany. The Augsburg Interim was annulled and Lutherans were allowed freedom of worship in Germany.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)(HN, 8/2/98)

1552 Aug 14, Fra Paolo Sarpi, [Paulus Venetus], expert, philosopher, was born in Venice.
(MC, 8/14/02)

1552 Aug, Ivan IV of Russia began his conquest of Kazan, Tatarstan, and Astrakhan in the Volga delta. Kazan, the capital of Tatarstan, fell to Ivan in September.
(Econ, 6/2/07, p.56)(www.1000kzn.ru/razdel/en/227/)

1552 Oct 6, Matteo Ricci, Italian Jesuit missionary (China), was born.
(MC, 10/6/01)

1552 The Badianus Manuscript is the earliest known treatise on New World indigenous medicine. It was written and translated in Nahuatl and Latin by Aztec scribes Martinus de la Cruz and Juan Badianus.
(AM, 7/01, p.37)

1552 Etienne Jodelle, French dramatist, completed his “Cleopatre Captive,” the first French neoclassical tragedy.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1552 Edward VI founded Christ’s Hospital in London.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)
1552 The English again attacked the Irish town and monastery at Clonmacnoise and carried everything away.
(SFEC, 8/1/99, p.T8)
1552 Britain’s first licensing act on alcohol distinguisehd between rich and poor boozers with enforced strictures on “common alehouses” which not apply to wine taverns.
(Econ, 1/5/13, p.44)
1552 A revision of canon law in Britain meant that adulterers could face life imprisonment of exiled.
(Econ, 2/11/12, p.82)

1552 The Treaty of Friedewalde confirmed the alliance between Henry II of France and the Protestant princes of Germany against Charles V.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1552 The Turks invaded Hungary again with a victory at the Battle Szegedin. Istvan Dobo led the defense of Eger against the Turks. The siege of Eger lasted 38 days.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)(Hem., 6/98, p.126)

1552 Books on geography and astronomy were burned in England because of fears of magic.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1552 The shift from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar was begun. In 2000 Duncan Steel authored “Marking Time: The Epic Quest to Invent the Perfect Calendar.”
(SFEC, 2/20/00, Par p.7)

1552 Bartolomeo Eustachio, Italian anatomist, described the Eustachian tube of the ear and the Eustachian valve in the heart.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1552-1553 Giovanni Battista Moroni, Renaissance artist, painted his “Portrait of Isotta Brembati.”
(WSJ, 4/13/00, p.A19)

1552-1599 Edmund Spencer, helped establish the form of modern English in literature.

1553 Apr 29, A Flemish woman introduced to England the practice of starching linen.
(MC, 4/29/02)

1553 May 5, Erasmus Alberus (~52), German theologist (Barfesser Munche), died.
(MC, 5/5/02)

1553 Jun 12, King Edward VI accepted archbishop Cranmer’s “42 Articles.”
(MC, 6/12/02)

1553 Jul 6, Edward VI Tudor (15), King of England (1547-53), died. Mary Tudor was warned that Edward VI was already dead and that she was walking into a trap set by John Dudley, the Duke of Northumberland, Edward’s regent.
(ON, 5/00, p.3)(MC, 7/6/02)

1553 Jul 9, Maurice of Saxony was mortally wounded at Sievershausen, Germany, while defeating Albert of Brandenburg-Kulmbach.
(HN, 7/9/98)

1553 Jul 10, After King Edward VI of England died of tuberculosis, John Dudley, the Duke of Northumberland, tried to get his daughter, Lady Jane Grey (the great-granddaughter of Henry VII), declared the queen and got archbishop Cranmer’s signature to that end. However the succession went to Mary, the Catholic half-sister of Edward. Cranmer and others were then found guilty of treason.
(WSJ, 9/12/96, p.A14)(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.24)

1553 Jul 19, 15-year-old Lady Jane Grey, daughter of John Dudley, the Duke of Northumberland, was deposed as Queen of England after claiming the crown for nine days. Mary, the daughter of King Henry VIII, was proclaimed Queen.
(AP, 7/19/97)

1553 Aug 2, An invading French army was destroyed at the Battle of Marciano in Italy by an imperial army.
(HN, 8/2/98)

1553 Aug 3, Mary Tudor, the new Queen of England, entered London.
(HN, 8/3/98)

1553 Aug 12, Pope Julius III ordered the confiscation and burning of the Talmud.
(SC, 8/12/02)

1553 Aug 23, John Dudley, the Duke of Northumberland, English Lord Admiral, premier (1551-53), was beheaded on Tower Hill in front of 10,000 onlookers.
(ON, 5/00, p.5)(Internet)

1553 Sep 4, Cornelia da Nomatalcino, a monk who converted to Judaism, was burned at the stake.
(MC, 9/4/01)

1553 Oct 16, Lucas Cranach the elder (b.1472), German painter and graphic artist, died at 81. His work included “Madonna and Child in a Landscape.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)(WUD, 1994, p.339)(http://tinyurl.com/ykv47h)

1553 Oct 19, Bonifazio Veronese, Veneziano, [de’ Pitati], Italian painter, died.
(MC, 10/19/01)

1553 Oct 21, Volumes of the Talmud were burned.
(MC, 10/21/01)

1553 Oct 27, Michael Servetus (b.1511), Spanish theologian and physician, was burnt for heresy in Geneva, Switzerland. His last book “Christianismi Restitutio” included a chapter on the pulmonary circulation of blood. In 2002 Lawrence and Nancy Goldstone authored “Out of the Flames.” [see 1540]
(HN, 10/27/98)(WSJ, 9/18/02, p.D8)(WSJ, 1/18/08, p.W10)

1553 Nov 13, English Lady Jane Grey and the bishop Cranmer were accused of high treason.
(MC, 11/13/01)

1553 Dec 13, Henry IV (d.1610), Henry of Navarre, Henry the Great, 1st Bourbon king of Navarre, France, (1572/89-1610), was born.
(WUD, 1994, p.662)(MC, 12/13/01)

1553 “Les Observations de Plusieurs Singularitez et Choses Memorables” was written by Pierre Belon, French naturalist and traveler. It included an account of Turkish fruit sorbets.
(NH, 4/97, p.77)

1553 Pedro Cieza de Leon wrote the first European description of the potato in his “Chronicles of Peru.”
(SSFC, 10/5/08, p.A15)

1553 Virgil’s “Aeneid” was translated into English for the first time.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1553 Christopher Tye composed “The Acts of the Apostles.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1553 The Forty-two Articles of the Church of England were written by Archbishop Thomas Cranmer “for the avoiding of controversy in opinions.” The Forty-two Articles had been partly derived from the Thirteen Articles of 1538. When Mary became queen in 1553 and restored Catholicism, the Forty-two Articles were eliminated.
(HNQ, 10/20/98)

1553 In London The Mysterie and Compagnie of the Merchant Adventurers for the Discoverie of Regions, Dominions, Islands and Places Unknown offered stock to finance a quest for a passage to the riches of the East. The Muscovy Company venture led to the death of explorer Sir Hugh Willoughby who died with the crews of 2 ships in the Arctic ice. A 3rd ship reached the court of Ivan the Terrible in Moscow and returned with a treaty giving England freedom to trade there.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1553 Bavaria outlawed summer-made beer because wintertime brews had outstripped them in quality. In 2011 a yeast from Patagonia, Saccharomyces eubayanus, was identified as being 99.5% identical to the non-ale half of the lager yeast genome. It was believed that over time Saccharomyces eubayanus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae hybridized to form Saccharomyces pastorianus, used by lager brewers today.
(Econ, 8/27/11, p.71)

1553 Protestants fearing persecution in England began leaving to Switzerland.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1553 Piri Reis, aka Ahmed Muhiddin Piri, (b.1465-1470), Ottoman admiral, navigator, geographer and cartographer, died. He was beheaded in Cairo, having been found guilty of raising the siege of Hormuz Island and abandoning the fleet, even though his reason was the lack of maintenance of his ships. Although he was not an explorer and never sailed to the Atlantic, he compiled over twenty maps of Arab, Spanish, Portuguese, Chinese, Indian and older Greek origins into a comprehensive representation of the known world of his era.

1553 The League of Heidelberg was formed by German Catholic and Protestant princes to stop Philip of Spain from becoming Holy Roman Emperor.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1553 The National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) was founded as a royal, pontifical university.
(WSJ, 9/1/99, p.A1)

1553 Suleiman I of Turkey made peace with Persia.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1553 Turkish warships ravaged the Mediterranean.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1553 Hugh Willoughby and Richard Chancellor voyaged to Russia via Archangel seeking a north-east passage to China. Willoughby discovered Novaya Zemlya and died on the Kola Peninsula.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1553 Giambattista della Porta, Italian inventor, improved the camera obscura.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1553 Francois Rabelais (b.1490), French physician, satirist and humorist, died. He studied with the Benedictines and received orders from the Franciscans. His work included the multi-volume “La Vie de Gargantua et de Pantagruel.”
(WUD, 1994, p.1183)(V.D.-H.K.p.143)(SSFC, 2/10/02, p.G5)

1554 Jan 9, Gregory XV, Roman Catholic Pope was born.
(HN, 1/9/98)

1554 Feb 12, Lady Jane Grey (17), who had claimed the throne of England for nine days, the Queen of England for thirteen days, was beheaded on Tower Hill along with her husband, Guildford Dudley, after being condemned for high treason.
(HN, 2/12/99)(AP, 2/12/08)

1554 Feb 21, Hieronymus Bock, German doctor (founder of modern botany), died.
(MC, 2/21/02)

1554 Feb 23, Henry Grey, Duke of Suffolk and Lady Jane Grey’s father, was executed.
(MC, 2/23/02)

1554 Mar 3, Johan Frederik de Greatmoedige (50), ruler of Saxon (1532-47), died.
(SC, 3/3/02)

1554 Mar 12, Richard Hooker, English theologian, was born. He authored “Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity.”
(HN, 3/12/99)

1554 Jul 24, Queen Mary of England married Philip II, king of Spain and the Catholic son of Emp. Charles V.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)(ON, 5/00, p.5)(MC, 7/24/02)

1554 Oct, Mongol fighters battled Chinese defenders at the Jinshanling wall. After 3 days of fighting the Chinese overwhelmed the Mongols.
(SFC, 2/9/06, p.E4)

1554 Nov 30, Sir Philip Sidney (d.1586), English poet, statesman and soldier was born.
(HN, 11/30/98)(MC, 11/30/01)
1554 Nov 30, England reconciled with Pope Julius III.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)(MC, 11/30/01)

1554 Benvenuto Cellini completed his masterpiece, the bronze Perseus.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1554 Palladio wrote “L’Antichita,” a guidebook to Roman antiquities.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1554 Jorg Wickram, German writer, wrote the first German romance novel: “Der Goldfaden.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1554 Palestrina composed his first book of Masses.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1554 Babur’s son, Humayun, handed Kandahar over to the Safavid Shah Tahmasp in return of 70,000 soldiers he received from the Shah to reconquer India. In 1595, Humayun’s son Akbar the Great conquered the city by diplomacy.

1554 The hamlet of Sao Paulo, Brazil, was founded by Jesuit missionaries.
(Econ, 9/3/11, p.61)

1554 At London’s Guildhall Sir Nicholas Throckmorton was tried and found not guilty. The verdict was deemed unsatisfactory and the whole jury was carted off to prison and released after paying heavy fines. [see Nov, 1583]
(SFC, 8/11/96, p.T7)
1554 Flemish hop growers emigrated to England.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1554 The hamlet of Sao Paulo, Brazil, was founded by Jesuit missionaries.
(Econ, 9/3/11, p.61)

1554 At London’s Guildhall Sir Nicholas Throckmorton was tried and found not guilty. The verdict was deemed unsatisfactory and the whole jury was carted off to prison and released after paying heavy fines. [see Nov, 1583]
(SFC, 8/11/96, p.T7)
1554 Flemish hop growers emigrated to England.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1554 Fernelius, French physician, codified the medicine of the Renaissance.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)
1554 Henry II of France invaded the Netherlands.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1554 John Knox fled to Geneva where he met Jean Calvin.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1554 Dragut, leader of the Mediterranean pirates, recaptured Mehedia, Tunisia, from the Spaniards.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1554-1562 Pierre Eskrich (aka Pierre DuVase), a French illustrator, produced a collection of 218 bird paintings. He had fled Lyon to Geneva to escape the Edict of Chateaubriand (1551), a crackdown on Protestantism in France.
(SFC, 3/17/06, p.E7)

1555 Feb 9, John Hooper, the deprived Bishop of Gloucester, was burned for heresy.
(MC, 2/9/02)

1555 Mar 23, Julius III (67), born as Giovanni M. del Monte, Pope (1550-55), died. He was succeeded by Marcellus II and then by Paul IV.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)(SS, 3/23/02)

1555 May 25, Gemma Frisius (46), Frisian geographer, astronomer, died.
(SC, 5/25/02)

1555 Sep 8, Thomas Villanova, Spanish saint and archbishop of Valencia, died.
(MC, 9/8/01)

1555 Sep 25, The Religious Peace of Augsburg compromised differences between Catholics and Protestants in the German states. Each prince could chose which religion would be followed in his realm. Lutheranism was acknowledged by the Holy Roman Empire. The Peace of Augsburg was the first permanent legal basis for the existence of Lutheranism as well as Catholicism in Germany. It was promulgated as part of the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire. Charles V’s Augsburg Interim of 1548 was a temporary doctrinal agreement between German Catholics and Protestants that was overthrown in 1552.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)(PCh, 1992, p.189)(HNQ, 2/8/99)

1555 Sep 30, Oxford Bishop Nicholas Ridley was sentenced to death as a heretic.
(MC, 9/30/01)

1555 Oct 16, Hugh Latimer (80), Protestant royal chaplain of Anne Boleyn, was burned at stake at Oxford for heresy under the Catholic rule of Mary, half-sister of Edward VI.
(WSJ, 9/12/96, p.A14)(www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/3859836193/)
1555 Oct 16, Nicholas Ridley, Protestant English theologian and bishop of Rochester, was burned at Oxford for heresy under the Catholic rule of Mary, half-sister of Edward VI.
(WSJ, 9/12/96, p.A14)(www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/3859836193/)

1555 Oct 21, English parliament refused to recognize Philip of Spain as king.
(MC, 10/21/01)

1555 Oct 25, Emperor Charles V put his son Philip II in charge of Netherlands, Naples, and Milan.
(MC, 10/25/01)

1555 Nov 21, Georgius Bauer (b.1494), German mineralogist (Agricola), died. His full description of mining, smelting, and chemistry in “De Re Metallica,” was published in Basel in 1556. In it he described the hazards of mining, including occupational diseases such as “difficulty in breathing and destruction of the lungs.” It was still the major source on the state of technology in the Middle Ages. In 1912 it was translated by Herbert Hoover, mining engineer and future US president.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)(WSJ, 7/29/06, p.P8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georg_Agricola)

1555 Fr. Bernardino de Sahagun wrote down “The War of Conquest: The Aztec’s Own Story.”
(ON, 10/00, p.5)

1555 England’s Parliament established the Company of Watermen and Lightermen to regulate the Thames boating industry.
(AP, 1/9/07)
1555 In England Queen Mary began a campaign of burnings and hangings during which over 300 people were executed for refusing to abandon their Protestant faith.
(ON, 5/00, p.5)

1555 Michelangelo began work on his Rondanini Pieta with a modern expressionistic quality.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1555 The first Aztec dictionary was published.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1555 Pierre Belon, French naturalist, published the first comprehensive study of birds in “L’Histoire de la nature des oyseaux.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1555 Guillaume Rondelet wrote a classic taxonomy of fishes. His categories, based on general shape and habitation, precluded any deep insight into a genealogical basis of historical order.
(NH, 9/97, p.15)

1555 The first Jesuit play was performed in Vienna.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1555 Balthazar de Beaujoyeoux, violinist, introduced several fellow violinists to the court of Catherine de Medici. Under his influence the lute was replaced by the violin as France’s most popular instrument.
(SFC, 12/29/96, zone 1 p.2)

1555 Siena was incorporated with Florence. When the Florentine army defeated the Siennese a moratorium was put on further development in the walled city.
(EWH, p.426)(SFEC, 6/29/97, p.T11)

1555 Japanese pirates besieged Nanking.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1555 The Ottoman Empire continued its conquest of the North African coast.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1555-1558 England suffered outbreaks of dysentery, typhus and Influenza all over the country.

1555-1600 Richard Hooker, architect of Anglicanism. The Anglican Communion emerged from the conflicts between Henry VIII and Pope Clement VII over Henry’s marriage to Anne Boleyn.
(SFC, 7/21/97, p.A11)

1555-1636 Tung Ch’i-ch’ang, painter and master of calligraphy. He also mastered the play of void and presence at the heart of Chinese ink painting.
(SFC, 10/14/96, p.B3)

1556 Feb 5, Henry II of France and Philip of Spain signed the truce of Vaucelles.
(HN, 2/5/99)

1556 Feb 14, Archbishop Thomas Cranmer was declared a heretic.
(MC, 2/14/02)

1556 Feb 2, The worst earthquake in history devastated China’s Shanxi Province, killing 830,000 people.
(PCh, 1992, p.190)(www.kepu.ac.cn/english/quake/ruins/rns03.html)

1556 Mar 21, Former Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer (66), scheduled to denounce his errors and be burned at the stake, denounced his own confessions and was hustled off to be burned. He then put forth his hand and declared: “Forasmuch as my hand offended, writing contrary to my heart, my hand shall first be punished.”
(WSJ, 9/12/96, p.A14)(MC, 3/21/02)

1556 Mar 22, Cardinal Reginald Pole became archbishop of Canterbury.
(MC, 3/22/02)

1556 Mar 28, Philip II, Charles V’s son, was crowned king of Spain. [see Sep 12]
(MC, 3/28/02)

1556 Apr 13, Portuguese Marranos who reverted back to Judaism were burned alive by order of Pope.
(MC, 4/13/02)

1556 Jun 16, Pedro Fernandes Sardinha, The 1st bishop of Bahia, was shipwrecked between the rivers São Francisco and Cururipu and murdered by the Indians. The Caytes of the Brazilian coast ate the crews of every wrecked Portuguese ship they found. They ate the first Bishop of Bahia, two Canons, the Procurator of the Royal Portuguese Treasury, 2 pregnant women and several children.
(WSJ, 7/8/96,p.A9)(www.newadvent.org/cathen/13466a.htm)

1556 Jul 31, St. Ignatius of Loyola (65), founder of the Society of Jesus, the Jesuit order of Catholic priests and brothers, died in Rome.
(AP, 7/31/97)(MC, 7/31/02)

1556 Sep 9, Pope Paul IV refused to crown Ferdinand of Austria emperor.
(MC, 9/9/01)

1556 Sep 12, Emperor Charles resigned and his brother Ferdinand of Austria took over. Charles V resigned and ended his days in a Spanish monastery. He bequeathed Spain to his son Philip II, and the Holy Roman Empire to his brother Ferdinand I. A few years of peace in Europe followed. The event formed the basis for a later historical play by Friedrich Schiller, which was in turn used by Verdi for his opera “Don Carlos.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)(WSJ, 3/21/96, p.A-12)(MC, 9/12/01)

1556 Sep 13, Charles V and Maria of Hungary marched into Spain.
(MC, 9/13/01)

1556 Nov 5, The Emperor Akbar defeated the Hindus in a 2nd Battle at Panipat and secured control of the Mogul Empire. Akbar the Great became Mogul Emperor of India and defeated the Afghans at the Battle of Panipat in the Punjab.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)(HN, 11/5/98)

1556 Nov 10, The Englishman Richard Chancellor was drowned off Aberdeenshire on his return from a second voyage to Russia.
(HN, 11/10/98)

1556 Robert Recorde, English mathematician, wrote a navigational guide to China, “The Castle of Knowledge.” He was the first person to use the “=” sign.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1556 Orlando di Lasso, Belgian composer, composed his first book of motets, among the earliest of 2,000 compositions.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1556 Suleiman’s mosque in Constantinople was completed after six years of work.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1556 The Jesuit order was established in Prague.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1556 In India Humayun fell down the library steps in Purana Qila and died. This put his 14-year-old son, Akbar, on the throne.
(HT, 4/97, p.22)

1556 The first tobacco seeds from Brazil reached Europe, brought back by Andre Thevet, a Franciscan monk. [see Mar 5, 1558, 1561]
(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1556 Philip II of Spain made the Duke of Alba his chief military and political advisor.
(WSJ, 7/1/04, p.D8)

1556-1605 The Mughal Empire (Northern India) prospered under Akbar.
(ATC, p.1161)

1556-1605 Akbar the Great during his reign built a walled Mughal fort at Hund in northern Pakistan, that now encloses a modern village.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.C)

1556-1620 Adriaen de Vries, Dutch sculptor. He was born in The Hague and worked in Florence under the sculptor Giovanni Bologna. His work included “Juggling Man” (c1610-1615), a bust of Emp. Rudolf II (1603), and the Neptune Fountain (1615-1618).
(WSJ, 1/6/98, p.A20)(WSJ, 12/7/99, p.A24)

1557 Jan 2, Jacopo da Pontormo (b.1494), aka Jacopo Carucci, died. He was an Italian Mannerist painter and portraitist from the Florentine School.
(Econ, 2/23/13, p.82)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pontormo)

1557 Feb 27, The 1st Russian Embassy opened in London.
(MC, 2/27/02)

1557 Jul 16, Anne of Cleves (41), queen of England and 4th wife of Henry VIII, died.
(MC, 7/16/02)

1557 Aug 10, Spanish and English troops in alliance defeated the French at the Battle of St. Quentin (San Quintino). French troops were defeated by Emanuele Filiberto’s Spanish army at St. Quentin, France.
(HN, 8/10/98)(www.niaf.org/news/news_italy/news_italy_mar2003.asp)

1557 Sep 1, Jacques Cartier, French explorer, died in St. Malo, France.

1557 Sep 11, Catholic & Lutheran theology were debated in Worms. Catholics and Protestants met in Worms in a final effort to achieve reconciliation.
(MC, 9/11/01)(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1557 Dec 3, The 1st Covenant of Scottish protestants formed.
(MC, 12/3/01)

1557 Pieter Breughel the Elder created his painting “The Drunkard Pushed Into the Pigsty.”
(WSJ, 9/6/02, p.W14)

1557 The first English play to be censored, “The Sea-Sack Full of Newes,” was produced at Aldgate in London, and was promptly suppressed.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1557 William Whittingham translated the Geneva Testament into English. It was divided into verses and printed in Roman type.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1557 Robert Recorde published the first English treatise on algebra, “Whetstone of Witte.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1557 The world’s first sovereign bankruptcy took place following the indulgence of Genoese lenders for Spain’s Philip II expensive taste for warfare.
(Econ, 9/23/06, p.11)
1557 The influx of New World silver caused bankruptcies in France and Spain.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1557 The Portuguese settled in Macao, on the coast of southern China, and established trading factories. Trade agreement gave the Portuguese a virtual monopoly for 300 years on maritime commerce China and Europe.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)(SFEC, 5/16/99, p.A24)(SFEM, 10/10/99, p.16)

1557 The Russians invaded Poland and started the 14-year Livonian War of succession in the Baltic lands held by the Teutonic Knights.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1557 The Spanish enslaved local Indians around Guanajuato, Mexico, to work a silver mine. A major vein was struck in 1768.
(SSFC, 5/4/03, p.D7)

1557 John III (the Pious) of Portugal, who began the Inquisition, died. He was succeeded by his three-year old grandson, Sebastian.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1557 Olaus Magnus (b.1490), Swedish mapmaker, died. He guessed at the location of the northern land of Thule mentioned by Greek explorer Pytheas (c380-310BC).
(WSJ, 3/4/06, p.P9)

1558 Jan 6, The French seized the British held port of Calais.
(HN, 1/6/99)

1558 Jan 7, The French, under the Duke of Guise, finally took the port of Calais from the English.
(HN, 1/7/99)

1558 Mar 5, Smoking tobacco was introduced in Europe by Francisco Fernandes. [see 1556]
(MC, 3/5/02)

1558 Apr 24, Mary, Queen of Scotland, married the French dauphin, Francis.
(HN, 4/24/98)

1558 Apr 26, Jean Francois Fernel, French physician, died.
(MC, 4/26/02)

1558 Jun 22, The French took the French town of Thioville from the English.
(HN, 6/22/98)

1558 Jul 13, Led by the court of Egmont, the Spanish army defeated the French at Gravelines, France.
(HN, 7/13/98)

1558 Jul 23, Battle at Grevelingen: Gen. Lamoral van Egmont beat France. [see Jul 13]
(MC, 7/23/02)

1558 Aug 4, 1st printing of Zohar (Jewish Kabala).
(MC, 8/4/02)

1558 Sep 21, Charles V (b.1500), King of Spain (Carlos I), former Holy Roman Emperor (1519-1556), died. In 2006 lab tests showed that Charles suffered from gout.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)(http://tinyurl.com/kq9sq)

1558 Nov 6, Thomas Kyd, English dramatist (Spanish Tragedy), was born.
(MC, 11/6/01)

1558 Nov 17, Queen Mary (1553-58), Mary I Tudor (42), “Bloody Mary”, died. Over 280 Protestants were burned under her rule. Elizabeth I ascended the English throne. With the reign of Elizabeth I a new statement of doctrine of the Church of England was needed. The Church of England was reestablished. In 1996 Carolly Erickson authored “Bloody Mary.”
(AP, 11/17/97)(HNQ, 10/20/98)(HN, 11/17/98)(ON, 5/00, p.5)(Econ, 9/18/10, p.72)
1558 Nov 17, Reginald Pole (58), English cardinal, scholar, “heretic”, died.
(MC, 11/17/01)

1558 Hendrick Goltzius (d.1617), Dutch Master painter, was born.
(WSJ, 8/14/03, p.D8)

1558 John Knox authored “The First Blast of the Trumpet against the Monstrous Regiment of Women.” He was referring to the governments of Mary Tudor in England and Mary, Queen of the Scots.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)(Econ, 8/6/11, p.14)

1558 Giovanni Battista della Porta, Italian artist, published his “Natural Magic,” the first published account of the use of the camera obscura as an aid to artists.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1558 The religious climate in England changed for the better and Protestants returned home from Geneva and Zurich.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1558 The Hamburg exchange was founded.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1558 The Univ. of Jena was founded.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1558 Mary Queen of Scots married the Dauphin, who later became Francis II of France.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1558 Ferdinand I became Holy Roman Emperor without being crowned by the Pope.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1558 Thomas Gresham (1519-1579, English financier, put forward proposals for reforming the English currency. He formulated Gresham’s Law, a hypothesis that bad money drives good money out of circulation.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)(WUD, 1994, p.622)

1558 John Dee, English mathematician, invented two compasses for master pilots.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1558 Sidi Mahmoud Ben Amar (b.1463/64), a member of the Berber tribe of the Godala, died in Mali. He was named Cadi in 1498 or 99. His tomb in Timbuktu was later named a World Heritage site.
(SFC, 5/7/12, p.A2)(www.exploretimbuktu.com/culture/culture/saints.html)

1558-1637 Hon’ami Koetsu, Japanese art collector, calligrapher and ceramist in Kyoto.
(WSJ, 9/21/00, p.A24)

1559 Jan 15, England’s Queen Elizabeth I was crowned in Westminster Abbey and Lord Dudley soon became her favorite.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)(AP, 1/15/98)

1559 Jan 29, Thomas Pope (~52), English politician, benefactor, died.
(MC, 1/29/02)

1559 Feb 16, Pope Paul IV called for the overthrow of sovereigns supporting heresy.
(MC, 2/16/02)

1559 Mar 14, Jacques d’Auchy, Walloon Baptist merchant, was executed.
(MC, 3/14/02)

1559 Apr 3, Philip II of Spain and Henry II of France signed the peace of Cateau-Cambresis, ending a long series of wars between the Hapsburg and Valois dynasties. Turin was chosen as the new capital of Savoy state under Duke Emanuele Filiberto.
(HN, 4/3/99)(www.world66.com/europe/italy/piemonte/turin/history)

1559 May 8, An act of supremacy defined Queen Elizabeth I as the supreme governor of the church of England. Soon after Elizabeth I took power in 1558 some 200 Catholics were strangled and disemboweled.
(HN, 5/8/99)(Econ, 9/18/10, p.72)

1559 May 10, Scottish Protestants under John Knox rose against Queen Mary. Knox preached an inflammatory sermon at Perth and incited the Protestants lords to rise. They captured Edinburgh and sacked religious houses in other cities.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)(MC, 5/10/02)

1559 May 13, Excavated corpse of heretic David Jorisz was burned in Basel.
(MC, 5/13/02)

1559 Jul 10, Henry II of France died following a wound to the head by a tournament lance on June 30. This allegedly fulfilled a prophecy by Nostradamus. Gabriel de Lorges de Montgomery, captain of the Scottish Guards, accidentally killed Henry II as they jousted in front of the Hotel Royal des Tournelles. The widowed queen, Catherine de Medicis (d.1589), had the royal residence demolished.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)(SFEM, 3/15/98, p.16)

1559 Aug 14, Spanish explorer Tristan de Luna entered Pensacola Bay, Florida. 1,500 Spanish settlers sailed from Vera Cruz to found a settlement on Pensacola Bay in Florida, but were repulsed by hostile Indians. The location of the Spanish settlement founded in the area of Pensacola, Fl., remained a mystery until 2016 when amateur archaeologist Tom Garner stumbled upon some shards of 16th century Spanish pottery.
(HN, 8/14/98)(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)(AP, 3/24/06)

1559 Aug 22, Spanish archbishop Bartholome de Carranza was arrested as a heretic.
(MC, 8/22/02)

1559 Sep, A Spanish expedition was scuttled by a hurricane, shortly after the fleet arrived in Pensacola. Five ships sank.
(AP, 2/17/16)

1559 Titian began his work “Europa.” It was completed in 1562. In 1896 it was acquired by Isabella Stewart Gardner. [see 1562]
(WSJ, 3/9/98, p.A16)

1559 The Elizabethan Prayer Book was used for the first time.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)
1559 England was hit with a flu epidemic.
(Econ, 4/29/17, p.67)

1559 Wen Zhengming (b.1470), Chinese artist, died. He was later considered the Michelangelo of Chinese art. Most of his work, composites of poetry, calligraphy and painting, was done to repay obligations.
(Econ, 8/21/04, p.70)

1559 Denmark began to bury its royals in the Roskilde cathedral.
(SFC, 8/5/17, p.A2)

1559 The first synod of Calvinist, or Reformed, churches, met in Paris. The common name given to French Protestants during the Reformation, Huguenots, came into use soon thereafter. They formed a loose national organization as they won converts among many French nobles. This led to a series of wars as Roman Catholic nobles feared the growth of Huguenot power. [see 1572]
(HNQ, 10/8/00)

1559 Realdo Columbus, Italian anatomist, advanced the understanding of human blood circulation.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1559 The Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis ended the war between the late Holy Roman Emp. and France, and between England and France. Calais was to remain French for eight years and then to be restored to England.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1559 The Escorial, an enormous palace built on a grid plan for Philip II, was begun in Madrid.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)
1559 Mateo Prunes, a Majorcan mapmaker, created his portolan chart of the Mediterranean and Black seas on the skin of a single sheep. Portolan charts are navigational maps based on realistic descriptions of harbors and coasts.
(SSFC, 5/23/10, p.A15)
1559 1,500 Spanish settlers sailed from Vera Cruz to found a settlement on Pensacola Bay in Florida, but were repulsed by hostile Indians. A Spanish settlement was founded in the area of Pensacola, Fl., but its exact location is a mystery.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)(AP, 3/24/06)

1559 King Christian of Denmark and Norway died after almost 24 years on the throne. He was succeeded by his son Frederick II.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1559 The Geneva Academy was founded. It became a Univ. in 1873.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1559 Pope Paul IV issued the Catholic Church’s 1st Index Librorum Prohibitorum. The Index of Forbidden Books was maintained until 1966.
(SFC, 1/21/04, p.D2)
1559 Pope Paul IV died and was succeeded by Pius IV.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1560 Jan 31, Spanish king Philip II married Elisabeth de Valois.
(MC, 1/31/02)

1560 Aug 10, Hieronymus Praetorius, German composer, was born.
(MC, 8/10/02)

1560 Aug 21, Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) became interested in astronomy.
(SC, 8/21/02)

1560 Sep 16, Arnaud du Tilh, who had confessed to impersonating Martin Guerre, was hanged in front of Guerre’s house in Artigat, France. In 1941 Janet Lewis (1899-1998) published “The Wife of Martin Guerre,” a historical novel based on Guerre. The story was turned into an opera in 1961 with music by William Bergsma. In 1984 a French film version was released “The Return of Martin Guere.” An American version, “Somersby,” was made in 1993 set during the Civil War.
(SFC, 12/5/98, p.C2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martin_Guerre)

1560 Hsu Wei wrote the first classic Chinese novel, “Ching Ping Mei.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1560 Cardinal Mendoza, archbishop of Burgos, wrote “Tizon de la nobleza de Espana,” (the Blot on the Spanish Nobility). He claimed that virtually the entire aristocracy had Jewish or Moorish blood to point to the folly of the Inquisition’s campaign to prevent anyone with Jewish blood from securing a position of authority under the crown.
(WSJ, 4/16/98, p.A20)

1560 The Geneva Bible, an English translation, was published.
(WSJ, 4/4/01, p.A18)

1560 In Denmark Frederiksborg Castle was built by King Frederick II (1534-1588). It was expanded from 1602-1620 and served as the royal residence for King Christian IV (1577-1648).

1560 Giorgio Vasari’s commission for the Uffizi Palace took shape in Florence.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1560 Anika Stroganoff began construction of the Annunciation Cathedral in Solvychegodsk, Russia. His grandchildren completed it in 1584.
(WSJ, 9/7/00, p.A24)

1560 The Church of Scotland was founded. The Presbyterian branch of Protestant Christianity was started by John Knox.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.20)(SFC, 7/21/97, p.A11)

1560 The beginnings of Puritanism appear in England.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1560 Nicolas Gombert (b.~1495), Flemish composer, died about this time. He was one of the most famous and influential composers between Josquin Desprez and Palestrina, and best represents the fully-developed, complex polyphonic style of this period in music history.
(SFC, 6/9/09, p.E2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicolas_Gombert)

1560 The Huguenot conspiracy of Amboise attempted without success to overthrow the Guises, a powerful French ducal line that championed the Catholic cause.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1560 In Japan a foundry began making pots and developed to become Nabeya B-tech Kaisha (NBK), a 21st century maker of high-precision machine parts.
(Econ, 3/8/08, p.72)

1560 Turkish galleys routed a Spanish fleet off of Tripoli.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1560 Giovannin Battista della Porta founded the first scientific society in Naples.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1560 King Francis II of France died and was succeeded by Charles IX. Francis’ widow, Mary Queen of Scots decided to return to Scotland.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1560 King Gustavus I of Sweden died. He was succeeded by Eric XIV, who courted Queen Elizabeth.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1560 The first blacks set foot in Brazil.
(SFC, 9/21/96, p.A8)

1560-1609 Oswald Croll, the inventor of the Unguentum Sympatheticum Crolii, a salve for both weapons and wounds.
(NH, 6/00, p.28)

1561 Jan 22, Sir Francis Bacon (e.1626), English philosopher, was born in London. He was a statesman and essayist. Educated at Cambridge, he served under Queen Elizabeth and King James I. “He wrote the “Essays” throughout his life and these are filled with pithy wisdom and homely charm. His “Advancement of Learning” and “Novum Organon” constitute his most important contribution to knowledge. He held for the inductive method of learning as opposed to the deductive method. The deductive method, according to Bacon, failed because the seeker after knowledge deduced from certain intuitive assumptions conclusions about the real world that might have been logically correct but were not true to nature. The inductive method succeeded because the student of nature ascended by what Bacon called a “ladder of intellect” from the most careful and indeed humble observations to general conclusions that had to be true because their foundation was experience. “If a man will begin in certainties he shall end in doubts; but if he will be content to begin in doubts he shall end in certainties.” In 1998 Perez Zagorin published “Francis Bacon.”
(V.D.-H.K.p.140)(AP, 5/1/98)(HN, 1/22/99)
Bacon also conceived the invention of “idols” to explain the existence of human error. He identified four idols:
1) The idols of the tribe, i.e. intellectual faults that are common to all human beings (the universal tendency to oversimplify).
2) The idols of the cave, i.e. errors caused by individual idiosyncrasies.
3) The idols of the marketplace, caused by the language itself.
4) The idols of the theater, i.e. philosophical systems that stood in the way of the patient, humble search for truth.”
Bacon suggested that ideas could be classified with an alphabet that represented fundamental notions. “Studies serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability.” In 1998 Perez Zagorin published the biography “Francis Bacon.” It was Bacon who said that “knowledge is power,” (scientia potestas est).
(Wired, 8/96, p.86)(WSJ, 7/23/98, p.A14)

1561 Jan 28, The Edict of Orleans suspended the persecution of French Huguenots.
(MC, 1/28/02)

1561 Mar 29, Santorio Sanctorius was born in Trieste. He became a physician, and was burned at stake as a heretic.
(MC, 3/29/02)

1561 May, In Montpellier, France, a Calvinist stronghold, the Catholics marched in protest against the Calvinists chanting “We shall dance in spite of the Huguenots.” Wars of religion began to rip France apart and lasted for the next 6 decades.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R22)

1561 Aug 19, Mary Queen of Scots arrived in Leith, Scotland, to assume the throne after spending 13 years in France.
(MC, 8/19/02)

1561 Aug 29, Bartholomeus Pitiscus, German mathematician (Trigonometry), was born.
(MC, 8/29/01)

1561 Sep 20, Queen Elizabeth of England signed a treaty at Hamptan Court with French Huguenot leader Louis de Bourbon, the Prince of Conde. The English would occupy Le Harve in return for aiding Bourbon against the Catholics of France.
(HN, 9/20/98)

1561 Sep 23, Philip II of Spain gave orders to halt colonizing efforts in Florida. The French took advantage of the opportunity.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.20)(HN, 9/23/98)

1561 Dec 9, Edwin Sandys, a founder of the Virginia colony, was born.
(MC, 12/9/01)

1561 Ruy Lopez wrote the first manual of chess instruction.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1561 Thomas Sackville and Thomas Norton, English dramatists, wrote the first known English tragedy, “Gorboduc or Ferrex and Porrex.” It marked the first use of blank verse in the English theater.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1561 Gabriel Fallopius, wrote one of the first studies in anatomy in “Observationes anatomicae.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1561 Santa Cruz (Bolivia) was founded by the Spaniard Nuflo de Chavez as a bulwark against Portuguese expansion.
(WSJ, 12/6/96, p.A12)

1561 Portuguese monks at Goa introduced printing to India.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1561 The Order of the Teutonic Knights in the Baltic States was secularized.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1561 The first Calvinist refugees from Flanders, clothworkers, settled in Sandwich, England.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1561 The Edict of Orleans suspended the persecution of the Huguenots.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1561 A great hurricane ravaged Mexico’s Yucatan peninsula.
(AM, 7/05, p.49)

1561 The Basilica of St. Basil in Moscow, begun in 1555, was completed under the reign of Ivan the Terrible to celebrate the conquest of the Khanate of Kazan.
(WSJ, 9/16/06, p.P18)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Basil’s_Cathedral)

1561 Jean Nicot, French ambassador to Lisbon, sent tobacco seeds and powdered leaves back to France. The word “nicotine” is derived from his name. French diplomat Jean Nicot introduced the use of tobacco to the French court in the 1560s. Tobacco was cultivated and smoked by American Indians long before the arrival of Columbus to the New World. By the 1530s Spanish settlers were cultivating wild tobacco (N. rustica) and exporting it to Europe from the West Indies. Sir Walter Raleigh popularized smoking tobacco in England during the late 1500s. Nicotine, an addictive alkaloid found in tobacco and certain other plants, is named for Nicot, as is the genus name for the tobacco plant, Nicotiana.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.20)(HNQ, 1/24/00)

1561 Philip II moved his court from Toledo to Madrid, which was but a village until this time, and proclaimed Madrid as capital of Spain.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toledo,_Spain)(SFEC, 3/22/98, p.T11)

1561 Simon Bening, Flemish painter, died. He was known as the best illuminator of his time.
(Econ, 1/3/04, p.62)

1561-1598 In Merida, Mexico, the Catedral de San Idelfonso was constructed on the site of a Mayan temple by Spanish conquistadors. It was designed as a stronghold in their struggle to subdue the Maya.
(SSFC, 5/6/01, p.T6)

1562 Jan 17, French Protestant Huguenots were recognized under the Edict of St. Germain.
(AP, 1/17/98)

1562 Jan, Mughal Emperor Akbar accepted the submission of Raja Bharmal (Raja Biharimal) of Amber (Jaipur) and welcomed a matrimonial alliance with that Kachhwaha ruling family. Akbar had decided to seek the cooperation of the Rajputs to expand the Mughal Empire. He realized that the Rajputs, who held large areas in their possession and were skillful warriors and renowned for their valor and fidelity to their word, could safely be depended upon and converted into friends.

1562 Feb 5, Michael Radvila the Black accepted homage of G. Ketler, Duke of Couronia, to Sigismund August.
(LHC, 2/5/03)

1562 Mar 1, Blood bath at Vassy; General de Guise allowed the murder of 1200 Huguenots. The Guises massacred more than 60 Huguenots at a Protestant service at Vassy and sparked off The Wars of Religion in France.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.20)(SC, 3/1/02)

1562 Mar 4,The Archdiocese of Riga was attached to Lithuania.
(LHC, 3/4/03)

1562 Mar 9, Kissing in public was banned in Naples and made punishable by death.
(MC, 3/9/02)

1562 May 1, The 1st French colonists in the US, a 5-vessel Huguenot expedition led by Jean Ribault (1520-1565), landed in Florida. He continued north and established a colony named Charlesfort at Parris Island, SC.
(Arch, 1/05, p.47)(www.infoplease.com/ce6/people/A0841765.html)

1562 Jul 23, Gottfried, Gotz von Berlichingen, German Knight of kingdom, died.
(MC, 7/23/02)

1562 Sep 17, The Council of Trent took ecclesiastical canon. The Council of Trent (1545-1563) demanded that clarity replace embellishment and display in church music.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.20)(MC, 9/17/01)

1562 Oct 9, Gabriel Fallopius, anatomist (discovered fallopian tubes), died in Modena, Italy.
(MC, 10/9/01)

1562 Nov 25, Lope Felix de Vega, dramatist and poet (Angelica, Arcadia), was born in Madrid, Spain.
(MC, 11/25/01)

1562 Dec 19, The French Wars of Religion between the Huguenots and the Catholics began with the Battle of Dreux.
(HN, 12/19/98)

1562 Titian completed the “Rape of Europa” for Philip II of Spain. It is the most celebrated of his erotic mythologies.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.20)(WSJ, 3/9/98, p.A16)

1562 William Turner published a survey of spas in Europe.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1562 Gasparo Bartolotti, Italian violin maker, began his career.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1562 William Cecil built the first conservatory in England to protect his subtropical plants and trees.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1562 A Spanish priest wrote that the well at Chichen Itza was a place where Mayas had made offerings to their gods.
(ON, 5/02, p.6)

1562 The Univ. of Lille was founded.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

c1562 Austrian Archduke Maximilian began breeding Spanish Andalusian horses.
(SFC, 7/6/02, p.D2)

1562 Milled coins were first introduced in England.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1562 The Huguenot leader Louis I de Bourbon signed the Treaty of Hampton Court with Queen Elizabeth that called for the English troops to occupy Dieppe and La Havre.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1562 In Korea Im Kkok-chong, a righteous outlaw who rose up against the greedy officials and distributed it to the poor, was caught and beheaded. His chivalry and revolutionary ideas captured the admiration of the people and inspired the popular novel: “Hong Kil-tong chon, the Tale of Hong Kil-Tong,” written in the early 17th century by the scholar Ho Kyun.

1562 Emp. Ferdinand I signed an 8-year truce with Suleiman I of Turkey.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1562 John Hawkins, English naval commander, removed 300 African slaves from a Portuguese ship bound for Brazil. This marked the start of the English participation in the slave trade.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1563 Jan 1, The Great Plague of London began about this time. From the 1st January to end of December, 17,404 people died of the plague.

1563 Feb 15, Ivan IV led Russian forces in the takeover of Polocka, defended under the leadership of Stanislav Davaina.
(LHC, 2/15/03)

1563 Feb 18, Huguenot Jean Poltrot de Merde shot French Gen. Francois De Guise (44).
(MC, 2/18/02)

1563 Feb 27, William Byrd, English composer, was appointed organist at Lincoln Cathedral.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.20)(MC, 2/27/02)

1563 Mar 19, The Peace of Amboise granted Rights for Huguenots.
(MC, 3/19/02)

1563 Apr 30, Jews were expelled from France by order of Charles VI.
(HN, 4/30/98)

1563 Jun 1, Robert Cecil, Earl of Salisbury, Chief Minister of England, was born.
(HN, 6/1/98)

1563 Oct 13, Francesco Caracciolo, Italian religious founder and saint (Caracciolini), was born.
(MC, 10/13/01)

1563 Pieter Breughel the Elder, great Flemish artist, painted the “Tower of Babel.” [see 1568-1625]
(TL-MB, 1988, p.20)(WSJ, 2/18/00, p.W12)

1563 The Council of Trent ordered a repainting of the “The Last Judgement” by Michelangelo to cloth many of the frescos’ previously nude figures.
(SFC, 1/21/04, p.D2)

1563 Foxe’s “Book of Martyrs” appeared in its first illustrated English edition.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1563 The 1563 Canterbury Convocation drastically revised the Forty-two Articles of the Church of England. The 39 Articles combined Protestant doctrine with Catholic church organization to establish the Church of England. Dissenting groups included the Puritans, Separatists, and Presbyterians. [see 1571]
(TL-MB, 1988, p.20)(HNQ, 10/20/98)

1563 The Jesuits lead the Counter-Reformation from Bavaria.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1563 In Turin the Istituto Bancario San Paolo di Torino was established with a system of ownership under a charitable foundation under the control of local authorities. The system held into 1997.
(WSJ, 3/24/97, p.A14)
1563 Francesco Salviati (b.1510), Italian Mannerist painter from Florence, died. His work included frescoes on the walls of the Palazzo Farnese.

1563 Maximilian II was elected King of Hungary.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1563 Frederick II of Denmark allied to Poland, Lubeck, and Saxony against Sweden to start the Seven Years’ War.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1563 The Peace of Amboise ended the First War of Religion in France. Huguenots gained limited tolerance. The French regain La Havre from the English.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1563 Gerardus Mercator, Flemish geographer, produced the first detailed map of Lorraine.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1563-1727 In Prestonpans, Scotland, 81 people were convicted and executed for being witches. In 2004 they were officially pardoned.
(WSJ, 9/15/06, p.A10)(http://forejustice.org/wc/sp/scottish_pardons.html)

1564 Feb 15, Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei (d.1642) was born in Pisa. He was the first modern man to understand that mathematics can truly describe the physical world. He said: “The Book of Nature is written in mathematics.” [V.D.-H.K. dated his death to 1646] He ran afoul of the Catholic Church for defending the Copernican system, which maintained that the earth revolves around the sun. He died in Acetri, near Florence.
(V.D.-H.K.p.1200) (TNG,Klein,p.22) (AHD,p.539) (CFA, ’96,Vol 179, p.40) (AP, 2/15/98) (HN, 2/15/99)

1564 Feb 18, Michelangelo (b.1475), painter and sculptor, died in Rome. In 1996 George Bull wrote a biography and in 1999 James H. Beck published “Three Worlds of Michelangelo.” In 2003 Ross King authored “Michelangelo & the Pope’s Ceiling.” In 2005 James Hall authored “Michelangelo and the Reinvention of the Human Body.” In 2013 Martin Gayford authored “Michelangelo: His Epic Life.”
(AP, 2/18/98)(SFEC, 3/14/99, BR p.6)(SSFC, 1/26/03, p.M3)(SSFC, 6/26/05, p.C5)(Econ, 12/14/13, p.91)

1564 Feb 26, Christopher Marlowe (d.1593), English, poet, dramatist, was baptized. His work included “Doctor Faustus,” “Tamburlaine,” “The Jew of Malta,” and other plays. He was murdered at 29 in a Deptford tavern and was suspected of being a spy to the Continent on behalf of the Crown. In 1993 Anthony Burgess had a novel published posthumously about Marlowe titled “A Dead Man in Deptford.”
(WSJ, 4/28/95, p.A-8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christopher_Marlowe)

1564 Mar 9, David Fabricius, astronomer (discovered variable star), was born in Essen, Germany.
(MC, 3/9/02)

1564 Mar 13, Zigmantas Augustas gave over to Poland his rights to Lithuania and supported the Warsaw parliament recess and summons for the 1st representatives on talks regarding union.
(LHC, 3/13/03)

1564 Apr 23, William Shakespeare (1564-1616), English poet and playwright of the Elizabethan and early Jacobin periods, was born and died on the same date 52 years later. He added more than 1,700 word to the English language. He was the son of an illiterate glove maker who left school at 12: “Be not afraid of greatness: some are born great, some achieve greatness, and some have greatness thrust upon them.” — from Act II, Scene 5 of “Twelfth Night.” From “Henry V,” “Once more unto the breach, dear friends, once more.”
(CFA, ’96, p.44)(WSJ, 4/22/96, p.a-23)(AP, 4/23/97)(HN, 4/23/99)

1564 Apr 26, William Shakespeare was baptized.
(HN, 4/26/98)

1564 May 27, John Calvin (54), one of the dominant figures of the Protestant Reformation, died in Geneva.
(HN, 5/27/99)(MC, 5/27/02)

1564 Jun 22, A 3-ship French expedition under René de Laudonnière arrived in Florida and built Fort Caroline.
(Arch, 1/05, p.47)(www.cla.sc.edu/sciaa/staff/depratterc/chas2.html)

1564 Jul 25, Maximillian II became emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
(HN, 7/25/98)

1564 Aug 18, Spanish king Philip II joined the Council of Trent.
(MC, 8/18/02)

1564 Sep 13, On the verge of attacking Pedro Menendez’s Spanish settlement at San Agostin, Florida, Jean Ribault’s French fleet was scattered by a devastating storm.
(HN, 9/13/98)

1564 Oct 3, Christophorus Fabritius, [Christoffel Smit], Calvinist vicar, was burned at the stake.
(MC, 10/3/01)

1564 Oct 15, Andreas Vesalius (b.1514), Flemish anatomist, died. Andreas Vesalius, the father of modern anatomy, was forced by the Inquisition to make a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. He disappeared during the voyage. In 1543 he authored of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body).
(TL-MB, 1988, p.20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andreas_Vesalius)

1564 Oct 18, John Hawkins began his 2nd trip to America.
(MC, 10/18/01)

1564 Dec 31, Willem of Orange demanded freedom of conscience and religion.
(MC, 12/31/01)

1564 The Peace of Troyes ended the war between England and France with England renouncing its claim to Calais for a substantial payment.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1564 Emp. Ferdinand I died. He was succeeded by his son Maximilian II.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1564 Ivan IV was forced by the Russian nobles (Boyars) to withdraw from Moscow.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1564 Spaniards occupied the Philippines and built Manila.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1564 The Council of Trent ended with the Pope promulgating profesio fidei, the final definition of Roman Catholicism.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1564 The Counter-Reformation extended to Poland.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1564 John Calvin, Protestant leader, died in Geneva.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1564 Andrea Amati (d.1577), Italian violin maker, made one of the first of his famous violins in Cremona. Stradivari was one of his students.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.20)(AMNHDT, 5/98)(Econ, 7/30/05, p.78)

1564 The first horse-drawn coach was introduced to England from Holland.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1564 France adopted the reformed calendar and shifted the new year from April to Jan. Some didn’t like the change and were called April fools.
(SFEC, 1/10/99, Z1 p.8)

1564 In Mexico the monastery of Tecpatan was founded in southern Chiapas state.
(SSFC, 10/18/15, p.A5)

1564-1651 Abraham Bloemaert, Dutch artist and teacher of Hendrick ter Brugghen.
(SFEM, 8/31/97, p.13)

1565 Mar 1, Spanish occupier Estacio de Sá founded Rio de Janeiro. He destroyed the existing French colony.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.21)(SC, 3/1/02)

1565 Apr 27, First Spanish settlement in Philippines was established in Cebu City.
(HN, 4/27/98)

1565 May 19-Sep 8, In Malta the Great Siege lasted over this period as Suleyman the Magnificent sought to add the island to his conquests. The Turkish army of 40,000 men besieged the Knights of Malta, led by Grand Master Jean de la Valette, at their garrison, St. Elmo. The defenders numbered 540 knights, 400 Spanish troops, and Maltese gentry. In the initial attack 200 of 260 defenders lay dead at the end of the day but the garrison held out. The Turks continued their efforts for four months when reinforcements arrived and saved them. The arrival of a fleet from Spain, the “Gran Soccorso,” turned the tide. This halted the westward advance of Islam in the Mediterranean. St. Elmo was later transformed into Valletta, the capital of Malta. The Order of St. John continues to thrive to today.
(HNQ, 4/8/99)(WSJ, 12/30/94, p.A-6)(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.40)(WSJ, 7/21/08, p.A11)

1565 Jul 29, Mary Queen of Scots married her cousin, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.21)(MC, 7/29/02)

1565 Aug 28, A Spanish expedition under Pedro Menendez de Aviles arrived at an inlet on the Florida coast on the feast day of St. Augustine and gave the theologian’s name to the encampment.
(WSJ, 7/17/08, p.W8)

1565 Sep 8, A Spanish expedition under Pedro Menendez de Aviles established the first permanent European colony in the present day St. Augustine, Fla. Aviles founded St. Augustine on the site of the Timucuan Indian village of Seloy, 42 years before the English settled at Jamestown and 55 years before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock. St. Augustine, Florida is the oldest permanent European settlement in the US. Castillo de San Marco fortress was built by the Spanish to defend St. Augustine.
(AP, 9/8/97)(NG, March 1990, p.117)(WSJ, 8/3/95, p.A-8)(WSJ, 5/21/98, p.A1)

1565 Sep 20, A Spanish fleet under Pedro Menendez de Aviles wiped out some 350 Frenchmen at Fort Caroline, in Florida. Spanish forces under Pedro Menendez massacred a band of French Huguenots that posed a potential threat to Spanish hegemony in the area. They also took advantage of the local Timucuan Indian tribe. Artist Jacques Le Moyne de Morgues managed to escape and return to France, where he painted watercolors depicting the local botany. His alleged paintings of Indians living nearby were later thrown into question.
(WSJ, 8/3/95, p.A-8)(Arch, 1/05, p.47)(WSJ, 7/18/08, p.W8)(Arch, 5/05, p.31)(Arch, 1/06, p.25)

1565 Sep 28, Alessandro Tassoni, political writer (Rape of Bucket), was born in Modena, Italy.
(MC, 9/28/01)

1565 Oct 8, Spanish Friar Andres de Urdaneta arrived in Acapulco after sailing as far as 38 degrees North latitude to obtain favorable winds. 14 of the crew died on the voyage from the Philippines. During the voyage he sighted land believed to be the California coast. His route became famous and trusted for sailing from Manila to Acapulco and became known as the Manila galleon. In 1939 William Lytle Schurz authored “The Manila Galleon.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andr%C3%A9s_de_Urdaneta) (SFC,10/17/97, p.A25)(SFC, 2/7/15, p.D1)

1565 Dec 9, Pius IV (66), [Gianangelo de’ Medici], Italian Pope (1559-65), died.
(MC, 12/9/01)

1565 Dec 18, Benedetto Varchi (62), Italian humanist and historian (L’Ercolano), died.
(MC, 12/18/01)

1565 Pieter Breughel the Elder received a commission for a series of paintings called “The Months.” Five survive including “Hunters in the Snow.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1565 Tintoretto (c.1518-1594) created his “Crucifixion,” later considered the single best example of Italian Renaissance religious art.
(WSJ, 9/22/07, p.W10)

1565 The Vasari corridor was built in Florence to connect the Pitti Palace with the Uffizi Gallery. In 1664 Leopoldo de Medici began a collection of artists’ self-portraits and housed them in the corridor.
(Econ, 5/26/07, p.100)

1565 Palladio finished S. Giorgio Maggiore Church in Venice.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1565 The bouree, derived from a traditional French clog dance, was introduced at the French court Catherine de’Medici.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1565 Pedro Menendez de Aviles, Spanish Florida’s 1st governor, led an expedition to the Calusa and stationed a small garrison at Calos. The garrison withdrew in 1568.
(AM, 11/04, p.50)

1565 The Royal College of Physicians in London was officially permitted to carry out human dissections.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.21)
1565 Pencils were first manufactured in England.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1565 Venetian Fernand Berteli drew a large body of water in the St. Lawrence Valley on his map “A Complete Description of the Whole Known World.”
(LSA, Spring 1995, p.6)

1565 Elizabeth I of England granted the nobleman Hellier de Carteret the island fiefdom of Sark, which included the island of Brecqhou in the English Channel.
(SFC, 8/10/96, p.A10)

1565 In India Akbar had the Red Fort built in Agra along the Yamuna River.
(HT, 4/97, p.22)

1565 The Iglesia de San Roque was built in Campeche, Mexico.
(SSFC, 1/25/09, p.E5)

1565 Philip II of Spain sent Miguel Lopez de Legazpi and 1,000 mercenaries from Mexico to wrest the Philippines from Muslim sultans, who had ruled since the 12th century.
(SFC, 7/7/03, p.A6)

1566 Feb 13, St. Augustine, Florida, was established. [see Sep 8, 1565]
(MC, 2/13/02)

1566 Mar 9, David Riccio, Italian singer, secretary, lover of Mary Stuart, was murdered.
(MC, 3/9/02)

1566 May 10, Leonhard Fuchs (65), German botanist, died.
(MC, 5/10/02)

1566 Mar 11, The 2nd Lithuanian statutes went into effect and upheld a democracy of landowners. The Statute of Lithuania gave the Seimas legislative power. The parliament had developed since Casimir ascended to the Polish throne. It was composed of an upper chamber or Council of Lords and assemblies of noblemen. They assembled in Vilnius or Brest-Litovsk.
(DrEE, 10/5/96, p.5)(LHC, 3/11/03)

1566 Jun 19, King James I (d.1625 at 59), son of Mary Queen of Scots, was born. James, aka King James VI of Scotland ruled Scotland from 1567-25 and England from 1603-25.
(WUD, 1994, p.763)(WSJ, 4/16/97, p.A13)(DTnet, 6/19/97)(HN, 6/19/99)

1566 Jul 2, French astrologer, physician and prophet Nostradamus died in Salon.
(AP, 7/2/97)

1566 Aug 25, Iconoclastic fury began in the Dutch province of Utrecht. Fanatical Calvinists instigated religious riots in the Netherlands.
(chblue.com, 8/25/01)(TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1566 Sep 7, Suleiman I (b.1494), Great Law Giver and sultan of Turkey (1520-66), died at Szigetvar, Hungary, as his troops besieged a fortress defended by Croatian-Hungarian nobleman Miklos Zrinyi. Suleiman’s great empire began a gradual decline under his slothful son, Selim II. Suleiman the Magnificent, during his reign, had commissioned the architect Sinan to build the Suleymanye, perhaps the finest mosque ever constructed.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.21)(WSJ, 4/29/99, p.A24)(SFC, 9/21/13, p.A3)

1566 Nov 10, Robert Devereux, 2nd earl of Essex, cousin and lover of Elizabeth I, was born.
(MC, 11/10/01)

1566 Dec 1, Spanish king Philip II named Fernando Alvarez, duke of Alba.
(MC, 12/1/01)

1566 Dec 30, Alessandro Piccinini, composer, was born.
(MC, 12/30/01)

1566 Gerolamo Bassano (d.1621), Italian artist, was born. His work included “The Sepulchre.” It was based on a larger altarpiece painted in 1574 by his father Jacopo Bassano and Francesco Bassano. In 2006 the Washington County Museum of Fine Arts in Maryland commissioned an x-ray of the work and found that it hid a portrait of a man in Renaissance clothing.
(SFC, 5/12/06, p.E9)(www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/bassano/)

1566 Pieter Breughel the Elder painted the “Peasant Wedding Dance.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1566 G. Blundeville published his “Foure Chiefest Offices Belonging to Horsemanship.” It was a pioneering manual of veterinary science.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1566 Japanese music began to win its individual character with the popularization of national forms of vertical bamboo pipe (shakuhachi), three-stringed guitar (samisen), and zither (koto).
(TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1566 The Stari Most (Old Bridge) was built over the Neretva River in Bosnia. It gave the city of Mostar (bridge keeper) its name. It was destroyed in 1993 by Bosnian Croat artillery. An annual diving contest was held off the bridge since it was built. In 2004 the bridge was reopened.
(SFC, 5/15/00, p.A12)(WSJ, 6/1/04, p.A1)(Econ, 11/26/05, p.64)
1566 A Serbian Orthodox monastery was built in Zitomislic, Bosnia. It was destroyed in 1992 during the Bosnian War, but was rebuilt and reopened in May 2005.
(Econ, 11/26/05, p.64)

1566 During the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, the Knole manor house in west Kent came into the possession of her cousin Thomas Sackville (1536-1608) whose descendants the Earls and Dukes of Dorset and Barons Sackville have lived there since 1603 (the intervening years saw the house let to the Lennard family). Thomas Sackville was the first Earl of Dorset and Lord Treasurer to Elizabeth I and James I. In 2010 Robert Sackville-West authored “Inheritance: The Story of Knole and the Sackvilles.”
(Econ, 8/21/10, p.70)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knole_House)

1566 Two sons of Cortes, both named Martin Cortes, were arrested in Mexico for purportedly fomenting a rebellion against the Spanish crown. In 2004 Anna Lanyon authored “The New World of Martin Cortes.”
(SSFC, 7/11/04, p.M3)

1566 Akbar began the construction of the Lahore Fort in northern Pakistan.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.C)

1566 Heinrich Bullinger, Swiss theologian, sought to combine Calvinism with Zwinglianism in his “Helvetian Confession.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1566 Cardinal Michaele Ghislieri was elected Pope Pius V.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1566 Regent Margaret abolished the Inquisition.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1566 The Turko-Hungarian War restarted despite the truce of 1562.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1566 The Spanish made contact with Calusa Indians at a major village in what is now Pineland, Florida.
(AM, adv. circular, p.2)
1566 Spanish conquistador Juan Pardo arrived the Spanish settlement at Santa Elena, on what later became known as Parris Island, South Carolina. He marched into the interior and founded Fort San Juan next to a Catawba town called Joara. Fort San Juan was burned down by the Catawba after about 18 months. Santa Elena was the first capital of Spanish colonial Florida.
(Sm, 3/06, p.33)(SFC, 7/27/16, p.A6)

1566 Sir Francis Drake visited an island off Roanoke, Va., with a ship full of Turkish prisoners. Only half the prisoners were recorded as taken back to England.
(WSJ, 4/14/97, p.B5)

1566 One of the world’s first newspapers, “Notizie Scritte,” appeared in Venice.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1566 Bartolome de Las Casas (b.1474), “Apostle to the Indians,” died in Madrid, Spain.

1566-1572 Pius V (b. 1504) led the Catholic Church.
(HN, 1/17/99)

1566-1574 Selim II followed Suleiman I in the Ottoman House of Osman.
(Ot, 1993, xvii)

1566-1638 Joachim Wytawael (Wtewael), Dutch mannerist painter.
(SFEM, 8/31/97, p.13)(SFEM, 9/17/00, p.96)

1567 Feb 9, Henry Stuart, earl of Darnley, Lord Darnley, the second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, was murdered in his sick-bed in a house in Edinburgh when the house blew up. In 2003 Alison Weir authored “Mary, Queen of the Scots, and the Murder of Lord Darnley.”
(HN, 2/9/99)(MC, 2/9/02)(WSJ, 5/1/03, D10)

1567 Apr 11, Dutch Prince William of Orange fled from Antwerp to Breda.
(MC, 4/11/02)

1567 May 1, Michiel Jansz van Mierevelt, Dutch royal painter, was born.
(MC, 5/1/02)

1567 May 15, Claudio Giovanni Antonio Monteverdi (d.1643), musician and composer (L’Orfeo), was born in Cremona, Italy. He marked the beginning of the Baroque Era in music.
(LGC-HCS, p.25)(WUD, 1994, p.928)(MC, 5/15/02)
1567 May 15, Mary, Queen of Scots married James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell.

1567 Jun 11, At Borthwick Castle a thousand Scottish nobles cornered Mary, Queen of Scots, who fled the castle by jumping out the window, disguised as a pageboy. The nobles cornered the newly-wed Mary and her third husband, the dubious James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell. They demanded Bothwell’s head and Mary’s renunciation of the Earl and his influence. Bothwell, a suspect in the murder of Queen Mary’s second husband, Lord Darnley, just a few months before, fled the castle’s sheltering 110-foot towers and the asylum offered by the 6th Lord Borthwick, leaving his wife and queen behind.
(HNQ, 4/13/01)

1567 Jun 15, Genoa expelled the Jews. [see Apr 2, 1550]
(MC, 6/15/02)

1567 Jun 16, Mary, Queen of Scots, was imprisoned in Lochleven Castle in Scotland.
(AP, 6/16/98)

1567 Jun 20, Jews were expelled from Brazil by order of regent Don Henrique.
(MC, 6/20/02)

1567 Jul 24, Mary, Queen of Scots, was imprisoned and forced to abdicate her throne to her 1-year-old son James VI.
(HN, 7/24/98)

1567 Aug 8, Duke of Alba’s army entered Brussels, Belgium.
(MC, 8/8/02)

1567 Sep 9, Lomaraal, Count van Egmont and Philip van Hoorne, were arrested by Alba.
(MC, 9/9/01)

1567 Oct 6, The Duke of Alba became guardian of the Netherlands. Spain’s Duke of Alba arrived in Brussels at the head of a 10,000 troops to quell the iconoclastic riots.
(MC, 10/6/01)(WSJ, 7/1/04, p.D8)

1567 Nov 10, In the Battle at St. Denis the French government army faced the Huguenots. Catholic duke François I of Condé (1530-1569) managed to sustain his position against a numerically larger force of Huguenots (French Protestants). The Huguenots had started a second War of Religion in France with the Conspiracy of Meaux led by Condé and Duke Anne of Montmorency (1493?-1567). Montmorency lost his life at St. Denis.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.21)(DoW, 1999, p.390)

1567 Samuel de Champlain, French explorer (Lake Champlain), was born. Later evidence suggested that he was more likely born about 1580.

1567 El Greco (1541-1614) arrived in Venice as a painter if icons in the hieratic, late-Byzantine style.
(WSJ, 6/18/01, p.A16)

1567 The Metropolitan Cathedral was begun in Mexico City. It took 250 years to complete.
(Hem., 1/96, p.26)

1567 Longleat House was begun. It shows the impetus of the Reformation on English domestic architecture.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1567 The Catholic Church outlawed the outright sale of indulgences.
(WSJ, 1/13/00, p.A1)

1567 Maximilian II established a monastery council to superintend the clergy.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1567 Laurence Sheriff founded the Rugby school in England.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1567 Mary, Queen of Scots, played one of the 1st recorded games of golf at Seton Castle. In 2005 the 14-bedroom castle was put on the market asking $27 million.
(SFC, 8/31/05, p.C2)

1567 The Duke of Alva, a military commander under Philip II of Spain, arrived in the Netherlands as a military governor and began a reign of terror. Margaret of Parma resigned the regency.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1567 Typhoid fever swept through parts of South America and killed more than two million Indians.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1567 Alvaro Mendana de Neyra, Spanish explorer, discovered the Solomon Islands.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1568 Jan 24, In Netherlands Duke of Alba declared (future King) William of Orange an outlaw.
(MC, 1/24/02)

1568 Feb 16, A sentence of the Holy Office condemned all the inhabitants of the Netherlands to death as heretics. From this universal doom only a few persons, especially named, were acquitted.

1568 Feb 17, Holy Roman Emperor Maximillian II agreed to pay tribute to the Sultan for peace.
(MC, 2/17/02)

1568 Mar 9, Aloysius “Luigi” van Gonzaga, Italian prince, Jesuit, saint, was born.
(MC, 3/9/02)

1568 Mar 23, Treaty of Longjumeau: French Huguenots went on strike.
(SS, 3/23/02)

1568 Apr 16, The first recorded sighting of Tulagi Island by Europeans was by the Spanish expedition of Álvaro de Mendaña. More precisely the sighting was due to a local voyage done by a small boat, in the accounts the brigantine Santiago, commanded by Maestre de Campo Pedro Ortega Valencia and having Hernán Gallego as pilot.

1568 May 3, French forces in Florida slaughter hundreds of Spanish.
(HN, 5/3/98)

1568 May 11, Christian I, ruler of Anhalt-Bernburg (Battle of White Mountain), was born.
(MC, 5/11/02)

1568 May 13, Mary Queen of Scots was defeated by English at battle of Langside, south of Glasgow.

1568 May 16, Mary Queen of Scotland fled to England.

1568 May 19, Defeated by the Protestants, Mary, Queen of Scots, fled to England where Queen Elizabeth imprisoned her.
(HN, 5/19/99)`

1568 Jun 1, Duke of Alba beheaded 18 nobles in Brussels. (MC, 6/1/02)

1568 Jun 4, Lamoraal, Count Egmont, prince of Gavere, was beheaded in Brussels for opposition to the Spanish Inquisition. He became a heroic figure in Goethe’s play and Beethoven’s musical setting. Philips van Montmorency comte d’Horn, admiral, statesman, was also beheaded along with 18 other leaders of the Flemish opposition.
(PCh, 1992, p.195)(MC, 6/5/02)

1568 Jun 5, Ferdinand, the Duke of Alba, crushed the Calvinist insurrection in Ghent [Belgium].
(HN, 6/5/98)

1568 Jul 13, Alexander Nowell, the Dean of St Paul’s Cathedral, perfected a way to bottle beer.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.21)(MC, 7/13/02)

1568 Jul 23, Don Carlos (c23), son of Spanish king Philip II, died.
(MC, 7/23/02)

1568 Sep 5, Tommasso Campanella, Italian philosopher and poet, who wrote “City of the Sun,” was born.
(HN, 9/5/98)

1568 Sep 30, Eric XIV, king of Sweden, was deposed after showing signs of madness. The Swedes declared Eric XIV unfit to reign and proclaimed John III king.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.21)(HN, 9/30/98)

1568 Oct 5, The Conference of York began in the trial against Mary Stuart.
(MC, 10/5/01)
1568 Oct 5, Willem of Orange’s army occupied Brabant.
(MC, 10/5/01)

1568 The “Shahnameh” by Firdawsi, as commissioned by Shah Tahmasp was given to the Ottoman Sultan Selim II. By 1903 it was in the hand of Baron Edmond de Rothschild.
(WSJ, p. A-18, 10/13/94)

1568 Archbishop Matthew Parker supervised the “Bishop’s Bible,” which was published in opposition to the popular (Calvinistic, 1560) Geneva Bible.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.21)(WSJ, 4/4/01, p.A18)

1568 Il Gesu, the mother church of the Jesuit order, was begun in Rome.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1568 The Spanish Riding School in Vienna began operating and became world famous for their Lipizzaners, white horses.
(SFEC, 11/29/98, p.T5)

1568 Emp. Maximilian bought peace from Selim II and the Sultan received a large annual payment.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1568 Leaders of the Flemish opposition to the Spanish Inquisition were beheaded as traitors in Brussels.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1568 General Oda Nobunaga, Japanese leader who seized Kyoto and destroyed the power of the feudal lords, introduced a dynamic period of centralization and expansion.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1568 Gasparo da Salo began making violins at Brescia.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1568 Constanzo Varoli, Italian anatomist, studied the anatomy of the human brain.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1568 In Rome Aonio Paleario, poet and protestant-style reformer, was burned at the stake by Pius V for posting a poem on a statue, a practice that was called the “talking statue” (Pasquino): “You’d think it was winter – the way Pius is burning Christians, – like so many logs on the fire. – He must be getting himself ready – to enjoy the flames of Hell.
(WSJ, 5/3/01, p.A16)

1568 The “Shahnameh” (Persian Book of Kings-1520-1530) by Firdawsi was given to the Ottoman Sultan. It was commissioned to be illustrated for Shah Tahmasp by more than a dozen artists. 258 miniatures were made with 750 folios of Farsi text in it.
(WSJ, p. A-18, 10/13/94)

1568-1600 The Azuchi-Momoyama Period in Japan.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)

1568-1625 Jan Breughel, the Elder, a son of Pieter Breughel, painted the “teeming textures of normal existence.”
(WSJ, 2/18/00, p.W12)

1568-1634 In Portugal the Jail Cleaning Yard of the Inquisition Court in Evora was in active use during this period. In 2015 researchers found a dozen skeletons in the garbage dump and suspected they were Jewish victims of the Portuguese Inquisition.
(AP, 8/19/15)

1568-1648 The Eighty Years’ War, or Dutch Revolt was the secession war in which the proto-Netherlands first became an independent country and in which the region now known as Belgium became established. It was carried on by the Calvinist and predominantly mercantile Dutch provinces.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.21)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eighty_Years%27_War)

1569 Jan 11, The 1st recorded lottery in England was drawn in St Paul’s Cathedral.
(MC, 1/11/02)

1569 Feb 7, King Philip II ordered the inquisition in South America.
(MC, 2/7/02)

1569 Feb 28, The Lithuanian delegation pulled out of union talks with Poland and departed Lublin.
(LHC, 2/28/03)

1569 Mar 12, Zigmantas Augustas broke away from Lithuania and attached Volinija and Palenki to Poland.
(LHC, 3/12/03)

1569 Mar 13, Count of Anjou defeated the Huguenots at the Battle of Jarnac. Louis Conde, French prince, co-leader of Huguenots, died in battle.
(MC, 3/13/02)

1569 Apr 3, Giovanni Battista Massarengo, composer, was born.
(MC, 4/3/02)

1569 May 10, John of Avila (b.1500), Spanish minister and writer, died. He became the patron saint of Spain’s diocesan clergy and was considered one of the greatest preachers of his time. He was canonized in 1970. In 2012 Pope Benedict XVI named him as a “doctor” of the Catholic church.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_of_Avila)(AP, 8/20/11)(AP, 10/7/12)

1569 Jul 1, The Lublin Union was signed and direct rule over Lithuania was passed to Poland. Lithuania maintained certain ministers, laws, money and an army. The territories of Volinija, Kiev and Podolija were transferred to Polish rule.
(H of L, 1931, p.72-74)(LC, 1998, p.20)
1569 Jul 1, Latvia Parliament accepted the Union of Lublin and was incorporated into Poland.
(MC, 7/1/02)

1569 Aug 27, Pope Pius named Cosimo I de’ Medici, grand duke of Toscane.
(MC, 8/27/01)

1569 Sep 5, Pieter Breughel, South Netherlands (Flemish) painter, died at about 44.
(MC, 9/5/01)

1569 Oct 3, Battle of Montcontour the Duke of Anjou beat the Huguenots.
(MC, 10/3/01)

1569 Nov 16, Paul Sartorius, composer, was born.
(MC, 11/16/01)

1569 Dec 9, Martinus de Porres, saint (patron of social justice), was born in Peru.
(MC, 12/9/01)

1569 Dec 18, Jakob Hassler, composer, was born.
(MC, 12/18/01)

1569 Dec 23, St. Philip, metropolitan of Moscow, was martyred by Ivan the Terrible.
(MC, 12/23/01)

1569 Alfonso de Ercilla y Zuniga published about this time the first part of a Spanish epic on the conquest of Chile, “La Araucana.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1569 In England a rebellion by 7,000 people in favor of the pope was brutally suppressed.
(Econ, 4/29/17, p.67)

1569 Burmese King Bayinnaung invaded Thailand and took as hostage Princess Suphankalaya. It was later believed that the princess gave up her freedom in exchange for her kingdom’s independence from Burma. In 1999 The Thai government offered to help Burma restore a palace in exchange for information about the princess.
(SFEC, 7/4/99, p.A11)

1569 Lithuania and Poland formed the Union of Lublin for protection against the growing power of Muscovite Russia. The new federation established an elective monarchy and Lithuania lost its separate institutions and was gradually submerged into Poland as a province. The Union of Lublin merged Lithuania, Poland and Lublin under Sigismund II of Poland.
(Compuserve, Online Encyclopedia)(TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1569 Don John of Austria put down the Morisco rebellion in Granada.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1569 Tycho Brahe, Danish astronomer, built a quadrant measuring 5.8 meters, and a celestial globe with a diameter of 1.5 meters at Augsburg.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1569 Gerhardus Mercator (1512-1594), Flemish geographer, produced his “Map of the World” for the use of navigators on the projection that bears his name to this day. He was the first to use the term “atlas” for a collection of maps. In 2004 Andrew Taylor authored “The World of Gerard Mercator.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.21)(WSJ, 11/5/04, p.W9)

1569-1583 In India Akbar was informed by a holy man that he would soon be a father. A Muslim wife bore him a son and Akbar built a walled city, Fatehpur Siskri, in Sikri, the home village of the holy man. The local water table could not meet the demands of the city and after about 14 years the capital was moved back to Agra.
(HT, 4/97, p.23)

1570 Jan 2, Tsar Ivan the Terrible began a march to Novgorod.
(MC, 1/2/02)

1570 Jan 9, Ivan the Terrible killed 1000-2000 residents of Novgorod. Ivan the Terrible, Tsar of Muscovy, sacked the city of Great Novgorod, massacring most of its inhabitants during a five-week reign of terror.
(TL-MB, p.22)(MC, 1/9/02)

1570 Feb 25, Pope Pius V issued the bull Regnans in Excelsis which excommunicated Queen Elizabeth the First of England. This absolved her subjects from allegiance. Elizabeth responded by hanging and burning Jesuits.
(TL-MB, p.22)(AP, 2/25/98)(HN, 2/25/99)(MC, 2/25/02)

1570 Mar 4, Spain’s King Philip II banned foreign Dutch students.
(SC, 3/4/02)

1570 Apr 14, Polish Calvinists, Lutherans, Hernhutters unified against the Jesuits.
(MC, 4/14/02)

1570 Apr 24, Spanish troops battled followers of Sultan Suleiman.
(MC, 4/24/02)

1570 Apr 27, Pope Pius V excommunicated Queen Elizabeth I [see Feb 25].
(AP, 4/27/07)

1570 Jul 3, Antonio Paleario (67), Italian humanist, was executed by the inquisition.
(MC, 7/3/02)

1570 Aug 8, Charles IX of France signed the Treaty of St. Germain (Peace of St. Germain-en-Laye), ending the third war of religion and giving religious freedom to the Huguenots.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)(HN, 8/8/98)

1570 Nov 2, A tidal wave in the North Sea destroyed the sea walls from Holland to Jutland. Over a thousand people are killed.
(HN, 11/2/98)(www.metoffice.com/education/secondary/students/flood.html)

1570 Dec 5, Johan Friis, chancellor of Denmark (b.1532), died. his share of spoliated Church property had made him one of the wealthiest men in Denmark. Under King Frederick II (1559-1588), who understood but little of state affairs, Friis was well-nigh omnipotent. He was largely responsible for the Scandinavian Seven Years’ War (1562-1570), which did so much to exacerbate the relations between Denmark and Sweden.

1570 Dec 15, The Peace of Stettin was concluded in Livonia. Denmark recognized the independence of Sweden in the Peace of Stettin. Sweden gave up her claim to Norway.
(TL-MB, p.22)(http://depts.washington.edu/baltic/papers/livonianwar.htm)

c1570 Pieter Bruegel the Elder created his paintings “Spring” and “Summer.”
(WSJ, 10/1/01, p.A22)
1570 El Greco (1541-1614) arrived in Rome where he resisted and absorbed the lessons of Michelangelo. He stayed for a half dozen years and settled in Toledo, Spain, in 1577.
(WSJ, 6/18/01, p.A16)
1570 Nicholas Hilliard painted his famous portrait of Elizabeth I.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)
1570 Melchior Lorch made an ink drawing.
(SFEM, 6/29/97, p.4)
1570 Jacopo Zucchi, a mannerist artist, painted “The Bath of Bathsheba.”
(WSJ, 4/28/98, p.A16)
1570 George Owen wrote his “History of Pembrokeshire,” wherein he clearly set forth the orderly principle of geological stratigraphy; but the work was not published until 1796.
(RFH-MDHP, p.7)
1570 “The Scholemaster,” a treatise on education by the English scholar Roger Ascham, was published posthumously.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)
1570 Palladio published “I Quattro Libri dell’Architettura,” a summary of classical architecture.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1570 The Convento de Penha was built on a 164-meter cliff overlooking Vitoria in the state of Espiritu Santo, Brazil.
(USA Today, OW, 4/22/96, p.13)

1570 The Whitechapel Bell Foundry was founded in London, England. Philadelphia’s Liberty Bell was later cast there. Big Ben was cast there in 1858. In 2016 the company announced that it would close in May 2017.
(http://tinyurl.com/jxfxhd7)(SFC, 4/11/08, p.A16)

1570 The Berlin Staatskapelle formed. In 2004 it performed Schumann in San Francisco.
(SFC, 1/14/04, p.D3)

1570 In Carrara, Italy, Alberigo, son of the mad Marquis Alberigo Cybo Malaspina, Lord of Carrara, inaugurated the use of gunpowder for quarrying marble.
(SFEC,10/19/97, p.T4)

1570 The Japanese opened the port of Nagasaki to overseas trade.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1570 Lutherans, Calvinists and Moravian brethren united against the Jesuits in Poland in the Consensus of Sendomir.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1570 Seville, Spain, by this time stood as the 3rd largest city in Europe, behind Rome and Venice, as it reaped the rewards of trade rights, granted in 1503, with the New World.
(SSFC, 8/15/10, p.M4)
1570 Spanish Jesuits established the Ajacan mission on the York River, a few miles from Jamestown would be established 37 years later. The priests were all killed in 1571 and the site was abandoned.
(AH, 6/07, p.31)

1570 In Switzerland the hotel Crusch Alva in Zuoz in the Engadine dates back to this time.
(Hem., 2/97, p.28)

1570 The Mexican city of Vallodalid, later Morelia, was laid out.
(SSFC, 11/17/02, p.C11)

1570 Jul 3, The Turks began their attack on Nicosia, Cyprus, after Venice refused to surrender the island.

1570 Sep 23, The Turks began their attack on Famagusta, Cyprus, which was fortified by Venetian commander Marcantonio Bragadino (1523-1571).
(http://historicbiography.blogspot.com/2008/01/marcantonio-bragadin.html)(WSJ, 7/21/08, p.A11)

1570-1612 The first modern atlas, Theatrum orbis terrarum, was published by Abraham Ortelius of Amsterdam in 1570. The Flemish mapmaker compiled it using the best maps available and issued dozens of editions in this period. [see 1602]
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)(WSJ,11/24/95, p.B-8)

1570-1628 Salamone Rossi, Jewish court composer in Mantua.
(SFC, 2/28/98, p.B3)

1570-1670 Portuguese forces attacked Monomutapa in order to gain control over the markets and gold mines there. The Portuguese forces suffered losses to malaria and their conquest was unsuccessful. For the next 100 years they continued to promote civil wars and weakened the Monomutapa power. By the late 1600s the southern kingdoms were able to conquer Monomutapa completely.
(ATC, p.148)

1571 Jan 27, Shah Abbas, King of the Safavid dynasty in Persia (1587-1629), was born. He established a monopoly on the production and sale of silk and used the wealth to develop the city of Isfahan. Fearful of assassination he turned on his own family, executed one son, and blinded 2 sons, his father and his brothers.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)(http://4dw.net/royalark/Persia/safawi3.htm)

1571 Feb 2, All eight members of a Jesuit mission in Virginia were murdered by Indians who pretended to be their friends.
(HN, 2/2/99)

1571 Feb 9, Algonquin Indians attacked the Jesuit mission on the Virginia peninsula killing Fr. Juan Bautista de Segura and 4 other remaining priests.
(AH, 2/06, p.15)

1571 Feb 14, Benvenuto Cellini (b.1500), Florentine goldsmith and sculptor, writer (Perseus), died. His 1545 autobiography greatly influenced the Renaissance.
(HN, 11/1/00)(WSJ, 2/14/00, p.A20)(www.boglewood.com/cornaro/xcellini.html)

1571 Feb 15, Michael Praetorius, composer (Syntagma music), was born in Kreuzberg, Germany.
(MC, 2/15/02)

1571 Mar 19, Spanish troops occupied Manila. [see May 19]
(MC, 3/19/02)

1571 May 19, Miguel Lopez de Lagazpi founded the city of Manila in the Philippines and encountered Chinese settlements. [see Mar 19]
(DTnet, 5/19/97)(WSJ, 12/26/02, p.A1)

1571 May 20, Venice, Spain & Pope Pius formed an anti-Turkish Saint League.
(MC, 5/20/02)

1571 Aug 8, John Ward, English composer, was born in Canterbury.
(MC, 8/8/02)(Internet)

1571 Sep 1, Famagusta, Cyprus, surrendered to Mustafa Pasha commander of the Turkish forces after nearly a one year siege. The terms of surrender appeared agreeable to Venetian Gov. Marcantonio Bragadino (b.1523), but Mustafa Pasha turned on Bragadino and had him violently tortured and finally flayed alive.

1571 Oct 7, Spanish, Genoese and Venetian ships of the Christian League defeated an Ottoman fleet in the naval Battle of Lepanto, Greece. In the last great clash of galleys, the Ottoman navy lost 117 ships to a Christian naval coalition under the overall command of Spain’s Don Juan de Austria.
(AP, 10/7/07)(www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-religion/1760264/posts)

1571 Dec 27, Johannes Kepler (d.1630), German astronomer known as the “father of modern astronomy,” was born. Working with the data gathered by Tycho Brahe, he established the three laws of planetary motion:
a) The planets do not travel in concentric circles, but in ellipses, with the sun at one of the two foci of the ellipse.
b) A radius vector joining a planet to the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times.
c) The third law asserted a mathematical relation between the periods of revolution of the planets and their distance from the sun.
(V.D.-H.K.p.199)(HN, 12/27/98)

1571 Alessandro Vittoria created his bust of “Tomaso Rangone.”
(WSJ, 1/29/02, p.A18)

1571 Mughal emperor Akbar moved his court from Agra (India), to Fatehpur Sikri, where he built a sandstone palace in the middle of nowhere.
(Econ, 3/7/09, p.82)

1571 In Malta the Palace of the Grand Masters was begun.
(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.40)

1571 Along with the Common Book of Prayer, the Thirty-nine Articles constitute the doctrinal statements of the Church of England. Developed from the Forty-two Articles written by Archbishop Thomas Cranmer in 1553 “for the avoiding of controversy in opinions.” When Mary became queen in 1553 and restored Catholicism, the Forty-two Articles were eliminated. Upon the reign of Elizabeth I in 1558 a new statement of doctrine was needed. The 1563 Canterbury Convocation drastically revised the Forty-two Articles and a final revision resulted in the Thirty-nine articles in 1571, approved by the Queen and imposed on the clergy. They deal briefly with the doctrines accepted by Catholics and Protestants alike and more fully with the points of controversy.
(HNQ, 10/20/98)

1571 Charles IX of France had a reconciliation with the Huguenots.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1571 John Lyon founded Harrow School in England.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1571 Hugh Price founded Jesus College at Oxford.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1571 Pope Pius V signed an alliance with Venice and Spain to fight the Turks.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1571 A British law was so set that a man could be fined for not wearing a wool cap.
(NG, 5.1988, pp. 574)

1571 A permanent gallows in London drew gawkers and became a source of entertainment and profit.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1571 Potters from Antwerp introduced Delft ware to England about this time.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1571 The Jesuits in Chesapeake Bay were wiped out by the Indians, resulting in the complete withdrawal of all Jesuits from Florida.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1571 Moscow was sacked by Tartars from Crimea.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1571 Siam’s Naresuan the Great (8) was taken hostage by Burmese invaders. It was the custom of the time for the victorious nation in a battle to take a royal child of the defeated monarch home as insurance against further aggression.

1571 Miguel de Cervantes (1547-1616) was wounded in the Battle of Lepanto, which pitted Ottoman Turkish forces against the Holy League, led by Spain. Returning home aboard the ship La Marquesa he was hit with three musket shots by Turkish pirates and spent years captive in Algiers. The Trinitarian order negotiated his release and helped pay a ransom that ruined the Cervantes family. In 1604 he published the first part of “The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Quixote de la Mancha.”
(AP, 4/28/14)

1571 Turks sacked the St. Sophia Cathedral in Old Nicosia, Cyprus, and turned it into the Selimiye Mosque.
(CNT, 3/04, p.153)

1571-1610 Michelangelo Merisi de Caravaggio, Italian painter. He painted the “Beheading of St. John” that was kept in Malta and recently sent to Florence for restoration. Paintings from the school of Caravaggio include “The Chastisement of Love.” In 1996 the oil painting “A Boy Peeling an Apple” was rediscovered. [see 1571, 1573]
(SFC, 6/11/96, p.E2)(AAP, 1964)(SFC, 11/19/96, p.B1)(Econ, 2/26/05, p.82)

1572 Feb 14, Hans Christoph Haiden, composer, was born.
(MC, 2/14/02)

1572 Apr 1, The Sea Beggars under Guillaume de la Marck landed in Holland and captured the small town of Briel.
(HN, 4/1/99)

1572 May 1, Pius V (Antonio Ghislieri), grand inquisitor, Pope (1566-72), died. He was succeeded by Gregory XIII.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)(MC, 5/1/02)

1572 Jun 9, Willem van Orange’s army occupied Gelderland.
(MC, 6/9/02)

1572 Jun 11, Ben Jonson (d.1637), English playwright and poet, was born. “Very few men are wise by their own counsel; or learned by their own teaching. For he that was only taught by himself, had a fool to his master.”
(AP, 1/4/98)(HN, 6/11/01)

1572 Jun 24, Adrianus van Gouda (lay brother), was hanged along with Cornelis van Diedt, Daniell van Arendonck (clergyman), Joannes van Naarden (priest) and Ludovicus Voets (priest).
(MC, 6/24/02)

1572 Jul 9, In Gorinchem, Netherlands, 19 Catholics were executed during the Dutch war for independence. They became known as “The Martyrs of Gorkum.”
(SFC, 3/5/11, p.E2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martyrs_of_Gorkum)

1572 Jul 18, William of Orange was recognized as viceroy of Holland, Friesland and Utrecht.
(MC, 7/18/02)

1572 Aug 24, The slaughter of French Protestants at the hands of Catholics began in Paris as Charles IX of France attempted to rid the country of Huguenots. Charles, under the sway of his mother Catherine de Medici, believed the Huguenot Protestants were plotting a revolution. France’s fourth war of religion started with the Massacre of St. Bartholomew’s Day, in which 50,000 Huguenots and their leader, Admiral Gaspard de Chastillon, Count the Coligny, were killed in and around Paris. Meyerbeer’s 1836 opera “Les Huguenots” was centered on the struggle. The House of Guise played a leading role in the massacre. In 2009 Stuart Carroll authored “Martyrs and Murderers: The Guise Family and the Making of Europe.”
(AP, 8/24/97)(HN, 8/24/98)(WSJ, 11/23/99, p.A21)(Econ, 11/7/09, p.78)

1572 Sep 30, Francisco Borgia, Jesuit theologian and saint, died at 61.
(MC, 9/30/01)

1572 Oct 5, The Spanish army under Duke of Alva’s son Don Frederik plundered Mechelen (Flanders).
(MC, 10/5/01)

1572 Nov 11, A supernova was observed in constellation known as Cassiopeia. Tycho Brahe, Danish astronomer, discovered a nova in the constellation of Cassiopeia. It is described in detail in his book “De Nova Stella” (1573). The light eventually became as bright as Venus and could be seen for two weeks in broad daylight. After 16 months, it disappeared.
(www.seds.org/~spider/spider/Vars/sn1572.html)(V.D.-H.K.p.197) (AP, 12/4/08)(Econ, 1/14/17, p.73)

1572 Nov 23, Agnolo di Cosimo (b.1503), Italian Renaissance painter and poet (aka Bronzino), died. He had worked as the court artist to Cosimo de’ Medici, Duke of Florence. His work included a portrait of “Eleonora of Toledo and her son.”
(MT, Spring 02, p.23)(Econ, 10/2/10, p.92)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bronzino)

1572 Nov 24, John Knox (67), Scottish preacher, died.
(MC, 11/24/01)

1572 Dec 30, Galeazzo Alessi (60), Italian architect (Palazza Marino, Milan), died.
(MC, 12/30/01)

1572 Dec, The Dutch town of Naarden surrendered to Imperial Spanish troops under the Duke of Alba (1507-1582). The town was then burned and the entire population massacred. Alba’s attempt to impose a 10% sales tax on commodities stirred resistance that led to the Dutch independence. In 2004 Henry Kamen authored “The Duke of Alba.”
(WSJ, 7/1/04, p.D8)

1572 Luis Vaz de Camoes, Portuguese poet, published his epic poem about Vasco da Gama’s voyages: “Os Lusiadas.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1572 The first book privately printed in England, “De Antiquitate Britannicae Ecclesiae” by Matthew Parker, was published.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)
1572 The Privy Council of Queen Elizabeth I, refused to grant patent protection to new knives with bone handles because the improvement was marginal.
(Econ, 5/5/07, p.78)

1572 One of the earliest cellos was made by Andrea Amati in Cremona.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1572 The Society of Antiquaries was founded in London.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)
1572 The British Parliament passed the Act for Punishment as Vagabonds. It required entertainers to obtain a noble patron for support. It led to the emergence of permanent theaters.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1572 A refurbished Turkish fleet captured Cyprus.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1572 Michel de Montaigne, French philosopher, observed that “there are men on whom the mere sight of medicine is operative.”
(Econ, 11/1/08, p.92)
1572 Ambroise Pare, French surgeon, introduced more humane treatment for battlefield wounds. He substituted egg yolk and turpentine for boiling oil, and introduced arterial ligature instead of cauterization.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1572 Dutch warships, Beggars of the Sea, effectively harried Spanish shipping in the English Channel and fueled the Dutch War of Independence.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)
1572 The Dutch used carrier pigeons during the Spanish siege of Haarlem.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1572 On the death of Sigismund II, the Polish monarchy became elective.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1572 Fray Luis de Leon, Spanish scholar and poet at Salamanca, was denounced as a heretic and served 5 years in prison.
(SSFC, 6/8/03, p.C8)

1573 Jan 28, In Warsaw a confederation act acknowledged freedom of religion in Lithuania and Poland.
(LHC, 1/28/03)

1573 Jan 31, Giulio Cesare Monteverdi, composer, was born.
(MC, 1/31/02)

1573 Feb 11, Sir Francis Drake 1st saw the Pacific Ocean from Panama.
(MC, 2/11/02)

1573 Feb 28, Elias Hill, German architect, city builder (Augsburg), was born.
(MC, 2/28/02)

1573 Mar 14, Claude II of Lotharingen, duke of Aumale, died. He murdered Huguenot leader Adm. Coligny. (see Aug 24, 1572]
(MC, 3/14/02)

1573 Apr 26, Marie de’Medici, Queen of France, was born.
(MC, 4/26/02)

1573 May 11, Henry of Anjou became the first elected king of Poland.
(HN, 5/11/98)

1573 Jul 15, Inigo Jones (d.1652), father of English classical architecture, was born in London. He restored St. Paul’s Cathedral.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.14)(MC, 7/15/02)

1573 Jul 20, Lancelot of Brederode (Netherlands), water beggar, was beheaded.
(MC, 7/20/02)

1573 Aug 7, Francis Drake’s fleet returned to Plymouth.
(MC, 8/7/02)

1573 Sep 28, Caravaggio (d.1610), painter, was born in Italy. His emphasis on the play of light and shadow invoked greater realism and set a new trend in painting. His paintings included “Boy Bitten by Lizard.” In 1999 Helen Langdon published “Caravaggio, A Life.” [see 1565-1609 & 1571-1610]
(SFEM, 8/31/97, p.8,13)(SFEC, 7/11/99, BR p.6)(MC, 9/28/01)

1573 Oct 7, William Laud, English archbishop of Canterbury (1633-45), was born.
(MC, 10/7/01)

1573 Nov 7, Solomon Luria (Maharshal), talmudic author (Yam Shel Shelomo), died.
(MC, 11/7/01)

1573 Argentina’s city of Cordoba was founded and shaped by the Jesuits as a cultural center.
(SSFC, 1/29/17, p.F6)

1573 Don John of Austria captured Tunis from the Turks.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1573 Sir Francis Drake captured a huge shipment of Spanish silver as it was being transported across the Isthmus of Panama.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1573 The city of Potosi, Bolivia, at the foot of Cerro Rico grew to surpass Seville, Madrid, Rome or Paris. During colonial rule, an estimated 30,000 Africans worked as slaves in Potosi.
(NH, 11/96, p.38)(http://tinyurl.com/pptepb9)

1573 The first maps in England were made by Christopher Saxton. He produced an atlas with 37 county maps and a large country map.
(SFC, 8/14/96, z-1 p.5)
1573 Sir Francis Walsingham began serving as principal secretary for Queen Elizabeth I. He founded a vast espionage network to protect the queen and served her until 1590. In 2005 Stephen Budiansky authored “Her Majesty’s Spymaster,” and account of Walsingham’s efforts.
(WSJ, 8/17/05, p.D14)

1573 Wan-Li of China began a 47-reign as emperor of the Ming dynasty.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1573 Tycho Brahe, Danish astronomer, published a monograph on his discovery of a new star. His observations were denied by Roman Catholic divines, but Tycho was Lutheran, independently rich, and lived in a Lutheran country whose king was a staunch Protestant, so he didn’t care. Tycho settled down to “leave to posterity a collection of astronomical observations sufficiently accurate so that future generations would be able to depend on them. ”

1573 France’s Fourth War of Religion ended with the Pacification of Boulogne.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)
1573 The Huguenots gained an amnesty and were promised freedom of conscience.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1573 The first German cane-sugar refinery was established at Augsburg.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1573 Paolo Cagliari Veronese (1528-1588), Venetian painter, was hauled before the Inquisition and accused of painting profanities.
(WUD, 1994, p.1588)(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)
1573 Venice and Turkey signed the Peace of Constantinople whereby Venice surrendered Cyprus and paid Turkey a large indemnity.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1573 Japan’s Ashikaga shogunate ended after 237 years with Shogun Yoshiake routed in his challenge of ruler Nobunaga Oda.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1573 The Portuguese crown began administering Principe.
(AP, 7/18/03)

1573-1577 In Malta the Cathedral of St. John was built.
(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.40)

1573-1615 The Momoyama period of Japan. It coincided with the ascendancy of 3 warlords and represented a time of temporary peace with the opening of the country to Western influence.
(WSJ, 9/25/96, p.A20)

1574 Feb 23, The 5th War of Religion, against the Huguenots, broke out in France.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)(HN, 2/23/98)(MC, 2/23/02)

1574 Feb 28, On the orders of the Holy Office of the Inquisition, two Englishmen and an Irishman were burnt for heresy.
(HN, 2/28/99)

1574 Mar 5, William Oughtred, mathematician and inventor of the slide rule, was born.
(HN, 3/5/98)

1574 Mar 7, John Wilbye, composer, was born.
(MC, 3/7/02)

1574 Apr 21, Cosimo d’ Medici (~54), Italian duke of Toscane, died.
(MC, 4/21/02)

1574 Oct 1-2 A storm broke a Leiden dike and 20,000 Spanish soldiers drowned. Spanish forces in the Netherlands besieged Leyden, but William the Silent (Willem of Orange) breached the dykes to flood the land. This allowed his ships to sail up to the walls and lift the siege.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)(PCh, 1992, p.198)(MC, 10/1/01)

1574 Oct 21, Nicolo Rubini, composer, was born.
(MC, 10/21/01)

1574 Dec 15, Ottoman Sultan Selim II (b.1524), a son of Suleiman the Magnificent, died in a drunken stupor after smashing his head on his Turkish bath. He had reigned since 1566. He was succeeded by his son, Murad III in the Ottoman House of Osman. Murat III expanded the palace at Topkapi and built the famous harem there.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Selim_II)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R37)(Ot, 1993, xvii)(Econ, 12/19/15, p.69)

1574 Justus Lipsius, Flemish scholar, edited “The Histories and The Annals of Tacitus.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1574 Giorgio Vasari, completed Florence’s Uffizi Palace after 14 years of building.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1574 In India the 4th Sikh guru founded the city of Amritsar.
(WSJ, 10/12/01, p.W17)

1574 The Univ. of Berlin was founded.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1574 An auto-da-fe (a public announcement of sentence imposed on persons tried by the Inquisition) took place in Mexico for the first time.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1574 Spanish forces in the Netherlands besieged Leyden, but William the Silent breached the dykes to flood the land. This allowed his ships to sail up to the walls and lift the siege.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1574 Turkish troops captured Tunis from the Spaniards.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1574 The Portuguese began to settle in Angola.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1574 Juan Fernandez, Spanish navigator, discovered a group of islands, to be named after him, 400 miles off the west coast of South America.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1574 In France Charles IX died and was succeeded by his brother Henry of Valois, Henry III.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)



Timeline 1525-1549

1525 Feb 24, In the first of the Franco-Habsburg Wars, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V captured the French king Francis I at the battle of Pavia, in Italy.

1525 Mar 20, The Paris parliament began the pursuit of Protestants (Papists proudly participated).
(MC, 3/20/02)

1525 Apr 8, Albert von Brandenburg, the leader of the Teutonic Order, assumed the title “Duke of Prussia” and passed the first laws of the Protestant church, making Prussia a Protestant state.
(HN, 4/8/99)

1525 May 7, The German peasants’ revolt was crushed by the ruling class and church.
(HN, 5/7/99)

1525 May 10, Church reformer John Pistorius was caught in the Hague.
(MC, 5/10/02)

1525 May 15, A German army under Philip of Hesse surrounded and slaughtered 5,000 ending a peasant revolt led by Thomas Muntzer.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_M%C3%BCntzer)(PCh, 1992, p.173)

1525 May 17, Battle at Zabern: duke of Lutherans beat rebels.
(MC, 5/17/02)

1525 May 27, Thomas Muntzer (28), German vicar, Boer leader, head of the German peasant revolt was beheaded. Some 150,000 peasants died in the uprising.
(PCh, 1992, p.173)(MC, 5/27/02)

1525 Jul 19, The Catholic princes of Germany formed the Dessau League to fight against the Reformation.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)(HN, 7/19/98)

1525 Aug 21, Estavao Gomes returned to Portugal after failing to find a clear waterway to Asia.
(HN, 8/21/98)

1525 Sep 15, Jan de Bakker (26), Roman Catholic priest also known under the name Pistorius, was burned during the Reformation in the Netherlands.

1525 Dec 30, Jacob Fugger (b.1459), German banker and merchant, died. In 2015 Greg Steinmetz authored “The Richest Man Who Ever Lived: The Life and Times of Jacob Fugger.”
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jakob_Fugger)(Econ, 8/1/15, p.71)

1525 Michelangelo worked on the Medici chapel.
(NH, 9/96, p.67)

c1525 Joos van Cleve, Belgian painter, painted “St. John the Evangelist on Patmos.”
(MT, Spg. ‘97, p.20)

1525 Spanish architects established the style of “Plateresque,” as exemplified by the gateway of the Univ. of Salamanca.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1525 Cardinal Wolsey presented Hampton Court Palace to Henry VIII.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)
1525 The bishop of London recruited Augustine Packington as an agent in Antwerp to buy up all copies of Tyndale’s translation of the New Testament. Packington, a supporter of Tyndale, sent copies to London, where they were burned and passed payments on to Tyndale, who used the money for a new version of his work.
(www.tyndale.org/TSJ/17/cooper.html)(Econ, 12/20/08, p.103)

1525 Thomas Munzer, a German Anabaptist, set up a communistic theocracy at Mulhausen, Germany.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1525 William Tyndale (1494-1536), English religious scholar, completed his translation of the New Testament in Hamburg, Germany. It was published in Worms in Spring 1526, and then smuggled to England.
(ON, 11/04, p.2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Tyndale)

1525 The Capuchin order of friars was founded in Italy. They become among the most effective Catholic preachers and missionaries in the Counter-Reformation.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1525 The Mennonites, a Protestant branch of the Anabaptists, were established in Zurich, Switz.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1525 Martin Luther married Katherine von Bora, a former nun, “to spite the devil.”
(SFC, 2/28/96, D-10)(SFC, 3/16/02, p.A3)

1525 In India Babur, a warrior with an Islamic Persian background, invaded Hindu India. He took Delhi and Agra and made Agra his capital.
(HT, 4/97, p.22)

1525 Andrea della Robbia (b.1435), Italian artist, died. He was the nephew and pupil of Luca della Robbia (1400-1482).
(SFC, 11/23/05, p.G2)

1525 In Rome public street cleaners were employed and paid through a tax on artisans and tradesmen.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1525 Turkey and Hungary signed a seven year truce.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1525 Charles V led the German and Spanish forces over the French and Swiss at the Battle of Pavia and became master of Italy. Francis I was captured and taken to Spain.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1525 Thousands of German peasants were slaughtered.
(NH, 9/96, p.67)

1525 Luther wrote his tract: “Against the Murderous and Thieving Hordes of Peasants.”
(NH, 9/96, p.21)

1525 Albrecht Durer, German engraver, compiled the first German manual on geometry.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1525 City officials tried to control the street vendors in Mexico City.
(SFC, 9/7/96, p.A19)

1525 Francisco Pizarro, Spanish conquistador, sailed from Panama to explore Peru.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1525 The Spanish made initial contact with the Incas.
(SFC, 3/19/02, p.A2)

1526 Jan 14, Francis of France, held captive by Charles V for a year, signed the Treaty of Madrid, giving up most of his claims in France and Italy.
(HN, 1/14/99)

1526 Feb 27, Saxony and Hesse formed the League of Gotha, a league of Protestant princes.
(MC, 2/27/02)

1526 Mar 26, King François I returned Spanish captivity to France.
(SS, 3/26/02)

1526 Apr 21, Mongol Emperor Zahir-ud-din Babur annihilated Indian Army of Ibrahim Lodi at the Battle of Panipat. Babar, King of Kabul, established in this year the Mughal dynasty at Delhi.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)(SFEC, 5/21/00, p.T8)(WSJ, 3/31/07, p.P10)

1526 Jul 6, King Afonso of Kongo (1509-1542) sent a letter of complaint to Portugal regarding the impact of slave trade in his country.

1526 Jul 26, The Spaniard Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon and his colonists left Santo Domingo in the Caribbean for Florida.
(HN, 7/26/98)

1526 Oct 18, Lucas Vazquez de Ayllp, Spanish colonialist who settled in SC, died.
(MC, 10/18/01)

1526 Nov 9, Jews were expelled from Pressburg, Hungary, by Maria of Hapsburg.
(MC, 11/9/01)

1526 Nov 30, Giovanni de’ Medici (b.1498), brother to Cosimo the Elder, died soon after his leg was amputated due to a bullet wound.
(www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/372320/Giovanni-de-Medici)(AM, 7/05, p.41)

1526 Nov, The 1st American slave revolt occurred in SC at the Spanish settlement of San Miguel de Gualdape near the mouth of the Pee Dee River in South Carolina.

1526 Albrecht Durer painted the “Four Apostles,” his last great religious painting and presented it to the city of Nuremberg.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1526 Lucas Cranach the elder (1472-1553) painted the “Adam and Eve,” typical of the artist’s Gothic style as opposed to the “decadent” Italian style.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)(WUD, 1994, p.339)

1526 Leo Africanus (c1494-c1554), a Moorish traveler, authored “Descrittione dell’Africa” (Description of Africa) describing the geography of North Africa. He had visited Timbuktu and said books from abroad traded there at higher prices than fabrics, animals or salt.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leo_Africanus)(Econ, 12/19/15, p.63)

1526 William Tyndale published the first complete version of the New Testament in English at Worms, Germany. “Tyndale was the first translator of the biblical texts from their original Greek and Hebrew into English.”
(WSJ, 12/22/94, A-20)(WSJ, 11/19/96, p.A20)

1526 John Taverner, organist and composer, was appointed the Master of Choristers at Oxford Univ.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1526 The 1st Africans to the US arrived at a Spanish settlement South Carolina.

1526 The Teutonic Knights, a German military and religious order of knights and priests, broke away from the Catholic Church to become Lutherans.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1526 Pope Clement VII formed the League of Cognac against Emp. Charles V.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1526 The slave trade escalated to the point where the Portuguese bribed officials to revolt and provided goods and guns to any chief who would supply slaves. King Affonso wrote to King John of Portugal asking that the Portuguese ban the slave trade in Kongo. Numerous letters were sent but King John did nothing.
(ATC, p.152)

1526 Ferdinand of Austria was elected King of Bohemia and inaugurated the Austro-Hungarian state.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)(WSJ, 7/14/99, p.A23)

1526 Zhu Duan (b.1464), Chinese artist, died. His work included the hanging scroll “Looking at a Misty River at Dusk.”
(http://wwar.com/masters/z/zhu_duan.html)(SFC, 6/28/08, p.E1)

1526 Francis I of France and Emp. Charles V signed the Peace of Madrid wherein Francis renounced claims to much Italian territory.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1526 In Italy the Beretta family made crossbows. With advancing technology the family launched into firearms (1550).
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(Econ, 11/18/06, p.64)
1526 Vittore Carpaccio (b.~1465), an Italian painter of the Venetian school, died about this time. In 2014 Jan Morris authored “Ciao, Carpaccio: An Infatuation.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vittore_Carpaccio)(Econ, 8/23/14, p.77)

1526 Conquistador Francisco Hernandez de Cordoba (b.~1475) was beheaded by Pedrarias Dávila, a superior officer, over his claims to Nicaragua.
(SSFC, 6/26/11, p.G3)

1526 Turkish forces of Suleiman I defeated the Hungarian forces and killed Hungarian King Louis II at the Battle of Mohacs.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1526 Peace was concluded between Poland and Russia.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1526-1712 In northern India the Mughal Dynasty was the last great dynasty to rule.
(Hem., 2/97, p.55)

1527 Mar 16, The Emperor Babur defeated the Rajputs at the Battle of Kanvaha, removing the main Hindu rivals in Northern India.
(HN, 3/16/99)

1527 Apr 30, Henry VIII and King Francis of France signed the treaty of Westminster.
(HN, 4/30/98)

1527 May 6, German and Spanish troops under Charles V began sacking Rome, bringing about the end of the Renaissance. Libraries were destroyed, Pope Clement VII was captured and thousands were killed. 147 of 189 of the Pope’s Swiss guard were killed.
(HN, 5/6/02)(PCh, 1992, p.174)(WSJ, 4/14/06, p.W5)

1527 May 16, Florence expelled the Medici nephews of the Pope and reverted to a republic..
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)(MC, 5/16/02)

1527 May 21, Philip II (d.1598), king of Spain and Portugal (1556-98), was born. He invaded England and roasted heretics. He collected a fifth of all the wealth generated from the mines and trade in the Americas. He invested heavily into his military and lost it all with the defeat of the Armada in 1588. His debt at his death amounted to 85 million ducats, or 300 tons of gold.
(HN, 5/21/98)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)(MC, 5/21/02)

1527 May 30, The University of Marburg was founded. It is the oldest Protestant University in Germany.
(HFA, ’96, p.30)(AHD, p.797)(HN, 5/30/98)

1527 Jun 21, Nicolo Machiavelli (b.1469), Florentine statesman, author (The Prince), died. “When the effect is good… it will always excuse the deed.”
(WSJ, 5/21/96, p.A-16)(WSJ, 6/22/98, p.A20)(www.online-literature.com/machiavelli/)

1527 Jun 24, Gustaaf I began Reformation in Sweden, taking RC possessions.
(MC, 6/24/02)

1527 Nov 18, Luca Cambiaso, Italian painter and sculptor, was born.
(MC, 11/18/01)

1527 Nov 20, Wendelmoet “Weyntjen” Claesdochter, became the 1st Dutch woman to be burned as heretic.
(MC, 11/20/01)

1527 Dec 6, Pope Clemens VII fled to Orvieto.
(MC, 12/6/01)

1527 Adrian Willaert, Flemish composer, was made maestro di capella at St. Mark’s, in Venice.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1527 Henry VIII appealed to the Pope for permission to divorce Catherine of Aragon.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1527 Croatia formed a state union with Austria.
(WSJ, 7/14/99, p.A23)

1527 Giuseppe Arcimboldi (d.1593), Italian painter [Arcimboldo], was born.
(WUD, 1994, p.78)(WSJ, 7/10/97, p.A13)

1527 Muslim Somali Chief, Ahmed Gran, used firearms against the Ethiopians for the first time.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1527 Don Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, a Spanish soldier, was appointed 2nd in command under Panfilo de Narvaez (47), to explore the recently discovered land of Florida.
(ON, 10/03, p.1)

1527 Spanish mercenaries paid by Charles V sacked Rome and left 4,000 dead. Some see this event as marking the close of the Renaissance.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1527 Theophrastus von Hohenheim established chemotherapy and the modern school of medical thinking at the Univ. of Basel in Switzerland.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1527 Hernando Cortez and his conquistadores completed the conquest of New Spain. They brought back to Spain tomatoes, avocados, papayas, and vanilla.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1527-1528 Henry VIII imprisoned Pope Clement VII for disobedience. It was to Clement that Henry appealed for an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon, which had been granted under special dispensation in the first place.

1528 Jan 22, England & France declared war on Emperor Charles V of Spain. The French army was later expelled from Naples and Genoa.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)(MC, 1/22/02)

1528 Apr 6, Albrecht Durer (b.1471), German painter, graphic artist, died in Germany. His wife Agnes inherited his 6,874-florin estate.
(SFEC, 2/9/97, DB p.6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albrecht_D%C3%BCrer)

1528 Apr 14, A Spanish expedition, led by Panfilo de Narvaez, arrived at the west coast of Florida with 400 soldiers and 42 horses.
(ON, 10/03, p.1)

1528 May 1, The Spanish Narvaez expedition began an inland march to Florida with some 300 men and 40 horses.
(ON, 10/03, p.1)

1528 Jul 30, The Spanish Narvaez expedition captured the Indian town of Aute (Florida).
(ON, 10/03, p.2)

1528 Sep 28, A Spanish fleet sank in Florida hurricane; 380 died.
(MC, 9/28/01)

1528 Nov 2, The Spanish Narvaez expedition, having traveled some 700 miles toward eastern Texas, encountered a massive storm and their 5 barges separated.
(ON, 10/03, p.2)

1528 Nov 6, A Spanish barge under Don Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca landed in East Texas. The survivors of 2 barges spent the winter on an island they named Isla de Malhado, “The Island of Misfortune.” By the spring of 1529 there were 15 castaways left and half the native population was dead from disease.
(ON, 10/03, p.3)

1528 Nov 30, Great Wierd, Dutch Gelderland army commander, was beheaded.
(MC, 11/30/01)

1528 Hans Holbein painted “The Artist’s Family.” After meeting Sir Thomas More in England, he returned temporarily to Basel.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1528 Paracelsus (Theophrastus von Hohenheim), a Swiss physician and alchemist, wrote the first manual of surgery, “Die Kleine Chirurgia.” (See Paracelsus in 1537) His middle name was Bombastus.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)(HC, 1/9/98)

1528 Baldassare Castiglione (1478-1529), Italian diplomat and courtier, published “Il Libro del Cortegiano” (The Courtier), an exhaustive study of etiquette and court life that was read and copied throughout Europe. In 1561 Sir Thomas Hoby provided an English translation.
(WSJ, 5/28/04, p.W3)(WSJ, 1/14/07, p.P12)

1528 In Mexico the fortress of San Juan de Ulua was built on a coral reef in Vera Cruz. It was later estimated that half-million slaves died in the process.
(SFEC, 5/17/98, p.T12)

1528 The Scottish Reformation began.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1528 Cardinal Wolsey dissolved 22 religious houses and used the money for the founding of several colleges.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1528 Jacob Hutter (d.1536), Anabaptist evangelist from South Tyrol, founded a “community of love,” whose members shared everything. They settled in Moravia due to the religious tolerance there.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jakob_Hutter)

1528 Wheat was introduced into New Spain.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1528 Hernando Cortes was recalled to Spain and he brought with him haricot beans.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1528 England established its first colony in the New World at St. Johns, Newfoundland.
(SFEC, 4/25/99, Z1 p.8)

1528 Charles V granted to the Welser family, Augsburg merchants, rights to colonize most of north-eastern South America.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1528 Philip Melanchthon, Protestant reformer, proposed German educational reforms.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)
1528 In Germany the Carolinum school was founded in Ansbach, Bavaria.
(AP, 9/17/09)

1528 Babar the Great ordered a large mosque built in Ayodha, 2 years after he established the Mogul Empire in India. The Babri Mosques was destroyed by a Hindu mob in 1992.
(AM, 7/04, p.49)

1528 Typhus swept through Italy and killed tens of thousands.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1528-1530 Pontormo (Jacopo Carucci) painted “Portrait of a Halberdier.”
(WSJ, 4/9/99, p.W16)

1528-1588 Paolo Cagliari Veronese, Venetian painter. He was hauled before the Inquisition in1573 and accused of painting profanities.
(WUD, 1994, p.1588)(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1529 Apr 16, Louis de Berquin, French humanist, reformer, heretic, was burned at stake.
(MC, 4/16/02)

1529 Apr 19, The 2nd Parliament of Speyer banned Lutheranism. At the Diet of Speyer the Lutheran minority protested against restrictions on their teachings and were called “Protestant” for the first time.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Speyer)

1529 Apr 22, Spain and Portugal divided the eastern hemisphere in Treaty of Saragosa.
(HN, 4/22/98)

1529 May 6, Babur defeated the Afghan Chiefs in the Battle of Ghagra, India.
(HN, 5/6/98)

1529 May 27, 30 Jews of Posing, Hungary, charged with blood ritual, were burned at stake.
(MC, 5/27/02)

1529 Jun 9, Zurich declared war on Catholic cantons.
(MC, 6/9/02)

1529 Jun 21, John Skelton (69), English poet, died.
(MC, 6/21/02)

1529 Jul 26, Francisco Pizarro was made governor for life and captain-general in New Spain. He returned to Peru in a fleet of three ships. Pizarro received a royal warrant in Toledo, Spain, to “discover and conquer” Peru.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)(HN, 7/26/98)

1529 Sep 8, The Ottoman Sultan Suleiman re-entered Buda and established John Zapolyai as the puppet king of Hungary.
(HN, 9/8/98)

1529 Oct 1-3, Martin Luther met with Huldrych Zwingli.
(MC, 10/1/01)

1529 Oct 15, Ottoman armies under Suleiman ended their siege of Vienna and head back to Belgrade. The Ottomans siege of Vienna was a key battle of world history. The Ottoman Empire reached its peak with the Turks settled in Buda on the left bank of the Danube after failing in their siege of Vienna.
(WSJ, 3/27/96, p.A-16)(TL-MB, 1988, p.13) (HN, 10/15/98)

1529 Oct 17, Henry VIII removed Cardinal Thomas Wolsey as Lord Chancellor for failing to secure an annulment of his marriage.
(HN, 10/17/98)(PCh, 1992ed, p.176)

1529 Oct 21, Henry VIII of England was named Defender of the Faith by the Pope after defending the seven sacraments against Luther.
(HN, 10/21/98)

1529 Oct 26, Thomas More was appointed English Lord Chancellor.
(MC, 10/26/01)

1529 Nov 3, The first Reformation Parliament for five years opened in London, England and the Commons put forward bills against abuses amongst the clergy and in the church courts.
(HN, 11/3/99)(MC, 11/3/01)

1529 Nov 4, Thomas Wolsey, English Lord Chancellor and cardinal, was arrested.
(MC, 11/4/01)

1529 Bernardino Luini, a pupil of Leonardo da Vinci, completed his fresco of the Passion and Crucifixion at the Santa Maria Degli Angioli church in Lugano, Switzerland.
(SFEC, 6/14/98, p.T4)

1529 Luther published two hymns: “Away in a Manger” and “A Mighty Fortress Is Our God.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1529 Civil war commenced between Catholic and the Reformed cantons in Switzerland. The Catholics were ultimately defeated.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1529 Emp. Charles V ceded the Spanish rights in the Spice Islands to the Portuguese.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1529 The Turks at Buda planted paprika from the New World.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1529 Maize from America, grown in Turkey, was introduced to England as “turkey corn.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1529 Baldassare Castiglione (b.1478), Italian diplomat, courtier and author of “Il Libro del Cortegiano” (The Courtier), died while on a papal mission to Toledo.
(WSJ, 1/14/07, p.P12)

1529-1608 Giambologna, a Florentine sculptor. A biography was written by Baldinucci.
(WSJ, 1/8/99, p.C13)

1530 Feb 23, Spain’s Carlos I was crowned Holy Roman Emperor Charles V by Pope Clement VII in the last coronation of a German king by a Pope. Charles restored the Medici to power after capturing Florence and ceded Malta to the landless religious order of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem.
(TL-MB, p.14)(MC, 2/24/02)(PC, 1992, p.176)

1530 Mar 7, King Henry VIII’s divorce request was denied by the Pope. Henry then declared that he, not the Pope, is supreme head of England’s church.
(MC, 3/7/02)

1530 Apr 18, Francois Lambert d’Avignon (~43), French church reformer, died.
(MC, 4/18/02)

1530 May 7, Louis I Conde, French prince, leader of Huguenots, was born.
(MC, 5/7/02)

1530 Aug 25, Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible), 1st tsar of Russia (1533-84), was born.
(MC, 8/25/02)(http://www.ilstu.edu/~jmalli1/)

1530 Sep 20, Luther advised the Protestant monarch compromise.
(MC 9/20/01)

1530 Sep, Andrea del Sarto (b.1486), Italian painter, died in Florence about this time during an outbreak of Bubonic Plague.

1530 Nov 19, Augsburg Emperor Karel I demanded the Edict of Worms.
(MC, 11/19/01)

1530 Nov 29, Cardinal Thomas Wolsey (55), former adviser to England’s King Henry the VIII, died. He had served as Lord Chancellor from 1514-1529. Wolsey had amassed a fortune second only to that of the king.
(AP, 11/29/97)(PCh, 1992ed, p.176)

1530 Dec 26, (OS) Zahir al-Din Mohammed Babur Shah (47), founder Moguls dynasty (India), died. Babur left power to his son Humayun, who built a royal city called Purana Qila that is part of Delhi today. His memoirs, known as the Baburnama, are considered the first true autobiography in Islamic literature. The first English translation was made in 1922 by Annette Beveridge.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Babur)(Econ, 12/18/10, p.80)

1530 Antonio Allegri de Correggio (1489-1534), Italian painter, painted his supreme altarpiece the “Adoration of the Shepherds.” Only 40 of drawings have survived.
(TL-MB, p.14)(WSJ, 2/12/00, p.A25)
1530 Titian, Italian artist and chief master of the Venetian school, painted Cardinal Ippolito de’Medici. He became court painter in Bologna.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.14)

1530 In Antwerp William Tyndale published his translation into English of the Pentateuch, the first five books of the Old Testament, and shipped copies to England.
(WSJ, 12/22/94, A-20)(ON, 11/04, p.2)
1530 Erasmus (1469-1536), Dutch Renaissance humanist, authored “On Good Manners for Boys” (De civilitate morum puerorum).
(Econ, 10/8/11, p.102)
1530 Georgius Agricola, German mineralogist and scholar, published “De Re Metallica,” the first systematic book on mineralogy.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.14)
1530 Jacobus Calchus, a Carmelite friar, wrote a 34-page Latin treatise on whether a man might marry the widow of his deceased brother. It was used to bolster Henry VIII’s case to divorce Catherine of Aragon in favor of Anne Boleyn.
(SFC, 5/14/02, p.A2)
1530 Palsgrave’s English-French dictionary mentioned bottle corks for the first time.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.14)

1530 The earliest known French contract for comedia dell’arte players was drawn up.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.14)

1530 Etienne Briard introduced round characters in musical engraving.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.14)

1530 The San Francisco Church and monastery in Valladolid, Mexico, was begun.
(SSFC, 11/17/02, p.C11)

1530 In China the Ritan (sun altar) was built in Beijing under the Ming dynasty. Beijing at this time numbered about 700,000 people and was the world’s most populous city.
(Econ, 12/19/15, p.54)

1530 Florence, Italy, held the first lottery, La Lotto de Firenze. It was followed by similar drawings in Genoa and Venice to raise funds for various public projects.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)(http://www.logiuocodellotto.com/)
1530 The game of bingo can be traced back to a lottery game called “Il Giuoco del Lotto d’Italia” played in Italy about this time. By the eighteenth century, the game had matured, and in France, playing cards, tokens, the reading out of numbers had been added to the game. In the nineteenth century, Bingo was widely used in Germany for educational purposes to teach children spelling, animal names, and multiplication tables.

1530 Martin Luther and Philip Melanchthon drew up the Augsburg Confessions and presented them unsuccessfully to the German Diet at Augsburg convened by Charles V.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.14)

1530 The carpenter’s bench and vice first come into use.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.14)

1530 Opium known as laudanum was used as a pain reliever.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1530 The Las Tortugas Islands were renamed the Caymans, They were named after an indigenous type of crocodile that no longer lives there.
(AP, 5/10/03)

1530-1531 In Belgium the Antwerp exchange was founded for brokers to trade shares and commodities.
(TL-MB, p.14)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1530s Gonzalo Oviedo, a Spanish colonist, sent back the first reports and pictures of life in North America.
(MT, Sum. ‘98, p.9)

1530s Khayr Ad-Din (d.1546) known by the European name Barbarossa, meaning Redbeard, united Algeria and Tunisia as military states under the Ottoman caliphate. He was a Barbary pirate and became admiral of the Ottoman fleet.
(HNQ, 4/25/02)

1531 Jan 5, Pope Clemens VII forbade English king Henry VIII to re-marry.
(MC, 1/5/02)

1531 Jan 22, Andrea del Sarto (44), Italian painter, died.
(MC, 1/22/02)

1531 Jan 26, Lisbon was hit by an earthquake and some about 30,000 died.
(MC, 1/26/02)

1531 Feb 11, Henry VIII was recognized as the supreme head of the Church of England.
(HN, 2/11/97)

1531 Feb 27, German Protestants formed the League of Schmalkalden to defend themselves against Charles V and the Roman Catholic states.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.14)(HN, 2/27/99)

1531 Apr 5, Richard Roose was boiled to death for trying to poison an archbishop.
(MC, 4/5/02)

1531 May 31, “Women’s Revolt” in Amsterdam: wool house in churchyard.
(MC, 5/31/02)

1531 Sep 14, Philipp Apian (d.1589), German geographer and cartographer, was born.

1531 Oct 11, The Catholics defeated the Protestants at Kappel during Switzerland’s second civil war.
(HN, 10/11/98)
1531 Oct 11, Huldrych Zwingli, Swiss church reformer (Zwinglian), died. Ulrich Zwingli, Swiss Protestant reformer, was killed in the Swiss civil war between the Protestant and Catholic cantons.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.14)(MC, 10/11/01)

1531 Oct 24, Bavaria, despite being a Catholic region, joined the League of Schmalkalden, a Protestant group which opposed Charles V.
(HN, 10/24/98)

1531 Nov 23, Peace of Kappel ended the second civil war in Switzerland.
(AP, 11/23/02)

1531 Dec 6, John Volkertsz Trimaker, Dutch Anabaptist leader, was beheaded.
(MC, 12/6/01)

1531 Dec 12, Legend held that a dark-skinned Virgin Mary appeared to a peasant outside Mexico City and left an imprint on his cactus-fiber poncho. The poncho became an icon for the Virgin of Guadalupe. Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin, an Indian peasant, had visions of the Virgin Mary. In 2002 Pope John Paul II planned to canonize him. The Vatican’s main source was a religious work that dated to 1666.
(SFC, 2/1/99, p.A9)(WSJ, 2/27/02, p.A1)(WSJ, 4/17/02, p.A1)(AP, 7/30/02)

1531 Desiderius Erasmus, Dutch humanist and scholar, published the first complete edition of Aristotle’s works.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.14)

1531 Andrea Alciati published the “Emblemata,” the first and most influential emblem book.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.14)

1531 Michael Servetus (1511-1553) published his 1st book: “De Trinitatis Erroribus.” He was forced underground by the Inquisition emerged as Michael Villeneuve in Lyons. He later undertook medical studies in Paris. In 2002 Lawrence and Nancy Goldstone authored “Out of the Flames.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)(HN, 10/27/98)(WSJ, 9/18/02, p.D8)

1531 “De Architecture” by Vitruvius (70-15BC) was translated into Italian.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.14)

1531 Haley’s comet caused panic in many parts of the world.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.14)

1531 In Bosnia Gazi Husrev-bey mosque opened. Books and manuscripts were kept there from 1537-1863, then moved to another building.
(AP, 1/15/14)

1531 Marguerite de Navarre (1492-1549), French noblewoman, authored “Le miroir de l’âme pécheresse” (The Mirror of the Sinful Soul) following the death of her young son. It combined her mysticism with her strong ideas for political action within the Church. Her most famous work “Heptameron,” a collection of more than 70 short stories about women and their relationships with men, and whether it was possible to be virtuous and also experience real love, was published posthumously in 1558.

1531 German sculptor Tilman Riemenschneider (c71) died. Most of his work was unpainted in wood and stone.
(WSJ, 12/8/99, p.A20)

1531 The first stage theater of a permanent and public kind was established at Ferrara in Italy.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.14)

1531 The Spaniards founded Puebla, on the route from Veracruz to Mexico City, to house demobilized conquistadors.
(SFEC,11/9/97, p.T5)(SFEC, 11/8/98, p.T8)
1531 In Mexico Queretaro was designated the third city of New Spain.
(SSFC, 1/27/08, p.E5)

1531 Francisco Pizarro left Panama with 180 men to conquer Peru.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.14)

1531 The Inquisition in Portugal became notably assiduous in reaction to the spread of Protestantism.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.14)
1531 Ferdinand I was elected King of the Romans, some 27 years before succeeding his brother Charles V as Holy Roman Emperor.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.14)

1531-1533 A 12-piece tapestry set was created based on hunting scenes included “The Killing of the Wild Boar” (December). It was later housed in the Louvre.
(WSJ, 4/11/02, p.AD7)

c1531-1537 Ceramicist Francesco Urbini was later believed to have created a plate that shows a male head made up entirely of phalluses. In 2003 a British museum paid $317,000 for it. The head is framed by a garland carrying the inscription: “Ogni homo me guarda come fosse una testa de cazi” (Every man looks at me as if I were a dickhead).
(Reuters, 9/18/03)

1532 Mar 18, English parliament banned payments by English church to Rome.
(MC, 3/18/02)

1532 Mar 25, Pietro Pontio, composer, was born.
(MC, 3/25/02)

1532 May 16, Sir Thomas More resigned as English Lord Chancellor.
(MC, 5/16/02)

1532 Nov 15, Pope Clemens VII told Henry VIII to end his relationship with Anne Boleyn.
(MC, 11/15/01)

1532 Nov 16, Pizarro first encountered Incan emperor Atahualpa at Cajamarca, who declined conversion to Christianity. Pizzaro and 167 fellow Spaniards, armored and on horseback, killed or wounded some 6,000 to 7,000 natives and captured emperor Atahualpa. In 2007 Kim MacQuarrie authored “The Last Days of the Incas.
(SSFC, 7/8/07, p.M2)

1532 Ludovico Ariosto, Italian Renaissance poet, published the third and last edition of his epic poem, “Orlando Furioso.” This skeptical and humorous work about legendary chivalry later influenced the writing of Edmund Spenser and Miguel de Cervantes.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.14)

1532 Francois Rabelais, French satirist, published “La Vie de Gargantua et de Pantagruel,” a grotesque and humorous satire on almost every aspect of contemporary religion and culture.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.14)(SSFC, 2/10/02, p.G5)

1532 Croat captain and diplomat Nikola Juriši? (1490-1549) defended the small border fort of K?szeg (Kingdom of Hungary) with only 700–800 Croatian soldiers with no cannons and few guns, preventing the advance of the Turkish army of 120,000–140,000 toward Vienna.

1532 John Calvin (1509-1564), French theologian, started the Protestant Reformation in France.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.14)(SFC, 7/21/97, p.A11)

1532 In Italy the Shroud of Turin was scorched in a fire and doused with water.
(SFEC, 2/1/98, p.A24)

1532 Henry (VIII) pressed Cardinal Wolsey to move the Pope to grant an annulment, but Wolsey was unsuccessful, was accused of treason and died on the way to face the King. A new minister, Thomas Cromwell formulated a plan by which the crown assumed spiritual as well as temporal authority in England. Henry could now divorce Catherine, marry Anne Boleyn and reform a separate Church of England. With Anne he sired Elizabeth I, and then had her killed so as to marry Jane Seymour, who died in childbirth. He later married and divorced Anne of Cleves and then Catherine Howard, who was very promiscuous and was beheaded.

1532 Sugarcane was first cultivated in Brazil.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.14)

1532 A 2,100 lb. bell was cast in Japan. It was later shipped to San Francisco and placed in the Asian Art Museum. It was rung every New Year 108 times after a Buddhist tradition, once for each of the mortal desires that plague mankind.
(SFC, 1/1/97, p.A15)

1532 Suleiman I, Sultan of the Ottoman empire, invaded Hungary.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.14)

1532 Spanish conquistadores reached the high valley of the Andes. Pizzaro entered Cuzco, Inca capital of Peru.

1532 Pizzaro with 183 soldiers entered the lowlands of northern Peru near Cajamarca, the capital of the Inca empire.
(SFEC, 7/5/98, p.A10)

1532-1540 Thomas Cromwell disbanded most of the monasteries in England and absorbed their vast wealth under the crown.

1533 Jan 25, England’s King Henry VIII secretly married his second wife, Anne Boleyn (who later gave birth to Elizabeth I) in a service performed by Thomas Cranmer.
(AP, 1/25/98)(HN, 1/25/99)(PCh, 1992ed, p.177)

1533 Feb 28, Michel de Montaigne (d.1592), was born near Bordeaux, France. He was the French moralist who created the personal essay. Montaigne was brought up by his father under peasant guidance and a German tutor for Latin. He spent a lifetime of political service under Henry IV, and then composed his “Essays.” This was the first book to reveal with utter honesty and frankness the author’s mind and heart. Montaigne sought to reach beyond his own illusions, to see himself as he really was, which was not just the way others saw him. “Nothing is so firmly believed as what we least know.”
(WUD, 1994, p.928)(V.D.-H.K.p.144) (HN, 2/28/99)

1533 Mar 30, Henry VIII made Thomas Cranmer archbishop of Canterbury. Cranmer had advised Henry that his 1509 marriage to Catherine of Aragon was null and void because she had previously married Henry’s late brother Arthur, even though that marriage was ever consummated.
(PCh, 1992ed, p.177)

1533 May 14, Margaret of Valois, queen consort of Navarre, was born.
(HN, 5/14/01)

1533 May 23, The marriage of England’s King Henry VIII to Catherine of Aragon was declared null and void.
(AP, 5/23/97)(HN, 5/23/98)

1533 May 28, England’s Archbishop declared the marriage of King Henry VIII to Anne Boleyn valid.
(AP, 5/28/97)

1533 Mar 30, Henry VIII divorced his 1st wife, Catherine of Aragon.
(MC, 3/30/02)

1533 Apr 8, Claudio Merulo, organist, composer, was born.
(MC, 4/8/02)

1533 Jun 1, Anne Boleyn, the second wife of King Henry VIII, was crowned as Queen Consort of England.
(AP, 6/1/08)

1533 Jul 11, Pope Clement VII excommunicated England’s King Henry VIII.
(AP, 7/11/97)

1533 Jul 6, Ludovico Ariosto (57), Italian poet (Orlando Furioso), died.
(MC, 7/6/02)

1533 Aug 28, Atahualpa, last of the Inca rulers was strangled at the orders of Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro. The Inca empire died with him.
(MC, 8/28/01)

1533 Aug 29, Francisco Pizarro captured Cuzco and completed his conquest of Peru. He ordered the imprisonment and murder of Atahualpa, the last ruler of the Inca Empire. Atahualpa was executed by orders of Francisco Pizarro, although the chief had already paid his ransom. Ruminahui (Rumanahui), a general of Atahualpa, led 15,000 soldiers into the mountains north of Quito, after Pizarro killed the Inca emperor Atahualpa. His forces carried an estimated 70,000 man-loads of gold.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.14)(AP, 8/29/97) (SFEC, 7/5/98, p.A10)(SFEC, 8/9/98, p.A15)(HN, 8/29/98)

1533 Sep 7, Elizabeth I, Queen of England, was born in Greenwich. She led her country during the exploration of the New World and war with Spain which destroyed the Spanish Armada. Elizabeth Tudor (d.1603), the daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, reigned as Queen of England from 1558 to 1603. She went bald at age 29 due to smallpox.
(WUD, 1994, p.463)(SFC,10/18/97, p.E4)(AP, 9/7/97)(HN, 9/7/98)(MC, 9/7/01)

1533 Nov 15, Francisco Pizarro entered Cuzco, Peru. [see Aug 29]
(HN, 11/15/98)

1533 Hans Holbein the Younger (1497-1543) painted “The Ambassadors,” a brilliant portrait of two French ambassadors to England.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.14)(WSJ, 12/30/06, p.P10)

1533 Titian painted “Charles V.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.14)

1533 The first madrigals, developed mostly in Italy and England, were published in Rome.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.14)

1533 Cartagena de Indias (Colombia) was founded by Spain and served as a major port for the trade of slaves, gold and cargo.
(SSFC, 5/18/03, p.C12)

1533 Catherine de’Medici (14) brought along her Neapolitan chefs for her wedding to the duc d’Orleans, who later became King Henry II. French court cuisine hardly changed.
(Hem., Nov.’95, p.129)(WSJ, 11/12/99, p.W13)

1533 Spaniards arrived at Zaci, the capital of the Cupul Maya, in Mexico’s Yucatan peninsula and were pushed out.
(SSFC, 6/29/08, p.E5)(http://tinyurl.com/4o62ox)

1533 Ivan IV (The Terrible), succeeded to the Russian throne at the age of three. He ruled until 1544 under the regency of his mother and later of powerful nobles. His hatchet man and head of the dreaded “Oprichniki” was Maliuta Skuratov. Ivan IV created the Streltsy, Russia’s first permanent army. Ivan IV later killed his 27-year-old son, Ivan, in a fit of rage over suspected alliance with his enemies, the boyars, or nobles.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.14)(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.30,31)

1533 Ottoman ruler Suleiman I concluded a treaty with Austria and got time to deal with dissident elements in Anatolia.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.14)

1533-1556 Thomas Cranmer was the archbishop of Canterbury. In 1996 Diarmaid MacCulloch wrote his story: “Thomas Cranmer.”
(WSJ, 9/12/96, p.A14)

1533-1603 Elizabeth Tudor reigned as Queen of England from 1558 to 1603. She went bald at age 29 due to smallpox.
(WUD, 1994, p.463)(SFC,10/18/97, p.E4)

1534 Feb 26, Pope Paul III was affirmed George van Egmond as bishop of Utrecht.
(PTA, 1980, p.440)(SC, 2/26/02)

1534 Mar 26, Lübeck, Hanseatic League port in the Baltic, accepted free Dutch ships into East Sea.
(SS, 3/26/02)(WUD, 1994 p.851)

1534 Mar, England’s King Henry VIII imposed the Oath of Royal Supremacy.

1534 Apr 7, Josr de Anchieta, Spanish Jesuit, missionary (Brazilian Tupi Indians), was born.
(MC, 4/7/02)

1534 Apr 17, Sir Thomas Moore (d.1535) was jailed in the Tower of London.
(SFEC, 12/19/99, p.T3)(MC, 4/17/02)

1534 Apr 20, Elizabeth Barton, [St Magd van Kent], British prophet, died.
(MC, 4/20/02)
1534 Apr 20, Jacques Cartier departed St. Malo on the 1st of his 3 expeditions to the New World.

1534 May 10, Jacques Cartier reached Newfoundland. He noted the presence of the Micmac Indians who fished in the summer around the Magdalen Islands north of Nova Scotia.
(CFA, ’96, p.46)(SFEC, 5/11/97, p.T15)

1534 May 12, Wurttenburg became Lutheran.
(MC, 5/12/02)

1534 Jun 9, Jacques Cartier became the first man to sail into the mouth of the St. Lawrence River.

1534 Jun 29, Jacques Cartier discovered Canada’s Prince Edward Islands.
(MC, 6/29/02)

1534 Jul 13, Ottoman armies captured Tabriz in northwestern Persia.
(HN, 7/13/98)

1534 Jul 18, Zacharias Ursinus, German theologian (Heidelberger Catechism), was born.
(MC, 7/18/02)

1534 Jul 24, Jacques Cartier landed in Canada and claimed it for France. Jacques Cartier while probing for a northern route to Asia visited Labrador and said: “Fit only for wild beasts… This must be the land God gave to Cain.” [see May 10]
(NG, V184, No. 4, 10/1993, p. 4)(MC, 7/24/02)

1534 Aug 15, St. Ignatius of Loyola, Spanish ecclesiastic, founded the Society of Jesus (the Jesuits) in Paris with the aim of defending Catholicism against heresy and undertaking missionary work. Ignatius converted to Christianity while convalescing after a battle and wrote his Spiritual Exercises meant as a guide for conversion. In Paris, Ignatius and a small group of men took vows of poverty, chastity and papal obedience. Ignatius formally organized the order in 1539 that was approved by the pope in 1540. The society‘s rapid growth and emphasis on scholarship aided in the resurgence of Catholicism during the Counter-Reformation. The Jesuits were also active in missionary work in Asia, Africa and the Americas.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.14)(HNQ, 1/13/01)(MC, 8/15/02)

1534 Aug 20, Turkish admiral Chaireddin (Khair ad-Din) “Barbarossa” occupied Tunis.
(MC, 8/20/02)(PC, 1992, p.178)

1534 Sep, Don Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, reunited earlier with 3 survivors of the Narvaez expedition: Andres Dorantes, Alonso de Castillo and Estevanico, a black African and formerly Castillo’s slave, fled their enslavement under the Mariames Indians.
(ON, 10/03, p.4)
1534 Sep, During his voyage back to France Cartier learned from the 2 Native sons, Dom Agaya and Taignoagny of Iroquoian Chief Donnacona, that their father’s village of Stadacona (present-day Quebec) was called a ‘kanata’. Cartier wrote the name ‘Kanata’ on his charts and maps, perhaps to mark the land belonging to Chief Donnacona’s tribe. This is the first recorded use of the name ‘Canada’, and the name by which the country would become known.
(http://tinyurl.com/ddztr)(Canada, 1960, p.20)

1534 Oct 18, A new pursuit of French protestants began.
(MC, 10/18/01)

1534 Nov 3, English Parliament passed Act of Supremacy, making King Henry VIII head of the English church, a role formerly held by the Pope. Henry VIII was declared “the only supreme head in Earth of the Church of England.” He suppressed the monasteries, ordered Bibles burned and renounced papal jurisdiction. He issued the Act of Supremacy which signified a break with the Catholic Church of Rome.
(WSJ, 9/12/96, p.A14)(SFEC, 6/11/00, p.A30)(WSJ, 4/4/01, p.A18)(http://tinyurl.com/86a3z)

1534 Dec 4, Turkish sultan Suleiman occupied Baghdad.
(MC, 12/4/01)

1534 Dec 6, Quito, Ecuador, was founded by Spanish.

1534 Michelangelo left Florence following years of work on the Medici tombs.

1534 Mannerism, influenced by Michelangelo, developed in painting and architecture. Francesco Parmigianino (1503-1540), painter of the “Madonna with the Long Neck,” was a leading exponent.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.14)(Econ, 1/26/08, p.82)

1534 Lorenzo Lotto, Italian artist, painted the “Adoration of the Shepherds.”
(WSJ, 1/15/98, p.A17)

1534 Pope Paul III (1534-1549), Alessandro Farnese, confirmed “The Last Judgement” commission to Michelangelo, who settled in Rome and began to work on the immense painting on the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.14)(OG)(Econ, 12/13/03, p.82)

1534 Gratien du Pont, a French poet, published a chessboard with 64 rhyming insults to females, one for each square.
(Econ, 7/10/04, p.76)

1534 Jan Van Wynkyn (Wynkyn de Worde) published “Tullius Offyce,” the 1st Latin-English dictionary. He was the 1st printer in England to use italic type.
(SFEC, 6/11/00, p.A30)
1534 Britain passed a statute that made buggery a capital offense.
(Econ, 2/11/12, p.82)

1534 Regensburg Cathedral, Germany, was completed after 259 years of work.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.14)
1534 Anabaptists took power in Münster, Germany. Their reading of the Old Testament permitted polygamy and led them to proclaim a world rebellion. Their name became synonymous with anarchy for over 200 years.
(WSJ, 9/18/02, p.D8)

1534 The Ottoman Empire extended from Hungary to Baghdad.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.14)

1534 The King of Siam died of smallpox.
(SFC, 10/19/01, p.A17)

1534-1536 Titian’s “Portrait of Isabella d’Este, Marchioness of Mantua,” dated to about this time.
(SFC, 10/29/11, p.E2)

1535 Jan 6, Lima, Peru, was founded by Francisco Pizarro. [see Jan 18]
(TL-MB, 1988, p.15)(WSJ, 7/2/97, p.B8)(MC, 1/6/02)

1535 Jan 15, Henry VIII declared himself head of English Church. [see Oct 30, 1534]
(MC, 1/15/02)

1535 Jan 18, Francisco Pizarro founded Lima Peru. [see Jan 6]
(MC, 1/18/02)

1535 Jan, Thomas Cromwell sent out his agents to conduct a commission of enquiry into the character and value of all ecclesiastical property in the kingdom.
(HNC, 6/14/02)

1535 Feb 10, 12 nude Anabaptists ran through the streets of Amsterdam. [see 1534]
(MC, 2/10/02)

1535 Feb 11, Gregory XIV, Roman Catholic Pope was born.
(HN, 2/11/97)

1535 Mar 10, Bishop Tomas de Berlanga discovered the Galapagos Islands.

1535 Apr 17, Antonio Mendoza was appointed first viceroy of New Spain.
(HN, 4/17/98)

1535 Apr 29, John Houghton, English, was executed.
(MC, 4/29/02)

1535 May 19, French explorer Jacques Cartier set sail for North America.
(HN, 5/19/98)

1535 May 21, Imperial authorities in Antwerp captured and imprisoned William Tyndale for heresy over his translation of the Bible into English.
(WSJ, 12/22/94, A-20)(www.hyperhistory.net/apwh/bios/b2tyndalew.htm)

1535 Jun 22, John Fisher (65), English bishop (1504-35), cardinal, saint, was beheaded by Henry VIII.
(MC, 6/22/02)

1535 Jun 24, Francis of Waldeck overcame the Anabaptists of Munster. Fanatic leader John of Leyden and others were tortured and executed in Jan 1536.
(MC, 6/24/02)(PC, 1992, p.179)

1535 Jun, Castaways Don Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca with 3 companions resumed their journey from Texas to Mexico after spending 8 months with the congenial Avavares Indians.
(ON, 10/03, p.5)

1535 Jul 1, Sir Thomas More went on trial in England for treason.
(MC, 7/1/02)

1535 Jul 6, Thomas More (b.1478) was beheaded in England for treason, for refusing to renounce the Catholic church in favor of King Henry VIII’s Church of England. More’s sentence to death by hanging was commuted to beheading. He was canonized by the Catholic Church in 1935. In 1966 Robert Bolt authored the play “A Man for All Seasons” based on More’s struggle with Henry. In 1998 Peter Ackroyd published “The Life of Thomas More.” Pope John Paul II named More as the patron saint of politicians in 2000.
(V.D.-H.K.p.161)(AP, 7/6/97)(HN, 7/6/98)(WSJ, 10/22/98, p.A20)(WSJ, 11/7/00, p.A27)

1535 Jul 10, Jacob Van Campen, Reconstruction bishop, was beheaded.
(MC, 7/10/02)

1535 Aug 31, Pope Paul III deposed & excommunicated King Henry VIII.
(YN, 8/31/99)

1535 Sep, The site of the city of Quebec was first visited by Jacques Cartier during his 2nd voyage to the New World. It was an Indian village called Stadacona. Quebec is the oldest continuously inhabited settlement in what is now Canada.
(HNQ, 10/3/99)(Canada, 1960, p.20)

1535 Oct 2, Jacques Cartier first saw the site of what is now Montreal and proclaimed “What a royal mountain,” hence the name of the city. [see 1536] Having landed in Quebec a month ago, Jacques Cartier reached a town, which he named Montreal.
(SFEC, 3/2/97, p.T7)(HN, 10/2/98)

1535 Oct 4, The 1st full English translation of the Bible was printed in Switzerland. Miles Coverdale’s translation of the Bible into English (from Dutch and Latin) was the first complete version in English and was dedicated to Henry VIII.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.15)(MC, 10/4/01)

1535 Nov 1, Francesco Sforza, Italian ruler (“Il Sforza del Destino”) Milan, died.
(MC, 11/1/01)

1535 Rabelais published the second edition of “Gargantua.” It was published after Pantagruel even though it was the first part of the two part work.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1535 The summer palace of Prague Castle, The Belvedere, was begun with a design derived from Brunelleschi’s foundling hospital in Florence.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1535 France became the first country to have a permanent embassy at the Sublime Porte in Istanbul.
(Econ, 12/12/09, p.93)

1535 Holy Roman Emperor Charles V led a naval expedition to Tunis against Barbarossa. The foray proved successful, but Barbarossa escaped and continued to fight.
(WSJ, 7/21/08, p.A11)

1535 Spanish conquistadors attempted to create a settlement in the Buenos Aires area but were driven away by the Karandias Indians.
(SSFC, 10/14/01, p.T5)

1535 The Spaniards founded a temporary settlement on the banks of the Rio de la Plata that 45 years later becomes the city of Buenos Aires.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1535 Diego de Almagro explored Chile.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1535 The Anabaptists under John of Leiden formed a communist state at Munster. When the city was recaptured, John was tortured to death.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1535 Emissaries of Cortez discovered La Paz, in Baha, Mexico.
(SSFC, 11/2/03, p.C10)

c1535-1625 Sofonisba Anguissola, Italian artist. She was the first woman to achieve fame as a painter in this century. She served as art instructor to Queen Isabel and worked as a court painter. Her paintings here illustrated include “The Chess Game” (1555), a self-portrait (c1552), portrait of her sister Elena (c1551), and the “Holy Family with Saints Anne and John the Baptist” (1592).
(Smith., 5/95, p.106-109)

1536 cJan, Spanish castaways Don Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca with 3 companions reached the Pacific Coast in northern Mexico under Indian escort and encountered Spanish troops engaged as slave hunters.
(ON, 10/03, p.5)

1536 Feb 2, The Argentine city of Buenos Aires was founded by Pedro de Mendoza of Spain. The memorial Column standing at the center of Buenos Aires, gives the date as 1500.
(AP, 2/2/97)(MC, 2/2/02)

1536 Feb 25, Jacob Hutter (d.1536), Anabaptist evangelist from South Tyrol, was burned as a heretic in Austria. He had founded of a “community of love” in 1528, whose members shared everything.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jakob_Hutter)

1536 Apr 14, English king Henry VIII expropriated minor monasteries.
(MC, 4/14/02)

1536 May 2, King Henry VIII accused Anna Boleyn of adultery, incest, and treason. [see May 15, May 19]
(MC, 5/2/02)

1536 May 6, King Henry VIII ordered a bible placed in every church.
(MC, 5/6/02)

1536 May 10, Thomas Howard, 4th duke of Norfolk, English Earl Marshall, was born.
(MC, 5/10/02)

1536 May 15, Anna Boleyn and Lord Rochford were accused of adultery, incest, treason. [see May 2, May 19]
(MC, 5/15/02)

1536 May 17, Anne Boleyn’s 4 “lovers” were executed.
(MC, 5/17/02)

1536 May 19, Anne Boleyn, the second wife of England’s King Henry VIII, was beheaded on Tower Green after she was convicted of adultery and incest with her brother, Lord Rochford, who was executed two days before. It was the day before Henry VIII’s marriage to Jane Seymour.
(AP, 5/19/97)(DTnet, 5/19/97)(HN, 5/19/99)

1536 May 21, The Reformation was officially adopted in Geneva, Switzerland.
(HN, 5/21/98)

1536 May 23, Pope Paul III installed the Portuguese Inquisition at the request of John III. Its most common accusation was maintaining outlawed Jewish practices in secret. The Inquisition was disbanded in 1821.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portuguese_Inquisition)(AP, 8/19/15)

1536 May 30, English king Henry VIII married Jane Seymour (wife #3).
(MC, 5/30/02)

1536 May, English poet Thomas Wyatt was imprisoned in the Tower of London for allegedly committing adultery with Anne Boleyn.
1536 May, Jacques Cartier sailed for France from Canada and carried with him the kidnapped local chief Donnacona, who later died in France. Donnacona, prior to his death, described a mythical kingdom with great riches called Saguenay.
(Canada, 1960, p.21)

1536 Jun 6, Mexico began its inquisition.
(MC, 6/6/02)
1536 Jul 6, Jaques Cartier returned to France after discovering the St. Lawrence River in Canada.
(HN, 7/6/98)

1536 Jul 9, French navigator Jacques Cartier returned to Saint-Malo from Canada.
(MC, 7/9/02)

1536 Jul 12, Desiderius Erasmus (b.1469 in Rotterdam) died, humanist, priest (Novum instrumentum omne), died. His most famous works included “In Praise of Folly” and a Greek text of the New Testament. In 1999 Prof. Charles Trinkaus published “Collected Works of Erasmus: Controversies,” an examination of the religious conflict between humanism and the Reformation.
(V.D.-H.K.p.159-160)(SFC, 9/27/99, p.A26)(WSJ, 1/31/03, p.W13)(MC, 7/12/02)

1536 Jul 14, France and Portugal signed the naval treaty of Lyons aligning themselves against Spain.
(HN, 7/14/98)

1536 Jul 18, The authority of the pope was declared void in England.
(AP, 7/18/97)

1536 Jul 24, Spanish castaways Don Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca with 3 companions arrived in Mexico City under escort from Culiacan.
(ON, 10/03, p.5)

1536 Oct 6, William Tyndale (b.1494), the English translator of the New and Old Testament, was burned at the stake at Vilvoorde Castle (Belgium) as a heretic by the Holy Roman Empire.

1536 Oct 14, Garcilaso de la Vega, Spanish poet and diplomat, died in battle.
(MC, 10/14/01)

1536 Nov 13, Robert Packington (d.1536), a mercer in London and brother of Augustine Packington, was shot and killed. Packington had spoken against the covetousness and cruelty of the clergy in the House of Commons.

1536 Toyotomi Hideyoshi (d.1598), Japan’s unifier and folk hero, was born in a village called Nakamura in Owari province.

1536 Sansovino created his sculpture relief of “St. Mark Healing a Demoniac.”
(WSJ, 1/29/02, p.A18)

1536 Hans Holbein the Younger was made court painter to Henry VIII of England. He painted a famous portrait of Henry VIII.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.15)(SFEC, 12/1/96, BR p.4)

1536 Titian painted the “Portrait of Francesco Maria della Rovere, Duke of Urbino.”
(WSJ, 3/9/98, p.A16)

1536 The first song book with lute accompaniment was published in Spain.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1536 John Calvin published the “The Institutes of the Christian Religion,” which spread Calvinist ideas across Europe.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1536 The suppression of the smaller monasteries in England under Thomas Cromwell was completed.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1536 Although English conquest of Wales took place under the 1284 Statute of Rhuddlan, a formal Union did not occur until 1536, shortly after which Welsh law, which continued to be used in Wales after the conquest, was fully replaced by English law under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535-1542. There was another Act of Union in 1542.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wales)(SFC, 7/23/97, p.A10)

1536 In England Hyde Park was seized from the monks at Westminster Abbey by Henry VIII and preserved as forest for the royal hunt.
(SFEM, 3/21/99, p.8)

1536 Robert Aske led an uprising of some 30,000 people against the dissolution of the monasteries in the northern counties of England. It ended a year later with the arrest and hanging of Aske.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1536 Savoy and Piedmont were conquered by France.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1536 Provence was invaded by Charles V.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1536 Jacques Cartier discovered the St. Lawrence River and explored as far as the site of Montreal.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1536 The first Spanish settlement was established in Buenos Aires, Argentina, but the colony failed. The cows and horses however thrived on the tall pampa grass and when new colonists arrived two decades later they found the thriving livestock.
(Hem. 10/’95, p.103)

1536 A Spanish conquistador noted oil seeping in the countryside of Colombia.
(WSJ, 1/3/96, p.A-1)

1536 Spanish soldiers crushed an Indian revolt and Incas fled to Peru’s Vilcabamba region. In 2002 archeologists uncovered a settlement on Cerro Victorio.
(SFC, 3/19/02, p.A2)

1536 The city of Porlamar was founded on the southeastern coast of Margarita Island off the coast of Venezuela.
(SSFC, 2/19/06, p.F8)

1537 Jan 6, Alessandro de’ Medici (b.1510), Italian monarch of Florence, was assassinated by the villain Scoronconcolo, hired by his cousin Lorenzino (d.1548). This event was commemorated in the bust Brutus by Michelangelo. Cosimo I (18) came to power following the murder of Alessandro. In 2016 Catherine Fletcher authored “The Black Prince of Florence.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alessandro_de%27_Medici,_Duke_of_Florence)(AM, 7/05, p.36)(Econ, 5/7/15, p.80)

1537 Mar 25, The 5th Lithuanian war with Russia (1534-1537) ended with a peace treaty. It lasted until the start of war with the Livonian Order (1562-1582).
(LHC, 3/25/03)

1537 May 20, Hieronymus Fabricius Ab, physician (De Formato Foetu), was born in Aquapend, Italy.
(MC, 5/20/02)

1537 Jun 2, Pope Paul III banned the enslavement of Indians in the New World.
(HN, 6/2/99)

1537 Aug 15, Juan de Salazar, Spanish pioneer, founded Asuncion, the capital of Paraguay.
(SFEC, 1/12/97, Z3 p.4)(PC, 1992, p.181)

1537 Aug, Castaway Don Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca returned from Mexico to Spain where he wrote an account of his 3,000 mile journey through North American and his experiences with the Indians. These narratives were collected and published in 1542 in Spain. They are now known as The Relation of Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca. The narrative of Cabeza de Vaca is the “first European book devoted completely to North America. In 2006 Paul Schneider authored “Brutal Journey: The True Story of the First Crossing of North America.” Schneider used de Vaca’s original memoir as well as an official report prepared by survivors of the Narvaez expedition.
(ON, 10/03, p.5)(SSFC, 6/11/06, p.M3)(http://tinyurl.com/z36z9yk)

1537 Oct 12, Edward IV, King of England (1547-53), was born. He was the only son of Henry VIII by his third wife Jane Seymour.
(HN, 10/12/98)(MC, 10/12/01)

1537 Oct 13, Jane Grey, Queen of England for 9 days, was born.
(MC, 10/13/01)

1537 Oct 24, Jane Seymour, the third wife of England’s King Henry VIII, died 12 days after giving birth to Prince Edward, later King Edward VI.
(AP, 10/24/97)

1537 Miles Coverdale completed William Tyndale’s English translation of the Bible. A complete Bible, two-thirds of which had been translated by Tyndale, was published by royal permission.
(WSJ, 4/4/01, p.A18)(Econ, 12/20/08, p.102)

1537 Hans Holbein’s masterpiece was his life-size Tudor dynastic portrait in Whitehall Palace that included Henry VIII and his father Henry VII..
(TL-MB, 1988, p.15)(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.23)

1537 The complete works of Cicero, “Opera Omnia,” was published in Venice in four volumes.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1537 Paracelsus, Philippus Aureolus, Swiss physician and alchemist, published his “Grosse Astronomie,” a manual of astrology. [See Paracelsus in 1528]
(TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1537 Sebastiano Serlio, architect at the palace of Fontainebleau, published the first of six volumes of his “Trattato di Architettura.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1537 The first Catholic hymnal was published.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1537 Costanzo Vesta published his first book of madrigals in Rome, a landmark in the development of the form.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1537 The first conservatories of music were founded for girls in Venice, and for boys in Naples.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1537 Jacopo Sansovino began building the famous Old Library of St. Mark’s, Venice.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1537 Popayan, Colombia, was founded.
(SFEC, 11/10/96, p.T10)

1537 The Spanish built La Fortaleza overlooking the bay on the southwestern edge of San Juan, Puerto Rico.
(HT, 4/97, p.29)

1537 Andreas Vesalius, the Belgian “father of anatomy”, accepted the chair of anatomy at Padua.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1537 Niccolo Fontana founded the science of ballistics.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1537 Gerhardus Mercator, Flemish geographer, surveyed and drew a map of Flanders that was so accurate that Charles V made him his geographer.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1537 Robert Aske was arrested and hung for the uprising in northern England against the closing of the monasteries by Thomas Cromwell.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1537 In India Bangalore was founded on the Deccan Plateau by a king who was lost and given a bowl of boiled beans (Bendakalooru means town of boiled beans) by women in the area.
(WSJ, 3/25/98, p.B10)

1537 The Reformation came to Norway.
(WSJ, 8/27/96, p.A12)

1538 Feb 24, Ferdinand of Hapsburg and John Zapolyai, the two kings of Hungary, concluded the peace of Grosswardein.
(HN, 2/24/99)

1538 Feb 26, Worp van Thabor, Frisian abbot of Thabor (Chronicon Frisiae), died.
(SC, 2/26/02)

1538 Mar 10, Thomas Howard (d.1572), Duke of Norfolk, executed by Queen Elizabeth, was born.
(HN, 3/10/98)(MC, 3/10/02)

1538 Apr 24, Guglielmo Gonzaga, composer, was born.
(MC, 4/24/02)

1538 Apr 26, Giovanni P. Lomazzo, Italian writer, poet (Trattato), was born.
(MC, 4/26/02)

1538 May 26, Geneva threw out John Calvin and his zealots. Calvin was exiled from Geneva for three years and lived in Strasbourg.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.15)(MC, 5/26/02)

1538 Jun 18, Treaty of Nice ended the war between Emperor Charles V and King Francois I. It only lasted 10 months.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.15)(PCh, 1992, p.180)(MC, 6/18/02)

1538 Jul 8, Diego de Almagro (63), Spanish conquistador (Chile and Peru), died.
(MC, 7/8/02)

1538 Dec 17, Pope Paul III excommunicated England’s King Henry VIII. [see Aug 31, 1535]
(MC, 12/17/01)

c1538 A colossal gilded statue of Buddha was erected at Ayutthaya (Siam). It survived the sacking of the city in 1767 and in 1854 was renamed Si Mongkhon Bophit by King Monghut.
(WSJ, 4/21/05, p.D7)

1538 Titian painted his “Urbino V.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.15)
1538 Benvenuto Cellini, Florentine artist, was imprisoned for about a year in the dungeon beneath the papal fortress of Castel Sant’Angelo for killing his brother’s murderer.
(SSFC, 7/22/07, p.G2)

1538 Religious plays were first performed in Mexico on the feast of Corpus Christi.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1538 Mercator (1512-1594), Flemish cartographer, used the name “America” for the first time.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.15)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerardus_Mercator)

1538 Construction of Henry VIII’s Nonsuch Castle in Cuddington, Surrey, southeast England, began. It took eight years to complete and was still incomplete when Henry died in 1547. It stood for less than 150 years having fallen into disrepair in the 1680s. By 1690 the palace had vanished. A watercolor picture of the castle was painted by Joris Hoefnagel in 1568 as part of a record of the most important buildings in Europe. The picture was put up for auction in 2010.
(Reuters, 11/3/10)
1538 The Thirteen Articles of the Church of England were written. In 1964 A.G. Dickens (d.2001 at 91) authored “The English Reformation.”
(HNQ, 10/20/98)(SFC, 8/4/01, p.E2)
1538 Thomas Cromwell ordered an English Bible to be available to the public in every Church.
(WSJ, 4/4/01, p.A18)

1538 Gonzalo Jimenez de Quesada, Spanish conquistador, founded Bogota, Colombia.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1538 France’s King Francois I closed the French bath houses by this time.
(Econ, 12/19/09, p.139)

1538 King Sigismund I (1467-1548), King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, imposed the death penalty for bison poaching.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sigismund_I_the_Old)(Econ, 9/14/13, SR p.10)

1538 Portugal captured Diu, India, and established it as part of a fortified trade network.
(SSFC, 3/19/06, p.F7)

1538 The earliest reference to a diving bell was made at Toledo, Spain.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1539 Feb 19, Jews of Tyrnau, Hungary, (then Trnava, Czech), were expelled.
(MC, 2/19/02)

1539 Apr 17, Tobias Stimmer, Swiss painter, cartoonist (Comedia), was born.
(MC, 4/17/02)

1539 Apr 19, Emperor Charles V reached a truce with German Protestants at Frankfurt, Germany.
(HN, 4/19/97)

1539 May 28, Hernando de Soto sailed from Cuba to Florida with 13 pigs to help sustain his 700 men on his gold-hunting expedition. [see May 30]
(ON, 4/01, p.4)(MC, 5/28/02)

1539 May 30, Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto landed at Tampa Bay, Florida, with 600 soldiers in search of gold. Hernando de Soto returned to the New World at the head of a 1,000-man expedition into North America. He landed near present-day Tampa Bay and proceeded through what is now Alabama and Tennessee, making treaties with some Indian, viciously fighting with others.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.15)(AP, 5/30/97)(HN, 5/30/98)(HNQ, 10/11/00)

1539 Jun 3, Hernando De Soto claimed Florida for Spain. In 1922 Lippincott published “Narratives of de Soto in Florida.” The translated texts included “A Narrative of de Soto’s Expedition Based on the Diary of Rodrigo Rangel” by Gonzalo Fernandez de Oviedo y Valdes.”
(HN, 6/3/98)(ON, 4/01, p.5)

1539 Jul 5, Antonio M. Zaccaria, Italian physician, saint, died.
(MC, 7/5/02)

1539 Aug 10, King Francis of France declared that all official documents were to be written in French, not Latin.
(HN, 8/10/98)

1539 Nov 15, Richard Whiting (b.1461), the Bishop of Glastonbury, was hung, drawn and quartered on Glastonbury Tor after being convicted of treason for remaining loyal to Rome. Little Jack Horner was reputed to have been the steward to Whiting, whose jury included Horner. 12 deeds, sent by Whiting as a bribe to the king, were reportedly carried by Horner, who was said to have stolen the one to the manor of Mells, it being the real ‘plum’ of the twelve manors. The first publication date for the lyrics to the Little Jack Horner nursery rhyme is 1725.

1539 Claeszon Marinus van Reymerswaele created his painting “The Banker and His Wife” (The Money Changer and His Wife).
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R54)(WSJ, 1/21/02, p.A13)

1539 Jacques Arcadett, a Dutchman, was appointed master of music at the Julian Chapel. His first book of four-part madrigals was published about this time and was reprinted for more than a century.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1539 Cosimo I de’ Medici (1519-1574), Duke of Florence, married Eleonora (1522-1562), daughter of the Spanish viceroy of Naples. Their wedding included a musical intermedi, one of the first such interludes for which music survives.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cosimo_I_de%27_Medici)(TL-MB, 1988, p.15)
(AP, 8/19/09)
1539 Michelangelo began to redesign the Capitol in Rome.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1539 The Six Articles, a religious stature, was passed at the “instance” of Henry VIII. It set forth the position of the English Church on six fundamental points in an effort to stem the growth and influence of the English Protestants.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1539 In England Richard Whiting, the last abbot of Glastonbury, was hanged at Glastonbury Tor.
(Local Inscription, 2000)

1539 In Lyon, France, printers went on strike against long hours, poor conditions and excessive profits by masters.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1539 Japanese trading monopolies ended in favor of a free market.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1539 German scholar George Joachim Rheticus received permission to write a condensed version of the ideas of astronomer Nicholas Copernicus. The short book was titled “First Account.”
(ON, 2/11, p.6)

1539 Olaus Magnus, Swedish ecclesiastic and historian, produced a map of the world.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1539 The first form of a flintlock was recorded in Sweden.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1540 Jan 6, England’s King Henry VIII married his fourth wife, Anne of Cleves. The marriage lasted about six months.
(HN, 1/6/99)(AP, 1/6/98)

1540 Jan 25, Edmund Campion, saint, Jesuit martyr (Decem Rationes), was born in London.
(MC, 1/25/02)

1540 Feb 9, The 1st recorded race met in England at Roodee Fields, Chester.
(MC, 2/9/02)

1540 Feb 14, Emperor Charles V entered Ghent without resistance and executed the rebels. He brutally beat down an uprising against taxes for an expansionist war. Nine leaders were beheaded and another hanged. City burgers were forced to walk the streets barefoot with rope hanging round their necks. The “Gentse Feesten” annual festival re-enacts this event every mid-July.
(SFEC, 11/21/99, p.T10)(MC, 2/14/02)

1540 Feb 23, Spanish explorer Francisco Vasquez de Coronado began his unsuccessful search for the fabled Seven Cities of Gold in the American Southwest. Antonio de Mendoza, Viceroy of Mexico, sent Francisco Coronado overland to search for the fabled Seven Cities of Cibola in present day New Mexico. Coronado, Spanish explorer, introduced horses, mules, pigs, cattle, and sheep into the American southwest. An Indian guide spoke of a rich kingdom called Quivira. When no cities were found he confessed under torture that the story was false.
(NPS-CNM, 4/1/97)(HN, 2/23/99)(TL-MB, 1988, p.16)(SFC, 1/31/04, p.D1)

1540 Mar 4, Protestant count Philip of Hessen married his 2nd wife.
(SC, 3/4/02)

1540 Mar 9, Hernando de Soto reached southern Georgia. He found the Indians there raising tame turkeys, caged opossums, corn, beans, pumpkins, cucumbers and plums.
(ON, 4/01, p.5)(www.floridahistory.com/inset7.html)

1540 May 17, Afghan chief Sher Khan defeated Mongol Emperor Humayun at Kanauj.
(HN, 5/17/98)

1540 Jun 10, Thomas Cromwell was arrested in Westminster.
(MC, 6/10/02)

1540 Jun 24, Henry VIII divorced his 4th wife, Anne of Cleves.
(MC, 6/24/02)

1540 Jun 29, Thomas Cromwell, English ex-chancellor, was sentenced to death.
(MC, 6/29/02)

1540 Jul 9, England’s King Henry VIII had his 6-month-old marriage to his fourth wife, Anne of Cleves, annulled.
(AP, 7/9/97)

1540 Jul 28, King Henry VIII’s chief minister, Thomas Cromwell, was executed. The same day, Henry married his fifth wife, Catherine Howard. In 2014 Tracy Borman authored “Thomas Cromwell: The Untold Story of Henry VIII’s Most Faighful Servant.”
(AP, 7/28/97)(HN, 7/28/98)(PCh, 1992, p.181)(Econ, 9/13/14, p.91)

1540 Aug 25, Explorer Hernando de Alarcon traveled up the Colorado River.
(MC, 8/25/02)

1540 Sep 27, The Society of Jesus, a religious order under Ignatius Loyola, was approved by the Pope. The Jesuits were recognized by Pope Paul III. They were to become the chief agents of the Church of Rome in spreading the Counter-Reformation.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.16)(HN, 9/27/98)

1540 Oct 11, Charles V of Milan put his son Philip in control.
(HN, 10/11/98)

1540 Oct 19, Hernando de Soto fought native Indians at the bloody battle of Mabila in present day Alabama.
(WSJ, 8/5/05, p.W2)(www.floridahistory.com/inset91.html)

1540 Renaissance artist Lucas Cranach the Elder (1472-1553) created his painting “Suffer the Little Children to Come Unto Me” about this time In 2009 it was stolen from a Lutheran church in the southern Norway town of Larvik. It’s value was estimated at 15-20 million kroner ($2.1-$2.8 million).
(AP, 3/8/09)

1540 Faust died; a famous magician who employed his magical wiles to entrap men and young woman and to take from them whatever his evil mind desired.

1540 Garcia Lopez de Cardenas, a Spanish conquistador, became the first European to know the Colorado and the Grand Canyon.
(NG, 5.1988, Mem Forum)(SFEC, 10/4/98, BR p.12)

1540 The united companies of barbers and surgeons were incorporated in London.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1540 German vintner records described this year as the “Great Sun Year,” as relentless heat and drought withered the Rhine between Cologne and the Netherlands.
(SFC, 3/31/05, p.F3)

1540 Sher Shah, Afghan rebel, became Emperor of Delhi.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.16)
1540 Ruffs as accordion-style collars was a fashion brought to Europe from India and popularized by the queen of Navarre.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R40)

1540 Francesco Mazzola Parmigianino (b.1503), Italian painter and master draftsman, died. His paintings included “Antea.”
(Econ, 1/26/08, p.82)

1540 Spaniards settled Campeche, Mexico. Montejo the Younger, the founder of Merida, gained a foothold at Campeche.
(SSFC, 5/4/03, p.D12)(SSFC, 1/25/09, p.E4)

1540 Arequipa, Peru, was founded by Spanish conquerors.
(SSFC, 6/24/01, p.A16)

1540 The first potato from South America reached Pope Paul III. It was then taken to France and grown as an ornamental plant.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1540 In Portugal Coimbra Univ. was founded in a royal palace.
(SFEC, 4/26/98, p.T7)

1540 Venice and Turkey signed a treaty at Constantinople.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1540 Diethyl ether was produced from alcohol and sulfuric acid. Valerius Cordus (1515-1544), German physician and botanist, discovered the compound.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valerius_Cordus)(ON, 10/20/11, p.9)

1540 The pulmonary circulation of the blood was discovered by Michael Servetus, a Spanish theologian and physician. In 1553 he was burned at the stake in Geneva for heresy.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.16)(WSJ, 9/18/02, p.D8)

1540 Antonio de Mendoza, Viceroy of Mexico, sent a sea expedition under Hernando de Alarcon up the Gulf of California where they entered the mouth of the Colorado River and became the first Europeans to stand on California soil.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.16)(NPS-CNM, 4/1/97)

1540 Cabeza de Vaca, a Spanish conquistador, was appointed governor of the province of Rio de la Plata. His advocacy of Indian rights caused him to be arrested and banished to a Spanish outpost in North Africa.
(ON, 10/03, p.5)

1540s The 1982 French film “The Return of Martin Guerre” with Gerard Depardieu was based on a true story set in 16th century France against a backdrop of the Reformation and a marriage of convenience between 11-year-old Bertrande de Rols and 14-year-old Martin Guerre.
(SFC, 7/12/96, p.D7)(WSJ, 7/17/96, p.A12)

1540-1541 Francisco Coronado, one of the first Spanish conquistadores to enter the Southwest, vividly described a group of “dog nomads,” that he encountered wintering just outside the walls of the Pecos Pueblo, a multi-storied village of more than 1000 inhabitants, east of Santa Fe, New Mexico.
(MT, 12/94, p.2-3)

1540-1580 In Vincenza Palladio created a wide variety of palaces and public buildings.
(AMNHDT, 5/98)(WSJ, 11/8/02, p.W12)

1540-1596 Jacopo Zucchi, a mannerist painter. His work included “The Bath of Bathsheba” (1570).
(WSJ, 4/28/98, p.A16)

1541 Feb 12, Santiago, Chile, was founded by Spanish conquistador Pedro de Valdivia, a lieutenant of Pizarro. When the Spaniards arrived in Chile, 11 languages were in widespread use: Quechua, Aymara, Rapanui, Chango, Kunza, Diaguita, Mapudungun, Chono, Kawesqar, Yagan and Selk’nam. By 2007 only the 1st 3 remained. The last ethnic Selk’nam died in the 1970s.
(PCh, 1992, p.182)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pedro_de_Valdivia)(SSFC, 8/12/07, p.A18)

1541 Mar 14, In the area of the state of Mississippi Hernando de Soto and his men were attacked by hundreds of Chickasaw Indians. 11 Spaniards were killed along with 15 horses and 400 pigs.
(ON, 4/01, p.5)

1541 Apr 4, Ignatius Loyola, Spanish ecclesiastic, was elected 1st superior-general of the Jesuits.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.16)(MC, 4/4/02)

1541 May 8, Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto discovered and crossed the Mississippi River, which he called Rio de Espiritu Santo. He encountered the Cherokee Indians, who numbered about 25,000 and inhabited the area from the Ohio River to the north to the Chattahoochee in present day Georgia, and from the valley of the Tennessee east across the Great Smoky Mountains to the Piedmont of the Carolinas. [see May 21]
(NG, 5/95, p.78)(AP, 5/8/97)(HN, 5/8/99)

1541 May 21, The Spaniards first saw the mighty Mississippi, the “Father of the Waters.” Still dreaming of fabled rich cities, De Soto succumbed to fever on May 21, 1542 and was buried in the mud of the Mississippi, to prevent his body being disturbed by Indians. [see May 8]
(HNQ, 10/11/00)

1541 May, The expedition of Francisco Vasquez de Coronado, having crossed the high plains of Texas, feasted on game and held a Mass of thanksgiving.
(Sm, 2/06, p.12)

1541 Jun 18, Irish parliament “selected” Henry VIII as King of Ireland.
(SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1 p.6)(MC, 6/18/02)

1541 Jun 26, Francisco Pizarro, the Spanish Conqueror of Peru, was murdered by his former followers in Lima.
(HN, 6/26/98)(MC, 6/26/02)

1541 Jun 29, The Spanish [first] crossed the Arkansas River. Francisco Vazquez de Coronado continued to explore the American southwest. He left New Mexico and crossed Texas, Oklahoma and east Kansas.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.16)(HFA, ’96, p.32)

1541 Aug 23, Jacques Cartier landed near Quebec on his third voyage to North America and established a short-lived community there.
(HN, 8/23/98)(TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1541 Sep 24, Philippus Aureolus Paracelsus (b.1493), Swiss alchemist, physician and theologian, died. The 1835 poem “Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim” by Robert Browning was based on the life of Paracelsus. In 2006 Philip Ball authored “The Devil’s Doctor: Paracelsus and the Renaissance World of Magic and Science.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paracelsus)(Econ, 1/21/06, p.81)

1541 Oct 31, “The Last Judgement” by Michelangelo on the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel at Rome was officially unveiled. It is one of the largest paintings in the world.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.16)(OG)

1541 Nov 9, Queen Catharine Howard was confined in the London Tower.
(MC, 11/9/01)

1541 El Greco (d.1614), artist, was born in Crete. He settled in Toledo, Spain, in 1577 and died there.
(WSJ, 6/18/01, p.A16)

1541 Lorenzo Lotto, Italian artist, painted the “Portrait of a Man With a Felt Hat.”
(WSJ, 1/15/98, p.A17)

1541 The “Codex Mendoza” was an Aztec pictorial manuscript of this time. It showed tribute received by the Aztecs from people like the Mixtec with turquoise shields and beads. It also showed 3 young people being stoned to death for drunkenness.
(NH, 4/97, p.24)(Arch, 1/05, p.29)

1541 Thomas Wyatt (1503-1542), British poet, authored his “Defence,” an attempt to get out of the Tower of London where he faced charges of treason.
(Econ, 5/7/11, p.91)

1541 John Knox, a Scottish theologian and historian, led the Calvinist Reformation in Scotland.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1541 John Calvin, French theologian, set up a theocratic government in Geneva. Some of the finest French watchmakers joined him.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.16) (Hem., 2/96, p.96)

1541 Spanish conquistadors arrived in the area of New Mexico and encountered the Jemez Indians, who numbered around 30,000. The Jemez lived in fortified villages in the high mesas and had arrived over 200 years earlier. In 2001 the tribe numbered about 3,400.
(SSFC, 11/11/01, p.C8)

1541 Cabeza de Vaca, a Spanish conquistador, became the 1st European to see the Iguacu Falls in Brazil. He named the falls Saltos de Santa Maria but the Tupi-Guarani name persisted.
(SFEC, 10/8/00, p.17)

1541 Francisco de Orellana, Spanish soldier and explorer, descended the River Amazon from the Andes to its mouth in the Atlantic Ocean. When Pizarro’s half-brother prepared to explore the lands east of Quito, Francisco de Orellana led an advance expedition and wound up exploring the Amazon basin, following the current to emerge at the mouth of the river in August 1542. From there, he returned to Spain (by way of Trinidad), full of tales of riches and strange tribes led by women like the Amazons of Greek mythology. Orellana died in a return expedition to the Amazon River four years later.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.16)(HNQ, 2/11/01)

1541 Ethiopia was invaded by the Portuguese.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1541 In Guatemala a volcano crater filled with water cracked and a mud slide engulfed the capital town of Ciudad Vieja. Over 1,000 people were buried. The volcano was named Agua from that point on.
(SFEC, 1/10/99, Z1 p.8)

1541 Jean Clouet (b.1480), French Renaissance artist, died. He was the chief painter of King Francis I. Clouet’s work included a 1519 portrait of Francis I as Saint John the Baptist.
(Econ, 10/16/10, p.104)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_Clouet)

1541 Morelia, the capital of the Mexican state of Michoacan, was founded by the royal edict of Antonio de Mendoza. It was originally named Valladolid after a city in Spain. The name was changed in 1928 to honor the local village priest and revolutionary hero Jose Maria Morelos.
(Hem, Nov.’95, p.146)(SSFC, 11/17/02, p.C11)

1541 In Morocco, the Portuguese abandoned their sea defense settlement at Mogador, later Essaouira. Mogador had originally been named by the Phoenicians.
(SFEC, 1/2/00, p.T4)

1541 Suleiman I annexed southern and central Hungary. The Turkish Ottomans occupied Budapest, Hungary, until 1546.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.16)(Sm, 3/06, p.76)

1541 An earthquake and tidal wave finished off the settlement of Nueva Cadiz on Isla de Cubagua off the coast of Venezuela.
(SSFC, 2/19/06, p.F8)

1542 Feb 13, Catherine Howard (b.c1520), the fifth wife of England’s King Henry VIII, was executed for adultery.
(WUD, 1994, p.689)(AP, 2/13/98)

1542 May 21, Spanish explorer Hernando De Soto died while searching for gold along the Mississippi River. His men buried his body in the Mississippi River in what is now Louisiana in order that Indians would not learn of his death, and thus disprove de Soto’s claims of divinity.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.16)(AP, 5/21/97)(MC, 5/21/02)

1542 Jun 24, Juan de la Cruz, [de Yepes], Spanish Carmelite, poet, saint, was born.
(MC, 6/24/02)

1542 Jun 27, Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo set out from the port of Navidad, Mexico, with 2 ships, the San Salvador and the Victoria, to “discover the coast of New Spain.” Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo claimed California for Spain. [see Sep 28]
(NPS-CNM, 4/1/97)(MC, 6/27/02)

1542 Jul 15, In 2007 an expert on the “Mona Lisa” says he had ascertained with certainty that Lisa Gherardini (b.1479), the symbol of feminine mystique, died on this day, and was buried at the Sant’Orsola convent in central Florence where she spent her final days.
(AFP, 1/19/07)

1542 Jul 21, Pope Paul III launched the Inquisition against Protestants (Sanctum Officium). Alleged heretics were tried and tortured in an effort to stem the spread of the Reformation.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.16)(MC, 7/21/02)

1542 Aug 24, In South America, Gonzalo Pizarro returned to the mouth of the Amazon River after having sailed the length of the great river as far as the Andes Mountains.
(HN, 8/24/98)

1542 Aug, Francisco de Orellana emerged at the mouth of the Amazon river. He had led an advance expedition from Peru and wound up exploring the Amazon basin and following the current to the mouth.
(HNQ, 2/11/01)

1542 Sep 24, Thomas Wyatt (b.1503), British poet, died. He is credited with introducing the sonnet into English. In 2011 Nicola Shulman authored “Graven With Diamonds: The Many Lives of Thomas Wyatt, Courtier, Poet, Assassin.”
(Econ, 5/7/11, p.91)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Wyatt_%28poet%29)

1542 Sept 28, Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo, Spanish explorer, stepped ashore at the present day harbor of San Diego and named it San Miguel. He went on to explore the coast of California. The tip of Point Loma in San Diego is the home of the Cabrillo National Monument, the second most visited monument in the US after the Statue of Liberty. The island of Coronado was named in honor of the Four Crowned Martyrs, Los Quatro Martires Coronados, on whose feast day it was discovered.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.16)(AAM, 3/96, p.52)(NPS-CNM, 4/1/97)(SFC,12/26/97, p.C22)

1542 Oct 4, Roberto Bellarmino, Italian Jesuit theologian, diplomat, saint, was born.
(MC, 10/4/01)

1542 Oct 7, Explorer Cabrillo discovered Catalina Island off the Southern California coast.
(MC, 10/7/01)

1542 Oct 14, Abul-Fath Djalal-ud-Din, 3rd Mogul emperor of India (1556-1605), was born.
(MC, 10/14/01)

1542 Nov 22, New laws were passed in Spain giving protection against the enslavement of Indians in America.
(HN, 11/22/98)

1542 Nov 24, The English defeated the Scots under King James at the Battle of Solway Moss, in England.
(HN, 11/24/98)(MC, 11/24/01)

1542 Nov, Cabrillo landed at the Channel Island, now known as San Miguel. His men got into a scuffle with local Indians and Cabrillo broke a leg. The party continued to sail north almost to present day Fort Ross.
(NPS-CNM, 4/1/97)

1542 Dec 7, Mary Stuart, Queen of Scotland (1560-1587), was born. [see Dec 8]
(MC, 12/7/01)

1542 Dec 8, Mary, Queen of Scotland (1542-67), was born. She became the Queen of England when she was a week old, but was forced to abdicate her throne to her son because she became a Catholic. She was executed for plotting against Elizabeth I. [see Dec 7]
(HN, 12/8/00)

1542 Dec 14, James V (b.1512), king of Scotland (1513-42), died.
(MC, 12/14/01)

1542 Bernard Palissy started working in France. He produced dishes and plates with leaves, lizards, snakes, insects and shells in high relief.
(SFC, 1/8/97, z-1 p.6)

1542 Magdalen College, Cambridge, was founded.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1542 The University of Zaragoza was founded [in Spain?].
(TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1542 The Medici tapestry factory in Florence was founded about this time.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1542 War was renewed between the Holy Roman Empire and France.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1542 Explorer Juan Cabrillo spotted the 534 foot rock at Morro Bay, Ca.
(SFEC, 8/25/96, p.T10)

1542 An 2nd Act of Union united Wales into England. It followed the 1542 Act of Union.
(SFC, 7/23/97, p.A10)
1542 Britain’s 1st bankruptcy laws were crafted under Henry VIII.
(Econ, 3/6/04, p.53)

1542 A landslide on the Yangtze River cut off navigation for 82 years.
(NH, 7/96, p.32)

1542 Emperor Akbar (d.1605), godfather of Shah Jahan, was born. He ruled as the 3rd Grand Moghul of India (1556-1605). Akbar commissioned an illustrated manuscript of the Hamzanama (Story of Hamza, the paternal uncle of the prophet Mohammed). The 1,400 painted folios took over 100 artists 15 years to complete.
(WSJ, 8/8/02, p.D10)(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Akbar)

1542 Antonio da Mota, Portuguese explorer, became the first European to enter Japan.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1542 Merida, Mexico, was founded by Francisco de Montejo at the holy Maya city of T’Ho. Montejo was the son of the captain under Cortez with the same name.
(SSFC, 5/6/01, p.T6)
1542 In Mexico Catholic priest Miguel de Palomares died and was buried inside Mexico City’s first cathedral, near an altar. In 2016 engineers discovered a stone slab thought to cover his tomb.

1542 In Russia Ivan the Terrible at age 12 entertained himself by dropping dogs from the higher battlements of the Kremlin.
(SFC, 4/18/98, p.C3)

1542 150 Spanish colonists settled Asuncion, capital of Paraguay.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1542-1544 A 7-piece set of tapestries was created titled the “Seven Deadly Sins.” They were later housed at the Palacio Real in Madrid.
(WSJ, 4/11/02, p.AD7)

1542-1591 John of the Cross, Spanish mystic, writer and theologian. He co-founded with St. Theresa the Order of Discalced (barefoot) Carmelites.
(CU, 6/87)(WUD, 1994, p.769)

1542-1621 Cardinal Robert Bellarmine, became chief theologian of the Roman Catholic church. He denied Galileo’s mathematical proofs and astronomical observations. He was named a saint and was canonized in 1930.

1543 Jan 3, Spanish explorer Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo (43-44) died of gangrene and was buried at San Miguel. He was injured in December while helping defend his men fight off a band of Indians in the Channel Islands off California. In 1989 Harry Kelsey authored the biography “Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo.”
(NPS-CNM, 4/1/97)(SFC, 10/18/14, p.A1)

1543 Feb 21, In the Battle at Wayna Daga Ethiopian and Portuguese troops beat Moslem army. Ahmed Gran, sultan of Adal, died in the battle.

1543 Apr 14, Bartoleme Ferrelo returned to Spain after discovering a large bay in the New World (San Francisco).
(HN, 4/14/99)

1543 May 24, The city of Valladolid, Mexico, was founded in the Yucatan peninsula.
(SSFC, 6/29/08, p.E5)(www.valladolidyucatan.com/history.html)
1543 May 24, Nicolaus Copernicus, astronomer, died in Poland. His book, “On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Orbs,” (De Revolutionibus Orbium Caelestium), proof of a sun-centered universe, was printed just before he died. Although he did say that the earth rotated once a day and did revolve around the sun once a year, he kept 2 features of the old Aristotelian system: one involved uniform circular motion, and the other was quintessential matter, for which such motion was said to be natural. In 1916 the Catholic clergy placed the book on its “Index of Prohibited Books.” In 2004 Owen Gingerich authored “The Book Nobody Read,” an examination of how the ideas of Copernicus spread. In 2006 William T. Vollmann authored “Uncentering the Earth: Copernicus and The Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres.” In 2008 his remains, buried in a Roman Catholic Cathedral in Frombork, Poland, were positively identified using DNA evidence. In 2011 Dava Sobel authored “A More Perfect Heaven: How Copernicus Revolutionized the cosmos.”
(WSJ, 3/5/04, p.W8)(NH, 4/1/04, p.66)(SSFC, 2/5/06, p.M1)(AP, 11/20/08)(Econ, 9/24/11, p.106)

1543 Jul 1, England and Scotland signed the peace of Greenwich.
(HN, 7/1/98)

1543 Jul 12, England’s King Henry VIII married his sixth and last wife, Catherine Parr, who outlived him.
(AP, 7/12/97)

1543 Sep 3, Cardinal Beaton replaced Earl Arran as regent for Mary of Scotland.
(MC, 9/3/01)

1543 Sep 9, Mary, Queen of Scots, was crowned Queen of England.
(HN, 9/9/01)

1543 Sep, The Spanish survivors of the de Soto expedition reached Spanish settlements in Mexico.
(ON, 4/01, p.5)

1543 Benvenuto Cellini, Italian goldsmith, produced a magnificent salt cellar for Francis I, which still survives.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1543 Luther wrote a pamphlet titled: “On the Jews and Their Lies.” Anti-Semitism flourished long before Hitler came along. The founder of the Protestant movement, Martin Luther, despised Jews. In 1543, he wrote this evil book which helped to set the stage for the Holocaust. Among his most well known admirers was Adolf Hitler “My advice, as I said earlier, is: First , that their synagogues be burned down… Second, that all their books, their Talmudic writings, also the entire Bible be taken from them… Third, that they be forbidden on pain of death to praise God … Fourth, that they be forbidden to utter the name of God within our hearing and …. be expelled from their country and be told to return to Jerusalem where they may lie, curse, blaspheme, murder,…” (Translation by Martin H. Bertram, Fortress Press, 1955).
(NH, 9/96, p.21) http://www.btinternet.com/~ablumsohn/links.htm

1543 Andreas Vesalius, Belgian physician, published his “De humani corporis fabrica” (Concerning the Fabric of the Human Body), which contained the first complete description of the human body.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.15)(WSJ, 10/19/99, p.A24)

1543 Aug 22, French and Ottoman forces captured Nice following a siege of the city. Admiral Barbarossa led the Ottoman fleet in the campaign.
(Econ, 12/12/09, p.93)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Nice)

1543 Protestants were burned at the stake for the first time in the Spanish Inquisition. Pope Paul III issued an index of prohibited books.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1543 Phillip of Spain married Maria of Portugal.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1543 Henry VIII of England and Emp. Charles V formed an alliance against France.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1543 King Francis I of France invaded Luxembourg. A combined French and Turkish fleet captured Nice.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1543 Filipino natives expelled Spanish conquistador, Ruy Lopez de Villalobos, a year after he had discovered and named them.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1543 Portuguese ships landed on the Japanese Island of Tanega. The first European visitors to Japan introduced muskets and baked bread.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)(TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1543 New Spain received European vegetables and grains such as broad beans, chickpeas, barley, and wheat, transported by a new viceroy from Spain.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1543 Sugar cane was introduced to Brazil about this time. Fermented sugar cane later became the base for cachaca, a light rum that is the national spirit. Cachaca is used to prepare the national drink, the caipirinha.
(Hem, 4/96, p.10)

1543 Hans Holbein, one of the greatest artists of the German Renaissance, died in England.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1543-1773 The Palacio de los Capitanes in Antigua, Guatemala, was the center for Spanish rule over Chiapas, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua during this period.
(SFEM, 6/13/99, p.32)

1544 Mar 11, Torquato Tasso, Italian Renaissance poet (Aminta, Apologia), was born.
(MC, 3/12/02)

1544 May 17, Scot earl Matthew van Lennox signed a secret treaty with Henry VIII.
(MC, 5/17/02)

1544 May 24, William Gilbert, English physicist, was born. He coined the terms “electric” and “magnetic” poles.
(HN, 5/24/99)

1544 May 29, Jacobus Latomus [Jasques Masson] (~68), Belgian inquisitor, died.
(SC, 5/29/02)

1544 Sep 14, Henry VIII’s forces took Boulogne, France.
(HN, 9/14/98)

1544 Sep 18, English King Henry VIII’s troops occupied Boulogne, France. [see Sep 14]
(MC, 9/18/01)

1544 Sep 19, Francis, the king of France, and Charles V of Austria signed a peace treaty in Crespy, France, ending a 20-year war. The Peace of Crespy ended the fighting between Charles V and Francis I. Henry VIII was not consulted. France surrendered much territory and Charles gave up his claim to Burgundy.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.16)(HN, 9/19/98)

1544 Nov 27, Ascanio Trombeti, composer, was born.
(MC, 11/27/01)

1544 The first herbarium was published by Italian botanist Luca Ghini.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1544 The University of Konigsberg was founded.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1544 Henry VIII crossed the Channel to Calais to campaign with Charles V against Francis I.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1544 The Turks invaded Hungary for the third time and seized the crown jewels. (TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1544 Gustavus I of Sweden signed an alliance with France.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1544 Rats first showed up in North America.
(SFC, 6/15/96, p.E4)

1544-1545 Titian painted “Danaë.”
(WSJ, 5/8/03, p.D8)

1544-1557 A set of cartoons designed by Raphael (1483-1520) were woven into 10 tapestries titled “The Acts of the Apostles.”
(WSJ, 12/3/99, p.W16)(WSJ, 4/11/02, p.D7)

1544-1603 William Gilbert, English physician, discovered that the earth was a magnet from his observations on the behavior of lodestone, the mineral now called magnetite. He grew to suspect that the earth’s gravity and magnetism were connected in some way , but he never understood how. Under the reign of Protestant Queen Elizabeth I, he was able to argue for Copernicus’s heliocentric picture of the solar system, and suggested that the planets must be held in their orbits by some kind of magnetism.

1545 Feb 13, William of Nassau became prince of Orange.
(MC, 2/13/02)

1545 Feb 19, Pierre Brully, [Peter Brulius], Calvinist minister, was burned to death.
(MC, 2/19/02)

1545 Apr 12, French king Francis I ordered the Protestants of Vaudois killed.
(MC, 4/12/02)

1545 Apr 13, Elisabeth van Valois, French queen of Spain, daughter of Henri II, was born.
(MC, 4/13/02)

1545 Jul 8, Don Carlos, son of Spanish king Philip II (protagonist in Schiller’s drama; hero in Verdi opera), was born.
(MC, 7/8/02)

1545 Jul 19, A French fleet entered The Solent, the channel between the Isle of Wight and Hampshire, England, and French troops landed on the Isle of Wight. King Henry VIII of England watched his flagship, Mary Rose, capsize in Portsmouth harbor as it left to battle the French. 73 people died including Roger Grenville, English captain of Mary Rose. The Mary Rose was raised in 1982.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.17)(HN, 7/19/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_Rose)

1545 Sep 24, Albrecht von Brandenburg, archbishop, monarch, founder of The Brandenburg Concerts of Mainz, died at 55.
(MC, 9/24/01)

1545 Oct 18, John Taverner, English composer (Western Wynde), died.
(MC, 10/18/01)

1545 Dec 13, The Church Council of Trent began with the meeting of 30 bishops. It lasted 3 years but took 18 years to complete its work. The Council sparked the beginning of the Counter-Reformation. [see 1562]
(CU, 6/87)(TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1545 Hasan Pasha (c.1517-1572) became ruler of Algiers when his father, Barbarossa, was called to Istanbul.

1545 Lord Lisle, English fleet commander, set ablaze Treport in Normandy.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1545 A typhus epidemic killed hundreds of thousands of natives and colonists in Cuba and New Spain.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1545 Claude Garamond, French typographer, cut a Greek type that remained in use to the early 19th century. Some modern typefaces bear his name.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1545 Agnolo Bronzino, Florentine painter, produced his work: “Venus, Cupid, Folly and Time.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.17)
1545 Benvenuto Cellini, Italian goldsmith, wrote his autobiography, which greatly influenced the Renaissance.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.17)(HN, 11/3/99)
1545 The first European botanical garden was established in Padua.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1545 In Mexico Bishop Fray Bartolome de las Casas championed the Indians in the area of Chiapas.
(WSJ, 1/15/98, p.A1)

1545 The Spanish discovered the silver mines of Potosi, Bolivia. From the town of Cerro Rico, which means Hill of Riches, they took out the equivalent of $2 billion from one mountainside.
(NH, 10/96, p.4)

1545 Conrad von Gesner, Swiss naturalist, published the first volume of his “Bibliotheca Universalis,” a catalogue of all the writers who ever lived.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1546 Feb 18, Martin Luther (b.1483), leader of the Protestant Reformation in Germany, died in Eisleben. In 1989 Harvard professor Heiko A. Oberman (1930-2001) authored “Luther.”
(V.D.-H.K.p.165)(WSJ, 6/23/07, p.P10)(AP, 2/18/08)

1546 Mar 29, Cardinal Beaton, English archbishop of St. Andrews, was murdered.
(MC, 3/29/02)

1546 May 29, Cardinal Beaton, English archbishop of St. Andrews, was murdered.
(SC, 5/29/02)

1546 Jun 7, The Peace of Ardes ended the war between France and England.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.17)(HN, 6/7/98)

1546 Aug 3, French printer Etienne Dolet, accused of heresy, blasphemy and sedition, was hanged and burned at the stake for printing reformist literature.
(HN, 8/3/98)

1546 Dec 14, Tycho Brahe (d.1601), astronomer, was born in Knudstrup, Denmark. He constructed the most precise astronomical instruments of his time.
(SCTS, p.136)(HN, 12/14/00)(MC, 12/14/01)

1546 Titian painted his great family portrait of Paul III and his Grandsons Ottavio and Cardinal Alessandro Farnese.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1546 The Farnese Hours manuscript was illuminated by Giulio Clovio.
(SFC, 2/15/97, p.D1)

1546 Girolamo Fracastoro, (Hyeronymous Fracastorius), Italian Florentine physician, gave the first description of typhus and the nature of contagion in his work “De Contagione et Contagiosis Morbis.” He had earlier described and named syphilis.
(WP, 1952, p.28)(TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1546 The first Welsh book, “Yny Lhyvyr Mwnn,” was printed.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1546 Henry VIII founded Christ Church, Oxford’s largest college.
(SSFC, 11/11/01, p.C11)
1546 Henry VIII closed the bath houses of Southwark.
(Econ, 12/19/09, p.139)

1546 Pierre Lescot, French architect, began the building of the Louvre in Paris. Francois I, needing more space for acquired works of art, started the construction of 2 new wings to the 12th century Louvre fortress.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.17)(WSJ, 10/7/98, p.A20)

1546 Pope Paul III put Michelangelo in charge of the restoration of St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome. He designed the dome of St. Peter’s.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.17)(SSFC, 2/18/07, p.A2)

1546 Charles V got into the Schmalkaldic War against the Protestant princes upon support by the Catholic Counter-Reformation.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1546 Basra (Iraq) was captured by the Ottoman Empire.
(Econ, 3/2/13, p.24)
1546 The Turks occupied Moldavia.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1546 A coalition of eastern Maya laid siege to Valladolid, in Mexico’s Yucatan peninsula. Spanish conquistadores brutally crushed a major Mayan rebellion in New Spain.
(http://tinyurl.com/4o62ox)(TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1546 Gerardus Mercator, Flemish geographer, affirmed that the earth has magnetic pole.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1546 Barbarossa, one of the great figures in the court at Istanbul, died. Khayr Ad-Din was a Barbary pirate and later, as admiral of the Ottoman fleet, he united Algeria and Tunisia as military states under the Ottoman caliphate in the 1530s.
(HNQ, 2/10/99)

1546-1568 Alexandru Lapuseanu, ruler of Moldavia, outlawed divorce and imposed the death penalty on anyone who started such legal proceedings.
(SFC, 6/2/96, Zone 1p.2)

1547 Jan 8, The first Lithuanian book was printed in Konigsberg (Karaliauciuje) at the printing shop of H. Weinreich. It was a catechism titled: “Katekizmusa prasti Zadei, makslas skaitima raschta yr giesmes” by the Lithuanian student Martynas Mazvydas (200-300 copies). He had been specifically invited by Albrecht von Brandenberg to prepare a book in Lithuanian that would assist the priests in teaching the native language and help spread the ideas of the Reformation, i.e. Lutheranism. It was a small format book of 79 pages part of which was taken up by 11 hymns presented with music. The text was a faithful translation of J. Seklucian’s (1545) and J. Malecki’s (1546) Polish catechisms.
(Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.10)(DrEE, 9/14/96, p.4)(LHC, 1/7/03)

1547 Jan 16, Ivan IV, popularly known as “Ivan the Terrible,” crowned himself the new Czar of Russia in Assumption Cathedral in Moscow. He was the first Russian ruler to assume that title.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.17)(HN, 1/16/99)(AP, 1/16/08)

1547 Jan 19, Henry Howard (29), earl of Surrey, army commander, poet, was beheaded.
(MC, 1/19/02)

1547 Jan 28, England’s King Henry VIII died; his sixth and last wife was Catherine Parr. He was succeeded by his 9-year-old son, Edward VI.
(V.D.-H.K.p.162)(AP, 1/28/98)(HN, 1/28/99)

1547 Jan, An inventory of the possessions of King Henry VIII was begun under Edward VI, Henry’s son and successor. It took three years to complete. His total wealth amounted to some 600,000 pounds. A commoner’s daily wage at this time was about two and one-half pence.
(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.20)

1547 Feb 3, Russian czar Ivan IV (17) married Anastasia Romanova.
(MC, 2/3/02)

1547 Feb 20, King Edward VI of England was enthroned following the death of Henry VIII (Jan 28).
(MC, 2/20/02)

1547 Mar 21, Matthew Stryjkovski (d.c1592), the 1st author of a printed history of Lithuania, was born in Strykov, Poland.
(LHC, 3/21/03)

1547 Mar 31, Francis I, King of France (1515-1547), died and was succeeded by his son Henry II, who was dominated by his mistress, Diane de Poitiers, during his 12 year reign.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.17)(HN, 3/31/99)

1547 Apr 24, Charles V’s troops defeated the Protestant League of Schmalkalden at the battle of Muhlberg.
(HN, 4/24/98)

1547 May 20, Melchior Bischoff, composer, was born.
(MC, 5/20/02)

1547 Jun 21, There was a great fire in Moscow.
(MC, 6/21/02)

1547 Sep 2, Hernan Cortes, Spanish general who defeated Aztec Indians, died.
(MC, 9/2/01)

1547 Sep 10, The Duke of Somerset led the English to a resounding victory over the Scots at Pinkie Cleugh. This was the last battle to be fought between English and Scottish royal armies and the last in which the longbow was used tactically en masse.
(HN, 9/10/98)(WSJ, 11/4/04, p.D10)
1547 Sep 10, The English demanded that Edward VI (10), wed Mary Queen of Scots (5).
(MC, 9/10/01)
1547 Sep 10, Pierlugi Faranese, Italian son of Pope Paul III, was murdered.
(MC, 9/10/01)

1547 Sep 29, Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (d.1616) was born, at Alcala de Henares, near Madrid. “He was first a soldier and was captured by Barbary pirates in 1575. His family was unable to raise the ransom money until 1580. He was not initially successful as a writer until he wrote “The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Quixote de la Mancha” (1604).
(V.D.-H.K.p.150)(HN, 9/29/02)

1547 Oct 19, Pierino del Vaga, Italian painter, died at 46.
(MC, 10/19/01)

1547 The “Dodekachordon” on the 12 church modes by Henricus Glareanus, Swiss music theorist, was published.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1547 Hans Staden of Germany was shipwrecked on the Atlantic coast of Brazil. He was later rescued and in 1557 published an illustrated account of his adventures.
(Arch, 5/05, p.30)

1547 French became the official language of France, displacing Latin.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1547 Nostradamus, French astrologer, made his first predictions.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1547 Forces of Charles V captured the Elector of Saxony at the Battle of Muhlberg.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1547 The Truce of Adrianople was concluded between Charles V, Ferdinand I of Hungary, and Suleiman I of Turkey.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1547 The English parliament repealed the Statute of the Six Articles, which defined heresy.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1547 Moscow was destroyed by fire.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1548 Feb 26, Lorenzino de’ Medici (b.1514), an Italian writer, was assassinated. He is remembered primarily as the assassin of Alessandro de’ Medici, duke and ruler of Florence.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lorenzino_de%27_Medici)(Econ, 5/7/15, p.80)

1548 Apr 1, Sigismund I, the Elder (81), King of Poland, died.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.17)(MC, 4/1/02)

1548 Jun 30, Formerly Holy Roman (Catholic) Emperor Charles V ordered Catholics to become Lutherans.
(MC, 6/30/02)

1548 Jul 16, La Paz, Bolivia, was founded.
(MC, 7/16/02)

1548 Aug 15, Mary Queen of the Scots (6), who was engaged to the Dauphin, landed in France.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.17)(MC, 8/15/02)

1548 Sep 5, Catharine Parr (36), queen of England and last wife of Henry VIII, died.
(MC, 9/5/01)

1548 Tintoretto, Italian Renaissance artist, painted his work “St. Mark Rescuing the Slave.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.17)
1548 Jacopo Tintoretto (1518-1594), Venetian school Italian artist, established his fame with the painting “Miracle of the Slave.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tintoretto)(Econ, 2/10/07, p.90)
1548 Titian painted his portrait of Charles V at Muhlberg.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1548 John Bale’s “Kynge Johan,” the first English historical drama, appeared.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1548 The Hotel de Bourgogne, first theater (under a roofed building) in Paris opened.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.17)



Timeline The Sixteenth Century: 1500-1524

1500 Jan 26, Spanish explorer Vicente Yanez Pinzon reached the northeastern coast of Brazil during a voyage under his command. Pinzon had commanded the Nina during Christopher Columbus’s first expedition to the New World.
(MC, 1/26/02)

1500 Feb 24, Charles V, king of Spain (1516-1556), was born in Ghent, Belgium. He was the last Holy Roman Emperor to be crowned by the Pope.
(HN, 2/24/99)(SFEC, 11/21/99, p.T10)(MC, 2/24/02)

1500 Mar 9, Pedro Cabral (~1460-1520), Portuguese navigator, departed to India. He left Lisbon with 13 ships headed for India and was blown off course.
(www.newadvent.org/cathen/03128a.htm)(WUD, 1994 p.206)(SFC, 4/20/00, p.A14)

1500 Apr 8, Battle at Novara: King Louis XII beat duke Ludovico Sforza (Il Sforza del Destino).
(MC, 4/8/02)

1500 Apr 10, France captured duke Ludovico Sforza (“Il Sforza del Destino”) of Milan.
(MC, 4/10/02)

1500 Apr 11, Michael T. Marullus, Greeks poet, drowned.
(MC, 4/11/02)

1500 Apr 22, Pedro Alvares Cabral (c1460-c1526), Portuguese explorer, discovered Brazil and claimed it for Portugal. He anchored for 10 days in a bay he called “Porto Seguro” and continued on to India. [see Apr 23]
(WUD,1994, p.206)(AHD, p.185)(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)(HN, 4/22/98)(SFC, 4/20/00, p.A14)

1500 Apr 23, Pedro Cabal landed at Terra da Vera Cruz and claimed Brazil for Portugal. The native population was later estimated to have been from 1 to 11 million people. [see Apr 22]
(AP, 4/23/98)(SFC, 7/6/98, p.A10)(www.newadvent.org/cathen/03128a.htm)

1500 May 29, Bartholomeu Diaz de Narvaez (Novaez), Portuguese sea explorer, drowned.
(SC, 5/29/02)

1500 Aug 10, Diego Diaz discovered Madagascar.
(MC, 8/10/02)

1500 Oct, Governor De Bobadilla of Santo Domingo captured Christopher Columbus and returned him in shackles to Spain. Columbus, during his third sojourn to the new world, engaged in a dispute with the ambassador plenipotentiary to Santo Domingo, Hispaniola (later shared by Haiti and the Dominican Republic). Columbus was later released and forgiven by the Queen.
(V.D.-H.K.p.143)(SFEC, 3/15/98, Z1 p.8)(http://www1.minn.net/~keithp/v2.htm)

1500 Nov 1, Benvunuto Cellini (d.1571), Italian goldsmith and sculptor, was born. His 1545 autobiography greatly influenced the Renaissance.
(HN, 11/1/00)(WSJ, 2/14/00, p.A20)

1500 Pietro Torrigiani created his sculpture “Virgin and Child.”
(WSJ, 1/29/02, p.A18)

1500 Albrecht Durer (1471-1528) of Nuremburg painted a self-portrait later described as the most gorgeous portrait ever painted.
(WSJ, 3/15/08, p.W16)

1500 Giovanni Bellini painted “The Pieta” and “Portrait of a Young Man.”
(SFEC, 12/26/99, p.C17)

1500 Herri met de Bles, Flemish oil painter, created “Landscape With Burning City.”
(WSJ, 9/8/00, p.W8)

1500 Sandro Botticelli, Italian painter, painted his “Mystic Nativity,” but he was out of key with public taste. His reputation was only restored in the 19th century. He also did the circular painting “Adoration of the Christ Child.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)(WSJ, 12/30/97, p.A8)

1500 Desiderius Erasmus, Dutch humanist scholar, published his “Adagia.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1500 During the first half century of printing 1450-1500, the majority of printed books were renderings of Greek and Latin works, previously available only in manuscripts… From this point on, published works in the national languages… were in the majority.

1500 Antwerp Cathedral was completed after 148 years of construction.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1500 Pope Alexander VI proclaimed a Year of Jubilee with a call for a crusade against the Turks.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1500 Aldus Manutius, Italian printer, founded the Venice Academy for the study of Greek classics and he invented Italic type.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1500 Valencia University was founded.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1500 The Diet of Augsburg established a Council of Regency to administer the Holy Roman Empire.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1500 King Louis XII of France captured Milan in the Italian Wars.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1500 Haast’s eagle, which lived in the mountains of New Zealand, became extinct about this time, most likely due to habitat destruction and the extinction of its prey species at the hands of early Polynesian settlers. Researchers in 2009 determined that the 40 pound bird was a predator and not a mere scavenger as many had thought.
(AP, 9/11/09)

1500 The Vatican established a permanent nunciature (diplomatic service) in Venice.
(Econ, 7/21/07, p.59)

1500 Nueva Cadiz was established on Isla de Cubagua off the coast of Venezuela after Columbus discovered rich pearl oyster beds nearby.
(SSFC, 2/19/06, p.F8)

1500 Geologists in 2009 said an earthquake of magnitude 6.5-7, dated to about this time, tore a deep gash into a 35-mile fault segment along the Wasatch front of Utah state.
(SFC, 9/25/09, p.A8)

1500 The population of the world at about 400 million was distributed as follows:
China, Japan, and Korea 130 million
Europe and Russia 100 million
India subcontinent 70 million
Southeast Asia and Indonesia 40 million
Central and western Asia 25 million
Africa 20 million
The Americas 15 million

c1500 In northern Argentina 3 Inca children were sacrificed. In 1999 a team of archeologists discovered their frozen mummies on Mount Llullaillaco.
(SFC, 4/7/99, p.A11)

c1500 At the end of the 15th century Azerbaijan became the power base of a native dynasty, the Safavids. They established an empire that dominated Iran in the 16th and 17th centuries..
(CO, Grolier’s Amer. Acad. Enc./ Azerbaijan)

c1500 Lake Cauhilla in southern California, the predecessor to the Salton Sea, measured 50 by 100 miles and began evaporating.
(SFC, 11/30/98, p.A22)

1500 Monasteries in England by this time owned a quarter of all English land. Glastonbury Abbey was the most powerful and wealthy.
(SSFC, 10/29/17, p.F3)

1500s The Aztecs played ollamalitzli. The game placed a rubber ball through a stone ring and the loser was often beheaded.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1500s The Navajo began settling on Hopi land. They have farmed in the southwest since this time.
(SFC, 7/15/96, p.A1)(SFC, 1/3/97, p.A26)

1500s Europe began to restrict the practice of medicine to qualified doctors.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1500s Holland and Saxony began to protect the rights of inventors to their creations.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1500s Juan de Bermudez of Spain first reported on the island of Bermuda.
(SFC, 5/2/98, p.E4)

1500s The popularity of surströmming, a Swedish fermented herring with a noxious stench, surged in the early 1500s and again in the early 1700s.
(WSJ, 8/13/02, p.A1)

1500s Monomutapa (Zimbabwe) was split in two with the northern half remaining Monomutapa, and a southern half under the rival dynasty of Changamire.
(ATC, p.148)

1500s Portugal settled the island of Sao Tome, 250 miles off the coast of Kongo. Most of the settlers were criminals deported from Portugal. Sugar began to be grown on Sao Tome and slaves were purchased from King Affonso. The Portuguese and Africans did not see slavery the same way. To the Portuguese the slaves were beasts of burden and worked so hard that many died. They then bought more.
(ATC, p.152)

1500-1600 “Hsi Yu Chi” was a 16th century Chinese novel based on the account of a 7th century monk, Tripitaka, who traveled to India for 16 years for Buddhist scriptures.
(SFC, 12/7/96, p.D1)

1500-1600 “The Boke of Hawkynge and Huntynge and Fysshynge” was produced. A copy sold for $88,000 in 2000.
(SFC, 6/2/00, p.A21)

c1500-1600 George Pencz, 16th century German artist. His work included “Holy Trinity, Seat of Mercy.”
(SFC, 9/29/01, p.B1)
1500-1600 Weimar became the capital of the duchy of Saxe-Weimar.
(SSFC, 8/1/04, p.D10)

1500-1600 Yi Am, 16th cent. Korean artist. The artist’s work included: “Puppies, Birds and Blossoms.”
(WSJ, 8/10/98, p.A12)

c1500-1600 The 16th century French text “The Rules of Civility” was published.
(SFC, 7/4/02, p.D1)

1500-1600 The first Russian book printed was the 15th century “Apostle.”
(SFC, 12/27/96, p.C16)

1500-1600 The Kalmyk people, descendants from the Golden Horde of Genghis Khan, settled in the lowlands between the Volga and Don rivers with their livestock.
(SFC, 9/24/97, p.A12)

c1500-1600 In Honduras the Lenca Indian chieftain Lempira withdrew to the high mountains to lead resistance against the Spaniards. According to legend he plunged to his death from a rocky outcrop near the summit of the highest peak. The Indians developed the Quezungal method of farming, where crops were planted under trees that kept hillsides from eroding.
(SFC, 11/18/98, p.A14)

c1500-1600 Giulio Cesare Aranzi, Italian anatomist, name the hippocampus formation of the brain because of its resemblance to Hippocampus, the seahorse.
(NH, 9/97, p.56)

c1500-1600 The Predjama Castle was built at the mouth of a huge cave at Postojna, Slovenia. It was later used by the highway robber Erasmus Luegger.
(SSFC, 8/18/02, p.C7)

c1500-1600 A Muslim pilgrim stole coffee beans from Yemen and raised them in India. Yemen was the first great coffee exporter and in order to protect its trade had decreed that no living plant could leave the country.
(WSJ, 6/4/99, p.W9)

1500-1650 Period of late Renaissance.

c1500-1800 In Nepal the Malla dynasty created an architectural frenzy in Patan between the 16th and 18th centuries.
(WSJ, 1/22/98, p.A17)

1500-1800 Ottoman Turk rule extended over Libya.
(SSFC, 6/27/04, p.D12)

c1500s-1800s Millions of Africans were torn from their homelands, herded into ships and sold in the New World for more than 300 years. Perhaps the cruelest part of the Atlantic slave trade was the weeks-long sea crossing, or the so-called Middle Passage–that leg of the Triangular Trade that brought the human cargo from West Africa to New World ports. Rather than provide healthful conditions on the sea crossing, slave traders sought to maximize profits with “tight packing”–cramming so many slaves onto the lower decks that those that survived would compensate for the certain losses. The British slave ship Brookes’ deck plan shows the ship carrying 454 slaves with 6’x 1’4″ of space allowed for each adult male, 5’10” x 11″ for each woman and 5′ x 1’2″ for each boy. This clinical representation of human suffering during the Middle Passage was widely circulated by abolitionist groups.
(HNPD, 12/14/98)

1500-1820 The proto-capitalist epoch. The world GDP grew by .07% per year.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R54)

1501 Mar 1, Lithuania and Livonia established a 10-year union for protection against Russia.
(LHC, 3/1/03)

1501 Mar 20, Jean Carondelet (72), lawyer, chancellor of Burgundy (1480-96), died.
(MC, 3/20/02)

1501 May 20, Portuguese explorer Joao da Nova Castelia (1460-1509) discovered the Ascension Islands on Ascension Day.

1501 Jul 27, Copernicus was formally installed as canon of Frauenberg Cathedral.
(MC, 7/27/02)

1501 Sep 24, Gerolamo Cardano, mathematician, was born. He authored “Games of Chance,” the first systematic computation of probabilities.
(HN, 9/24/00)

1501 Oct 15, English crown prince Arthur married Catharina of Aragon. [see Nov 14]
(MC, 10/15/01)

1501 Nov 14, Arthur Tudor married Katherine of Aragon. [see Oct 15]
(HN, 11/14/98)

1501 Michelangelo was commissioned by Florence, his native home, to carve the colossal statue “David.” The work had been by Agostino di Duccio around 1465. Michelangelo finished it in 1504. It was placed at the front of the Palazzo Signoria. In 1873 it was cleaned and moved indoors.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)(WSJ, 4/29/03, D5)

1501 Books printed before 1501 are called incunabula or incunables, after the Latin word for cradle. The 15th century was the cradle of printing.
(WSJ, 9/14/00, p.A24)

1501 France and Spain occupied Naples, and French troops entered Rome. Louis XII was declared King of Naples by the Pope.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1501 Cesare Borgia captured Romagna (north-central Italy) and appointed Remirro de Orco, his cruelest lieutenant, to pacify the region. After the job was done Borgia had Orco cut in two to gain the gratitude of the people.
(WSJ, 6/22/98, p.A20)

1501 Maximilian I, German emperor, recognized the French conquests of northern Italy in the Peace of Trent.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1501 A worn Roman torso was unearthed in Rome. It later acquired the nickname “Pasquino” and served as a station for posting complaints and opinions that came to be known as Pasquinades.
(WSJ, 12/31/01, p.A6)

1501 The Turks took Durazzo from Venice.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1501 Ivan III, Czar of Russia, invaded Lithuania.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1501 Gaspar de Corte-Real, Portuguese navigator, made the first authenticated European landing on the northern continent of the Western Hemisphere since c1000AD.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1501 Amerigo Vespucci, Florentine navigator, explored the coast of Brazil on his second voyage to the New World.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1501 The Anglo-Portuguese Syndicate completed the first of five voyages to Newfoundland.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1502 Jan 1, Portuguese navigator Pedro Cabral and Amerigo Vespucci sailed the into the harbor of Rio de Janeiro. Portuguese explorers sailed into Guanabra Bay and mistook it for the mouth of a river which they named Rio de Janeiro.
(Hem., Dec. ’95, p.129)(MC, 1/1/02)

1502 Feb 12, Vasco da Gama, Portuguese explorer, departed on a second trip to India with 20 well-armed ships.
1502 Feb 12, Isabella issued a royal order giving all remaining Moors in the realms of Castile the choice between baptism and expulsion.

1502 Apr 2, Arthur, English crown prince, husband of Catharina of Aragon, died.
(MC, 4/2/02)

1502 May 9, Christopher Columbus left Cadiz, Spain, on his fourth and final trip to the Western Hemisphere. He explored Central America, and discovered St. Lucia, the Isthmus of Panama, Honduras, and Costa Rica. Columbus left 52 Jewish families in Costa Rica. [see May 11]
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)(AP, 5/9/97)(WSJ, 6/15/00, p.A1)

1502 May 11, Columbus embarked on his 4th voyage with 150 men in 4 caravels. Among those in the fleet were Columbus’s brother Bartholomew, and Columbus’ younger son Fernando, then just 13 years old. They reached the coast of Honduras after 8 months and passed south to Panama (1503). The ships included the Capitana, which served as the flagship, and the Vizcaina. In 2006 Klaus Brinkbaumer authored “The Voyage of the Vizcaina.”
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)(http://www1.minn.net/~keithp/v4.htm)(WSJ, 5/26/06, p.W5)

1502 Jun 6, Jofo III, King of Portugal (1521-57), was born.
(MC, 6/6/02)

1502 Jun 7, Pope Gregory XIII was born. He introduced the Gregorian calendar in 1582. [see 1552]
(HN, 6/7/98)(SFEC, 2/20/00, Par p.7)

1502 Jun 29, Christopher Columbus arrived at Santo Domingo, Hispaniola, on his 4th voyage to the new world. He requested harbor and advised Gov. Nicolas de Ovando of an approaching hurricane. Ovando denied the request and dispatched a treasure fleet to Spain. 20 ships sank in the storm, 9 returned to port and one made it to Spain.

1502 Jul, Columbus reached the northern coast of Honduras during his 4th voyage and passed south to Panama.
(http://www1.minn.net/~keithp/v4.htm)(Econ, 12/10/11, p.65)

1502 Sep 18, Christopher Columbus landed at Costa Rica during his 4th and last voyage. Columbus left 52 Jewish families in Costa Rica.
(MC, 9/18/01)(WSJ, 6/15/00, p.A1)

1502 Dec 31, Cesare Borgia (son of Pope Alexander VI) occupied Urbino.
(MC, 12/31/01)

1502 Donato Bramante began the Tempietto of S. Pietro in Montorio, Rome.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1502 Vittore Carpaccio began the fresco cycle “Scenes from the Lives of SS George and Jerome.” Full of light and detail, it is typical of the Venetian manner.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1502 Lucas Cranch, German painter, began his career in Vienna. In 1521 he painted the famous portrait of Martin Luther.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1502 Leonardo da Vinci drew plans for a 720-foot stone span across the Golden Horn at the mouth of the Bosporus. In 2001 Vebjorn Sand, Norwegian artist, completed a 330-foot, laminated timber bridge linking Norway and Sweden at Aas, 16 miles south of Oslo based on the da Vinci plans.
(SSFC, 12/9/01, p.C2)

1502 Vasco da Gama founded the Portuguese colony at Cochin, China.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1502 Ahuizotl, ruler of the Aztecs, died and was cremated on a funeral pyre about this time at the foot of the Templo Mayor pyramid. In 2007 Mexican archeologists found underground chambers in Mexico City they believed to contain his remains.
(AP, 8/4/07)(AP, 6/17/10)
1502 Moctezuma Xocoyotl (Montezuma II), an Aztec prince, inherited the Aztec throne becoming the 9th ruler of the Aztecs.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)(ON, 10/00, p.1)(Econ, 9/26/09, p.99)

1502 In Germany Peter Henlein of Nuremberg used iron parts and coiled springs to build a portable timepiece.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)
1502 In Germany Wittenberg University was founded.
(Voruta #27-28, Jul 1996, p.10)(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1502 Shah Ismail founded the Safavid Dynasty in Persia.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1502 Amerigo Vespucci declared that South America is a separate continent after his second voyage.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1502 A hurricane nearly destroyed La Nueva Isabela and it was abandoned. The city was rebuilt on the other side of the river as Santo Domingo by the new governor, Nicholas de Ovando.
(AM, 7/97, p.59)

1502 Vasco da Gama returned to Calicut, India. He bombarded the town, burned a ship full of Arab men, women, and children because its captain had offended him, and demanded that the Muslims turn over the trade to the Portuguese. Within a generation his demands were met.
1502 Portuguese traders took peanuts from Brazil and Peru to Africa.
(SFEC, 1/10/99, Z1 p.8)
1502 Jaoa de Nova, Portuguese explorer, discovered St. Helena Island. It became a way station for ships for centuries and was a key port for Britain’s East India Company.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)(AP, 10/14/17)

1502 Spain legalized slave shipments to the Americas.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1502-1533 Atahualpa, emperor of the Incas. He had a fortune in gold and silver and tried to purchase his freedom from Pizarro for a chamber filled with gold. Pizarro took 124 tons of gold in ransom and then re-arrested Atahualpa for treason to the Spanish crown and had him decapitated.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1503 Jan 9, Christopher Columbus returned to the mouth of Rio Belen (western Panama), where he built a garrison.

1503 Feb 11, Elizabeth of York (b.1466), consort of King Henry VII, died on 38th birthday.

1503 Mar 10, Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor (1558-1564), was born. He was King of Bohemia and Hungary from 1526-1564.
(HN, 3/10/01)(WUD, 1994 p.523)

1503 Mar 28, The 2nd Lithuanian war with Russia (1500-1503) ended with a treaty. Lithuania lost a fourth of its territory.
(LHC, 3/28/03)

1503 Apr 6, Christopher Columbus fended off an Indian attack at his garrison at Rio Belen (Panama).

1503 Apr 16, Christopher Columbus abandoned the garrison at Rio Belen (Panama) and sailed for home (Hispaniola) with 3 ships. On the way he was shipwrecked in Jamaica.

1503 May 10, Columbus stumbled across the Cayman Islands and dubbed them Las Tortugas after the numerous sea turtles.
(SFEC, 2/16/97, p.T8)(HN, 5/10/98)

1503 May, The ship Esmeralda sank during a violent storm near al-Hallaniyah Island in the Indian Ocean, killing commander Vicente Sodre and all those aboard. The ship was one of two lost in the storm from Vasco da Gama’s second voyage to India. Archaeologists in 2016 reported finding the ship off the coast of Oman in 2013.
(AP, 3/15/16)

1503 Jun 25, Christopher Columbus beached his sinking ships in St. Anne’s Bay, Jamaica, and spent a year shipwrecked and marooned there before returning to Spain.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)(http://www1.minn.net/~keithp/v4.htm)

1503 Aug 18, Pope Alexander VI (1492-1503), born in Spain as Rodrigo di Borgia (1431), died. He had recently authorized the building of a prison in the cellars of Castel Sant’Angelo in Rome.
(PTA, p.424)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Alexander_VI)(SSFC, 7/22/07, p.G2)

1503 Nov 28, Giuliano della Rovere (1443-1513) was crowned as Pope Julius II.

1503 Oct 30, Queen Isabella of Spain banned violence against Indians.
(MC, 10/30/01)

1503 Nov 17, Il Bronzino, Florentine painter (Eleanor de Toledo & her Son), was born.
(MC, 11/17/01)

1503 Dec 14, Nostradamus [Michel de Nostredame], prophet, was born in St. Remy, Provence, France. He predicted correctly French king Henri II’s manner of death. Nostradamus was the author of a book of prophecies that many still believe foretold the future. He was also physician, an astrologer and a clairvoyant. He wrote in rhyming quatrains, accurately predicting the Great London Fire in 1666, Spain’s Civil War, and a Hitler that would lead Germany into war. He even correctly predicted his own death on July 2, 1566.
(HN, 12/14/99)(MC, 12/14/01)

1503 Lucas Cranach (1472-1553) the Elder, German artist ( Saxony), completed his painting “The Crucifixion.”

1503 Parmigianino (d.1540), Italian painter and master draftsman, was born. His paintings included “Madonna of the Long Neck.”
(WSJ, 2/12/00, p.A25)

1503 Leonardo Da Vinci began painting the “Mona Lisa.” The husband of Lisa del Giocondo commissioned Leonardo da Vinci to paint the “Mona Lisa,” The model was Lisa Gheradini whose relatives had emigrated to Ireland in the 12th century and translated their surname to Fitzgerald, an ancestral name of later US president John F. Kennedy. Lisa Gherardini (b.1479) was originally identified as the subject of the world’s most famous painting by Leonardo’s first biographer, the 16th-century Italian writer Giorgio Vasari. In 2001 Donald Sassoon authored “Becoming Mona Lisa: The Making of a Global Icon.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lisa_del_Giocondo)(SFC, 4/26/97, p.E4)(SFC, 3/21/98, p.E3)(WSJ, 12/7/01, p.W16)(AP, 9/13/04)
1503 Leonardo da Vinci was commissioned to decorate a hall in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence. For some 18 months he worked on a mural for the 1440 Battle of Anghiari but abandoned the work in 1506. The mural was later lost when Georgio Vasari was hired to remodel the hall.
(WSJ, 11/9/07, p.W4)

1503 Thomas a Kempis published his “Imitation of Christ” in an English translation and it had great religious influence.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1503 Canterbury Cathedral was finished after 433 years of construction.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1503 Henry VII’s chapel, the final stage of English gothic art, was begun in Westminster Abbey.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1503 The pocket handkerchief came into general use in polite European society.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1503 The missionary Bartolome de Las Casa described the brutal destruction of a Taino Indian city, La Aleta (later in the Dominican Republic). Captain-Gen’l. Juan de Esquival led a Spanish force that massacred 600-700 Higuey Tainos for rebelling after one of their chiefs was disemboweled by a Spanish attack dog. In 1997 archeologists found evidence of a city at the site called La Aleta.
(SFC, 3/29/97, p.A10)(AM, 7/97, p.60)

1503 The French in Italy were defeated by the Spaniards in the battles of Cerignola and Garigliano, and Spanish forces entered Naples.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1503 A War of Succession broke out between Albert IV of Bavaria and Rupert of the Palatinate (a state of the Holy Roman Empire).
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1503 Jean Poyet, French Renaissance artist, died. His work included “Vespers: Massacre of the Innocents and Flight Into Egypt.”
(WSJ, 2/22/00, p.A20)

1503 Seville, Spain, was awarded rights to all trade with the recently discovered New World.
(SSFC, 8/15/10, p.M4)

1503 Zanzibar became a Portuguese colony.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1504 Jan 17, Pius V, Pope from 1566-1572, was born.
(HN, 1/17/99)

1504 Feb 29, An eclipse occurred and helped Christopher Columbus subdue his rebellious Indian carriers.
(SCTS, p.29)

1504 Apr 1, English guilds went under state control.
(MC, 4/1/02)

1504 Apr 18, Fra Filippo Lippi (~52), painter, died.
(MC, 4/18/02)

1504 Apr 23, King Maximilian I routed troops to Bavaria.
(MC, 4/23/02)

1504 May 5, Anton of Burgundy (~82), the Great Bastard, knight, died.
(MC, 5/5/02)

1504 Jun 29, Diego Mendez, one of Columbus’s captains, returned to Jamaica with a small caravel and rescued the Columbus expedition. Mendez had managed to take a canoe from Jamaica to Hispaniola where he chartered the rescue ship.

1504 Jul 12, Steven the Great (b.1433), Stefan Chel Mare, Prince of the Principality of Moldavia (1457-1504), died. He had waged battles against the Turks in the 14th century and became a national hero. Stephen III was buried in the village of Kobynya. In 2000 a 600-year-old oak tree that marked his grave was killed by a cold snap and high winds.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_III_of_Moldavia)(SFC, 12/9/00, p.D8)

1504 Aug 6, Matthew “Nosey” Parker, archbishop of Canterbury, was born.
(MC, 8/6/02)

1504 Nov 7, Columbus returned to Spain following his 4th voyage after suffering a shipwreck at Jamaica. Columbus brought back cocoa beans and chocolate drinks soon became a favorite in the Spanish court. In 2005 Martin Dugard authored “The Last Voyage of Columbus.”
(EWH, 1968, p.390)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)(SSFC, 6/26/05, p.C1)

1504 Nov 26, Isabella I (53), Catholic Queen of Castille and Aragon (1474-1504), patron of Columbus died.
(MC, 11/26/01)

1504 Raphael painted “The Marriage of the Virgin.” It exemplified the major principles of High Renaissance art.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1504 Albrecht Durer (1471-1528) drew his “Adam and Eve.”
(SFEC, 2/9/97, DB p.6)

1504 The Signoria of Florence commissioned Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo to paint the walls of the Grand Council Chamber in the Palazzo Vecchio.

1504 In Florence Leonardo da Vinci and Machiavelli became involved in a scheme to divert the Arno River and thereby cut the water supply to Pisa and force its surrender. Colombino, the project foreman, failed to follow da Vinci’s design, and the project was a spectacular failure. This is covered in the 1998 book “Fortune Is a River” by Roger D. Masters.
(WSJ, 6/22/98, p.A20)

1504 Louis XII of France ceded Naples to Ferdinand II of Aragon in the Treaty of Lyon. Naples remained under Spanish control for the next 200 years.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1504 Babur, founder of the Mughal dynasty in India, captured Kabul in Afghanistan and maintained control to 1519. Babur’s mother descended from Genghis Khan and his father from Timur (Tamerlane).
(https://www.afghan-web.com/history/chronology/)(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)(WSJ, 10/24/00, p.A12)

1504 Venetian ambassadors proposed to Turkey the construction of a Suez Canal.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1504 Henry Tudor, king of England, had coins minted with an accurate self likeness.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1505 Feb 4, Joan of Valois (40), Queen of France, saint, died.
(MC, 2/4/02)

1505 Feb 26, In Brest Polish Chancellor J. Laski invited the Lithuanian government to reconfirm and expand the 1501 Union of Melnik, but the offer was rejected.
(LHC, 2/26/03)

1505 Apr 20, Jews were expelled from Orange, Burgundy, by Philibert of Luxembourg.
(MC, 4/20/02)

1505 Jul 24, On their way to India, a group of Portuguese explorers sacked the city-state of Kilwa, East Africa, and killed the king for failing to pay tribute.
(HN, 7/24/98)

1505 Oct 27, The Grand Duke of Moscow, Ivan III (also known as “Ivan the Great”), died; he was succeeded by his son, Vasily III (Basil III). Vasily’s son, Ivan IV, later became the first czar of Russia, “Ivan the Terrible.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)(AP, 10/27/05)

1505 Dec 18, John IX van Horne, prince-bishop of Lieges, Belgium, was executed.
(MC, 12/18/01)

1505 Giovanni Bellini painted “The Virgin and Child with Saints,” the most perfect realization of the “holy conversation” theme in all of Western painting.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1505 Hieronymus Bosch began his triptych “The Garden of Earthly Delights” and marked the last fling of the Gothic Middle Ages. He also painted “The Temptation of St. Anthony.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)(SFC, 8/27/98, p.E3)

1505 Giorgione painted “The Concert.”
(WSJ, 7/16/02, p.D6)

1505 Pope Julius summoned Michelangelo to Rome to design the pope’s tomb. The contract was revised 5 times and only 3 of 40 large figures were executed.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)(OG)

1505 Leonardo da Vinci painted “The Battle of Anghiari” on a wall in Florence’s Palazzo Vecchio. It commemorated a victory of Florentine forces over the ruling Medici. In 1563 the Medici, having regained power, hired Giorgio Vasari to cover up Leonardo’s work with a painting celebrating one of their own martial successes. It was later thought that Vasari hid the original behind his new work.
(WSJ, 4/10/08, p.D7)
1505 Leonardo da Vinci’s “Codex on the Flight of Birds” dated to about this time.

1505 Raphael painted his “Madonna of the Goldfinch” about this time for the wedding of a friend, Lorenzo Nasi. The painting was shredded in 1548 when Nasi’s palace collapsed. The work was pieced together and modern restoration, which began in 1999, was completed in 2008.
(SFC, 10/31/08, p.E7)

1505 Wimpfeling published the first history of Germany, “Epitome Rerum Germanicarum.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1505 Maximilian I began a reformation of the Holy Roman Empire.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1505 Christ’s College, Cambridge, England, was founded.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1505 Magellan began to serve Portugal when he enlisted in the fleet of Francisco de Almeida. He continued in Portuguese service on many expeditions, being wounded in a campaign against the Moroccan stronghold of Azamor in 1513. The wound caused him to limp for the rest of his life. Magellan petitioned King Manuel of Portugal for an increase in his pension as a titular rise in rank, but the king refused and sent him back to Morocco. Upon his second petition in 1516, Magellan was told he might offer his services elsewhere.
(HNQ, 10/9/00)

1505 A well armed Portuguese fleet attacks Kilwa and then Mombasa. The Portuguese then attempt to monopolize the trade in the east African ports but were unable to maintain control. By the late 1500s, Swahili groups regained control of several ports from the Portuguese..
(ATC, p.144)

1505 Portuguese explorers discovered Ceylon (Sri Lanka), and established factories on the east coast of Africa.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1505 Christopher Columbus died in poverty in Spain. Columbus was the author of “Books of Prophecies,” later translated by Delno C. West.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)(WSJ, 10/8/99, p.W15)

1505-1585 Thomas Tallis, English organist and vocal composer, especially of church music.
(WUD, 1994, p.1450)

1506 Jan 22, The Swiss Guard mercenaries, summoned by Pope Julius II to protect the pope and the Vatican, arrived in Rome.
(USAT, 5/6/98, p.6A)(AP, 1/22/06)

1506 Apr 7, Francis Xavier, saint, Jesuit missionary to India, Malaya, and Japan, was born.
(MC, 4/7/02)

1506 May 19, Columbus selected his son Diego as sole heir.
(MC, 5/19/02)

1506 May 20, Christopher Columbus (55) died in poverty in Spain, still believing he discovered the coast of Asia. Columbus died in the Spanish city of Valladolid, and was initially interred in a monastery there. Three years later, his remains were moved to a monastery on La Cartuja. In 1537, Maria de Rojas y Toledo, widow of Columbus’ son Diego, was allowed to send the bones of her husband and his father to the cathedral in Santo Domingo for burial. There they lay until 1795, when Spain ceded the island of Hispaniola to France and decided Columbus’ remains should not fall into foreigners’ hands. A set of remains that the Spaniards thought were Columbus’ were then dug up from behind the main altar in the newly built cathedral and shipped to a cathedral in Havana, where they remained until the Spanish-American War broke out in 1898 and Spain brought them to Seville. But in 1877, workers digging inside the Santo Domingo cathedral unearthed a leaden box containing 13 large bone fragments and 28 small ones. It was inscribed “Illustrious and distinguished male, don Cristobal Colon.” The Dominicans said these were the real remains of Columbus and that the Spaniards must have taken the wrong remains in 1795.
(AP, 5/20/97)(HN, 5/20/99)(AP, 10/13/02)(SFC, 1/18/05, p.A8)

1506 Leonardo da Vinci began work on “Salvador Mundi,” a painting commissioned by King Louis XII of France. The painting was completed by 1513. In 2013 it was sold for $127.5 million to Russian billionaire Dmitry Rybolovlev.
(SFC, 10/12/17, p.D3)
1506 Albrecht Durer painted his “Portrait of a Young Woman.”
(SFEC, 12/26/99, p.C17)
1506 Giorgione painted “The Three Philosophers” about this time.
(WSJ, 8/3/06, p.D5)
1506 The Laocoon sculpture was unearthed in Rome. It served as a peg for Goethe’s aesthetic theories. It later inspired Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, 18th century German dramatist and critic, to write one of the greatest essays ever written on a work of ancient art.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)(WSJ, 9/7/99, p.A23)

1506 Pope Julius II placed the 1st stone for the new St. Peter’s Basilica. Bramante began to rebuild St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome, which had been neglected since the 14th century when the popes resided at Avignon. Pope Urban VIII consecrated it in 1626.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)(SSFC, 2/18/07, p.A2)

1506 The University of Frankfurt-on-the-Oder was founded.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1506 Jacob Fugger, Augsburg merchant, imported spices to Europe from the East Indies.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)
1506 The Spaniards in the West Indies began raising sugar cane.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1506 Machiavelli, Italian diplomat, established the Florentine militia, the first Italian national troops.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)
1506 Andrea Mantegna (b.1431), Italian painter and engraver, died. His paintings included a dead Christ, “Christo Morto,” whose bare feet seem to stick out of the picture. He also painted “Virgin and Child in Glory.”
(WSJ, 6/6/96, p.A12)(SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T11)(WSJ, 11/10/07, p.W14)

1506 King Chungjong (r.1506-1544) began his rule in Korea. He restored Confucian rule with the support of officials who had deposed King Yongsan-gun.

1506 Copernicus, Polish-born astronomer, was appointed canon of church properties in the Prussian diocese of Ermland.
(ON, 2/11, p.5)

1506 Riots in Lisbon, Portugal, led to the slaughter of 2,000-4,000 converted Jews. This became the setting for a 1998 novel by Richard Zimler, “The Last Kabbalist of Lisbon.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9) (WSJ, 6/8/98, p.A21)

1506 Philip I of Castile died and was succeeded by a Council of Regency because of the insanity of his widow.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1506 Mozambique, Africa, was colonized by the Portuguese.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1506-1510 Leonardo da Vinci divided his time between Florence and Milan, where he serve Charles d’Amboise, the region’s French governor. It was in this period that he compiled his illustrated observations that came to be known as the 72-page Codex Leicester. It consists of 18 loose, double-sided sheets, written in mirror script and illustrated with about 360 sketches. The work was first planned as a treatise on the motion of water.
(SFC, 10/29/96, p.F3)(WSJ, 10/31/96, p.A21)(NH, 11/96, p.14,96)

1507 Jan 15, Johann Oporinus [Herbster], Swiss book publisher (Koran), was born.
(MC, 1/15/02)

1507 Feb 23, Gentile Bellini, Venetian artist, died.

1507 Mar 12, Cesare Borgia (31), cardinal, soldier, politician, died while fighting alongside his brother, the king of Navarre, in Spain.
(HN, 3/12/99)(MC, 3/12/02)

1507 Apr 25, Martin Waldseemuller, a German geographer working at a small college in Eastern France, labeled the New World “America,” for the first time in his book “Cosmographiae Introductio,” and gave Amerigo Vespucci (d.1512) credit for discovering it. His map was the first to show North and South America as separate continents. Letters of 1504-1505 had circulated in Florence claimed that Vespucci had discovered the new World. Vespucci was in fact only a passenger or low officer on one of the ships captained by others. Vespucci was later believed to have been the brother of Simonetta Vespucci, the model for Venus in the Botticelli painting. In 2000 the US Library of Congress planned to acquire the original map for $14 million from the Prince Johannes Waldburg-wolfegg. A $10 million purchase was completed in 2003. In 2009 Toby Lester authored “The Fourth Part of the World: The Race to the Ends of the World, and the Epic Story of the Map That Gave America Its Name.”
(SFEC, 8/23/98, p.T10)(SFC, 10/27/00, p.C14)(WSJ, 7/25/03, p.W19)(AP, 4/25/07)(SSFC, 12/27/09, Books p.E5)(SFC, 11/8/17, p.A4)

1507 Oct 1, Italian architect Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola was born.
(AP, 10/1/07)

1507 Giorgione painted his “Sunset Landscape” about this time.
(WSJ, 8/3/06, p.D5)

1507 Margaret of Austria was appointed Regent by the States-General (parliament) of the Netherlands until the Archduke Charles came of age.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1507 The Diet of Constance recognized the unity of the Holy Roman Empire and founded the Imperial Chamber, the empire’s supreme judicial court.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1507 Genoa was annexed by the French.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1507 Martin Luther was ordained.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1507 Pope Julius II announced an indulgence for the re-building of St. Peter’s.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1507 Johannes Ruysch produced the first printed map of America, as declared by the selling map dealer, R.B. Arkway, Inc. It is dotted with Asian place names. In 1995 it was for sale for $135,000.
(WSJ, 11/24/95, p.B-8)

1507-1650 The shores of Oman were dominated by Portuguese adventurers who were responsible for the forts of Mirani and Jalali. The native Bedouins spoke the Harsusi language.
(NG, 5/95, p.121-123)

1508 Feb 4, Proclamation of Trent.
(HN, 2/4/99)

1508 Feb 6, King Maximilian I (1459-1519) assumed the title of Emperor (1493-1519) without being crowned.
(TL-MB, p.9)(WUD, 1994, p.886)(MC, 2/6/02)

1508 Aug 12, Ponce de Leon arrived and conquered the island of Boriquen (Puerto Rico). Spain had appointed him to colonize Puerto Rico. He explored Puerto Rico and Spanish ships under his command began to capture Bahamanian Tainos to work as slaves on Hispaniola. His settlement at Caparra, 2 miles south of San Juan Bay, was plagued by Taino Indians and cannibalistic Carib Indians.
(NH, 10/96, p.23)(SC, 8/12/02)(http://welcome.topuertorico.org/glossary/index.shtml#936)

1508 Nov 30, Andrea Palladio (d.1580), [Andrea di Piero della Gondola], Italian Renaissance architect, was born in Padua.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrea_Palladio)

1508 Giorgione painted “The Tempesta,” a landscape of a stormy setting with a town in the background, a soldier lower left and a woman nursing to the right. It is at the Academia Gallery in Venice. His work “the Three Philosophers” also dated to about this time.
(T&L, 10/80, p. 58)(WSJ, 12/4/97, p.A20)(SFC, 10/29/11, p.E2)
1508 Pope Julius II transferred Michelangelo to paint the Sistine Chapel ceiling in Rome.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)(OG)
1508 Raphael at age 26 entered the service of Pope Julius II and was entrusted with the decoration of the new papal apartments.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)
1508 The League of Cambrai was formed against Venice by Ferdinand of Aragon, Emp. Maximilian, Louis XII of France, and Pope Julius II as part of an ongoing dispute over sovereignty in Italy.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1508 Tamerlane’s descendant, Babur, the founder of the Mughal Empire, annexed Kandahar (Afghanistan).

1508 Alfonso d’Albuquerque, Portuguese navigator, conquered Muscat in Oman.
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.53)

1508 Sebastian de Ocampo, Spanish navigator, explored Cuba.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1508 In England Althorp was bought by John Spencer, the ancestor of the 9th Earl Spencer, Princess Diana’s brother. The estate in Great Brington was selected as the grave site for Princess Diana in 1997.
(SFC, 4/3/98, p.B2)

1509 Jan 25, Giovanni Morone, Italian theologist, diplomat, cardinal, “heretic,” was born.
(MC, 1/25/02)

1509 Apr 21, Henry VII (b.1457), 1st Tudor king of England (1485-1509), died. In 2011 Allen Lane authored “Winter King: The Dawn of Tudor England.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_VII_of_England)(Econ, 9/24/11, p.107)

1509 Apr 22, Henry Tudor became King Henry VIII of England following the death of his father, Henry VII. He soon married Catherine of Aragon, his brother’s widow and the aunt of Charles V (the Holy Roman Emperor), and fathered Mary, future Queen of England.
(V.D.-H.K.p.161)(AP, 4/22/08)

1509 Apr 27, Pope Julius II excommunicated the republic of Venice. The pope lifted the ban in February 1510.
(AP, 4/27/07)

1509 May 14, In the Battle of Agnadello, the French defeat the Venetians in Northern Italy.
(HN, 5/14/98)

1509 May 20, Catharina Sforza (45), “La Sforza del Destino”, Italian duchess of Forli, died.
(MC, 5/20/02)

1509 Jun 11, England’s King Henry VIII married Catherine of Aragon.
(AP, 6/11/97)(HN, 6/11/98)
1509 Jun 11, In Italy troops of Florence took Pisa.
(AP, 6/11/03)

1509 Jun 24, Henry VIII was crowned king of England.
(AP, 6/24/97)(HN, 6/24/98)

1509 Jul 10, John Calvin, founder of Calvinism, the basis for modern Protestantism, was born.
(HN, 7/10/98)

1509 Andrea Calmo (d.1571, Venetian playwright, was born about this time. He became a pioneer in comedia dell’arte.

1509 Fra Bartolomeo, Italian artist, painted “The Holy Family with the Infant St. John.” It was purchased by the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA) for close to $4 million. His work “The Holy Family with the Infant St. John,” was purchased by the John Paul Getty Museum in Malibu for $22.5 mil.
(WUD, 1994, p.123)(SFC, 5/13/96, p.D-5)(WSJ, 10/29/96, p.A21)(SFEC, 1/11/98, p.D7)

1509 Sebastian Brant’s “Ship of Fools,” a satire first published in 1494, appeared in an English version by Alexander Barclay.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1509 Erasmus lectured at Cambridge and dedicated his “In Praise of Folly,” a witty satire on church corruption and scholastic philosophy, to Thomas More.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1509 Johann Pfefferkorn, a converted Jew, led a persecution of the Jews in Germany under Maximilian I.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1509 Brasenose College, Oxford, and St. John’s College, Cambridge, were founded.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1509 The Egyptian and Gujarat fleets were routed by the Portuguese at the Battle of Diu, which left the latter in control of the Indian seas and the spice trade.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1509 In Portugal the Madre de Deus convent was established by Queen Leonor. The tile-bedecked church, Igreja de Madre de Deus, was built almost 50 years later.
(Econ, 6/12/10, p.96)

1509 Spanish armies invaded North Africa in a crusade against the Muslim rulers of Tripoli, Oran, and Bougie.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)
1509 Spanish conquistadores founded a colony at Darien on the Isthmus of Panama.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1509 The Venetian defeat at Agnadello led to the annexation of Faenza, Rimini, and Ravenna by Pope Julius II, and Otranto and Brindisi by Ferdinand of Aragon.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1509 Peter Henlein, Nuremberg inventor, invented the watch, nicknamed the Nuremberg egg.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1509-1520 The Spanish colonized the area of Nueva Granada (modern Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Venezuela).
(http://homepage20.seed.net.tw/[email protected]/flags/wfh/pg-am-4.htm)

1509-1523 The 177-foot Saint-Jacques bell tower was constructed in central Paris as part of the Church of Saint-Jacques-de-la-Boucherie (“Saint James of the butchery”). The was leveled in 1793 shortly after the French Revolution and only the bell tower survived.
(SFC, 8/23/13, p.A2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint-Jacques_Tower)

1509-1564 John Calvin, French theologian. He started the Protestant Reformation in France in 1532.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.14)(SFC, 7/21/97, p.A11)

1510 Jan 22, Jews were expelled from Colmar, Germany.
(MC, 1/22/02)

1510 May 25, Georges d’Amboise (49), French cardinal, viceroy in North Italy, died.
(SC, 5/25/02)

1510 Jun 9, Nicolaas van Nieuwland, corrupt 1st bishop of Harlem, was born.
(MC, 6/9/02)

1510 Jul 19, In Berlin 38 Jews were burned at the stake.
(MC, 7/19/02)

1510 Oct 28, Francisco Borgia was born. He was the grandson of debauched Pope Alexander VI, and became a theologian and saint.
(MC, 10/28/01)

1510 Bernard Pallissy (d.1590), French ceramicist, painter and writer, was born.

1510 Giovanni Bellini painted “Virgin With the Blessing Child.”
(WSJ, 8/3/06, p.D5)
1510 Raphael painted “The Triumph of Galatea,” a fresco on the wall of the Farnesina, the villa of Agnostino Chigi.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)
c1510 Alexander Barcley wrote his long poetic essay on the “Miseries of Courtiers.” It described the psychology of feasting.
(MT, 6/96, p.9)
1510 In Spain Garci Ordonez de Montalvo authored “Serges de Esplandian” (The Adventures of Esplandian), a novel that described an island filled with gold named California and ruled by Queen Califia.
(SFEC, 4/18/99, BR p.1)(SFC, 2/25/00, p.C14)
1510 Juan de la Cosa, cartographer, made an early map of the New World.
(SFEC, 2/14/99, p.T11)
1510 “Everyman,” the first English morality play, was performed.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)
1510 John Colet, English churchman and humanist, founded St. Paul’s School in London.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1510 Erasmus became Prof. of Greek at Cambridge Univ.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1510 Martin Luther became professor of theology at the Univ. of Wittenberg.

1510 Sunflowers from America were introduced by the Spaniards into Europe.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1510 The Florentine banker Bartolomeo di Marchionni lent the King of Spain money for the crown’s first shipment of Africans to Santo Domingo.
(SFEC,11/16/97, BR p.4)

1510 Slave trade began with a consignment of African slaves to work on Portuguese sugar plantations in Brazil.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1510 In China Liu Jin, a eunuch of the Ming dynasty, was executed for abusing his authority. He had grown wealthy from graft.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R4)

1510 War broke out between Denmark and the Hanseatic League.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1510 Goa, India, was captured by the Portuguese.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1510 The wheel-lock firearm was introduced in Nurnberg, Germany.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1510 Leonardo da Vinci designed the horizontal water wheel that was the forerunner of the modern water turbine.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1510 Giorgione (b.~1478), Italian painter, died of the plague. He was a top student of Bellini and excelled in the paragone: a competition between painting an poetry, where painters sought to rival poets in conveying beauty. Titian finished Giorgione’s “Sleeping Venus.”
(T&L, 10/80, p. 58)(WSJ, 12/4/97, p.A20)(Econ, 7/29/06, p.77)

1510 The Catholic Church’s ban on usury was rewritten under Pope Leo X.
(Econ, 8/1/15, p.71)

1510-1515 Don Pedro Fajardo y Chacon, commissioned a set of wood friezes for his Velez Blanco castle in Almeria. The friezes were based on engravings by Jacopo da Strasbourg and Zoan Andrea Vavasorri that depicted the triumphs of Caesar and events in the mythical life of Hercules, the “Labors of Hercules.”
(WSJ, 1/6/00, p.A20)(WSJ, 5/18/00, p.A24)

1510-1550 Spain took in gold shipments from the New World at 3,000 pounds a year.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1510-1572 Frances Clouet, French painter. His work included the dandified “Charles IX of France.”
(SFEC, 12/1/96, BR p.4)

1511 Jul 30, Giorgio Vasari (d.1574), Italy, painter, architect and art historian (Vasari’s Lives), was born. He wrote “Lives of the Artists.”
(WUD, 1994, p.1582)(MC, 7/30/02)

1511 Sep 1, Council of Pisa opened. Louis XII of France called the council to oppose the Holy League of Pope Julius II.
(PTA, 1980, p.432)(MC, 9/1/02)

1511 Nov 22, Erasmus Reinhold, German mathematician (calculated planetary table), was born.
(MC, 11/22/01)

1511 Fra Bartolomeo painted “The Mystic Marriage of St. Catherine.” He emphasizing his mastery in the display of draperies.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1511 Raphael completed the frescoes in the Stanza della Segnatura in the Vatican for Pope Julius II.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1511 Diego de Velazquez, Spanish commander, occupied Cuba. In the village of Caonao soldiers under Velazquez slaughtered close to 2,000 Taino Indians. Among the Spaniards was Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo (13), who in 1542 led a 3-ship expedition up the California coast.
(TL-MB, p.10)(SFC, 10/18/14, p.C1)

1511 There were Jews in Thessaloniki, Greece involved in the printing.
(WSJ, 4/29/97, p.A20)

1511 Sebastian Virdung, German musician, published the earliest manual for playing musical instruments.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1511 Pope Julius joined the Holy League with Aragon and Venice against the French. Papal forces captured Modena and Mirandola from the French.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1511 In Mecca, Arabia, there was an attempt to ban coffee.
(Econ, 12/20/03, p.90)

1511 Portuguese sailors first reached the unsettled Mascarene Islands (Mauritius, Reunion and Rodrigues). They discovered the dodo bird and killed many for sport.
(NH, 11/96, p.24)(SSFC, 12/9/01, p.C9)

1511 Vasily III became the new patriarch of Moscow.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1511 Malacca (Melaka), the center of East Indian spice trade, was captured by the Portuguese. When the Dutch gained influence in Indonesia and Jakarta they took over Melaka and built the fortress A Famosa. St. Paul’s Church, originally called Our Lady of the Hill, was built by the Portuguese following their takeover of Malacca.
(TL-MB, p.10)(SFEC, 8/3/97, p.T8)(Econ, 11/15/14, SR p.5)

1511 Portuguese traders reached the Banda Islands, including Run, and broke the Venetian monopoly over nutmeg. Over the next century the Dutch muscled in an almost cornered the nutmeg market. The history of the nutmeg trade was documented in 1999 by Giles Milton in his: “Nathaniel’s Nutmeg.”
(WSJ, 5/21/99, p.W7)

1511 King Ferdinand of Spain said: “Get gold, humanely if possible, but at all hazards – get gold.”
(WSJ, 11/9/00, p.A24)

1512 Feb 22, Amerigo Vespucci (b.1454), Italian explorer, financier, navigator, and cartographer, died in Seville. He was born in the Republic of Florence and sailing for Portugal around 1501–1502, demonstrated that Brazil and the West Indies were not Asia’s eastern outskirts (as initially conjectured from Columbus’ voyages) but a separate, unexplored land mass colloquially known as the New World. In 1507, the new continent was named America after the Latin version of Vespucci’s first name.
1512 Mar 5, Gerardus Mercator (d.1594), Flemish philosopher and cartographer, was born in Rupelmonde, Flanders (later Belgium).

1512 Apr 10, James V, king of Scotland (1513-42), was born.
(PCh, 1992, p.167)(MC, 4/10/02)

1512 Apr 11, The forces of the Holy League were heavily defeated by the French at the Battle of Ravenna. France under Gaston de Foix beat the Spanish Army. Gaston de Foix, French pretender to Navarre throne, died in battle.
(HN, 4/11/99)(MC, 4/11/02)

1512 Aug 31, Giuliano de Medici became the new governor of Florence.
(ON, 11/04, p.3)

1512 Nov 1, Michelangelo’s paintings on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel were completed and first exhibited to the public.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)(AP, 11/1/97)(HN, 11/1/98)

1512 Nov 7, Giuliano de Medici fired Niccolo Machiavelli from civil service in Florence.
(ON, 11/04, p.4)

1512 Nov 16, Jemme Herjuwsma, Fries rebel, was beheaded.
(MC, 11/16/01)

1512 Nov 17, Kempo Roeper, Frisian rebel, was quartered.
(MC, 11/17/01)

1512 Dec 27, The laws of Burgos gave New World natives legal protection against abuse and authorized Negro slavery.
(HN, 12/27/98)

1512 Raphael completed the Sistine Madonna, a visual expression of Renaissance humanism.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1512 “Masque” was used for the first time to describe a poetic drama.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1512 The English began using double-deck warships. They displaced 1,000 tons and were armed with 70 guns.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1512 Newfoundland cod banks were exploited by fisherman from England, France, Portugal and Holland, who sent the dried catch back to Europe.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1512 Copernicus, Polish-born astronomer, wrote his manuscript “The Little Commentary,” in which he suggested that the earth’s apparent immobility was due to a “false appearance” and a sun-centered cosmos would resolve many astronomical inconsistencies.
(ON, 2/11, p.5)

1512 French armies defeated the forces of the Holy League at the Battle of Ravenna.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1512 Henry VIII claimed the throne of France and sent troops unsuccessfully into Spain.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1512 Shi’ism became the state religion of Persia.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1512 Portuguese explorers discovered the Celebes and found nutmeg trees in the Moluccas. This began an 84-year monopoly of the nutmeg and mace trades.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)
1512 The Portuguese took over control of East Timor.
(SFC, 3/3/98, p.A6)

1512 Spain imported black slaves to Hispaniola to replace moribund Indian laborers.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)
1512 The Spaniards conquered Navarre and annexed it to Castile.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)(Econ, 6/26/04, Survey p.13)

1512 Selim I deposed his father Bayazid II and became Sultan of Turkey.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1512 Ponce de Leon stepped ashore on the Turks and Caicos Islands.
(SFEC, 2/14/99, p.T4)

1512 Julius II convened the Lateran Council to try for the first time to reform abuses within the Church of Rome.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1512-1520 Selim I followed Beyazid II in the Ottoman House of Osman.
(Ot, 1993, xvii)

1513 Feb 20, Pope Julius II died. He was laid in rest in a huge tomb sculptured by Michelangelo.
(HN, 2/20/99)

1513 Mar 6, Niccolo Machiavelli was released from jail in Florence. He complained in verse that it was difficult to write poetry there because people kept beating him up.
(ON, 11/04, p.4)

1513 Mar 11, Giovanni de’ Medici became Pope Leo X. The Medici Pope Leo X led the Catholic Church until 1521.
(OG)(MC, 3/12/02)

1513 Mar 27, Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de Leon sighted Florida.
(AP, 3/27/97)(HN, 3/27/98)

1513 Apr 2, Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de Leon landed in Florida. Juan Ponce de Leon, Spanish explorer, discovered Florida and planted orange and lemon trees there. [see March 27, 1512 entry] He also discovered the Dry Tortugas, 10 small keys southwest of Key West. The Spanish governor of Puerto Rico, Juan Ponce de Leon, discovered Florida and named it Pascua Florida, “feast of the flowers.” His discovery was made during his search for the legendary Fountain of Youth.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)(NH, 4/97, p.317)(AP, 4/2/97)(SFEC, 1/2/00, Z1 p.2)(HNQ, 3/9/00)

1513 Apr 8, Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de Leon and his expedition began exploring the Florida coastline.
(AP, 4/8/07)

1513 Jun 6, Battle at Novara: Habsburgers vs. Valois.
(MC, 6/6/02)

1513 Aug 16, Henry VIII of England and Emperor Maximilian defeated the French at Guinegatte, France, in the Battle of the Spurs.
(HN, 8/16/98)

1513 Sep 9, James IV (40), King of Scotland (1488-1513), was defeated and killed by English at the Battle of Flodden Field. The Scottish navy was sold to France.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)(HN, 9/9/98)(MC, 9/9/01)

1513 Sept 25, Vasco Nunez de Balboa, Spanish explorer, crossed the Isthmus of Panama and claimed the Pacific Ocean for Spain. He was named governor of Panama and the Pacific by King Ferdinand. In 2004 Hugh Thomas authored “Rivers of Gold: The Rise of the Spanish Empire from Columbus to Magellan.”
(HFA, ’96, p.38)(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)(SFEC, 9/21/97, p.C7)(WSJ, 6/2/04, p.D12)

1513 Sep 29, Spanish explorer Vasco Nunez de Balboa discovered the Pacific Ocean.
(HN, 9/29/98)

1513 Michelangelo began to work on his Moses, the awesome central figure of the statues surrounding the tomb of Julius II.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1513 Niccolo Machiavelli wrote “The Prince” in which he gave reasons for the rise and fall of states. He dedicated it to Lorenzo de Medici, the successor to Giuliano. It was not published until 1532. In it he justified the ruthless subjection of religion and morality to politics. A 1998 translation by Prof. Angelo M. Codevilla included 428 footnotes and attempted to maintain the peculiar language of Machiavelli.
(WSJ, 2/18/98, p.A20)(WSJ, 2/27/98, p.A15)(ON, 11/04, p.5)

1513 Chartres Cathedral, near Paris, was completed after almost 400 years of work.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1513 The Palazzo Farnese, a large and magnificent palace in Rome, was designed by Antonio de Sangallo the younger and Michelangelo.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1513 Calusa Indians in catamaran canoes attacked Spanish ships under Ponce de Leon in the southwest Florida and both sides suffered casualties.
(AM, 11/04, p.49)

1513 Henry VIII and Maximilian defeated the French forces in Italy and Louis XII gave up Milan.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1513 Christian II became King of Denmark and Norway. He later asserted his right to the Swedish throne by force of arms.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1513 Jorge Alvarez, Portuguese commander, reached Canton, China.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)
1513 Portugal captured Goa, India.
(SSFC, 3/19/06, p.F7)
1513 Magellan, who served for the Portuguese on many expeditions, was wounded in a campaign against the Moroccan stronghold of Azamor. The wound caused him to limp for the rest of his life.
(HNQ, 10/9/00)

1513 The Swiss completed the acquisition of the southern province of Ticino.
(SFEC, 6/14/98, p.T4)

1513 A manuscript map was drawn by Piri Reis (1470-1554) a Turkish captain who later became the Chief Admiral of the Ottoman Navy. It was presented to Ottoman Sultan Selim I in Egypt in 1517.

1513-1514 Dosso Dossi painted his portrait of “Saint George.”
(WSJ, 1/20/98, p.A20)

1514 Apr 26, Copernicus made his first observations of Saturn. Nicholas Copernicus later proposed that the sun is stationary and that the earth and the planets move in circular orbits around it.
(HN, 4/26/98)(BHT, Hawking, p.4)

1514 Aug 23, Selim I (the Grim), Ottoman Sultan, routed a Persian army in the Battle of Chaldiran.
(TL-MB, p.10)(PCh, 1992, p.168)

1514 Sep 15, Selim I entered Tabriz, Persia, and massacred much of the population.
(PCh, 1992, p.168)

1514 Sep, Thomas Wolsey (1473-1530) was appointed archbishop of York.
(TL-MB, p.10)

1514 Dec 4, Richard Hunne, English “heretic”, allegedly committed suicide.
(MC, 12/4/01)

1514 Dec 31, Andreas Vesalius (d.1564), anatomist, author of “De Humani Corporis Fabrica,” was born in Brussels, Belgium
(NH, 10/96, p.34)(TL-MB, 1988, p.15)(MC, 12/31/01)

1514 Giovanni Bellini painted “Feast of the Gods.” The painting depicts Ovid’s tale of how Vesta, goddess of virginity is approached while sleeping by Priapus, god of fertility, who begins to twitch up her tunic. At that moment a donkey sneezes and awakens Vesta, who quickly awakes and runs away. It is now on exhibit at the National Gallery of Art in Wa., DC.
(T&L, 10/1980, p.66)(WSJ, 8/3/06, p.D5)

1514 Diego Columbus, son of Christopher, built the first seat of government in the Americas in Santo Domingo.
(SFEC, 2/14/99, p.T10)

1514 Hampton Court Palace was begun for Wolsey.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1514 Pope Leo X issued a papal bull against slavery.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1514 England and France declared a truce in their warfare. Mary Tudor, sister of Henry VIII, married Louis XII.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1514 At the Battle of Orsha, Lithuanian forces defeated those of Moscow.
(SFC, 9/9/96, p.A12)

1514 Vasily III, ruler of Moscow, captured Smolensk from Poland.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1514 George Dozsa, soldier of fortune, instigated a peasant’s revolt in Hungary. He was later captured and grilled alive.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1514 Spanish soldiers conquered the natives of Cuba and founded the city of Trinidad.
(TL-MB, p.10)(SSFC, 5/31/15, p.L1)

1514 1,500 Spanish settlers went to Panama.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1515 Jan 1, King Louis XII (b.1462) of France, died. He was succeeded by Francis I (1494-1547).
(Econ, 12/12/09, p.93)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_I_of_France)

1515 Feb 4, Michael Radvila the Black was born in Nesvizh. He later became palatine of Vilnius, chancellor of Lithuania, and supporter of Reformation.
(LHC, 2/4/03)

1515 Mar 28, Theresa of Avila (d.1582), Teresa de Jesus (St. Theresa), Spanish Carmelite nun, mystic writer, saint, was born. She initiated reforms in the Order. She co-founded with John of the Cross (1542-1591) the Order of Discalced (barefoot) Carmelites. “Untilled ground, however rich, will bring forth thistles and thorns; so also the mind of man.” “To wish to act like angels while we are still in this world is nothing but folly.”
(CU, 6/87)(WUD, 1994, p.769)(AP, 12/8/97)(AP, 7/5/98)(MC, 3/28/02)

1515 Jul 21, St. Philippus Nerius, [Philippo Neri], Italian merchant, priest, was born.
(MC, 7/21/02)

1515 Jul 22, Emperor Maximillian and Vladislav of Bohemia forged an alliance between the Habsburg [Austria] and Jagiello [Polish-Lithuanian] dynasties in Vienna.
(HN, 7/22/98)

1515 Jul 26, Santiago, Cuba, was founded.
(SFC, 7/22/00, p.A17)

1515 Sep 13, King Francis of France defeated the Swiss army under Cardinal Matthias Schiner at Marignano, northern Italy. Switzerland was last involved in a war. French armies defeated the Swiss and Venetians at the Battle of Marignano and Milan fell to the French. Francis I conquered Lombardy in northern Italy.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)(SFC, 6/7/96, p.A12)(HN, 9/13/98)

1515 Sep 22, Anne of Cleeves, fourth wife of Henry the VIII, was born in Cleeves, Germany.
(HN, 9/22/00)

1515 Oct 4, Lucas Cranach (d.1586), the Younger, German painter, was born.
(WUD, 1994, p.339)(MC, 10/4/01)

1515 Nov 15, Thomas Wolsey (1473-1530), archbishop of York, was made a cardinal.

1515 Dec 2, Gonzalo de Cordoba, Spanish general, strategist, viceroy of Naples, died.
(MC, 12/2/01)

1515 Dec 24, Thomas Cardinal Wolsey was appointed English Lord Chancellor.
(MC, 12/24/01)

1515 Giovanni Bellini (b.~1430-1516), Italian artist, painted his masterpiece “Lady With a Mirror.
(Econ, 7/29/06, p.77)

1515 Jul 26, Santiago, Cuba, was founded.
(SFC, 7/22/00, p.A17)

1515 Sep 13, King Francis of France defeated the Swiss army under Cardinal Matthias Schiner at Marignano, northern Italy. Switzerland was last involved in a war. French armies defeated the Swiss and Venetians at the Battle of Marignano and Milan fell to the French. Francis I conquered Lombardy in northern Italy.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)(SFC, 6/7/96, p.A12)(HN, 9/13/98)

1515 Sep 22, Anne of Cleeves, fourth wife of Henry the VIII, was born in Cleeves, Germany.
(HN, 9/22/00)

1515 Oct 4, Lucas Cranach (d.1586), the Younger, German painter, was born.
(WUD, 1994, p.339)(MC, 10/4/01)

1515 Nov 15, Thomas Wolsey (1473-1530), archbishop of York, was made a cardinal.

1515 Dec 2, Gonzalo de Cordoba, Spanish general, strategist, viceroy of Naples, died.
(MC, 12/2/01)

1515 Dec 24, Thomas Cardinal Wolsey was appointed English Lord Chancellor.
(MC, 12/24/01)

1515 Giovanni Bellini (b.~1430-1516), Italian artist, painted his masterpiece “Lady With a Mirror.
(Econ, 7/29/06, p.77)

1515 Hans Holbein the Younger arrived in Basel, the European center of book publishing. The city in 1997 owned 340 prints by Holbein.
(WSJ, 6/24/97, p.A20)

1515 Alexander Barclay began composing his “Eclogues,” the earliest pastoral poems in English.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1515 John Skelton’s “Magnyficense” became one of the best known morality plays.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1515 Raphael succeeded Bramante as chief architect of St. Peter’s in Rome.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1515 Matthias Grunewald completed the enormous altarpiece for the Antonites of Isenheim.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1515 In England the Gothic style chapel at King’s College in Cambridge was completed.
(Econ 6/3/17, p.71)

1515 By this year the Taino Indians of what is now the Dominican Republic were practically annihilated in clashes with the Spanish.
(SFC, 3/29/97, p.A10)

1515 Petrus Apianus, German mathematician and instrument maker, attempted to explain the universe by crafting an artistic dial that tracked the movement of the stars.
(SFC, 7/19/02, p.E3)

1515 Juan Diaz de Solis, Spanish navigator, reached the Rio de la Plata in South America and discovered Argentina.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)
1515 Bartolome de Las Casas, Dominican priest, returned to Spain from Hispaniola to plead on behalf of the ill-treated native Indians.
(NH, 10/96, p.29)
1515 Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de Leon first described the Gulf Stream. In 1770 Benjamin Franklin drew a map of the Gulf Stream and in 1786 described it in detail in Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. In 2008 Stan Ulanski authored “The Gulf Stream: Tiny Plankton, Giant Bluefin, and the Amazing Story of the Powerful River in the Atlantic.”
(WSJ, 10/4/08, p.W9)

1515 Afonso d’Albuquerque, Viceroy of the Portuguese Indies, captured Hormuz (Ormuz) and forced all other traders to round the Cape of Good Hope. This established Portugal’s supremacy in trade with the Far East. Hormuz is the strait between Iran and Trucial Oman.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)(WUD, 1994, p.684)

1515 The first nationalized French factories were set up in the manufacture of tapestries and arms.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1515 Spanish conquistadores founded Havana, Cuba.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)
1515 Bartolome de Las Casas (1474-1566), Dominican priest and the first Spanish priest to be ordained in the New World, returned to Spain from Hispaniola to plead on behalf of the ill-treated native Indians. He became known as the “Apostle to the Indians.” Helen Rand Parish (1912-2005) later authored a number of seminal works on Las Casas.
(NH, 10/96, p.29)(TL-MB, p.11)(SSFC, 5/15/05, p.A19)(http://tinyurl.com/brzzu)

1515 Diego (b.~1450), the younger brother of Christopher Columbus, died. He had accompanied Columbus on his second voyage (1493). Diego was released from chains in Spain in 1500, became a priest and returned to the West Indies in 1509.
(AH, 2/03, p.7)(www.newadvent.org/cathen/04140a.htm)

1515-1516 Dosso Dossi, court painter in Ferrara, painted “Melissa” (aka Circe).
(WSJ, 1/20/98, p.A20)

1515-1519 Coffee from Arabia appeared in Europe.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1515-1520 In Portugal the Belem Tower was built in Lisbon and served as a beacon to sailors. It originally stood well in the water but now the Tagus laps only its base.
(SFEC, 2/1/98, p.T7)

1516 Feb 18, Mary Tudor, later Queen Mary I of England (1553-1558) and popularly known as “Bloody Mary,” was born in Greenwich Palace.
(HN, 2/18/98)(AP, 2/18/98)

1516 Feb 23, The Hapsburg Charles I succeeded Ferdinand in Spain.
(HN, 2/23/99)

1516 Mar 17, Giuliano de’ Medici (37), monarch of Florence, died.
(MC, 3/17/02)

1516 Mar 26, Konrad von Gesner, naturalist (Bibliotheca Universalis), was born in Zurich, Switzerland.
(SS, 3/26/02)

1516 Mar 29, The Jewish Ghetto of Venice, the first ghetto in Europe, was established by the government of Venetian Serenissima Republic. The incoming Jews were forced to pay 30% more to their new landlords as compared to the outgoing Christian tenants.
(www.elitehotel.it/en/the_ancient_jewish_ghetto_in_venice_13en1341en.htm)(Econ, 6/18/16, p.83)

1516 Apr 23, Bavarian Dukes Wilhelm IV and his brother Ludwig X enacted the Reinheitsgebot law (purity law). It required that beer be made from malt, hops, water and nothing else. Yeast was added to the list later.
(WSJ, 5/27/98, p.A1)(SFC, 7/15/04, p.A2)(Econ, 10/9/10, p.76)(SFC, 4/23/16, p.A2)(Econ, 4/23/15, p.44)

1516 Aug 24, At the Battle of Marj Dabik, north of Aleppo, the Turks beat Syria. Suliman I (Selim the Grim), the Ottoman Sultan, routed the Mamelukes (Egypt) with the support of artillery capturing Aleppo and Damascus. This opened the way to 400 years of Ottoman Turkish rule over most of the Arab world.
(PC, 1992, p.169)(Econ, 11/14/09, p.101)

1516 Mateo Realdo Colombo (d.1559), Italian anatomist and discoverer of the pulmonary circulation, was born at Cremona. He studied medicine at Padua with Vesalius, became his assistant, and in 1544 succeeded him as lecturer in surgery and anatomy. The best authority for Colombo’s work in anatomy is his “De Re Anatomicâ” (Venice, 1559; Paris, 1562). The most complete life is that by Tollin in Pflügers Archiv: XXI-XXII. In English there is a good sketch by Fisher, Annals of Anatomy and Surgery (Brooklyn, 1880). In 1997 Federico Andahazi authored “The Anatomist,” a novel that was based on Colombo’s research on the clitoris.
(CE, online)(SFEC, 10/29/00, BR p.5)

1516 Hans Holbein in Basel painted a wooden shingle as a sort of advertisement for the schoolmaster Oswald Geishüsler. It marked the beginning of “profane” painting in the West.
(WSJ, 6/24/97, p.A20)
1516 Titian began “The Assumption of the Virgin,” a monumental altarpiece in the Church of the Frari, Venice.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)
1516 Giovanni Bellini (b.~1430), Italian artist, died in Venice. Giorgione and Titian had graduated from his workshop.
(Econ, 7/29/06, p.77)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giovanni_Bellini)

1516 The first published account of the discovery of North America appeared in “De Rebus Oceanicus et Novo Orbe” by the Italian historian Peter Martyr.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1516 Erasmus published his version of the New Testament. He began by copying manuscripts found in monasteries and given to him by his friend Thomas More. His Latin translation and commentary and an improved Greek text differed in many places from the Vulgate of St. Jerome, and was immediately recognized as the most accurate translation so far.

1516 Thomas More published his “Utopia,” the “golden little book” that invented a literary-world immune from the evils of Europe, where all citizens were equal and believed in a good and just God. “Your sheep, which are usually so tame and cheaply fed, begin now… to be so greedy and so wild that they devour human beings themselves and devastate and depopulate fields, houses, and towns.” From More’s Utopia. The key thought in the work is that poverty, injustice and inequality will never be eliminated from the world until private property is abolished.
(V.D.-H.K.p.160)(NG, 5.1988, pp. 574)(WSJ, 10/22/98, p.A20)

1516 The German Quedlinburg Manuscript of this date and other church treasures were stolen from a cave where they were being stored in 1945 by Lt. Joe Tom Meador of Whitewright, Texas. The items were then sold by his brother and sister. In 1996 a criminal trial focused on the issue.
(WSJ, 12/11/96, p.A20)

1516 Music printed from engraved plates was used for the first time in Italy.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1516 Archduke Charles, later Emp. Charles V, succeeded his grandfather, King Ferdinand II of Spain, and founded the Hapsburg dynasty.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1516 The Treaty of Noyon brought peace between France and Spain.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1516 Corpus Christi College, Oxford, and Seville Univ., Spain, were founded.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1516 Juan Diaz de Solis, Spanish explorer, was killed on the coast of Argentina. He was eaten by natives.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.26)

1516 The Ottomans made Aleppo their second city following its seizure.
(Econ, 10/1/16, p.46)

1517 Jan 20, Ottoman sultan Selim I captured Cairo. The center of power transferred then to Istanbul. The Ottoman Empire retained the Mamluks as an Egyptian ruling class.

1517 Mar 26, The famous Flemish composer Heinrich Issac, whose music fused Flemish, Italian and Germanic styles, died.
(HN, 3/26/99)

1517 Apr 13, Tuman Bey, the last Mameluke sultan of Egypt, was hanged as Osman’s army occupied Cairo.
(MC, 4/13/02)

1517 Jun 11, Sir Thomas Pert reached Hudson Bay.
(SC, 6/11/02)

1517 Jul 1, The 1st burning of Protestants at stake in Netherlands.
(MC, 7/1/02)

1517 Oct 6, Fra Bartolommeo (b.1472), Florentine Renaissance painter, died. He was a Dominican monk nicknamed Baccio della Porta. His work included a portrait of Savonarola.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fra_Bartolommeo)(SFC, 5/13/96, p.D-5)

1517 Oct 31, Martin Luther nailed his Ninety-five Thesis to the door of the Wittenberg Palace All Saints’ Church. He grew to believe in faith alone as man’s link to the justice of God, and therefore denied the need for the vast infrastructure of the Church. This event signaled the beginning of the Protestant Reformation in Germany and Protestantism in general, shattering the external structure of the medieval church and at the same time reviving the religious consciousness of Europe. Martin Luther (1483-1546) was born in Eisleben, Germany. He was a monk in the Catholic Church until 1517, when he founded the Lutheran Church.
(V.D.-H.K.p.163)(CU, 6/87)(SFC, 7/21/97, p.A11)(AP, 10/31/97)(AP, 10/31/97) (HN, 10/31/98)

1517 Oct, Ferdinand Magellan arrived in Spain and began the first voyage to successfully circumnavigate the world a little less than two years later. He eventually died in the Philippines in 1521. The expedition was completed by others in 1522.
(HNQ, 10/9/00)

1517 Seville Cathedral was completed after 115 years of work.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1517 Archduke Charles left the Netherlands for Spain and entered Valladolid in triumph.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1517 Archduke Charles granted a monopoly in the African slave trade to Florentine merchants.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1517 Francisco Hernandez de Cordoba, Spanish explorer, sailed from Cuba and discovered the Mayan civilization in the Yucatan, southeast Mexico.
(TL-MB, p.11)(SSFC, 5/6/01, p.T6)

1517 Bartolomeo de las Casas, the first Spanish priest to be ordained in the New World, pleaded the case of oppressed and enslaved American Indians.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1517 An Aztec chronicler described a comet as a “flaming ear of corn.”
(NG, 12/97, p.97)

1517 The Mamelukes in Egypt lost power.
(WUD, 1994, p.869)

1517 In Germany the Salzbergwerk Berchtesgaden salt mine began operations.
(SSFC, 8/6/06, p.G5)

1517 Cardinal Alessandro Farnese (1468-1549) began work on his Palazzo Farnese. He was Pope Paul III of the Roman Catholic Church from 1534 to his death.
1517 Luca Pacioli (b.1445), Italian Franciscan friar and mathematician, died. His work included the first principles of double-entry book-keeping.
(Econ, 1/18/14, SR p.5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luca_Pacioli)

1517 Portuguese sailors named Ilha Formosa (beautiful island), later known as Taiwan.
(SFC, 12/11/99, p.B6)

1517-1648 This period was covered by Mark Greengrass in his 2014 book “Christendom Destroyed: Europe 1517-1648.”
(Econ, 8/2/14, p.64)

1518 Mar, Martin Luther wrote his “Sermon on Indulgences and Grace” and published the work in his native German avoiding regional vocabulary.
(Econ, 12/17/11, p.94)

1518 Apr 18, Bona Sforza (1494-1558) was crowned Queen of Poland and Grand Duchess of Lithuania in Wawel Cathedral, Krakow. The Italian niece of Bianca Maria Sforza, who in 1493 married Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, became the 3rd consort of Lithuania’s Grand Duke Sigismund the Old (1467-1548).

1518 Sep 29, Jacopo Tintoretto (d.1588), Italian artist, was born.
(Econ, 2/10/07, p.90)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tintoretto)

1518 Oct 12, A pontifical ambassador interrogated Rev. Dr. Martin Luther. Luther was summoned to the Diet of Augsburg where he refused to recant.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)(MC, 10/12/01)

1518 Raphael painted a portrait of Leo X which showed spectacles with concave lenses for short-sightedness.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)
1518 Raphael began painting the nude model “La Fornarina” (the Little Baker Girl). It was completed about 1519.

1518 Titian painted “Offering to Venus.”
(NH, 6/01, p.47)

1518 Gil Vicente, founder of Portuguese drama, wrote “The Ship of Purgatory.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1518 Ulrich Zwingli, a Swiss clergyman, supported Martin Luther’s Reformation.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1518 Forks were used at a banquet in Venice (for the first time?).
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1518 Portugal and the Kingdom of Kotte, Ceylon, signed a peace treaty.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1518 Cardinal Wolsey arranged the Peace of London between England, France, the Pope, Maximilian I and Spain.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1518 Algiers and Tunis, Barbary states in North Africa, were founded.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1518 Henry VIII authorized a college of physicians and it was founded by Oxford physician Thomas Linacre.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1518 Porcelain from Asia was imported to Europe (for the first time?) from Asia.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1518 Anthony Blatner, German goldsmith, built the first fire-engine in Augsburg, Germany.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1518 Vasco Nunez de Balboa, Spanish explorer, was wrongly charged with treason and beheaded.
(SFEC, 9/21/97, p.C7)

1518 Juan de Grijalva, Spanish explorer, named the area comprising of Mexico, Central America north of Panama, the Spanish West Indies, and south-west North America New Spain. He was also the first European to smoke tobacco, introduced to him by a native chief.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1518 Lorens de Gominot obtained a license to import 4,000 African slaves into the New World colonies.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1519 Jan 12, Maximilian I of Hapsburg (59), Holy Roman Emperor and German Kaiser, died.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)(AP, 1/12/98)(PC, 1992, p.170)

1519 Feb 15, Pedro Menendez de Aviles, explorer (found St. Augustine, Florida), was born.
(MC, 2/15/02)

1519 Feb 16, Gaspard de Coligny, Huguenot leader, French admiral, was born.
(MC, 2/16/02)

1519 Apr 13, Catherine de Medicis (d.1589), the daughter of Lorenzo de Medici, was born in Florence. She married at age 14 and became queen in 1547 as Henry II of France acceded to the throne. She was the mother of Francis II, Charles IX, and Henry III.

1519 Mar 13, The Spaniards under Cortez landed in Mexico with 10 stallions, 5 mares and a foal. Smallpox was carried to America in the party of Hernando Cortes.
(SFC, 9/2/96, p.A3)(HN, 3/13/98)(SFC, 10/19/01, p.A17)(SSFC, 5/6/01, p.T6)

1519 Mar 27, A truce was arranged with Cortes when Mayan caciques brought food and gold as well as 20 female slaves. Among these was a young woman from Jalisco named Marina, who had been stolen from a noble family when small and sold into slavery, where she learned the language of Yucatán. As a bilingual translator from Aztec to Mayan, Marina played a major role in the eventual conquest of Tenochtitlán.

1519 Apr 21, Hernan Cortes landed at Veracruz, Mexico, on Holy Thursday.

1519 Apr 24, Envoys of Montezuma II attended the first Easter mass in Central America.
(HN, 4/24/98)

1519 Apr, Montezuma received a message that white strangers had reappeared and attacked a Mayan coastal village south of the Aztec border. Hundreds of Mayans were killed and the strangers sailed north.
(ON, 10/00, p.2)

1519 May 2, Artist Leonardo da Vinci (67) died at the Chateau du Clos-Luce, France, where he had lived since 1516. In 1994 A. Richard Turner wrote “Inventing Leonardo,” a history of Leonardo legends. In 2004 Bulent Atalay authored “Math and the Mona Lisa: The Art and Science of Leonardo da Vinci.” In 2004 Charles Nicholl authored “Leonard da Vinci: The Flights of the Mind.”
(AP, 5/2/97)(NH, 5/97, p.58)(Econ, 5/15/04, p.80)(Econ, 12/11/04, p.81)(SSFC, 10/9/11, p.C6)

1519 Jun 24, Lucretia Borgia (39), daughter of Pope Alexander VI, died. In 2004 Sarah Bradford authored “Lucrezia Borgia: Life, Love and Death in Renaissance Italy.”
(HN, 4/18/98)(WUD, 1994, p.171)(SSFC, 12/19/04, p.E2)

1519 Jul 6, Charles of Spain was elected Holy Roman emperor in Barcelona. The Catholic heir to the Hapsburg dynasty, Charles V, was elected Holy Roman Emperor, combining the crowns of Spain, Burgundy (with the Netherlands), Austria and Germany. He was the grandson of Ferdnand and Isabella of Spain.
(V.D.-H.K.p.162)(NH, 9/96, p.18)(HN, 7/6/98)

1519 Jul 16, There was a public debate between Martin Luther and theologian John Eck.
(MC, 7/16/02)

1519 Aug 11, Johann Tetzel (~79), Dominican monk, died.
(MC, 8/11/02)

1519 Aug 15, Panama City was founded.
(MC, 8/15/02)

1519 Aug, Montezuma learned that Cortez was marching toward Tenochtitlan with an army of 300 soldiers and 2000 non-Aztec Indians. Cortez was accompanied by Malinche, his Indian mistress and interpreter.
(ON, 10/00, p.2)

1519 Sep 5, In the 2nd Battle of Tehuacingo, Mexico, Hernan Cortes faced the Tlascala Aztecs.
(MC, 9/5/01)

1519 Sep 20, Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan set out from Spain with 270 men and 5 ships on a voyage to find a western passage to the Spice Islands in Indonesia. Magellan was killed en route, but one of his ships eventually circumnavigated the world. He was first European explorer to reach the Pacific Ocean from the Atlantic by sailing through the dangerous straits below South America that now bear his name. [see Sep 20, 1520]
(V.D.-H.K.p.182)(DD-EVTT, p.41)(AP, 9/20/97)(HN, 9/20/98)

1519 Sep 21, Hans Backofen (Backoffen), German sculptor, died at about 49.
(MC, 9/21/01)

1519 Nov 7, University of Leuven condemned the teachings of Rev. Martin Luther.
(MC, 11/7/01)

1519 Nov 8, The Aztec and their leader, Moctezuma, welcomed Hernando Cortez and his 650 explorers to their capital at Tenochtitlan. Spanish adventurer Hernando Cortez and his force of about 300 Spanish soldiers, 18 horses and thousands of Mexico’s native inhabitants who had grown resentful of Aztec rule marched unmolested into Tenochtitlán, the capital city of the Aztec empire. The Aztec ruler Montezuma, believing that Cortez could be the white-skinned deity Quetzalcoatl, whose return had been foretold for centuries, greeted the arrival of these strange visitors with courtesy–at least until it became clear that the Spaniards were all too human and bent on conquest. Cortez and his men, dazzled by the Aztec riches and horrified by the human sacrifice central to their religion, began to systematically plunder Tenochtitlán and tear down the bloody temples. Montezuma’s warriors attacked the Spaniards but with the aid of Indian allies, Spanish reinforcements, superior weapons and disease, Cortez defeated an empire of approximately 25 million people by August 13, 1521.
(ATC, p.16)(SFC, 9/2/96, p.A3) (HNPD, 11/8/98)

1519 Dec, Magellan reached the Bay of the Rio de Janeiro.
(V.D.-H.K.p.182)(DD-EVTT, p.41)

1519 Corregio began painting the ceiling frescoes in the dining room of the abbess of St. Paul’s Convent in Parma.
(SFEC, 9/15/96, p.T6)

1519 Gil Vicente, Portuguese dramatist, wrote a second farce, “The Ship of Heaven.”
(TL-MB, 1988, 1988, p.11)

1519 St. George’s Chapel, Windsor, England, was completed after 46 years of work.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1519 The Chateau of Chombard was begun in France, and would take 30 years to finish.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1519 The Italian influenced medieval church at the Moscow Monastery of Peter the Metropolitan was constructed.
(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.38)

1519 Nanak (1469-1539) founded Sikhism, a combination of Hinduism and Buddhism. Sikhs revere 10 gurus. “Be in the world, but not worldly.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)(WSJ, 10/12/01, p.W17)

1519 Ulrich Zwingli initiated the Swiss Reformation with his preaching in Zurich.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1519 Martin Luther disputed with Johann Eck in the Leipzig Disputation and questioned the infallibility of the Pope.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1519 Bohemians minted silver Joachimsthalers, “thalers” for short. This was the basis for the word “dollar.”
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1519 A mass-production technique for casting brass objects was used in Italy.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1519 Cortes found the court of Moctezuma to have a ravenous appetite for turkeys. The gobblers, later served for Thanksgiving, returned to North America only after their Mexican ancestors had crossed the Atlantic twice, first to Spain and then back from England.
(Econ, 12/20/14, p.78)

1519 Prussia experienced a monetary crises.
(ON, 2/11, p.6)

1519 Domenico de Pineda, Spanish navigator, explored the Gulf of Mexico.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.11)
1519 Francisco de Montejo, a captain under Cortez, set about subjugating the Maya in Mexico.
(SSFC, 5/6/01, p.T6)
1519 In Mexico Cortes discovered a plot by some Cholulans to assassinate him and ordered some 6,000 Cholulan men executed.
(SFEC, 11/8/98, p.T10)
1519 Spanish soldiers in Mexico learned that the shipwrecked sailor Gonzalo Guerrero had drifted there in 1511. Guerrero married a Maya woman and raised the first mestizo children.
(Econ, 11/10/07, p.102)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gonzalo_Guerrero)

1519-1579 Sir Thomas Gresham, merchant prince. He was a British banker and money-changer and served as the financial agent for Elizabeth I. He ran a news service in the Netherlands to keep informed of finances there and built the Royal Exchange of London modeled on the Antwerp commodities exchange.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1519-1682 In 2015 Robert Goodwin authored “Spain: The Center of the World 1519-1682.”
(Econ, 7/25/15, p.67)

1520 Apr 6, Raphael (b.1483), [Sanzio], Italian painter (Sistine Madonna), died on his 37th birthday. His work included “The Veiled Lady” and a set of cartoons that were woven into 10 tapestries titled “The Acts of the Apostles” (1544-1557).
(WSJ, 4/11/02, p.D7)(www.abcgallery.com/R/raphael/raphaelbio.html)

1520 May 20, Hernando Cortes defeated Spanish troops sent to punish him in Mexico.
(HN, 5/20/98)

1520 Jun 15, Pope Leo the Tenth threatened to excommunicate Martin Luther if he did not recant his religious beliefs. Pope Leo X excommunicated Martin Luther by the bull Exsurge.
(AP, 6/15/00)(HT, 6/15/00)

1520 Jun 24, Montezuma, under orders by Cortez to calm his people, was showered with “stones, darts, arrows and sticks” from a jeering crowd.
(ON, 10/00, p.5)

1520 Jun 30, Montezuma II was murdered as Spanish conquistadors fled the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan during the night. Montezuma died from wounds inflicted by his people. Conquistadors under Cortez plundered gold from Aztecs.
(HN, 6/30/01)(ON, 10/00, p.5)(MC, 6/30/02)

1520 Jul 10, The explorer Cortes was driven from Tenochtitlan, Mexico, by Aztec leader Cuauhtemoc, and retreated to Tlaxcala.
(HN, 7/10/98)

1520 Jul 14, Hernando Cortes fought the Aztecs at the Battle of Otumba, Mexico.
(MC, 7/14/02)

1520 Sep 20, Magellan set sail from Spain with five ships and 265 men, on a voyage to find a western passage to the Spice Islands of Indonesia.
(MC, 11/28/01)

1520 Sep 21, Suleiman I (the Magnificent), son of Selim, became the Ottoman sultan in Constantinople. He ruled to 1566. [see Sep 30]
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(HN, 9/21/98)(Ot, 1993, xvii)

1520 Sep 22, Selim I, Sultan of Turkey (1512-20), died at 53.
(MC, 9/22/01)

1520 Sep 30, Suleiman I succeeded his father Selim I as sultan of Turkey. [see Sep 21]
(MC, 9/30/01)

1520 Oct 7, The 1st public burning of books took place in Louvain, Netherlands.
(MC, 10/7/01)

1520 Oct 15, King Henry VIII of England ordered bowling lanes at Whitehall.
(MC, 10/15/01)

1520 Oct 21, Ferdinand Magellan arrived at Tierra Del Fuego (Argentina-Chile).
(MC, 10/21/01)

1520 Oct 23, King Carlos I (1500-1558) was crowned as German emperor Charles V (1520-1558), a Holy Roman Emperor.

1520 Nov 4, Danish-Norwegian king Christian II was crowned king of Sweden.
(MC, 11/4/01)

1520 Nov 9, Swedish King Christian II executed 600 nobles.
(MC, 11/9/01)

1520 Nov 28, Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan reached the Pacific Ocean after passing through the South American strait, the straits of Magellan, and entered the “Sea of the South.”
(V.D.-H.K.p.177)(AP, 11/28/97)

1520 Dec 10, Martin Luther publicly burned the papal edict demanding that he recant, or face excommunication.
(AP, 12/10/97)

1520 Dec 18, Magellan struck out into the open sea to the northwest

1520 A 9-piece tapestry set was created for the Holy Roman Empire coronation of Belgium-born Charles V, King of Spain, titled “Los Honores.” The set was restored by Belgium in 2000 for the 500th anniversary of Charles’ birth.
(WSJ, 4/11/02, p.AD7)

1520 The funereal monuments of the Medici Chapel were commissioned by Pope Clement VII. They were done primarily by Michelangelo (1475-1564) from 1520 to 1534, being completed by his students after his departure. The four figures—dawn, day, dusk and night—are considered among the sculptor‘s most accomplished work. He left Florence in 1534, hoping to return, but spent his last years in Rome.
(HNQ, 11/15/00)

1520 Joachim Patenier painted one of the earliest industrial pictures showing a blast-furnace.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1520 Jacopo Pontormo made his red chalk body sketches.
(SFC, 2/15/97, p.D6)

1520 The book “Prester John of the Indies” was written. It was translated in 1810. Later Robert Silverberg wrote: “The Realm of Prester John” and John Buchanon wrote “Prester John.” In 1952 the French work “Le Pretre Jean” was written.
(SFEC, 12/15/96, p.C5)

1520 In Germany Jacob Fugger “The Rich” established a Roman Catholic housing settlement for the poor in Augsburg in the name of Augsburg’s local St. Ulrich. In return for cheap rent residents agreed to pray for the Fuggers’ souls.
(WSJ, 12/26/08, p.A10)
1520 The Jews of Rothenburg, Bavaria, were banished entirely and forevermore.
(NH, 9/96, p.24)

1520 The Anabaptists, Protestants who baptized believers only and not infants, grew as a movement in Switzerland, Germany and the Netherlands. Some emigrated to America and established themselves as the Amish of Lancaster, Pa.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(SFC, 7/2/98, p.A7)

1520 King Francis founded the Royal Library of France at Fontainebleu.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1520 Chocolate was brought from Mexico to Spain for the first time. [see 1502]
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1520 “Many small stars congregated… like to two clouds.” (Now known as the Large Magellanic Cloud) Thus one of Ferdinand Magellan’s crew, on the first voyage around the earth, described the southern Pacific sky on a clear night in this year.
(NG, 5/88, p.619)

1520 King Christian II of Denmark and Norway defeated a Swedish army at Lake Asunden and was crowned King of Sweden. He then renounced his offer of amnesty and massacred most of the Swedish leaders.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1520 Emperor Charles V and Henry VIII met at Dover and agreed to an Anglo-French commercial treaty.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1520 Magellan sailed around the tip of South America and renamed the South Sea as the Pacific Ocean.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1520 Scipione del Ferro, Italian mathematician, solved cubic equations for the first time.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1520 A smallpox epidemic raged in Vera Cruz, Mexico. The 16th century smallpox epidemic in Mexico and Central America killed about half of the Aztecs.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(SFEC, 1/30/00, Z1 p.2)

1520-1530 The “Shahnameh” (Persian Book of Kings), completed in 1010AD by Persian poet Firdawsi (Ferdowsi) was commissioned to be illustrated for Shah Tahmasp by more than a dozen artists. 258 miniatures were made with 750 folios of Farsi text. In 1568 it was given to the Ottoman Sultan. In 1981 Stuart Cary Welch and martin Dickinson published “The Houghton Shahnameh,” a 2-volume study.
(www.mazdapublisher.com/BookDetails.aspx?BookID=186)(WSJ, 10/13/94, p. A18,)(Econ, 4/9/11, p.95)

1520-1579 Bayazid Roshan, an Afghan intellectual, lived. He revolted against the power of the Moghul government.

1520/24-1579/80 Giovanni Battista Moroni was a Renaissance portraitist. He worked in Trent and Bergamo and then returned to his hometown of Albino.
(WSJ, 2/22/00, p.A38)

1520-1598 William Cecil. He later became the Lord Treasurer and chief adviser for Queen Elizabeth I, for which he was made Lord Burghley. He built the Burghley House.
(WSJ, 8/24/99, p.A16)

1521 Jan 3, Pope Leo X excommunicated Martin Luther from the Roman Catholic Church.
(NH, 9/96, p.18)(AP, 1/3/98)

1521 March 6, Magellan made landfall at the island of Guam in the Marianas.
(HN, 3/6/98) (V.D.-H.K.p.177-178)

1521 March 9, Magellan sailed west, southwest towards the Philippines.

1521 Mar 16, Ferdinand Magellan discovered the Philippine Islands, where he was killed by natives the following month [see Apr 27].
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_Magellan)(AP, 3/16/97)

1521 Apr 7, Inquisitor-general Adrian Boeyens banned Lutheran books.
(MC, 4/7/02)
1521 Apr 7, Ferdinand Magellan landed on Cebu Island, Philippines. Italian chronicler Antonio Pigafetta reported a thriving port with large supplies of rice and gold. In 2003 the island was a booming commercial center with a population of 4 million.
(WSJ, 10/15/03, p.B2A)

1521 Apr 16, Martin Luther arrived at Diet of Worms.
(MC, 4/16/02)

1521 Apr 17, Under the protection of Frederick the Wise, elector of Saxony, Martin Luther first appeared before Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and the Imperial Diet to face charges stemming from his religious writings. The Roman Catholic Church had already excommunicated him on Jan 3, 1521. He was later declared an outlaw by Charles V.
(NH, 9/96, p.18)(HN, 4/17/98)(AP, 4/17/07)

1521 Apr 18, Martin Luther confronted the emperor Charles V in the Diet of Worms and refused to retract his views which led to his excommunication. Cardinal Alexander questioned the Rev Martin Luther.
(HN, 4/18/99)(MC, 4/18/02)

1521 Apr 21, Martin Luther was called before an Imperial Diet in Worms. He was already accused of heresy and excommunicated by the Pope. Here he was absolved of all charges.

1521 Apr 22, French king Francois I declared war on Spain.
(MC, 4/22/02)
1521 Apr 22, Juan de Padilla, Spanish nobleman, communero-rebel, was beheaded.
(MC, 4/22/02)

1521 Apr 23, The Comuneros were crushed by royalist troops in Spain.
(HN, 4/23/99)

1521 April 27, Ferdinand Magellan (41) was killed in a fight with natives on Mactan Island. Juan Sebastian Elcano, Magellan’s second in command, returned to Spain with 18 men and one ship, the Vittorio, laden with spices. His coat of arms was augmented in reward with the inscription Primus circumdisti me: “You were the first to encircle me.” Some 50,000 Chamorro people populated the islands.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_Magellan)(AP, 4/27/99)

1521 May 8, Peter Canisius, [Pieter de Hondt/Kanijs], Jesuit, saint, was born.
(MC, 5/8/02)
1521 May 8, Emperor Charles V and the Diet issued the Edict of Worms. It banned Luther’s work and enjoined his detention, but was not able to be enforced.
(NH, 9/96, p.20)

1521 May 20, Ignatius Loyola was seriously wounded by a cannon ball.
(MC, 5/20/02)

1521 May 26, Martin Luther was banned by the Edict of Worms of because of his religious beliefs and writings.
(AP, 5/26/97)

1521 May 28, Willem van Croij (~62), duke of Soria, died.
(MC, 5/28/02)

1521 Aug 13, Spanish conqueror Hernando Cortez conquered the Mexican city of Tenochtitlan (Mexico City) after an 85-day battle. Cuauhtemoc fought against Cortes in Tlatelolco when Moctezuma surrendered. Cortez had an Indian mistress named La Malinche.
(NG, 6/1988, p.763)(AP, 8/13/97)(TL-MB, p.12)(WSJ, 8/13/97, p.A12)(WSJ, 4/24/98, p.A15)

1521 Aug 27, Josquin Des Prez, composer, died.
(MC, 8/27/02)

1521 Aug 31, Spanish conqueror Cortez (1485-1547), having captured the city of Tenochtitlan, Mexico, set it on fire. Nearly 100,000 people died in the siege and some 100,000 more died afterwards of smallpox. In 2008 Buddy levy authored “Conquistador: Hernan Cortes, King Montezuma, and the Last Stand of the Aztecs.”
(HN, 8/31/98)(WSJ, 7/10/08, p.A13)

1521 Sep 28, Turkish sultan Suleiman I’s troops occupied Belgrade.
(MC, 9/28/01)

1521 Oct 11, Pope Leo X titled King Henry VIII of England “Defender of the Faith” in recognition of his writings in support of the Catholic Church. Henry had penned a defense of the seven Catholic Sacraments in response to Martin Luther‘s Protestant reform movement. By 1534, Henry had broken completely with the Catholic Church, and the Pope‘s authority in England was abolished.
(TL-MB, p.12)(HNQ, 8/12/00)(MC, 10/11/01)

1521 Oct 24, Robert Fayrfax, composer, died at 57.
(MC, 10/24/01)

1521 Oct 25, Emperor Charles V banned wooden buildings in Amsterdam.
(MC, 10/25/01)

1521 Nov 19, Battle at Milan: Emperor Charles V’s Spanish, German, and papal troops beat France and occupied Milan. An eight year war between France and the Holy Roman Emp., Charles V, began after the French supported rebels in Spain.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(MC, 11/19/01)

1521 Nov 20, Arabs attributed a shortage of water in Jerusalem to Jews making wine.
(MC, 11/20/01)

1521 Lorenzo Lotto, Italian artist, painted the “Christ Bidding Farewell to His Mother.”
(WSJ, 1/15/98, p.A17)

1521 Suleiman I, the Ottoman Sultan, conquered Belgrade and invaded Hungary.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)
1521 Piri Reis, Ottoman cartographer, authored the Kitab-i Bahriye, or “Book of the Sea”, one of the most famous cartographical works of the period. The book gives seafarers information on the Mediterranean coast, islands, crossings, straits, and gulfs; where to take refuge in the event of a storm, how to approach the ports, and precise routes to the ports.

1521 The Chateau de Chenonceaux in the Loire Valley of France was built for the royal tax collector, Thomas Bohier. It took eight years to construct.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1521 The manufacture of silk cloth was introduced to France. It had been made in Sicily since the 1100s.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1521 Andres de Tapia, a Spanish soldier who accompanied Cortes in the conquest of Mexico, counted tens of thousands of skulls at what became known as the Huey Tzompantli in Tenochtitlan, later Mexico City. Archeologist later identified crania of women and children among the hundreds embedded in the forbidding structure.
(Reuters, 7/2/17)

1521 In Puerto Rico the Caparra colony founded by Spanish conquistadores relocated to a barrier island at the entrance of San Juan Bay.
(HT, 4/97, p.28)(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1521 The first running of the bulls was held at Pamplona, Spain. [see 1591]
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1521 Francisco de Gordillo, Spanish explorer, sailed up the American Atlantic coast to South Carolina.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1521 Ponce de Leon returned to Key Marco in southwest Florida, where he was again repulsed by the Calusa Indians and died from an arrow wound.
(AM, 11/04, p.49)

1521 Clipperton Island was originally discovered by Ferdinand Magellan in 1521, but was later named after John Clipperton, an English pirate who led a mutiny against William Dampier in 1704. Mexico occupied the island in 1897 and established a military outpost there. In 1930, the Vatican gave the rights to the King of Italy, Viktor Emanuel II, who declared one year later that Clipperton was a part of France. In 1944 US President Franklin D. Roosevelt ordered the navy to occupy the island in one of the most secret US operations of WW II. After the war it was abandoned, and has since only been visited by the French Navy and an occasional scientific or amateur radio expedition. In 1989 Jimmy M. Skaggs authored “Clipperton: A History of the Island the World Forgot.”
(NH, 12/96, p.70)(www.qsl.net/clipperton2000/history.html)

1522 Feb 7, Treaty of Brussels: Habsburgers split into Spanish and Austrian Branches.
(MC, 2/7/02)

1522 Mar 9-1522 Mar 16, Marten Luther preached his Invocavit.
(MC, 3/9/02)

1522 Apr 12, Florentine artist Piero di Cosimo (b.1462), aka Piero di Lorenzo, died of plague. His work included “Cart of Death.”
(Econ, 1/31/15, p.76)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piero_di_Cosimo)

1522 Apr 29, Emperor Charles V named Frans van Holly inquisitor-gen of Netherlands.
(MC, 4/29/02)

1522 May 25, Emperor Karel I returned to Spain.
(SC, 5/25/02)

1522 Jun 30, Johann Reuchlin (b.1455), German-born humanist, died in Stuttgart. He was the first Christian Hebraist in northern Europe.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johann_Reuchlin)(Econ, 9/10/16, p.72)

1522 Jul 5, Antonio de Nebrija (b.1441), Spanish scholar, died. His work included a Spanish grammar written in Latin. It was the first systematic treatment of a vernacular European language.
(Econ, 6/1/13, p.80)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_de_Nebrija)

1522 Aug 27, Giovanni A. Amadei (75), Amadeo, Italian sculptor, architect, died.
(MC, 8/27/02)

1522 Sep 6, Juan Sebastian Elcano (Del Cano), Magellan’s second in command, returned to Spain with 18 men and one ship, the Vittorio, laden with spices. His coat of arms was augmented in reward with the inscription: Primus circumdisti me: “You were the first to encircle me.”18 survivors of the original Magellan expedition completed the circumnavigation of the globe under Sebastian del Cano. Plumes of the bird of paradise from New Guinea were first brought back to Europe. One of the five ships that set out in Ferdinand Magellan’s trip around the world made it back to Spain. Only 15 of the original 265 men that set out survived. Magellan was killed by natives in the Philippines.
(V.D.-H.K.p.177-178)(SFEC, 11/10/96, zone 1 p.2)(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(NH, 9/96, p.8)(HN, 9/6/98)

1522 Sep 8, Spanish navigator Juan de Elcano returned to Spain. He completed the 1st circumnavigation of globe, expedition begun under Ferdinand Magellan. [see Sep 6]
(MC, 9/8/01)

1522 Oct 15, Emperor Charles named Hernan Cortes governor of Mexico.
(MC, 10/15/01)

1522 Dosso Dossi painted “Allegory of Music.”
(WSJ, 1/20/98, p.A20)

1522 Martin Luther completed his translation of the New Testament into German and returned to Wittenberg. His supporter, Ulrich Zwingli, condemned Lenten fasting and celibacy. Luther also published his Christmas Postils as preaching models for other pastors.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(WSJ, 12/21/01, p.W15)

1522 A Bible was printed in Alcala, Spain, in Hebrew, Greek, Latin and Aramaic.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1522 Adrian VI was elected Pope. He was the last non-Italian pope until John Paul II.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1522 In 2007 The book “Beyond Capricorn” said a 16th century maritime map in a Los Angeles library vault, which accurately marks geographical sites along Australia’s east coast in Portuguese, proves that Portuguese seafarer Christopher de Mendonca lead a fleet of four ships into Botany Bay in this year.
(Reuters, 3/21/07)

1522 England declared war on France and Scotland. Holy Roman Emp. Charles V visited Henry VIII and signed the Treaty of Windsor. Both monarchs agreed to invade France.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1522 Suleiman I captured Rhodes from the Knights Hospitallers of St. John. The knights surrendered after a 6-month siege. In 1530 the knights were resettled on Malta by Charles V.
(WSJ, 7/21/08, p.A11)

1522 Albrecht Durer, German artist and engraver, designed a flying machine for use in war.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1522 Guatemala was conquered by Spanish armies.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1522 A massive slave rebellion, the first of dozens, was crushed in Hispaniola.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1522 Martin Cortes (d.1569), son of Hernando Cortes, was born in Mexico to an Amerindian woman named Malinche. Cortes also named a 3rd son Martin, who was born in Spain. Both brothers were arrested in 1566 for purportedly fomenting a rebellion against the Spanish crown.
(SSFC, 7/11/04, p.M3)

1522 The Portuguese crown began administering Sao Tome.
(AP, 7/18/03)

1522 Pascual de Andagoya, Spanish explorer, became the first European to set foot in Peru.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1522 Gustavus Vasa became administrator of Sweden and pledged to free his country from Danish control.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1522-1524 Titian painted “Bacchanal of the Andrians” during this period.
(WSJ, 8/3/06, p.D5)

1523 Jun 6, [Gustav] Gustavus Vasa was elected Gustavus I of Sweden.
(HFA, ’96, p.32)(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(HN, 6/6/98)

1523 Jul 1, Hendrik Voes, Flemish priest, church reformer, was burned at stake along with John of Esschen (Jan van Essen), Flemish priest, church reformer. The 2 monks were executed in Brussels, Belgium, for refusing to recant their Lutheran beliefs.
(http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jan_van_Essen)(Econ, 12/17/11, p.94)

1523 Oct 27, English troops occupied Montalidier, France.
(MC, 10/27/01)

1523 Nov 30, Amsterdam banned the assembly of heretics.
(MC, 11/30/01)

1523 Titian painted “Bacchus and Ariadne,” a heroic mythological composition for Alfonso d’Este, Duke of Ferrara. It is now at the London National Gallery.
(TL-MB, p.12)(SFEC, 2/1/98, p.T8)

1523 Hans Holbein completed the first of several portraits of Erasmus in Basel. He also began the design of 51 plates on the “Dance of Death,” which reflected ideas of the Reformation.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(WSJ, 6/24/97, p.A20)

1523 Hans Judenkonig published in Vienna the first manual of lute playing.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1523 Anthony Fitzherbert published the “Book of Husbandry,” the first English manual of agriculture.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1523 Pope Adrian VI died and was succeeded by Pope Clement VII, nephew of Lorenzo de’ Medici. Adrian VI was the last non-Italian Pope until 1978 when Cardinal Wojtyla, Archbishop of Cracow, became Pope Paul II. Clement was pope until 1534.
(WUD, 1994, p.1691)(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(WUD, 1994, p.276)

1523 Sugar was grown in Cuba for the first time.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1523 The first turkeys were introduced to Spain and Europe from America by the conquistadors.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(SFEC, 11/24/96, p.A3)

1523 Christian II was deposed in Denmark after a civil war and was exiled. His uncle became King Frederick I of Denmark and Norway.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1523 The first marine insurance policies were issued in Florence.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1523 The Ottoman Emperor Suleiman the Magnificent successfully overcame the Knights Hospitaller, Order of St. John, from their position on the island of Rhodes in the Aegean Sea. The Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, offered the Knights the Isle of Malta. In exchange for a perpetual lease the Knights undertook to send the emperor a falcon (made famous in the mystery novel, The Maltese Falcon, and the movie of the same name) once every year as a token of their fealty. They remained there until the time of Napoleon, and became known as the Knights of Malta.
(WSJ, 12/30/94, A-6, Review of The Knights of Malta by H.J.A. Sire)

1523 Portuguese settlers were expelled from China.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1523 Sweden became independent and dropped out of the Kalmar Union, formed in 1397 with Denmark and Norway.

1523-1524 Dosso Dossi painted “Jupiter, Mercury and Virtue.”
(WSJ, 1/20/98, p.A20)

1524 Mar 19, Giovanni de Verrazano of France sighted land around area of Carolinas.
(MC, 3/19/02)

1524 Apr 17, Giovanni da Verrazano, Florentine navigator, reached present-day New York Harbor. He explored from Cape Fear to Newfoundland and discovered New York Bay and the Hudson River. He was later eaten by natives.
(TL-MB, p.12)(HN, 4/17/98)(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.26)(AP, 4/17/08)

1524 Apr 19, Pope Clemens VII fired the Netherlands inquisitor-general French Van de Holly.
(MC, 4/19/02)

1524 cApr, The Peasant’s War, in which Protestants fought against Catholics and demanded an end to feudal services and oppression by the landed gentry, broke out in Germany.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1524 Jul 26, James I became king of Scotland at age 12.
(MC, 7/26/02)

1524 Aug 19, Emperor Charles V’s troops besieged Marseille.
(MC, 8/19/02)

1524 Nov 14, Pizarro began his 1st great expedition, near Colombia.
(MC, 11/14/01)

1524 Dec 11, Henry Van Zutphen, Dutch Protestant martyr, was burned at stake.
(MC, 12/11/01)

1524 Dec 24, Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama (~55), who had discovered a sea route around Africa to India, died in Cochin, India. He had served as Viceroy in India. Gama served under the patronage of Dom Manoel and at one time burned alive 380 men, women and children.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(AP, 12/24/97)(MC, 12/24/01)(SSFC, 3/10/02, p.M3)

1524 Albrecht Durer drafted a dozen drawings of the same face on a grid. Each grid was transformed as if it were printed on a rubber graph which was then bent and twisted to distort the normal proportions. Computerized morphing only came c1990.
(MT, 10/94, p.9)

1524 Peter Bennewitz, German prof. of mathematics, produced the first textbook on theoretical geography: “Cosmographia.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1524 Jan Wynken de Worde printed Robert Wakefield’s “Oration” using Italic type for the first time in English typography.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1524 Martin Luther and Johann Walther produced jointly a German hymnal: “Geistliche Lieder.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1524 Aden became a tributary of Portugal.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1524 Hans Holbein the Elder (b. c1460), German-born artist, died in Eisenheim.

1524 Pedro de Alvarado, a lieutenant of Cortez, marched into the Guatemalan highlands. He played the local Indian tribes against one another and won a major battle fought at a river in western Guatemala against warriors of the Quiche tribe led by Tecun Uman.
(NG, 6/1988, p.790)

1524 Chevalier Bayard, commander of French forces in Lombardy, was killed and the French were driven out.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1524 Hernandez de Cordoba founded Granada, Nicaragua. The city, also known as La Gran Sultana (The Grand Sultan), is the oldest city in Central America.
(SSFC, 4/10/05, p.F4)

1524 Denmark confirmed Swedish independence under Gustavus Vasa in the Treaty of Malmo.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1524 Shah Ismail, ruler of Persia, died.

1524 Ulrich Zwingli abolished the Catholic mass in Zurich.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1524-1585 Pierre de Ronsard, established the use of the vernacular in French verse.

1524-1608 Giambologna, a sculptor from Florence.
(WSJ, 2/1/96, p.A-16)



The Fifteenth Century 1476-1499

1476 Apr 26, Simonetta Vespucci (b.~1453), nicknamed la bella Simonetta, died. She was an Italian Renaissance noblewoman from Genoa, the wife of Marco Vespucci of Florence. She also is alleged to have been the mistress of Giuliano de’ Medici, Lorenzo the Magnificent’s younger brother. She was renowned for being the greatest beauty of her age – certainly of the city of Florence.

1476 Aug 4, Jacob van Armagnac-Pardiac, French duke of Nemours, was beheaded.
(MC, 8/4/02)

1476 Aug 13, Christopher Columbus swam ashore to Portugal from a burning ship. He believed that Cathay, i.e. China, lay about 3,900 miles west of the Canary Islands.

1476 Dec 24, Some 400 Burgundy soldiers froze to death during the siege of Nancy.
(MC, 12/24/01)

1476 Dec 26, Galeazzo Maria Sforza (Il Sforza del Destino), duke of Milan, was murdered.
(MC, 12/26/01)

1476 In Burma (later Myanmar) a 270-ton bell, believed to be one of the largest ever cast, was made on the order of King Dhammazedi and donated to the revered Shwedagon pagoda. In the early 1600s, it was stolen by Portuguese despot Philip de Brito, but his rickety vessel sank where the Yangon and Bago rivers meet the Pazundaung creek.
(AP, 8/14/14)

1476 The Swiss overcame Burgundy’s Charles the Bold at the Battle of Murten.
(SSFC, 5/26/02, p.C5)

1476/1477 The first edition of Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales (1387-1400) was printed by William Caxton. A copy of the red, leather-bound edition sold at auction in 1998 for $7.5 million. In 1905 the Caxton Club in Chicago published the leaf book “William Caxton” by E. Gordon Duff. Each book contained one of 148 leaves from a Caxton 1st edition of the Canterbury Tales.
(SFC, 7/9/98, p.A12)(WSJ, 5/12/05, p.D8)

1476-1507 Cesare Borgia, Italian cardinal, military leader and politician.
(WUD, 1994, p.171)

1477 Jan 5, Swiss troops defeated the forces under Charles the Bold of Burgundy at the Battle of Nancy.
(HN, 1/5/99)

1477 Nov 18, William Claxton published the first dated book printed in England. “Dictes & Sayengis of the Phylosophers,” by Earl Rivers. It was a translation from the French. [see 1473/1474]
(HN, 11/18/99)

1477 Future Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, a member of the Habsburg family of Austria, married Mary of Burgundy, heiress of all the Netherlands. Maximilian had given Mary a diamond engagement ring, a practice that soon spread. In 1996 Andrew Wheatcroft wrote a history of the Habsburgs: “The Habsburgs.”
(WSJ, 1/19/96, p.A-12)(SFEM, 6/28/98, p.6)(SFC, 5/28/08, p.G2)

1477 The Seventeen Provinces, a personal union of states in the Low Countries in the 16th century, became the property of the Habsburgs. They roughly covered the current Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, a good part of the North of France (Artois, Nord) and a small part of Germany.

1477 Joao II (John II) served as king of Portugal for a short time when his father retired to a monastery. He succeeded his father as king in 1481.

1477-1576 Titian (Titziano Vecellio), Italian painter. He painted “Venus and Adonis and Allegory” with subjects Alfonso d’Este and Laura Diante.
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1488)

1478 Feb 7, Sir Thomas Moore (d.1535), English humanist, statesman and writer, was born in London. He was best friend of Erasmus, and called by Erasmus: “a man for all seasons.” He studied law and rose to the post of lord chancellor after the fall of Cardinal Wolsey. More would not accept Henry VIII’s divorce from Catherine of Aragon nor his subsequent marriage to Anne Boleyn. The king had charges of treason filed and More was beheaded on July 6, 1535. He was canonized in 1935. The 1966 film “A man for All Seasons” was based on his life. He is famous for “Utopia.”
(V.D.-H.K.p.160)(CU, 6/87)(WUD, 1994, p.931)(HN, 2/7/99)

1478 Feb 18, George, the Duke of Clarence, who had opposed his brother Edward IV, was murdered in the Tower of London. George underwent forced drowning in a wine barrel (“A butt of Malmsey”).
(HN, 2/18/99)(MC, 2/18/02)

1478 Apr 26, Pazzi conspirators attacked Lorenzo de’Medici but killed Giuliano de’Medici (~24), Medeheerser of Florence.
(HN, 4/26/98)(MC, 4/26/02)

1478 Sandro Botticelli (1445-1510) painted “La Primavera” about this time.
(WSJ, 4/14/07, p.P11)

c1478 Giorgione (d.1510), Italian painter, was born.
(T&L, 10/80, p. 58)(WSJ, 12/4/97, p.A20)

1478 Ten years after the death of Skanderbeg, his citadel at Kruje was finally taken by the Ottoman Turks and Albania fell into obscurity during several centuries of Turkish rule.
(HNQ, 10/5/98)(www, Albania, 1998)

1478 In Japan the Onin War ended after rival warlords died of natural causes. Shogun Yoshimasa disinherited his brother and abdicated in favor of his son.
(ON, 7/01, p.5)

1478 Russia’s Ivan the Great destabilized territory under the control of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania much of which later became Ukraine. The policy was designed to encourage people living along the frontier to seek Muscovy’s protection.
(Econ, 9/20/14, p.16)

1478 The Swiss began annexing the southern approaches to the strategic and lucrative St. Gothard Pass over the Alps.
(SFEC, 6/14/98, p.T4)

1478-1483 The Gubbio Studiola was constructed in the shop of the Florentine woodworker Giuliano da Maiana. The wood inlay art of intarsia was used whereby the carving was done by knife rather than with saws. It was purchased by the NY Metropolitan in 1939.
(WSJ, 6/6/96, p.A12)

1478-1529 Baldassare Castiglione, Italian diplomat and author. He wrote the “Book of the Courtier,” in which the term sprezzatura was coined. It described the art of making the difficult seem effortless.
(WUD, 1994, p.230)(WSJ, 8/22/97, p.A12)

1478?-1533? Jan Gossaert (Mabuse), Flemish painter. He painted “St Luke Drawing the Virgin Mary.”
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.858)

1479 Mar 26, Vasili III, great prince of Moscow (1505-33), son of Ivan III, was born.
(SS, 3/26/02)

1479 Sep 4, After four years of war, Spain agreed to allow a Portuguese monopoly of trade along Africa’s west coast and Portugal acknowledged Spain’s rights in the Canary Islands.
(HN, 9/4/98)

1479 Nov 6, Johanna, the Insane, Queen of Castilia (1504-20), was born.
(MC, 11/6/01)

1479 Shkodra fell to the Ottoman Turks. Subsequently, many Albanians fled to southern Italy, Greece, Egypt, and elsewhere; many remaining were forced to convert to Islam.
(www, Albania, 1998)

1479 Gentile Bellini (1429-1507), Italian artist, was selected by the Venetian Republic to work at the court of the Ottoman sultan, Mehmed II, in Istanbul.
(WSJ, 12/20/05, p.D8)

1479 In Bosnia the Turks erected a mosque in the center of Banja Luka. It was leveled by the Serbs in 1993.
(WSJ, 8/26/98, p.A1)

1479 Venice signed a peace treaty with Ottoman Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror (1432-1481) ending 16 years of war.
(WSJ, 3/16/06, p.D8)(www.fsmitha.com/h3/h13zt.htm)

1479 Jorge Manrique (b.1440), Spanish military hero and poet, died.
(SSFC, 9/3/06, p.M3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jorge_Manrique)

1480 Feb 13, Hieronymus Alexander, [Girolamo Aleandro], Italian diplomat, cardinal, was born.
(MC, 2/13/02)

1480 Apr 18, Lucretia Borgia (d.1519), murderess, was born. Lucrezia Borgia, Duchess of Ferrara, was the daughter of Pope Alexander VI, and the sister and political pawn of Cesare Borgia. She was also considered a patroness of the arts.
(HN, 4/18/98)(WUD, 1994, p.171)

1480 Giovanni Bellini painted “St. Francis in the Desert.”
(WSJ, 1/14/00, p.W12)

1480 Sandro Botticelli painted “The Birth of Venus.”
(WSJ, 2/5/97, p.A16)

1480 Bartolomeo Saachi de Platina had a cookbook printed titled: “De honesta voluptate et valetudine.” In 1997 it was valued at $37,000.
(SFC, 2/19/96, zz-1 p.2)

1480 In Hamburg a pioneering labor market appeared for hiring day workers.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1480 In Italy 813 people were slain in Otranto for defying demands by Turkish invaders to renounce Christianity. In 2013 the “Martyrs of Otranto” were canonized as saints by Pope Francis.
(AP, 5/12/13)

1480 The Spanish Inquisition was introduced by Ferdinand and Isabella to enable the crown to control the inquiries into whether or not converted Jews were really secret “Judaizers” who kept their original faith. “The Spanish Inquisition,” a history of the Inquisition was written by Henry Kamen and a new edition was published in 1998.
(WSJ, 4/16/98, p.A1)

1480-1520 In France the fortress at Bonaguil in the Quercy province was built by a baron as a bulwark against his vassals.
(SFEC, 7/11/99, p.T4)

1480-1521 Ferdinand Magellan, Portuguese navigator. He was assigned the task of finding a route to the Spice Islands.

1480-1533 A huge Inca cemetery was active in Lima at this time. It was uncovered in 2002 with some 2,200 mummies.
(SFC, 4/18/02, p.A4)

1480-1538 Albrecht Altdorfer, German painter. He painted “Martyrdom of St. Florian.” He also painted a depiction of Alexander’s 333BC defeat of Darius at Issus.
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.43)(WSJ, 5/15/98, p.W11)

1480-1557 Lorenzo Lotto, Italian painter, celebrated as a realist and a man of religious fervor.
(WSJ, 1/15/98, p.A17)

1481 Mar 2, Franz von Sickingen, German knight, was born.
(SC, 3/2/02)

1481 Aug 29, Joao II (John II) became king of Portugal.

1481 Aug 30, Two Latvian monarchs were executed for conspiracy to murder Polish king Kazimierz IV.
(MC, 8/30/01)

1481 Sandro Botticelli painted “The Annunciation.”
(SFC, 10/7/03, p.D8)

1481 Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II died at age 60. Kritovoulos authored “History of Mehmet the Conqueror” in the 15th century.
(ON, 10/00, p.12)

1481-1512 Beyazid II followed Mehmed II in the Ottoman House of Osman.
(Ot, 1993, xvii)

1481-1530 In Spain the first burnings of 8 people occurred as a result of the Inquisition trials. Over this period some 2000 people were burned.
(WSJ, 4/16/98, p.A20)

1482 Sep 1, Krim-Tataren plundered Kiev.
(MC, 9/1/02)

1482 The border town of Berwick-upon-Tweed ended up in English hands after changing hands 13 times in wars between England and the Scots.
(WSJ, 7/8/08, p.A14)

1482 A Milanese Duke commissioned Leonardo da Vinci to make an equine statue that would have been the largest in the world. A clay cast was made over 16 years but the appropriated bronze was used for cannons and the clay cast was destroyed when the Duke’s castle fell to French invaders.
(Hem., 12/96, p.19)
1482 Luca della Robbia (b.1400), Italian artist, died. Luca developed the art of enameled relief sculpture. Andrea della Robbia (1435-1525), his nephew and student, continued the work.
(SFC, 11/23/05, p.G2)

1482 In Ghana Elmina Castle was built by Portuguese traders. It later became a slave holding castle.
(SFEC, 11/22/98, p.T10)

1482 Captain Diogo Cao sailed south along the African coast and became the first Portuguese sailor to reach the equator. He4 landed at the mouth of the Zaire (Congo) River. He left four servants and took four Africans hostage back to his king, John, in Portugal. This was the first European encounter with the vast kingdom of the Kongo.
(ATC, p.149)(ON, 11/07, p.1)

1482 The Ginkaku Temple, also known as the Silver Pavilion was built in Kyoto, Japan. The Shogun who built it died before its completion and it remains without silver.
(Hem., 2/96, p.58)

1483 Feb 14, Zahir al-Din Mohammed Babur Shah, prince, founder Mughal dynasty in India (1526-30), was born.
(MC, 2/14/02)

1483 Apr 6, Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio, d.1520), Dutch painter (Sistine Madonna), was born to an unremarkable painter in the Duchy of Urbino. He went on to paint famous works in the Vatican. After an apprenticeship in Perugia, he went to Florence, having heard of the work da Vinci and Michelangelo were doing. His last 12 years were spent on numerous commissions in Rome. He died on his 37th birthday, his funeral mass being celebrated in the Vatican. .
(HN, 4/6/98)(HNQ, 11/17/00)

1483 Apr 9, Edward IV (b.1442), King of England (1461-70, 71-83) died. His young sons, Edward and Richard, were left in the protection of their uncle Richard, Duke of Gloucester. He housed them in the Tower of London where they were probably murdered on his orders.

1483 Jun 25, Edward V, king of England (Apr 9-Jun 25, 1483), was murdered.
(MC, 6/25/02)

1483 Jun 26, Richard III, Duke of Gloucester, usurped himself to the English throne.
(HN, 6/26/98)(MC, 6/26/02)

1483 Jul 6, England’s King Richard III was crowned.
(AP, 7/6/97)

1483 Aug 9, Pope Sixtus IV celebrated the first mass in the Sistine Chapel, which was named in his honor.
(HN, 8/9/98)

1483 Oct 17, The Reverend Dr. Tomas de Torquemada, OP, was appointed inquisitor-general of Spain.
(MC, 10/17/01)

1483 Nov 2, Henry Stafford (b.1454), earl of Buckingham and constable of England, was beheaded at Salisbury for his rebellion against King Richard III (1452-1485).
(DoW, 1999, p.71)

1483 Nov 10, Martin Luther, leader of the Protestant Reformation, was born in Eisleben, Germany. He was a monk in the Catholic Church until 1517, when he founded the Lutheran Church. He died in 1546.
(V.D.-H.K.p.163)(Voruta #27-28, Jul 1996, p.10)(SFC, 7/21/97, p.A11)(AP, 11/10/97)

1483 Dec 24, Leaders of the English rebels swore fealty to Henry Tudor in the Cathedral of Rennes in Brittany.
(ON, 12/06, p.1)

1483 Felice della Rovere (d.1536), illegitimate daughter of Pope Julius II (r.1503-1513), was born about this time. Her mother was a member of the Normanni, an illustrious Roman family long in decline. In 2005 Caroline P. Murphy authored “The Pope’s Daughter: The Extraordinary Life of Felice della Rovere.”

1483 Felice della Rovere (d.1536), illegitimate daughter of Pope Julius II (r.1503-1513), was born about this time. Her mother was a member of the Normanni, an illustrious Roman family long in decline. In 2005 Caroline P. Murphy authored “The Pope’s Daughter: The Extraordinary Life of Felice della Rovere.”

1483 When King Vladislav restored Catholic dominion, a dissident band of Hussites threw the Catholic mayor [Prague?] out of the window.
(NH, 9/96, p.24)

1483-1505 Trithemius, author and monk, served as the abbot of a Benedictine monastery. His work included “De Laude Scriptorium” (In Praise of Scribes).
(SSFC, 2/22/04, p.M6)

1484 Mar 4, Casimir (Kazimierz), the son of Lithuania’s Grand Duke Casimir, died in Grodno at age 25. In 1602 he was declared a saint and protector of Lithuania. St. Casimir was born Oct 3, 1458, in Cracow.
(LHC, 3/4/03)

1484 Aug 12, Pope Sixtus IV died. His rule was marked by nepotism and he was involved in a conspiracy to overthrow the Medici in Florence.
(PTA, 1980, p.420)

1484 Aug 29, Cardinal Cibo was crowned as Pope Innocent VIII.

1484 Dec 5, Pope Innocent VIII issued a bull deploring the spread of witchcraft and heresy in Germany. He ordered that all cats belonging to witches scheduled to be burned, be also burned. Kraemer and Sprenger, two Dominican friars, had induced Pope Innocent VIII to issue a bull authorizing them to extirpate witchcraft in Germany. [see 1486]
(SFEC, 1/5/97, Z1 p.2)(HN, 12/5/98)(HNQ, 10/31/99)

1484 Bartolomeo di Giovanni Corradini, Italian painter who joined the Dominican order as Fra Carnevale, died.
(Econ, 12/11/04, p.82)

1484-1768 The Nepalese city-states of Kathmandu, Patan and Bhaktapur, were each ruled by its own Malla king after the Malla dynasty divided up the Kathmandu Valley.
(SSFC, 9/21/03, p.C8)

1485 Aug 1, Henry (VII) Tudor’s army set sail from Harfleur to Wales.
(ON, 12/06, p.1)

1485 Aug 7, Henry (VII) Tudor’s army landed in Milford Haven, South-Wales.
(ON, 12/06, p.1)

1485 Aug 22, Henry Tudor defeated Richard III (32) at Bosworth. England’s King Richard III (1483-1485), the last of the Plantagenet kings, was killed in the Battle of Bosworth. This victory established the Tudor dynasty in England and ended the War of the Roses. 12 miles west of Leicester, the forces of Richard III met the forces under Henry Tudor (later to become Henry VII). Henry Tudor had returned from French exile on August 7 at Milford Haven and assembled forces including two Yorkist defectors, Thomas Stanley and his brother Sir William. These allies, plus the defection of Henry Percy, the 4th earl of Northumberland helped decide the outcome of the battle. Richard, whose forces had taken position on Ambien Hill, died fighting in an attempt to get at Henry Tudor himself. On Feb 4, 2013, scientists announced that they had identified his skeleton, which was found in a car park in 2012.
(AP, 8/22/97)(HN, 8/22/98)(HNQ, 8/22/00)(Reuters, 2/4/13)

1485 Sep 3, Henry Tudor entered London following his Aug 22 victory at Bosworth.
(ON, 12/06, p.4)

1485 Oct 30, Henry Tudor (1457-1509) of England was crowned as Henry VII. This followed his defeat of King Richard III at Bosworth Field on Aug 22.
(HN, 10/30/98)(DoW, 1999, p.66)

1485 Dec 16, Katherine of Argon, first wife of Henry VIII, was born.
(HN, 12/16/98)

1485 Sandro Botticelli (1445-1510) painted “Venus and Mars” about this time.
(WSJ, 6/16/07, p.P16)

1485 William Caxton, the first printer in Britain, published “Le Morte Darthur” by Sir Thomas Mallory (c1400-1471).
(WUD, 1994, p.868)(SFC, 2/15/97, p.D1)

1485 The medical encyclopedia “Gart der Gesundheit” described the female mandrake, thought to stop bleeding, and to scream when pulled by its roots.
(WSJ, 7/7/98, p.A14)

1485 Yeoman Warders, all men, began patrolling the parapets and passages of the Tower of London. They became known colloquially as Beefeaters because of the rations of meat they were given during medieval times. In 2007 the 1st woman joined their ranks.
(AP, 1/3/07)

1485 Diogo Cao, Portuguese explorer, sailed south beyond Cape Palmas, beyond Cape St. Catherine, until he reached Cape Cross (Namibia) at 22’ south latitude. His expedition returned to Portugal in 1486.
(V.D.-H.K.p.124)(ATC, p.149)(ON, 11/07, p.1)

1485-1545 Jean Clouet, French painter. He painted “Francis I, King of France.”
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.280)

1485-1547 Hernando Cortes, Spanish conqueror of Mexico. He is credited with naming California after an island in “Sergas de Esplandian,” a popular romance in the early 1500s.
(HFA, ’96, p.65)

1485-1603 The Tudor family ruled over England.
(WUD, 1994, p.1523)

1486 Jan 18, King Henry VII (1457-1509) married Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV. This ended the Wars of the Roses.
(HN, 1/18/99)(ON, 12/06, p.4)

1486 Feb 12, In Toledo, Spain, some 750 lapsed Christians were paraded through the streets of Toledo from the Church of San Pedro Martir to the cathedral in order to be reconciled to the Christian faith. In the Auto Da Fe at Toledo the Jews were forced to recant, fined 1/5 of their property and permanently forbidden to wear decent clothes or hold office.
(SSFC, 11/13/05, p.M3)(www.jewishhistory.org.il/1480.htm)

1486 Mar 4, Jogaila was crowned king of Poland.
(LC, 1998, p.12)

1486 May 1, Christopher Columbus convinced Queen Isabella to fund expedition to the West Indies.
(HN, 5/1/98)

1486 Jul 14, Andrea del Sarto (d.1531), aka Vanucchi or di Francesco, Italian Renaissance artist (Recollets), was born. He represented what Vasari called the terza maniera, the third or modern manner of painting.
(WUD, 1994, p.55)(WSJ, 10/29/96, p.A21)(MC, 7/14/02)

1486 Sep 14, Heinrich Agrippa von Nettesheim (d.1535), German occultist, alchemist, royal astrologer, was born in Cologne.

1486 Pico Mirandola challenged the scholars of all of Europe that he would defend a list of nine hundred thesis drawn from various Greek, Latin, Hebrew, and Arabic authors. His list came to the attention of the Vatican, which found thirteen of the theses heretical. Pico was stunned and issued an immediate recantation but was imprisoned for a short time anyway. Later in Florence he wrote “On the Dignity of Man,” where he implied that man is the spiritual center of the universe, or that perhaps he is one focus and God the other.

1486 Heinrich Kraemer and Johann Sprenger, Dominican friars, published Malleus melefircarum (The Witches’ Hammer), which became the authoritative encyclopedia of demonology throughout Christendom. The authority of their work, which was a synthesis of folk beliefs that had until then been manifested in local outbursts of witch finding, lasted through the European witch craze of the next three centuries. [see 1486, Dec 5]
(HNQ, 10/31/99)

1486 King Joao II of Portugal chose Bartolomeu Dias (~1450-1500 to attempt to find a route to India around Africa. Diaz departed with 3 ships in the fall of 1487.
(ON, 11/07, p.2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bartolomeu_Dias)

1487 Jun 16, Battle at Stoke: Henry VII beat John de la Pole & Lord Lovell.
(MC, 6/16/02)

1487 Aug, Bartolomeu Dias, Portuguese explorer, set out from Lisbon in August, and sailed south to the Cape Verde Islands and past Cape Cross. Storms forced him out to sea and when the winds moderated he continued east but found nothing. He turned north and then sighted land.

1487 Sep 10, Julius III, Italian counter-Reformation Pope (1550-1555), was born. He was also a poet and promoted the Jesuits.
(WUD, 1994, p.773)(HN, 9/10/98)(MC, 9/10/01)

1487 Hans Memling (c.1440-1494), Flemish painter, painted the diptych “Virgin and Child” and “Maarten van Nieuwenhove” (1463-1500), who was his patron.
(SFC, 10/18/05, p.D2)(SFC, 12/23/06, p.E12)

1487 Heinrich Kramer and Jacob Sprenger, Dominican inquisitors, authored “Malleus Maleficarum” (The Hammer of Witches), which spoke of supernatural horrors that witches performed and provided advice on identifying them. In 2006 Christopher Mackay provided a critical translation in English.
(WSJ, 1/19/08, p.W8)

1487 Lorenzo the Magnificent ordered a giraffe from Africa and a cardinal’s hat for his 13-year-old son from Pope Innocent VIII. In return for the hat Lorenzo promised the hand of his eldest daughter for the Pope’s illegitimate son along with a nice loan. The giraffe was procured from Sultan Qaitbay, the Ottoman ruler of Egypt. Pope Innocent promised to get Queen Anne of France to hand over Djem, the exiled brother of Qaitbay, for use as a pawn. Lorenzo promised to give the giraffe to Anne. In 2006 the story was covered by Marina Belozerskaya in her book “The Medici Giraffe.”
(WSJ, 8/19/06, p.P9)

1488 Jan, Bartolomeu Dias, Portuguese explorer, rounded Africa’s southern cape and put to shore to take on food and water. There he found a group of smaller and lighter-skinned Africans, commonly known as the San, who chased his men back with arrows.
(Econ 7/22/17, p.66)

1488 Feb 3, Bartolomeu Dias, Portuguese explorer, sighted the coast of Africa sailing north and made landing at Mossel Bay (South Africa) and realized that they had rounded the continent. He saw the southern tip on his return journey in May and named it Cabo Tormentoso (Cape of Storms). He continued north to the Great Fish River near present day Port Elizabeth, and then returned home in December. King Jaoa changed the cape’s name to Cape of Good Hope to encourage future explorers.
(V.D.-H.K.p.173)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bartolomeu_Dias)(ON, 11/07, p.2)

1488 Jun 11, James III, king of Scotland, died in the battle of Sauchieburn, Scotland.
(SC, 6/11/02)(PC, 1992, p.157)

1488 Oct 7, Andrea del Verrocchio, sculptor, painter, goldsmith, died at 52.
(MC, 10/7/01)

1489 Feb 14, Henry VII and Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I ally to assist the Bretons in the Treaty of Dordrecht.

1489 Apr 6, Hans Waldmann, Swiss military, mayor (Zurich), was beheaded.
(MC, 4/6/02)

1489 Jul 2, Thomas Cranmer, first Protestant archbishop of Canterbury (1533-1556), was born.
(HN, 7/2/01)

1489 Giuliano da Sangallo made his wooden model of the Strozzi palace in Florence.
(Econ, 3/30/13, p.83)

1489 A sculpture St. George and the Dragon, created by Bernt Notke, was unveiled in Stockholm, Sweden. He composed the dragon entirely of elk horns.
(SSFC, 8/19/07, p.G4)

1489-1490 The plague ravaged the Netherlands.
(WSJ, 10/12/98, p.A17)

1490 Mar 23, 1st dated edition of Maimonides “Mishna Torah” was published.
(SS, 3/23/02)

1490 Apr 6, Matthias Corvinus (b.1443), king of Hungary and Croatia (1458-1590), died. He has assembled one of Europe’s finest libraries, 2nd in size only to that in the Vatican. When Hungary later fell to the Turks the library was lost. In 2008 Marcus Tanner authored “The Raven King: Matthias Corvinus and the Fate of His Lost Library.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matthias_Corvinus_of_Hungary)(Econ, 7/19/08, p.93)

1490 Francois Rabelais (d.1553), French physician, satirist and humorist, was born. [see 1494]
(WUD, 1994, p.1183)(V.D.-H.K.p.143)(SSFC, 2/10/02, p.G5)

1490 Leonardo da Vinci painted “Lady with an Ermine” about this time. It featured Cecilia Gallerani (1473-1536), the favorite mistress of Lodovico Sforza, the Duke of Milan.
(Econ, 10/29/11, IL p.27)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lady_with_an_Ermine)

1490 In Venice the Aldine Press opened and went on to publish the first pocket editions of poetry and Greek classics.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1490 A version of the legal handbook “Statham’s Abridgement” was printed. A copy later became part of the collection of the SF law library and was stolen by a city bookbinder. The text is classed as part of the “incunabula,” or books printed in the first 50 years after the introduction of movable type by Gutenberg in 1450.
(SFC, 5/15/97, p.A26)

1490 Anne of Brittany married by proxy the recently widowed Maximilian of Hapsburg who had inherited Burgundy and Flanders from his first wife. Brittany was under siege by France and Maximilian failed to send troops in its defense. Anne had her marriage annulled and married the French Dauphin who had been engaged to marry Margaret of Austria, the daughter of Maximilian and Mary of Burgundy. Anne’s portrait was later painted by Jan Mostaert
(WSJ, 7/30/97, p.A13)

1490 Christopher Columbus was permitted to make his proposal to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain. He asked to be made a noble with eternal title in the family, and to receive 10% commission on all transactions from his found domain. He was initially turned down and left for France and England, but was then called back and his requests were met.

1490 Linz became the capital of the province of Upper Austria.
(StuAus, April ’95, p.39)

1490 Ashikaga Yoshimasa (55), former Shogun of Japan (1449-1478), died.
(ON, 7/01, p.5)

1490 The Portuguese king sent teachers and missionaries to Mani-Kongo in southwest Africa. Mani-Kongo converted to Christianity and later his son became king with the Christian name of Affonso I.
(ATC, p.152)

1490-1491 Chinese, Japanese, and Korean astronomers reported a bright comet for 48 nights during the mid-winter weeks of these 2 years. An Italian astronomer again saw its sunlit debris in 1825 and it became known as the Quadrantid meteor shower. It was later cataloged as 2003EH_1. In 2003 it was related to a star explosion over 500 million earlier.
(SFC, 12/31/03, p.A2)

c1490s Muslims of the Songhai Empire in West Africa supported Askia Muhammad, who overthrew Sunni Ali’s son, and declared Islam the state religion. Songhai grew and expanded to become the greatest trade empire of West Africa.
(ATC, p.121)

c1490s Civil wars weakened Monomutapa in East Africa and by the 1500s the empire was split in two.
(ATC, p.148)

c1490s The Medici went bankrupt.
(Wired, 8/96, p.118)

1490-1495 Tullio Lombardi created his sculpture “Adam.”
(WSJ, 5/18/00, p.A24)

1490-1500 Hieronymus Bosch, Dutch artist, painted “Christ Mocked (The Crowning With Thorns).”
(WSJ, 6/19/00, p.A42)

1490-1700 This period was covered in 2003 by Diarmaid MacCulloch in the book “Reformation: Europe’s House Divided 1490-1700.”
(Econ, 12/13/03, p.82)

1491 Jun 28, Henry VIII, King of England (1509-1547) and founder of the Church of England, was born at Greenwich. He later divorced four times. An inventory of his wealth in 1547 estimated his wealth at £300,000 and his military equipment at another £300,000.
(CFA, ’96, p.48)(AP, 6/28/99)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1491 Nov 15, 6 Jews and 5 Conversos (Jews who pretend to be Catholic converts) were accused of killing Christians in La Guardia, Spain.
(MC, 11/15/01)

1491 Dec 24, Ignatius Loyola (d.1556), Spanish soldier and ecclesiastic, was born. He founded the Society of Jesus, i.e. the Jesuits, wrote Spiritual Exercises, and introduced a new flexibility that enabled a worldwide ministry.
(CFA, ’96, p.60)(CU, 6/87)

1491 Perkin Warbeck appeared in Ireland and claimed to be the missing Duke of York, thought by many to have been murdered by Richard III. After winning support in France and Scotland, Warbeck’s fortunes turned and he was captured and executed in 1497.
(HNQ, 4/17/02)

1491 William Caxton (b.1422), 1st English printer (Histories of Troy), died.
(http://tinyurl.com/cj5dn)(WSJ, 5/12/05, p.D8)

1491 Pietro Roccabonella, doctor of medicine and lecturer at the Univ. of Padua, died.
(SFEC, 2/15/98, BR p.8)

1491 In Russia the Spasskaya Tower was built in Moscow. It was designed by Italian architect Pietro Antonio Solairi, who was hired by Ivan III. In 1935 the Soviet government installed a red star instead of a two-headed eagle atop the 233-foot Red Square tower.
(SFC, 11/7/15, p.A2)

1492 Jan 2, Boabdil, the leader of the last Arab stronghold in Spain surrendered to Spanish forces loyal to King Ferdinand II and Queen Isabella I. Sultan Muhammad XI surrendered, ending Muslin rule in Spain. The combined Catholic forces of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile drove out the last of the Berbers from Spain. The Moors were expelled. King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella took the town of Grenada, the last Moslem kingdom in Spain. The event became marked by an annual festival that began around 1516.
(ATC, p.73,100)(AP, 1/2/98)(SFEC, 3/22/98, p.T11)(HN, 1/2/99)(WSJ, 1/2/02, p.A6)(SSFC, 1/27/02, p.C20)

1492 Jan 23, “Pentateuch,” a Jewish holy book, was first printed.
(MC, 1/23/02)

1492 Mar 30, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella signed a decree expelling all Jews from Spain. Jews numbered about 80,000 and it was estimated that about half chose to convert. [see Mar 31]
(HN, 3/30/98)(WSJ, 4/16/98, p.A20)

1492 Mar 31, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain issued an edict expelling Jews from Spanish soil, except those willing to convert to Christianity. In 2002 Claudia Roden authored “The Ornament of the World,” a collection of stories of Sephardic Jews in Spain from 750 to 1492. [see Mar 30]
(AP, 3/30/97)(WSJ, 4/26/02, p.W12)

1492 Apr 8, Lorenzo I de’ Medici (“il Magnifico”), ruler of Florence (1469-92), died.
(MC, 4/8/02)

1492 Apr 17, A contract was signed by Christopher Columbus and a representative of Spain’s King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, giving Columbus a commission to seek a westward ocean passage to find the Indies [to Asia].
(AP, 4/17/97)(HN, 4/17/98)

1492 Apr 30, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella granted Christopher Columbus specific privileges and prerogatives regarding the discovery and conquest of islands and a continent in the (western) ocean.
(DAH, 1946, p.1)

1492 May 15, Cheese and Bread rebellion: German mercenaries killed 232 Alkmaarse.
(MC, 5/15/02)

1492 Jun 16, Jan Coppenhole, Flemish rebel leader, was beheaded.
(MC, 6/16/02)

1492 Aug 2, Jews were expelled from Spain by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella. [see Mar 31]
(MC, 8/2/02)

1492 Aug 3, Christopher Columbus, set sail from the port of Palos, in southern Spain and headed for Cipangu, i.e. Japan. The voyage took him to the present-day Americas. His squadron consisted of three small ships, the Santa Maria, the Pinta, and the Nina. The 2nd ship was owned by Cristóbal Quintero, and was named Pinta. The 3rd ship was owned by Juan Niño, and was named the Santa Clara, but became known by its nickname, the Nina.
(http://tinyurl.com/774v3)(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.23)(SFEC, 8/8/99, Z1 p.8)

1492 Aug 11, Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia Lanzol (61), father of Cesare and Lucretia, became Pope Alexander VI (d.1503). He siphoned off untold riches from Church funds. Borgia arrived in Rome from Spain in 1449 and Italianized his name from Borja to Borgia. His rise in the church was helped a great deal when his uncle became Pope Calixtus III.
(HN, 8/10/98)(PTA, p.424)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R4)(MC, 8/11/02)

1492 Sep 6, Columbus’ fleet sailed from Gomera, Canary islands.

1492 Sep 25, Crew members aboard one of Christopher Columbus’ ships, the Pinta, shouted that they could see land, but it turned out to be a false sighting.
(AP, 9/25/99)

1492 Oct 7, Columbus changed course to the southwest. As a result he missed Florida.

1492 Oct 11, Rodrigo de Triana, a sailor on the Pinta, sighted land (the Bahamas) on the horizon.

1492 Oct 12, (Old Style calendar; Oct. 21 New Style), Christopher Columbus sited land, an island of the Bahamas which he named San Salvador, but which was called Guanahani by the local Taino people. Seeking to establish profitable Asian trade routes by sailing west, Columbus seriously underestimated the size of the Earth–never dreaming that two great continents blocked his path to the east. Even after four voyages to America, Columbus believed until the end of his life in 1506 that he had discovered an isolated corner of Asia.
(NH, 10/96, p.22)(AP, 10/12/97)(HNPD, 10/12/98)(http://tinyurl.com/774v3)
1492 Oct 12, Pierro della Francesca (b.1415), Tuscany-born artist, died in Florence. He was later called the Father of the Renaissance. His work included “Virgin and Child Enthroned with Four Angels.”
(Econ, 2/16/13, p.82)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piero_della_Francesca)

1492 Oct 16, Columbus’ fleet anchored at “Fernandina” (Long Island, Bahamas).

1492 Oct 17, Columbus sighted the isle of San Salvador (Watling Island, Bahamas).

1492 Oct 19, Columbus sighted “Isabela” (Fortune Island, Bahamas).

1492 Oct 21, Columbus landed on San Salvador Island (Bahamas-Watling Island).

1492 Oct 26, Columbus’ fleet anchored on Ragged Island Range, Bahamas.
(MC, 10/26/01)
1492 Oct 26, Lead pencils were 1st used.
(MC, 10/26/01)

1492 Oct 28, Christopher Columbus discovered Cuba and claimed it for Spain.

1492 Nov 5, Christopher Columbus learned of maize (corn) from the Indians of Cuba.
(MC, 11/5/01)

1492 Nov 7, A meteorite landed in Ensisheim, Germany. Emperor Maximilian visited Ensisheim 15 days after the fall and ordered that the Ensisheim meteorite be preserved in the local church. A piece of the stone was put up for auction in 2007.
(www.meteorite.fr/en/basics/history.htm)(Econ, 10/27/07, p.96)

1492 Nov 15, Christopher Columbus noted the 1st recorded reference to tobacco.
(MC, 11/15/01)

1492 Nov 21, Pinta under Martin Pinzon separated from Columbus’ fleet.
(MC, 11/21/01)

1492 Dec 5, Columbus discovered Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic).

1492 Dec 24-1492 Dec 25, The Santa Maria under Columbus ran aground on a reef off Espanola on Christmas eve, and sank the next day. With the remains of the Santa Maria, Columbus built a fort and called it La Navidad. About two dozen crew members were left behind.
(http://tinyurl.com/dfzzk)(SFC, 10/6/14, p.A2)

1492 Dec 31, 100,000 Jews were expelled from Sicily.
(MC, 12/31/01)

c1492 Andrea Montegna, Italian painter, created his “Descent Into Limbo,” a depiction of Christ descending into limbo to liberate the souls of the righteous. In 2003 the work sold for $28 million.
(SFC, 1/24/03, p.D2)

c1492 Research in 2003 indicated that the Kuikuro people in the Amazon basin had a “complex and sophisticated” civilization with a population of many thousands prior to 1492.
(AP, 9/19/03)

1492 Leonardo da Vinci drew a flying machine.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)
1492 Piero della Francesca (b.1415/1420), Italian artist, died. His work included “The Virgin and child with Saints, angels and Federigo da Montefeltro” (1472-1474).
(WSJ, 2/2/08, p.W14)

1492 Jews began arriving in Morocco after their expulsion from Spain.
(SFEC, 7/25/99, p.T11)

c1492 In Portugal about this time King Manuel I, bedazzled by the Moorish tiles at the Alhambra in Spain, brought home enough to decorate his palace in Sintra.
(SFEC, 4/26/98, p.T6)

1492 Sephardic Jews were welcomed by the Ottoman Empire after their expulsion from Spain.
(SFEC, 3/28/99, p.T4)

1492-1870 Some 11 million African people were brought to the New World as slaves during this period.
(SFEC, 11/16/97, BR p.4)

1493 Jan 2, Columbus departed La Navidad, Hispaniola, and sailed eastward along the coast.

1493 Jan 4, Ivan III, Grand Duke of Moscow, announced the 1st war with Lithuania. In fact the war had begun in 1487.
(LHC, 1/4/03)

1493 Jan 6, Columbus encountered the Pinta along the north coast of Hispaniola.

1493 Jan 9, Christopher Columbus 1st sighted manatees.
(MC, 1/9/02)

1493 Jan 12, This was the last day for all Jews to leave Sicily.
(MC, 1/12/02)

1493 Jan 16, Columbus aboard the Nina departed Hispaniola along with the Pinta to return to Spain.

1493 Feb, Christopher Columbus penned a letter to Spain’s monarchs, four months after discovering the New World, describing what he had found and laying the groundwork for his request to fund another voyage. A Latin copy was printed in Rome by Stephan Plannack in 1493, and found its way into the Vatican Library. This was later stolen by book thief Marino Massimo De Caro and sold in 2014 to American collector David Parsons for $875,000. In 2018 it was returned to the Vatican.
(Reuters, 6/14/18)

1493 Mar 15, Christopher Columbus returned to Spain, concluding his first voyage to the Western Hemisphere.
(AP, 3/15/97)(HN, 3/15/98)

1493 Apr 15, Columbus met with King Ferdinand and Isabella in Barcelona.
(MC, 4/15/02)

1493 May 1, Phillippus Paracelsus (d.1541), physician and alchemist, was born in Switzerland. He was christened as Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim.
(HN, 5/1/98)(NH, 6/00, p.30,34)(MC, 5/1/02)

1493 May 3-1493 May 4, Pope Alexander VI issued 3 papal bulls that divided the discoveries of Columbus between Spain and Portugal. By the Bulls of May 3 and 4 he drew an imaginary line one hundred leagues west of the Cape Verde Islands. The May 4 Bull, “Inter Caetera,” was amended in Sep. granting Spain the right to hold lands to the “western regions and to India.”
(DAH, 1946, p.2)(www.kwabs.com/bull_of_1493.html)

1493 Aug 19, Maximilian succeeded his father Frederick III as Holy Roman Emperor. Frederick III of Innsbruck (77), German Emperor (1440-1493), died.
(HN, 8/19/98)(MC, 8/19/02)

1493 Sep 25, Christopher Columbus set sail from Cadiz, Spain, with a flotilla of 17 ships on his 2nd voyage to the Western Hemisphere. He was accompanied by 13 clerics; Alvarez Chanca, a physician who left valuable accounts of the voyage; Juan Ponce de Leon; Juan de la Cosa, a cartographer; and Columbus’s younger brother Bartholomew.
(AP, 9/25/97)(AM, 7/97, p.58)

1493 Oct 13, Christopher Columbus left the Canary Islands with 16 ships and over 1000 men on his 2nd voyage to the New World.

1493 Nov 3, Christopher Columbus discovered the Caribbee Isles (Dominica) during his second expedition. He and his crew of 1,500 built the town of La Isabela on the northern coast of the Dominican Republic. It was abandoned within 5 years due in part to poor relations with the Taino Indians. This area was part of the chiefdom of Higuey.
(AM, 7/97, p.54,60)(http://www1.minn.net/~keithp/v2.htm)

1493 Nov 4, Christopher Columbus discovered Guadeloupe during his second expedition.
(HN, 11/4/98)

1493 Nov 10, Christopher Columbus discovered Antigua during his second expedition.
(HN, 11/10/98)

1493 Nov 11, The island of St. Martin was sighted and named by Columbus, though the explorer never landed there. The Dutch and French agreed to divide control of the island in 1648, but often clashed over where the border should be until a final pact in 1817.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Martin)(AP, 9/18/10)

1493 Nov 12, Christopher Columbus discovered the island of Redonda during his second expedition. It was about 34 miles WSW of Antigua.

1493 Nov 13, Columbus sighted Saba, North Leeward Islands (Netherland Antilles).

1493 Nov 19, Christopher Columbus discovered Puerto Rico on his 2nd voyage. Juan Ponce de Leon was a member of Columbus’ crew.
(HT, 4/97, p.28)(MC, 11/19/01)

1493 Nov 22, Christopher Columbus arrived at Hispaniola.
(AM, 7/97, p.54,60)(http://www1.minn.net/~keithp/v2.htm)

1493 Nov 28, Christopher Columbus arrived La Navidad, Hispaniola. He found the fort burned and his men from the 1st voyage dead. According to the account of Guacanagari, the local chief who had befriended Columbus on the first voyage, the men at Navidad had fallen to arguing among themselves over women and gold.

1493 Dec 8, Christopher Columbus and his crew of 1,500 built the town of La Isabela on the northern coast of the Dominican Republic. It was abandoned within 5 years due in part to poor relations with the Taino Indians. This area was part of the chiefdom of Higuey.
(AM, 7/97, p.54,60)(http://www1.minn.net/~keithp/v2.htm)

1493 The 600-page “World Chronicle” by physician Hartmann Schedel (1440-1513) was first published in Nuremburg. One copy is held at the Library of the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna, Austria. Anton Koberger, a Nuremberg publisher, published 2,500 copies of the “Nuremberg Chronicle” by Hartmann Schedel. It included woodcuts by Michael Wohlgemuth and Wilhelm Pleyenwurff.
(www.newadvent.org/cathen/13525a.htm)(StuAus, April ’95, p.49)(SFC, 3/1/02, p.D18)

1493 Columbus landed a small herd of swine on the island of Cuba.
(ON, 4/01, p.4)
1493 Columbus named Montserrat after the monastery near Barcelona. He did not bother to land on the island.
(NH, Jul, p.20)
1493 Columbus sailed into St. Croix’s Salt River Bay.
(NG, Jan, 1968, C. Mitchell, p. 73)
1493 Columbus discovered a group of islands, now called the Virgin Islands, that he christened Las Once Mil Virgenes, in memory of St. Ursula and her 11,000 martyr virgins who were slaughtered by the Huns at Cologne in the 5th century.
(SFEC, 2/15/98, p.T8)
1493 Rodrigo de Jerez, a sailor under Christopher Columbus, became the first person to bring tobacco to Europe. In November 1492, Jerez and Luis de Torres first observed natives smoking. The Spanish Inquisition imprisoned him for his “sinful and infernal” habits.
(Econ, 3/30/13, p.38)( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rodrigo_de_Jerez)

1493 Pavia’s pawn bank was founded. It was later absorbed by Italy’s Banca Regionale Europea.
(Econ, 5/27/06, p.73)

1493 In Russia after a major fire in Moscow, Ivan III forbade the construction of wooden buildings in the old city.
(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.33)

1493-1519 Maximilian I (1459-1519), Holy Roman Emperor over this period.
(WUD, 1994, p.886)

1494 Jan 6, The 1st Roman Catholic Mass in the New World marked the official establishment of La Isabela.
(AM, 7/97, p.58)

1494 Jan 25, Ferdinand I (b.1423), cruel king of Naples, died. He was also called Don Ferrante and was the natural son of Alfonso V of Aragon.
(MC, 1/25/02)(Wikipedia)

1494 Jan, In the Dominican Republic there was a failed rebellion against Columbus. The revolt was organized by Bernal de Pisa, the royal accountant, who was unhappy with the poor return of gold. Pisa was jailed and several others were hanged.
(AM, 7/97, p.57,59)

1494 Feb 2, Columbus began the practice using Indians as slaves.
(HN, 2/2/01)

1494 Feb 20, Johan Friis, chancellor (Denmark, helped formed Lutheranism), was born.
(MC, 2/20/02)

1494 Apr 20, John Agricola, [Schneider], German theologian, prime minister, was born.
(MC, 4/20/02)

1494 Apr 24, Columbus departed Isabela, Hispaniola, with 3 ships in an effort to reach China, which he believed was nearby.

1494 Apr 30, Christopher Columbus arrived at Cuba on his 2nd voyage to the Americas.

1494 May 5, During his second voyage to the Western Hemisphere, Christopher Columbus first sighted Jamaica and commented on the daily rains. Columbus landed on the island of Jamaica, which he names Santa Gloria.
(NOHY, 3/90, p.183)(AP, 5/5/97)(HN, 5/5/98)

1494 May 13, Columbus found the natives on Jamaica hostile and left for Cuba.

1494 May 25, Jacopo Pontormo (d.1557), Italian painter (Sepulture of Christ), was born. He represented what Vasari called the terza maniera, the third or modern manner of painting.
(WUD, 1994, p.1118)(WSJ, 10/29/96, p.A21)(SC, 5/25/02)

1494 Jun 7, Spain and Portugal divided the new lands they had discovered between themselves. King Joao II signed the Treaty of Tordesillas in which he conceded to Spain a monopoly on Columbus’ western route in exchange for a Portuguese monopoly on the eastern route.
(HN, 6/7/98)(ON, 11/07, p.2)(www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1028.html)

1494 Aug 11, Hans Memling (b.1435), German-born master of Flemish painting, died in Brugge.

1494 Aug 20, Columbus returned to Hispaniola. He had confirmed that Jamaica was an island and failed to find a mainland.

1494 Sep 12, Francois I of Valois-Angoulome, king of France (1515-47), was born.
(MC, 9/12/01)

1494 Nov 5, Hans Sachs, cobbler, poet, composer, was born in Nuremberg. He was also the prototype for Wagner’s “Die Meistersinger.”
(MC, 11/5/01)

1494 Nov 6, Suleiman I (d.1566), the Great, Ottoman sultan (1520-66), was born. Suleiman the Magnificent, ruler of the Ottoman Empire, was reported to have a harem of 2,000 women.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)(MC, 11/6/01)

1494 Nov 8, Uprising against Piero de’ Medici in Florence, Italy.
(MC, 11/8/01)

1494 Nov 17, Charles VIII (1470-1498) of France entered Florence, Italy. The First Italian War pitted Charles VIII of France, who had initial Milanese aid, against the Holy Roman Empire, Spain, and an alliance of Italian powers led by Pope Alexander VI.
(Econ, 12/17/11, p.147)(http://tinyurl.com/6px6fbp)

1494 Lodovico il Moro, the duke of Milan, commissioned Leonardo da Vinci to paint “The Last Supper” (Cenacolo).
(WSJ, 6/2/99, p.A24)
1494 Luca Pacioli’s textbook “Summa de arithmetica, geometria, proportioni et proportionalità,” was published in Venice and used as a textbook for schools of Northern Italy. It was notable for including the first published description of the method of bookkeeping that Venetian merchants used during the Italian Renaissance, known as the double-entry accounting system.
c1494 Father Ramon Pane wrote an account of the Taino religion at the request of Christopher Columbus.
(AM, 7/97, p.61)
1494 Carol Verardi in Basel published an illustrated report of the first expedition to the new world by Christopher Columbus.
(HNPD, 10/12/98)
1494 The earliest report of Scots making whiskey was made. [see 1495]
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)
1494 Piero Medici, son of Lorenzo and head of the Medici family, fled Florence in the face of a French invasion. Savonarola took the opportunity to lead Florence in restoring a representative government.
(WSJ, 7/10/98, p.W11)(Econ, 4/23/05, p.82)
1494 In Italy humanist philosopher Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and writer Angelo Ambrogini, better known as Poliziano, both died. In 2007 their bodies were exhumed from Florence’s St. Mark’s Basilica. The men were thought to be lovers. Both Pico and Poliziano tutored Lorenzo de Medici’s son Giovanni, who as Pope Leo X helped make Rome a cultural center of Renaissance Europe.
(AP, 7/27/07)

1494-1547 In France the time of King Francois I. The stench along the Seine drove him from the Hotel des Tournelles. Cesspools and the guild that emptied them, the Maitres Fy-Fy, developed at this time.
(Hem., 3/97, p.132)

1494-1553 Francois Rabelais, French satirist: “If you wish to avoid seeing a fool you must first break your mirror.” [see 1490, 1553]
(AP, 2/23/98)

1494-1576 Hans Sachs, German Meistersinger. He authored stories, songs, poems and dramatic works. He later became the central figure in Wagner’s Meistersinger.
(WUD, 1994 p.1258)(WSJ, 10/2/01, p.A17)

1495 Jan 28, Pope Alexander VI gave his son Cesare Borgia as hostage to Charles VIII of France.
(MC, 1/28/02)

1495 Feb 5, The 1st Lithuanian Russian war ended with the signing of a peace treaty in Moscow.
(LHC, 2/5/03)

1495 Mar 8, Juan de Dios, Portuguese-Spanish saint, founder (Brothers of Mercy), was born.
(MC, 3/8/02)

1495 Jun 1, The first written record of Scotch Whiskey appeared in the Exchequer Rolls of Scotland. Friar John Cor was the distiller. The later J&B brand stood for Justerini and Brooks. [see 1494]
(DTnet, 6/1/97)(SFEC, 12/28/97, Z1 p.2)

1495 Oct 25, Portugal’s King Joao II died without leaving male issue. He was succeeded by his brother-in-law Manuel I.

1495 Nov 27, Scottish king James IV received Perkin Warbeck (21), a pretender to the English throne. James gave Warbeck, a Walloon, Lady Catherine Gordon in marriage.
(MC, 11/27/01)(PCh, 1992, p.160)

1495 Leonardo da Vinci sketched a design of a parachute.
(SFEC, 9/8/96, zone 1 p.6)
1495 Italian artist Andrea Mantegna painted an “Adoration of the Magi” about this time in which one of the three kings is seen offering the Christ child a cup filled with gold coins. The blue and white, Ming-style cup in the painting was the first time that a Ming work of art appeared in a European painting.
(Econ, 9/13/14, p.92)

1495 The Taino Indians on Hispaniola staged an organized attack on the Spaniards, but it was easily crushed.
(AM, 7/97, p.59)

1495 In Korea King Yonsan-gun succeeded King Songjong. His reign was noted for his unscrupulous suppression of the literati. In 2005 the South Korean film industry produced “The King and the Clown.” It was based on the 15th century monarch and a troupe of entertainers invited to his court.
(www.asianinfo.org/asianinfo/korea/history/early_choson_period.htm)(Econ, 2/18/06, p.44)

c1495 The 500-year-old body of a young Inca girl was found frozen near the summit of Mt. Ampato, Peru, by American archeologist Johan Reinhard in 1995. The girl was killed by a crushing blow to the head probably in a ritual sacrifice.
(SFC, 5/22/96, p.A8)

1495-1498 Leonardo da Vinci worked on “The Last Supper” in Milan under commission for Duke Ludovico Sforza. The 15 by 28 foot work was undergoing a 20 year restoration in 1998 by Dr. Pinin Brambilla Barcilon.
(SFEC, 4/12/98, Par p.4)

1496 Mar 5, English king Henry VII hired John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto) to explore.
(MC, 3/5/02)

1496 Mar 9, Jews were expelled from Carinthia, Austria.
(MC, 3/9/02)

1496 Mar 10, Christopher Columbus concluded his 2nd visit to the Western Hemisphere as he left Isabela, with 2 ships for Spain. He returned to Spain to ask for more support for his colony on Hispaniola.
(AM, 7/97, p.59)(http://www1.minn.net/~keithp/v2.htm)

1496 Mar 12, Jews were expelled from Syria.
(HN, 3/12/98)

1496 cApr, Bartolome Columbus moved the colony to a new settlement on the south coast, named Isabela La Nueva. It was established on the east bank of the Ozama River. Columbus established Santo Domingo in what is now the Dominican Republic.
(SFC, 5/17/96, p.A-14)(AM, 7/97, p.59)(SFEC, 2/14/99, p.T10)

1496 Oct 20, Spain’s Juana of Castile (1479-1555) married Philip the Handsome, the Duke of Burgundy, in Lier (later a part of Belgium). Philip’s parents were Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor and his first wife, Duchess Mary of Burgundy. Juana had sailed from Spain with 15,000 men to the Habsburg Netherlands. Between 1498 and 1507, she gave birth to six children: two emperors and four queens.
(Econ, 4/13/13, p.55)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joanna_of_Castile)

1496 Dec 5, Jews were expelled from Portugal by order of King Manuel I.
(MC, 12/5/01)

1496 The “Treatyse of Fyshynge wyth an Angle” by Dame Juliana Berner was published. It was the first book on fishing ever written. [see 1425]
(WSJ, 7/29/96, p.A11)

1496 In Germany a Benedictine abbey in Altomuenster, a town on the end of the subway line from Munich, began housing the Bridgettine Order, a female religious order founded by Saint Bridget in Sweden in the 14th century. It was ordered closed in 2015 after the number of nuns fell below the three needed to train novices. In 2018 Catholic authorities in Bavaria said the Vatican has granted their request to close the abbey.
(AP, 12/24/17)(AP, 4/12/18)

1496 Banca del Monte was founded in Milan. It was later absorbed by Italy’s Banca Regionale Europea.
(Econ, 5/27/06, p.73)

1496 Juan de Flandes painted “Christ Calming the Storm,” a commission by Spain’s Queen Isabel.
(WSJ, 12/16/04, p.D8)
1496 La Laguna was founded on the island of Tenerife by Alonso Fernandez de Lugo, who conquered the Canary Islands for Spain. It served as Tenerife’s 1st. capital.
(SSFC, 4/16/06, p.F7)

1496 A Polish edict, pushed by Krakow’s gentile bakers, banned Jews from selling bagels within the city limits.

1496-1497 Michelangelo sculpted “Bacchus,” considered his first masterpiece.
(WSJ, 2/29/96, p.A-14)

1496-1498 Albrecht Durer made his woodcut “The Four Avenging Angels” from the Apocalypse.
(LSA, fall/96, p.23)

c1496-1544 Clement Marot, early vernacular French writer.

1497 Jan 6, Jews were expelled from Graz, Syria. [see Mar 12, 1496]
(MC, 1/6/02)

1497 Feb 7, Followers of the priest Girolamo Savonarola collected and publicly burned thousands of objects in Florence, Italy, on the Shrove Tuesday festival. Tom Wolfe’s 1997 novel, “The Bonfire of the Vanities,” makes reference to the original event, but is not a retelling of the story.

1497 Feb 16, Philip Melanchthon, German Protestant reformer (Augsburgse Confessie), was born.
(MC, 2/16/02)

1497 Mar 9, Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543), Polish astronomer, made the 1st recorded astronomical observation.
(WUD, 1994 p.322)(MC, 3/9/02)

1497 May 2, John Cabot departed for North America. [see Jun 24]
(MC, 5/2/02)

1497 May 10, Italian navigator Amerigo Vespucci left for his 1st voyage to New World.
(MC, 5/10/02)

1497 May 13, Pope Alexander VI excommunicated Girolamo Savonarola for heresy. In Florence the Dominican monk Girolamo Savonarola (1452-1498) had led the Feb 7 burning of musical instruments, books and priceless works of art. He preached against corruption in the Church and civil government.
(Hem., 4/97, p.53)(WUD, 1994, p.1672)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Girolamo_Savonarola)

1497 Jun 24, Italian explorer John Cabot (1450-1498?), (aka Giovanni Caboto), on a voyage for England, landed in North America on what is now Newfoundland or the northern Cape Breton Island in Canada. He claimed the new land for King Henry VII. He documented the abundance of fish off the Grand Banks from Cape Cod to Labrador.
(NH, 5/96, p.59)(WUD, 1994, p.206)(AP, 6/24/97)(HN, 6/24/98)

1497 Jul 8, Vasco da Gama, Portuguese explorer, departed on a trip to India. He sailed from Lisbon enroute to Calicut, India. His journey took him around South Africa and opened the Far East to European trade and colonial expansion.
(V.D.-H.K.p.143)(WUD, 1994, p.1672)(www.indhistory.com/vasco-da-gama.html)

1497 Jul 22, Francesco Botticini (c52), Italian painter, died.
(MC, 7/22/02)

1497 Jul 26, “Edward IV’s son” Perkin Warbeck’s army landed in Cork.
(MC, 7/26/02)

1497 Aug 6, John Cabot returned to England after his first successful journey to the Labrador coast.
(HN, 8/6/98)

1497 Aug 10, John Cabot told King Henry VII of his trip to “Asia.”
(MC, 8/10/02)

1497 Sep 7, Sailor Perkin Warbeck became [briefly] England’s King Richard I. Warbeck had invaded Cornwall after failing to find support in Ireland. He was soon forced to surrender and was imprisoned in the Tower of London.
(MC, 9/7/01)(PCh, 1992, p.161)

1497 Sep, Henry VII defeated the Cornishmen at Blackheath. An insurrection in Cornwall had developed over taxes to support English defenses against Scottish invasion forces.
(PCh, 1992, p.161)

1497 Nov 18, Vasco da Gama reached the Cape of Good Hope.
(MC, 11/18/01)

1497 Nov 22, Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama rounded the Cape of Good Hope.
(MC, 11/22/01)

1497 Hans Holbein the Younger (d.1543), painter, was born in Augsburg, Bavaria.
(WSJ, 12/30/06, p.P10)(www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/holbein/)

1497 Sandro Botticelli painted “The Calumny.” It showed King Midas with donkey ears.
(SFC, 10/7/03, p.D8)

1497 Portuguese Jews were forced to convert to Christianity and were known as “New Christians,” though many continued to practice their original faith in secret.
(WSJ, 6/8/98, p.A21)

1497 In Scotland the Declaration of Education Act required children to go to school.
(SFEC, 12/27/98, Z1 p.8)

1498 Mar 2, Vasco da Gama’s fleet visited Mozambique Island.
(SC, 3/2/02)

1498 Apr 7, A crowd stormed Savonarola’s convent of San Marco in Florence, Italy.
(MC, 4/7/02)
1498 Apr 7, Vasco da Gama, Portuguese explorer, arrived at Mombasa, Kenya, where the Arabs repelled him. He sailed on to Malindi and came to terms with the local sultan, who supplied a pilot that knew the route to Calicut (Kozhikode), the most important commercial port in Southwest India at the time.
(Econ, 9/30/06, p.58)(www.kenyalogy.com/eng/info/histo4.html)

1498 Apr 8, Charles VIII (27), King of France (1483-98), died while preparing a new expedition to invade Italy. He was succeeded by his Valois cousin the Duc d’Orleans (36), who reigned until 1515 as Louis XII.
(PC, 1992 ed, p.161)

1498 May 20, Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama arrived at Calicut (Kozhikkode) in Kerala, India.

1498 May 23, The body of Girolamo Savonarola (45), moral scourge of Florence (1494-98), was burned along with 2 Dominican companions. An enraged crowd burned the previously hanged body of Savonarola at the same spot where he had ordered cultural works burned the year before. In 2006 Lauro Martines authored “Fire in the City,” an account of Savonarola’s life.
(WUD, 1994, p.1672)(www.historyguide.org/intellect/savonarola.html)(WSJ, 5/19/06, p.W6)

1498 May 30, Columbus departed Spain with 6 ships for his 3rd trip to America. He took 30 women along on his third trip to the New World.

1498 May, John Cabot began his 2nd transatlantic voyage. Richard Ameryk (1445-1503), a wealthy Welsh merchant, was the chief investor in Cabot’s second transatlantic voyage. Five ships set sail for Newfoundland, but en route one ship was forced to return after being damaged in a storm. The rest were never heard from again. A theory, not widely held, suggests the Americas are named after his surname.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Cabot)(Econ, 9/22/07, p.23)
1498 May, Vasco da Gama reached Calicut, the chief Indian trading port, at 11? north latitude. He was not welcomed by the Muslim traders who saw him as a Christian and competitor. He returned to Lisbon swearing revenge.

1498 Jun 21, Jews were expelled from Nuremberg, Bavaria, by Emperor Maximillian.
(MC, 6/21/02)

1498 Jun 26, Toothbrush was invented. In China the first toothbrushes with hog bristles began to show up. Hog bristle brushes remained the best until the invention of nylon.
(SFC, 6/6/98, p.E3)(MC, 6/26/02)

1498 Jul 31, During his third voyage to the Western Hemisphere, Christopher Columbus arrived at an island he named Trinidad because of its 3 hills.
(AP, 7/31/98)(http://www1.minn.net/~keithp/v3.htm)

1498 Aug 4-1498 Aug 12, Christopher Columbus explored the Gulf of Paria (Venezuela) between Trinidad and South America.

1498 Aug 14, Columbus landed at the mouth of the Orinoco River in Venezuela.
(MC, 8/14/02)

1498 Aug 16, Christopher Columbus reached the island of Margarita (Venezuela).

1498 Aug 17, French King Louis XII made Cesare Borgia (1475-1507) the Duke of Valentinois. Borgia resigned his position as cardinal, which had been bestowed on him at age 18 by his father, Pope Alexander VI.
(Econ, 8/16/08, p.16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cesare_Borgia)

1498 Sep 16, Tomas de Torquemada (b.1420) died in Avila, Spain. He was a Spanish Dominican friar and the first Grand Inquisitor in Spain’s movement to restore Christianity among its populace in the late 15th century. He was one of the chief supporters of the Alhambra Decree, which expelled the Jews from Spain in 1492.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tom%C3%A1s_de_Torquemada)(AP, 9/16/06)

1498 Albrecht Durer made his woodcut titled “The Bath House.”
(WSJ, 10/29/99, p.W1)

1498 Emperor Maximilian I relocated his court from Innsbruck to Vienna and brought along the court musicians. He also decided to include boy singers which gave rise to The Vienna Boys School and Choir. In 1918 the Austrian government took control of the court musicians, but not the boys choir, which became a private institution. The boys choir began to give public concerts in 1926. In 2007 the choir accepted its first African-born member, Jens Ibsen (12) of Daly City, Ca.
(SFC, 12/8/07, p.A8)

1498 The Shore Porters’ Society was founded as a semi-public body controlled by the town of Aberdeen, Scotland.
(Econ, 12/18/04, p.104)

1498 Niccolo Machiavelli began working as a diplomat for the city-state of Florence. His employment ended in 1512 when he was dismissed by Giuliano de Medici.
(ON, 11/04, p.3)

1498 Columbus sailed by Grenada and named the island Concepcion.

1498 The first pawnshop reportedly opened in Nuremberg, Germany.
(SFEC, 2/22/98, Z1 p.8)

1499 Mar 31, Pius IV (Gianangelo de’ Medici), Italian lawyer, pope (1559-65), was born.
(MC, 3/31/02)

1499 Aug 25, Battle at Sapienza: An Ottoman fleet beat Venetians.
(chblue.com, 8/25/01)

1499 Sep 10, The French marched on Milan.
(Hem., 12/96, p.19)

1499 Nov 12, Perkin Warbeck, Flemish sailor, was hanged for conspiring to escape from the tower of London with the imprisoned earl of Warwick. [see Nov 23]
(PCh, 1992, p.162)

1499 Nov 23, Perkin Warbeck, Flemish sailor, was hanged. [see Nov 12]
(MC, 11/23/01)(AP, 11/23/02)

1499 Nov 28, Edward Plantagenet, 18th Count of Warwick, was beheaded.
(MC, 11/28/01)

1499 Michelangelo completed his “Pieta” for the Vatican. The marble was from Carrara.
(www.abcgallery.com/)(WSJ, 8/1/05, p.D10)

1499 The Spanish play “Celestine” was published.
(WSJ, 11/19/98, p.A21)
1499 Alonso de Ojeda, a Columbus Spanish lieutenant, and Amerigo Vespucci landed at Curacao.
(SSFC, 10/9/11, p.C3)(http://www.curacao-travelguide.com/history/)

1499 Anne of Brittany initiated the white wedding gown.
(SFEM, 6/28/98, p.7)

1499 Portuguese briefly explored and claimed Greenland, naming it Terra do Lavrador (later applied to Labrador in Canada).



The Fifteenth Century 1450-1475

1450 May 8, Jack Cade’s Rebellion-Kentishmen revolted against King Henry VI.
(HN, 5/8/98)

1450 Jul 12, Jack Cade was slain in a revolt against British King Henry VI.
(MC, 7/12/02)

1450 Oct 5, Jews were expelled from Lower Bavaria by order of Ludwig IX.
(MC, 10/5/01)

1450 Oct 23, Juan de Capistrano (70), Italian saint, died.
(MC, 10/23/01)

1450 Johannes Gutenberg began printing a bible with movable type in Mainz. He perfected interchangeable type that could be cast in large quantities and invented a new type of press.
(NG, March 1990, p. 117)(WSJ, 10/31/96, p.A21)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)
1450 Johannes Gutenberg was able to convince financier Johann Fust to loan him 800 guilders, a considerable sum. Gutenberg’s experiments with printing were financed in large part by Fust, who later won a suit against Gutenberg to recoup his investment. Fust invested another 800 guilders in 1452, securing a partnership in Gutenberg’s business. By 1455, impatient for results or perhaps simply due to estrangement from Gutenberg, Fust sued and won a settlement of just over 2,000 guilders: the sum of the two loans plus interest. Fust also gained control of Gutenberg’s movable type and some of his printing equipment. Gutenberg was able to continue some printing and eventually was granted a pension by the archbishop of Mainz in 1465.
(HNQ, 1/12/01)

c1450 In the mid 1400s Berbers took over the trade and learning centers of Timbuktu and Walata.
(ATC, p.120)

1450 In Mexico City an Aztec cornerstone ceremony took place about this time intended to dedicate a new layer of building. In 2005 archeologists found a child found at the Templo Mayor ruins who was apparently killed as part of a ceremony dedicated to the war god Huitzilopochtli.
(AP, 7/23/05)

c1450 The Portuguese brought slaves to the uninhabited Cape Verde Island.
(SFC, 8/5/98, p.A8)

c1450 Legend has it that in the mid-15th century Vietnam, King Le Loi defeated Chinese invaders with a magic sword given to him by the gods. After the victory, the king was said to be boating on the lake when a giant golden turtle rose to the surface and grabbed the sword in its mouth before plunging deep into the water to return it to its divine owners. The lake was later renamed “Ho Hoan Kiem,” which means “Lake of the Returned Sword.”
(AP, 11/3/03)

c1450 The chiefs of Zimbabwe’s gold producing provinces declared independence from Great Zimbabwe. A northern group led by King Mwene Mutapa conquered neighboring kingdoms and a new empire called Monomutapa was formed.
(ATC, p.148)

1450-1455 Dieric Bouts painted “The Annunciation.” The Getty Museum later acquired it for $7 million, but its authenticity was controversial.
(WSJ, 4/9/99, p.W16)

1450-1460 The German Master E.S. made his drawing “Girl With a Ring.”
(WSJ, 12/8/99, p.A20)

1450-1500 Bartolomeu Dias, Portuguese explorer. He discovered the Cape of Good Hope.
(WUD, 1994, p.399)

c1450-1500 Nyatsimba, Mwene Matapa or Monomotapa (Lord of the Plundered People or Ravager of the Lands), Chief of the Zimbabwe Empire. He conquered the middle Zambezi Valley and built stone citadels at Great Zimbabwe. He was known to have a corps of over 100 female bodyguards.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

c1450-1516 Hieronymus Bosch, painter was born. Hieronymous van Aken was born in the small Dutch Brabant city of ‘s-Hertogenbosch in Flanders.
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.172)(WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A12)(WSJ, 10/11/01, p.A19)

1450-1532 The period of the Inca Empire. Inca mummies were later found on Mt. Ampato in 1995 and 1997. In 1998 archeologist found 6 frozen mummies sacrificed to Inca gods near the crater of the 19,100 foot El Misti volcano, 465 miles southeast of Lima, Peru.
(SFEM, 4/13/97, p.16)(SFC,12/13/97, p.A14)(SFC, 10/3/98, p.C1)

1450-1650AD The Venetians occupied the capital city Crete, Iraklion. The forests of Crete provided the Venetians with cedars and firs for their fleets.
(SFEC, 8/17/97, p.T10)

1450-1890 The period of the Little Ice Age. Temperatures over this period were a few degrees lower than during the 1900s.
(SFC, 11/29/02, p.J6)

1451 Feb 3, Murad II, Ottoman sultan (1421-51), died of apoplexy. Mehmet II (19) became Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. He ruled until 1481.
(ON, 10/00, p.10)(Ot, 1993, p.7)(MC, 2/3/02)

1451 Mar 9, Amerigo Vespucci (d.1512), Italian navigator, was born in Florence.

1451 Apr 22, Isabella I of Castile, Queen of Spain (1479-1504), patron of Christopher Columbus, was born in Madrigal, Spain.
(HN, 4/22/98)(AP, 4/22/01)(MC, 4/22/02)

1451 Jun 28, An eclipse occurred that allegedly prevented the outbreak of war between the Mohawk and the Seneca Indians.
(SCTS, p.6)

1451 Sep 21, Cardinal Nicholas of Cusa ordered the Jews of Holland to wear a badge.
(MC, 9/21/01)

1451 An Afghan named Buhlul invaded Delhi, and seized the throne. He founded the Lodi dynasty.

1451 In France Jacques Coeur was charged with poisoning Agnes Sorel, mistress to King Charles VII. Sorel had died in childbirth. Charles confiscated Coeur’s property and put him in jail. Coeur escaped and fled to Rome. He died several years later fighting the Turks.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)

1451 The Univ. of Glasgow was built. It was the 4th oldest university in the English speaking world.
(SSFC, 3/10/13, p.H4)

1451 The Vatican Library was founded.
(WSJ, 3/2/00, p.W10)

1451-1506 Christopher Columbus, was born in Genoa. He was probably the child of Spanish-Jewish parents exiled by the Inquisition.

1451 March 9, The birthday of Amerigo Vespucci (d.1512). He was the Italian navigator after whom America was named. He explored the New World coastline after Columbus.
(CFA, ’96,Vol 179, p.42)(AHD, p.1425)

1452 Mar 10, Ferdinand II, the Catholic King of Aragon (1479-1516) and Sicily (1468-1516), was born. He bankrolled Columbus and expelled Jews.
(WUD, 1994 p.524)(MC, 3/10/02)

1452 Apr 15, Leonardo da Vinci (d.1519), Italian painter, sculptor, scientist and visionary, was born in Vinci near Florence. He apprenticed to the painters Verrocchio and Antonio Pollaiuolo and was accepted to the Florentine painters’ guild at twenty. Only seventeen surviving paintings can be attributed to him. These include: “The Last Supper” in Milan, the “Mona Lisa” and “The Virgin and Child with St. Anne” in the Louvre. He tried to express his immense knowledge of the world by simply looking at things. The secret he said was “saper vedere,” to know how to see. His final “Visions of the End of the World” was a sketchbook in which he tried to depict his sense of the forces of nature, which in his imagination he conceived of as possessing a unity that no one had ever seen before. His use of a smoky atmosphere (sfumato) helped create an impression of lifelikeness.
(V.D.-H.K.p.137)(WSJ, 2/5/97, p.A16)(HN, 4/15/98)

1452 Jul 27, Ludovico Sforza [il Sforza del Destino), Italian duke of Milan (1494-1500), was born.
(MC, 7/27/02)

1452 Sep 21, Girolamo Savonarola (d.1498), was born in Ferrara. He became a Dominican monk, reformer, dictator of Florence (1494-98) and martyr. He was best known for his bonfires of the vanities in which corrupt books and images were set alight.
(Hem.,4/97,p.53)(WUD, 1994, p.1272,1672)(WSJ, 7/10/98, p.W11)(MC, 9/21/01)

1452 Oct 2, King Richard III, of England (1483-85), was born.
(MC, 10/2/01)

1452 The first pawn lender was founded in Perugia (Italy) by Franciscan monks to combat usury.
(Econ, 5/27/06, p.73)

1452 Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II began construction of a new fortress called Rumeli Hisar on the Constantinople side of the Bosporus. He engaged Urban, a Hungarian engineer, to build a large canon and put him in charge of the canon foundries at Adrianople.
(SFC, 9/1/96, BR p.8)(ON, 10/00, p.10)

1452-1510 Liu Jin, a court eunuch of the Ming dynasty in China. He abused his office to amass a great fortune and was executed for treason.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1453 Apr 6, Ottoman forces under Mehmet II opened fire on Constantinople.
(ON, 10/00, p.11)

1453 Apr 22-1453 Apr 23, The Ottomans hauled 76 warships out of the water and dragged them on wood rails to bypass the Greek blockade of the Constantinople harbor.
(ON, 10/00, p.12)(Ot, 1993, p.13)

1453 May 29, Constantinople fell to Muhammad II, ending the Byzantine Empire. The fall of the eastern Roman Empire, Byzantium, to the Ottoman Turks was led by Mehmed II. Emperor Constantine XI Dragases (49), the 95th ruler to sit on the throne of Constantine, was killed. The city of Constantinople fell from Christian rule and was renamed Istanbul. The Hagia Sophia was turned into a mosque. Spice prices soared in Europe. Nicolo Barbaro wrote his “Diary of the Siege of Constantinople.” Manuel Chrysophes, court musician to Constantine XI, wrote a threnody for the fall of Constantinople. In 2005 Roger Crowley authored “1453 The Holy War for Constantinople and the Clash of Islam and the West.”
(NH, 9/96, p.22)(Sky, 4/97, p.53)(SFC, 7/27/98, p.A8)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)(ON, 10/00, p.12)(Ot, 1993, p.6)(WSJ, 1/2/02, p.A15)(SSFC, 8/14/05, p.F4)
1453 May 29, French banker Jacques Coeurs had his possessions confiscated.
(SC, 5/29/02)

1453 Jul 4, 41 Jewish martyrs were burned at stake at Breslau, Poland.

1453 Jul 17, France defeated England at the 1st Battle at Castillon, France, ending the 100 Years’ War. [see Oct 19]
(HN, 7/17/98)

1453 Oct 19, In the 2nd Battle at Castillon: France beat England, ending the hundred year war. [see Jul 17]
(MC, 10/19/01)

1453 Piero della Francesca (1415/1420-1492) began work on the “Legenda della Vera Croce” (The Legend of the True Cross) at the church of San Francesco in Arezzo. He was commissioned by the Bacci family of Arezzo to complete the work begun by Bicci de Lorenzo.
(WSJ, 6/02/97, p.A20)(WSJ, 2/2/08, p.W14)

1453 In England Henry VI, of the house of Lancaster, suffered a nervous breakdown and Richard, the Duke of York, was named protector.
(AM, 7/01, p.69)

1453 In Rome Agrippa’s Aqua Virgo was resuscitated as the Acqua Vergine Antica.
(SFEC, 7/2/00, p.T4)

1454 Feb 17, At a grand feast, Philip the Good of Burgundy took the “vow of the pheasant,” by which he swore to fight the Turks.
(HN, 2/17/99)

1454 Mar 6, Casimir proclaimed the attachment of Prussia to Polish rule. This began a 13-year war over Prussia (1454-1466).

1454 Apr 9, The city states of Venice, Milan and Florence signed a peace agreement at Lodi, Italy.
(HN, 4/9/99)

1454 Aug 22, Jews were expelled from Brunn Moravia by order of King Ladislaus.
(MC, 8/22/02)

1455 Feb 23, Johannes Gutenberg (Johan Gensfleisch, c1400-1468) printed his 1st book, the Bible. Gutenberg printed Latin Bibles of which 11 were still extant in 1987. [see 1450]
(SFC, 2/15/97, p.D1)(MC, 2/23/02)

1455 Mar 18, Fra Angelico, Italian monk and Renaissance painter born around 1387 as Guido di Pietro, died. Fra Angelico gained a reputation as a painter under that name before joining the Dominicans in the 1420s. However, much of the influence found in his work is thought to come from Dominican teachings. He stayed at Dominican monasteries in Florence for most of his life doing a variety of religious painting until being called to Rome in 1445 by Pope Eugene IV, where he completed several chapel frescoes. Returning to Florence in the early 1450s, he died on a return visit to Rome in 1455 and is entombed at the church of Santa Maria della Minerva. In 1984 Fra Angelico was beatified by Pope John Paul II.

1455 Apr 8, Alfonso de Borgia was elected as Pope Callistus III.
(MC, 4/8/02)

1455 May 3, Jews fled Spain.
(MC, 5/3/02)

1455 May 22, King Henry VI was taken prisoner by the Yorkists at the Battle of St. Albans, the 1st battle in the 30-year War of the Roses. The army of the Duke of York met the army of Queen Margaret at the Battle of St. Alban’s. The 2nd Duke of Somerset was killed as Yorkists briefly took possession of King Henry VI.
(MH, 12/96)(HN, 5/22/99)(MC, 5/22/02)

1455 Aug 2, Johan Cicero, elector of Brandenburg (1486-99), was born.
(MC, 8/2/02)

1455 Dec 1, Lorenzo Ghiberti (77), Italian sculptor, died.
(MC, 12/1/01)

1455 The young Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II mobilized his army to march on Belgrade–and from there, possibly move on to the European heartland.
(HN, 6/15/98)

1455 Some Portuguese had come to The Gambia following the expeditions promoted by Prince Henry. They had introduced groundnuts, tie main cash crop of today, cotton, and some tropical fruits from Brazil. Their number, however, was never large and they were soon absorbed by intermarriage.

1455-1485 The War of the Roses. During the war Margaret of Anjou, wife of the feeble-minded King Henry VI, was head of the House of Lancaster whose heraldic badge was a red rose. She struggled against the House of York, whose badge was a white rose, for the control of the government.
(MH, 12/96)

1456 Mar 1, Wladyslaw Jagiello, king of Bohemia (1471-1516), Hungary (1490-1516), was born.
(SC, 3/1/02)

1456 Jul 7, Joan of Arc was acquitted, even though she had already been burnt at the stake on May 30, 1431.
(MC, 7/7/02)

1456 Jul 14, Hungarians defeated the Ottomans at the Battle of Belgrade, in present-day Yugoslavia. The 1456 Siege of Belgrade decided the fate of Christendom.
(HN, 7/14/98)

1456 Jul 22, At the Battle at Nandorfehervar (Belgrade), the Hungarian army under prince Janos Hunyadi beat sultan Murad II. The siege of Belgrade had fallen into stalemate when a spontaneous fight broke out between a rabble of Crusaders, led by the Benedictine monk John of Capistrano, and the city’s Ottoman besiegers. The melee soon escalated into a major battle, during which the Hungarian commander, Janos Hunyadi, led a sudden assault that overran the Turkish camp, ultimately compelling the wounded Sultan Mehmet II to lift the siege and retreat.
(MC, 7/22/02)(PC, 1992, p.150)(HNPD, 7/23/98)

1456 Aug 11, Janos Hunyadi (69), Hungarian Prince and general strategist died of plague at about age 49.
(PC, 1992, p.150)(MC, 8/11/02)

1456 Nov 25, Jacques Coeur, French merchant and banker, died in battle.
(MC, 11/25/01)

1456 Dec 5, Earthquake struck Naples and 35,000 died.
(MC, 12/5/01)

1456 Pope Calixtus III appointed his nephew Rodrigo Borgia Lanzol, later Pope Alexander VI, a cardinal.
(PTA, 1980, p.424)

1456 A comet in the sky caused the Pope to issue a catchall edict to his followers to pray for deliverance from “The Devil, the Turk, and the Comet.”
(SFC, 3/28/97, p.A12)

1456-1496 Ercole de’ Roberti, Italian artist. He was the predecessor to Dosso Dossi at the Ferrara court.
(SFC, 4/27/99, p.C1)

c1456-1856 Gypsies living in the principalities that today makeup Romania lived as slaves. [as stated in a work by Isabel Fonseca titled: “Bury Me Standing: The Gypsies and Their Journey.”
(WSJ, 10/19/95, A-18)

1457 Jan 28, Henry Tudor (later Henry VII), 1st Tudor king of England (1485-1509), was born in Pembroke Castle, Wales.

1457 Nov 23, Ladislaus V (17), posthumous king of Hungary and Bohemia, died.
(MC, 11/23/01)

1457 Aug 14, Gutenberg’s financier Johann Fust and calligrapher Peter Schoffer published the 2nd printed book. This is the oldest known exactly dated printed book.
(HN, 8/14/00)(MC, 8/14/02)

1457 Koshamain, an Ainu chieftain on the island of Hokkaido, led a rebellion against Japanese encroachment, but it was put down by Nobuhiro Takeda.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)

1457 Pattani, later southern Thailand, was declared an Islamic kingdom.
(AP, 9/23/05)

1457 King James II of Scotland (James of the Fiery Face) banned “Futeball” on the grounds that it threatened national defense by drawing young men away from archery practice. He banned “Golfe” for the same reason. “Nocht usit and utterlie cryit doun.”
(SFC, 8/10/96, p.E4)(Hem., 1/97, p.47)

1458 Jan 24, Matthias Corvinus (1440-1490), the son of John Hunyadi, was elected king of Hungary. Under his rule Hungary was the most important state in central Europe. For his fighting force he ordered every 20 houses to provide one horse soldier. “Husz” is 20 in Hungarian and so the light cavalryman became know as a Hussar. His illuminated breviary is held by the Vatican library.
(WUD, 1994, p.1672)(Sky, 9/97, p.26)(HN, 1/24/99)

1458 Mar 2, Hussite George van Podiebrad was chosen king of Bohemia.
(SC, 3/2/02)

1458 Jun 27, Alfonso V of Aragon died. Ferdinand I succeeded to the throne of Naples, but Pope Calixtus III declared the line of Aragon extinct and the kingdom a fief of the church.

1458 Filippino Lippi, painter, was born. His father was the Carmelite friar Fra Filippo and his mother was a nun. His work includes the drawing “Kneeling Male Saint,” and the color painting “Male Saint Holding the Body of the Dead Christ.” One of his students was Raffaellino del Garbo.
(WSJ, 12/3/97, p.A20)

1458 Benedetto Cotrugli published the first known work on double-entry bookkeeping. It was invented in Italy around 1340.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R55)(WSJ, 11/10/99, p.A20)

1459 Mar 2, Adrian VI [Adriaan F Boeyens], Netherlands, Pope (1522-23), was born.
(SC, 3/2/02)

1459 Mar 3, Ausias March, Catalan poet, died.
(SC, 3/3/02)

1459 May 2, Pierozzi Antoninus, Italian archbishop of Florence, saint, died.
(MC, 5/2/02)

1459 May 12, Sun City, India, was founded by Rao Jodhpur.
(MC, 5/12/02)

1459 Oct, The Lancastrians defeated the Yorkists at Ludford.
(AM, 7/01, p.69)

1459 Vlad Tepes used Turkish prisoners to haul stones brick and mortar for his Poienari Citadel in Romania’s Transylvania region. Much of it fell down the mountain during a landslide in 1888.
(SSFC, 10/23/11, p.H6)
1459 The Serbs fell under Turkish rule and all of Serbia became the property of the sultan and all Serbs became bond-slaves to the land. Serbian national identity survived with the restoration in 1557 of the Serbian patriarchate at Pec.
(HNQ, 3/25/99)

1459-1519 Maximilian I. Holy Roman Emperor from 1493-1519.
(WUD, 1994, p.886)

1459-1525 Jakob Fugger II, German banker. He minted his own money and maintained banks in every European capital. He held a contract for managing the Pope’s money and collected cash for the remission of sins. He bankrolled the election of Charles V.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1459-1912 The Ottoman Empire ruled over the Kosova region of Serbia.
(SFC, 3/3/98, p.A8)

1460 Apr 4, University of Basle, Switzerland, formed.
(MC, 4/4/02)

1460 Apr 8, Ponce de Leon was born in Spain. He searched for fountain of youth and found Florida.
(MC, 4/8/02)

1460 May 9, In the Netherlands the courtyard Episcopal palace at Atrecht had witch burnings.
(MC, 5/9/02)

1460 Jun, English Yorkist earls returned and met Henry VI’s Lancastrian army at Northampton. Herny was captured and taken to London to serve as a figurehead.
(AM, 7/01, p.69)

1460 Jul 10, Wars of Roses: Richard of York defeated King Henry VI at Northampton.
(MC, 7/10/02)

1460 Sep, The Duke of York returned to England from Ireland. The nobility would not allow his usurption of the crown but agreed to pass it to him on Henry’s demise.
(AM, 7/01, p.69)

1460 Nov 13, Prince Henry the Navigator (b.1394), Portuguese prince and patron of explorers, died.

1460 Dec 30, Richard Plantagenet (b.1411), English Duke of York, was killed by Lancastrians at the Battle of Wakefield. Queen Margaret hung his head from Micklegate Bar, one of the original entries to the city of York.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_of_York,_3rd_Duke_of_York)(Econ, 12/18/10, p.111)(SSFC, 4/13/14, p.Q4)

1460 The Ottomans conquered southern Greece.
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.56)

1460s Benozzo Gozzoli, a pupil of Fra Angelico, painted a portrait of Christ titled “The Holy Face.”
(SFEC, 8/8/99, p.D7)

1460 Rogier van der Weyden painted his “Portrait of a Lady.”
(WSJ, 12/14/01, p.W20)

1460-1464 Rogier van der Weyden painted “The Lamentation Over the Body of the Dead Christ.”
(SFEC, 12/26/99, p.C17)

1460-1470 Machu Pichu was built under the Inca King Pachacuti in the Peruvian Andes. It was occupied for about 50 years before 180 Spanish conquistadors wiped out a 40,000-man Inca army. In 2003 a nearby complex of structures called Llactapata (high city) was discovered.
(SFC, 11/8/03, p.A2)

1460?-1526? Pedro Alvarez Cabral, Portuguese navigator, discovered and claimed Brazil for Portugal on April 22, 1500.
(AHD, p.185)(HFA, ’96, p.28)

1460-1550 Jack Eddy, solar physicist, examined tree ring data in the 1970s and found a dearth of solar activity during this period.
(NG, 7/04, p.28)

1461 Feb 2-3, The English houses of York and Lancaster battled at Mortimer’s Cross, the Battle of the Three Suns. In the War of the Roses Edward of York defeated the Welsh Lancastrians in the 2nd battle of St Alban’s.
(MH, 12/96)(AM, 7/01, p.69)(MC, 2/2/02)

1461 Feb 17, The Houses of York and Lancaster battled again at St. Alban’s. Queen Margaret defeated the Earl of Warwick and freed Henry VI.
(MH, 12/96)(AM, 7/01, p.69)

1461 Mar 4, Henry VI was deposed and the Duke of York was proclaimed King as Edward IV. He tried to settle once and for all the dynastic struggle between York and Lancaster. At the Battle at Towton Duke Edward of York beat English queen Margaretha.
(HN, 3/4/99)(SC, 3/4/02)

1461 Mar 14, In Edward, son of the Duke of York, claimed the crown and was proclaimed King Edward IV in Westminster Abbey.
(MH, 12/96)

1461 Mar 29, Edward IV secured his claim to the English thrown in defeating Henry VI’s Lancastrians at the battle of Towdon (Towton). Some 50,000 fought and an estimated 28,000 were killed.
(HN, 3/29/99)(AM, 7/01, p.69)(AM, 7/01, p.68)

1461 Jun 28, Edward IV was crowned king of England.

1461 Aug 10, Alfonso ed Espina, bishop of Osma, urged an Inquisition in Spain.
(MC, 8/10/02)

1461 The Pope’s godson discovered a source of alum, used in dyes. This led to a booming business for the Catholic Church.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)
1461 L’Aquila in central Italy was again devastated by an earthquake.
(Econ, 10/27/12, p.80)
1461 Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II conquered Trabzon, a Greek port on the Black Sea. Trabzon had formed the basis of several states in its long history and was the capital city of the Empire of Trebizond between 1204 and 1461.

1462 Jun 27, Louis XII, King of France (1498-1515), was born.
(HN, 6/27/02)

1462-1464 Piero della Francesca, Italian artist, painted “The Resurrection” about this time.
(WSJ, 12/17/05, p.P14)

1462-1524 Vasco da Gama, Portuguese explorer.

1463 Jan 5, French poet Francois Villon was banished from Paris.
(MC, 1/5/02)

1463 Oct 29, Alessandro Achillini, Italian physician and philosopher, was born.
(MC, 10/29/01)

1463 The Venetians regained southern Greece for a short period.
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.56)

1463 The Ottomans conquered Bosnia.

1463-1494 Pico della Mirandola, born in the duchy of Ferrara and died in Florence. He studied Aristotelian philosophy at Padua, and canon law at Bologna. He learned Hebrew, Aramaic and Arabic before he was twenty. He became acquainted with the Hebrew Kabbala and was the first to use cabalistic doctrine to support Christian theology.

1464 May 15, The English Houses of York and Lancaster battled at Hexham. Among the Lancastrians the 3rd Duke of Somerset was killed.
(MH, 12/96)

1464 Jun 19, French King Louis XI formed a postal service.
(MC, 6/19/02)

1464 Aug 1, Piero de Medici (1416-1469) succeeded his father, Cosimo, as ruler of Florence. He was nicknamed Il Gottoso (the Gouty One) and squandered the family fortune.
(HN, 8/1/98)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1464 Mino da Fiesole sculpted the altar for Rome’s Santa Maria Maggiore.
(WSJ, 10/22/96, p.A20)
1464 Desiderio da Settignano (b.~1439), Renaissance sculptor, died in Florence.
(WSJ, 9/11/07, p.D6)

1464 Sonni Ali became the first king of the Songhai Empire, located in west Africa (later Mali) and the 15th ruler of the Sonni dynasty. Under the guidance of Sunni Ali, the Songhai began to conquer their neighbors and expand their kingdom. Goa became the capital of the Songhai empire. When Sunni Ali died rule was passed to his son, a non-Muslim.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sonni_Ali)(ATC, p.121)

1464-1471 Pope Paul II, Pietro Barbo, succeeded Pius II. He was responsible for a Papal Bull that established a 25-year interval between Holy Years.
(PTA, 1980, p.418)(SFC, 12/24/99, p.A15)

1465 Feb 11, Elizabeth of York, consort of King Henry VII, was born in London.
(MC, 2/11/02)

1465 The Nevill Feast at Cawood Castle in Yorkshire, England. 2,500 people were entertained. The guests ate over several days, 113 oxen, sic wild bulls, 1,000 sheep, 2,000 each of geese, pigs, and chickens, 12 porpoises, and 4,000 cold venison pasties. Such a feast would show how many fighting men a family could muster.
(N.G., Nov. 1985, M. Girouard, p.74)

1465 King Henry VI was captured and imprisoned in the Tower of London.
(MH, 12/96)

1465-1487 In China during the Chenghua reign blended enamels over a blue underglaze decoration reached a classic stage of development. Lady Wan, consort of the emperor, was intimately associated with porcelains and their design.
(SFEC, 10/6/96, DB p.37)

1466 Mar 8, Francesco Sforza (64), Italian condottiere (“Il Sforza del Destino”), duke of Milan, died.
(MC, 3/8/02)

1466 Oct 19, The peace of Torun ended the 13-year War of the Cities (1454-1466), between the Teutonic knights and their own disaffected subjects in Prussia. The Peace of Thorn (Torún) ended the war between the Teutonic knights (a German military and religious order) and their subjects in Prussia, led by King Casimir IV (1427-1492) of Poland. Poland was given Pomerelia and West Prussia, and the knights retained East Prussia, with a new capital at Königsberg (Kaliningrad). The knights, formerly strictly a German order, were forced to accept Poles as members and their grand master became a vassal of the Polish king.
(HN, 10/19/98)(http://reference.allrefer.com/encyclopedia/T/TeutonKn.html)

1466 Oct 26, Desiderius Erasmus (d.1536), scholar and author (In Praise of Folly), was born in Rotterdam. He was of illegitimate birth, but became a priest and a monk. He excelled in philology, the study of ancient languages, namely Latin and Greek and worked on a new translation of the New Testament. The more he studied it, the more he came to doubt the accuracy of the Vulgate, St. Jerome’s translation into Latin, dating from around 400. “In Praise of Folly” is his most famous work… In it Erasmus had the freedom to discourse, in the ironic style of Lucian (the Greek author whose works he translated), concerning all the foolishness and misguided pompousness of the world.
(V.D.-H.K.p.159-160)(MC, 10/26/01)

1466 Nov 30, Andrea Doria, Genoese statesman and admiral, was born.
(MC, 11/30/01)

1466-1520 Montezuma II, Aztec emperor. He amassed great wealth through taxation in Mexico and Central America. He used his wealth to build his capital at Tenochtitlan.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1466?-1530 Quentin Massys, Flemish painter. He painted “The Moneylender and His Wife.”
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.882)

1466-1772 Danzig (Gdansk) was occupied by German religious-knights.
(Voruta #27-28, Jul 1996, p.10)

1467 May, In Japan the 11-year Onin War began in Kyoto. In 1967 H. Paul Valery authored “The Onin War.”
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)(ON, 7/01, p.5)

1467 Jun 15, Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, died.
(HT, 6/15/00)

1468 Feb 3, Johannes Gutenberg (Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg b.c1400), German inventor of movable type, died.
(SFC, 2/15/97, p.D1)(WSJ, 9/14/00, p.A24)

1468 Feb 29, Pope Paul III was born.
(SFC, 2/29/00, p.A1)

1468 Dec 3, Lorenzo the Magnificent and his brother Giuliano succeeded their father, Piero de Medici, as rulers of Florence, Italy.
(HN, 12/3/98)

1468 Juan Reixach created his panel of St. Vincent Ferrer in the Hispano-Flemish style.
(WSJ, 3/2/05, p.D9)

1468 Skanderbeg of Albania died and the Turks absorbed Albania into the Ottoman Empire. Over the next five centuries most Albanians converted to Islam.
(CO, Grolier’s / Albania)(www, Albania, 1998)

c1468 The area around Bosnia was occupied by the Turks in the late 15th cent.
(SFC, 4/15/97, p.A10)

1469 Apr 15, The guru Nanak (d.1539), 1st guru of Sikhs, was born to Hindu parents in Lahore. Nanak assimilated tenets of pantheistic Hinduism and monotheistic Islam and founded Sikhism in the Punjab. He refused to accept the caste system and the supremacy of the Brahmanical priests and forbade magic, idolatry and pilgrimages. Brahma is the Hindu god of creation. Turbaned followers would sport the main of the lion, Singha or Sikh. The sacred Sikh book, Granth Sahib, was compiled by the 5th guru, Arjun, in 1605.
(WUD, 1994, p.1326)(Hem., 3/97, p.28)(SFEM, 9/19/99, p.74)(SFC, 9/22/99, p.E1)(WSJ, 10/12/01, p.W17)(MC, 4/15/02)

1469 May 3, Nicolo Machiavelli (d.1527), political advisor and author, was born. He was a historian and author of “The Prince.” He saw in Cesare Borgia, the bastard son of Pope Alexander VI, the prospect of an Italy free of foreign control. “Men are more apt to be mistaken in their generalizations than in their particular observations.”
(V.D.-H.K.p.109)(AP, 11/15/98)(HN, 5/3/99)

1469 May 19, Giovanni della Robbia, Italian sculptor, was born.
(MC, 5/19/02)

1469 May 31, Manuel I, king of Portugal (1495-1521), was born.
(HN, 5/31/98)

1469 Oct 18, Crown prince Fernando of Aragon (1452-1516) formally married princess Isabella (1451-1504) of Castile.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isabella_I_of_Castile)(Econ, 11/24/12, p.25)

1469 Dec 3, Piero de’ Medici (53), ruler of Florence, died.
(MC, 12/3/01)

1469 Fra Filippo Lippi, a Carmelite friar and painter and father of Filippino Lippi, died. Sandro Botticelli was one of his students.
(WSJ, 12/3/97, p.A20)

1469-1472 The islands of Sao Tome and Principe were discovered by Portuguese navigators and settled by 1500.
(AP, 7/18/03)

1469 Apr 15, The guru Nanak (d.1539), 1st guru of Sikhs, was born to Hindu parents in Lahore. Nanak assimilated tenets of pantheistic Hinduism and monotheistic Islam and founded Sikhism in the Punjab. He refused to accept the caste system and the supremacy of the Brahmanical priests and forbade magic, idolatry and pilgrimages. Brahma is the Hindu god of creation. Turbaned followers would sport the main of the lion, Singha or Sikh. The sacred Sikh book, Granth Sahib, was compiled by the 5th guru, Arjun, in 1605.
(WUD, 1994, p.1326)(Hem., 3/97, p.28)(SFEM, 9/19/99, p.74)(SFC, 9/22/99, p.E1)(WSJ, 10/12/01, p.W17)

1470 Mar 2, In England at Lose Coat Field, canon under Edward IV turned a group of Lincolnshire rebels into a panicked mob.
(MH, 12/96)

1470 Jun 30, Charles VIII, King of France (1483-98), invaded Italy, was born. One of his feet had 6 toes which prompted his wearing broad, square tip shoes.
(HN, 6/30/98)(SFC, 3/13/99, p.E6)

1470 Oct 9, Henry VI of England was restored to the throne.
(HN, 10/9/98)

1470 Nov 1, Edward V, King of England, was born. [see Nov 3]
(HN, 11/1/98)

1470 Nov 3, Edward V, King of England (Apr 9-Jun 25 1483), was born. [see Nov 1]
(MC, 11/3/01)

1470 The earliest documented work by Botticelli was made. “Fortitude” was an allegory portraying a woman who embodies the virtue of inner strength.
(SFC, 6/20/97, p.A9)

1470 The first book printed in France was an ornate ninth-century transcript produced for the grandson of Charlemagne. It is held by the Bibliotheque Nationale de France.
(WSJ, 9/26/95, p.A-20)

1470 In Portugal Princess Juana popularized the farthingale, a wide-hipped skit stiffened by whale bone.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R40)

c1470 The Quechua-speaking Incas came to dominate what is now Bolivia a mere 75 years before the Spaniards arrived.
(NH, 11/96, p.37)

1470-1650 The period of the second of four waves of rising prices over the last 800 years as described by David Hackett Fisher in his 1996 book: “The Great Wave: Price Revolutions and the Rhythm of History.”
(WSJ, 12/19/96, p.A16)

1471 Mar 22, George van Podiebrad, king of Bohemia (1458-71), died.
(MC, 3/22/02)

1471 Mar, Edward IV returned to England.
(MH, 12/96)

1471 Apr 11, King Edward IV of England captured London from Henry VI in the War of the Roses.
(MC, 4/11/02)

1471 Apr 14, On Easter Sunday Edward IV led an army of mercenaries and Yorkists at the Battle of Barnet and defeated the Lancastrians under the Earl of Warwick. Richard Neville Warwick (42), 2nd earl of Salisbury, was killed in battle. Margaret of Anjou returned from France. With her son, the Prince of Wales, she planned to join with Jasper Tudor, a Welsh ally, and attack Edward west of London.
(MH, 12/96)(HN, 4/14/00)

1471 May 4, The Yorkists defeated the Lancastrians in the Battle of Tewkesbury between the English House of Lancaster and House of York. King Edward IV routed the forces of ex-queen Margaret. The Lancastrian forces were led by Edmund Beaufort, 4th Duke of Somerset. Edward, the 17-year-old prince of Wales, was killed at the battle of Tewkesbury.
(MH, 12/96)(HN, 5/4/99)(www.britainexpress.com/History/battles/tewkesbury.htm)

1471 May 6, The 4th Duke of Somerset and other Lancastrian nobles were beheaded at the Tewkesbury marketplace after trial presided over by the Duke of Gloucester, Constable of England.
(MH, 12/96)

1471 May 21, Henry VI, king of England (1422-61, 70-71) and France (1431-71), was killed in the tower of London and Edward IV took the throne.
(HN, 5/21/98)

1471 Jul 25, Thomas A. Kempis (91), [Thomas Hammerken von Kempen], German writer, monk, died. His popular “Imitation of Christ” went through 99 editions by the end of the century.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)(Internet)

1471 Jul 26, Pope Paul II died.
(PTA, 1980, p.418)

1471 Aug 7, Francesco Della Rovere succeeded Paul II as Pope Sixtus IV.
(PTA, 1980, p.420)

1471 Nicolo Perotti (1430-1480), Italian humanist scholar, complained: “Now that anyone is free to print whatever they wish, they often disregard that which is best and instead write, merely for the sake of entertainment, what would best be forgotten, or better still, be erased from all books.”
(http://tinyurl.com/lehgso2)(Econ, 10/11/14, p.55)

1471 In Pec, Kosovo, the Qarshise Mosque was built. It was destroyed by Serbs in 1999.
(SFC, 9/7/99, p.A12)

1471-1474 A particular Spanish, copper-based coin called a blanca was issued.
(NH, 10/96, p.24)

1471-1528 Albrecht Durer, German artist. He is particularly known for his woodcuts for book illustrations.
(SFEC, 2/9/97, DB p.6)(WSJ, 11/7/00, p.A24)

1472 Mar 28, Fra Bartolommeo (d.1517), Florentine Renaissance painter, was born.

1472 Apr 15, Leon Battista Alberti (b.1404), Italian humanist, architect (Philodoxis), died. He wrote the 1st Italian grammar, the 1st theory of painting as an art, and the treatise “On the Art of Building.” In 1970 Joan Gadol authored a biography. In 2000 Anthony Grafton authored the biography “Leon Battista Alberti.”
(WSJ, 11/30/00, p.A20)(MC, 4/15/02)

1472 Hans Memling painted “The Virgin and Child With St. Anthony Abbot and Donor.”
(SFC, 10/18/05, p.D2)

1472 In Siena the Monte dei Paschi began taking deposits and making loans. By some accounts this was the oldest existing bank in 1999. Clerical groups had already established “monti di pieta” (mounds of money for charity). In Siena the original capital came from taxes.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R48)(Econ, 11/3/07, p.101)

1472 The Orkney Islands were part of Norway until this year.
(SFEC, 3/23/97, p.T3)

1472-1553 Lucas Cranach the Elder, German painter and graphic artist. He painted “Cardinal Albrecht as St. Jerome.”
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.339)

1473 Feb 19, The astronomer Copernicus (1473-1543) was born in Torun, Poland. He promulgated the theory that the earth and the planets move around the sun.
(WUB, 1994, p. 322)(HN, 2/19/98)(AP, 2/19/98)

1473 Aug 5, Leonardo da Vinci (21) made his detailed drawing “Landscape drawing for Santa Maria Della Nave.” This was later recognized as his earliest known drawing.
(SFC, 8/5/16, p.A2)

1473 Aug, The Battle of Otlukbeli was fought near Erzincan (southern Turkey). Uzun Hassan’s army of light cavalry was routed by Mehmed II’s Ottoman forces. Uzun Hassan, head of the Turkmen Aq Qoyunlu dynasty, survived, but his son Zeynel Bey was killed in battle. In commemoration, the Mausoleum of Zeynel Bey was erected in Hasankeyf in about 1474 on the orders of either Uzun Hassan, or Zeynel’s elder brother, Khalil.

1473 Lorenzo de Medici, Italian banker and poet, wrote: “It is hard to live in Florence if you do not control the state.”
(WSJ, 1/19/04, p.A12)

1473 The game of golf was played in Scotland at the Old course at St. Andrews.
(SFC, 6/25/95, p.T-7)

1473-1474 The book “Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye” was translated and printed from the French by William Caxton. A copy sold in 1998 for $1.2 million.
(SFC, 7/9/98, p.A12)

1474 Mar 21, Angela Merici, Italian monastery founder, saint, was born.
(MC, 3/21/02)

1474 May 9, Peter van Hagenbach, Elzasser knight, land guardian, was beheaded.
(MC, 5/9/02)

1474 Sep 8, Ludovico Ariosto, Italy, poet (Orlando Furioso), was born.
(MC, 9/8/01)

1474 Nov 27, Guillaume Dufay (b.1399), French-Flemish composer, died. His work included “Ecclesiae militantis,” a 5-part motet on Pope Eugenius IV’s short-lived supremacy over the Eastern Orthodox Church.
(WSJ, 1/2/02, p.A15)(MC, 11/27/01)

1474 Dec 12, Isabella crowned herself queen of Castilia & Aragon.
(MC, 12/12/01)

1474 Bartolome de Las Casas (d.1566), “Apostle to the Indians,” was born in Seville, Spain.

c1474 Ercole de’ Roberti, Italian artist, painted “St. Jerome in the Wilderness.”
(SFC, 4/27/99, p.C1)

1474 Venice introduced the 1st modern patent law.
(Econ, 10/22/05, Survey p.5)

c1474-1478 Leonardo da Vinci created his portrait “Ginevra de Benci.”
(WSJ, 12/14/01, p.W20)

1474-1515 Mariotto Albertinelli, painter. He painted “The Visitation.”
(AAP, 1964)

1474-1556 Bartolome de Las Casas, a Dominican priest, made a copy of the original log of Columbus’ voyage from a copy given to Columbus before his 2nd voyage. It is the only surviving copy.
(NH, 10/96, p.23)

1475 Mar 6, Michelangelo Buonarroti (d.1564), painter, sculptor and architect, was born. His early mentor was Bertoldo di Giovanni, a pupil of Donatello. His work included “The Creation of Adam” and the “Pieta Rondanini.” He at one time proposed to sculpt the 5,000 foot Monte Sagro in Carrara into the statue of a giant.
(WUB, 1994, p. 904)(WSJ, 2/29/96, p.A-14)(AAP, 1964)(SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T11)(SFEC,10/19/97, p.T4)(HN, 3/6/98)

1475 Cesare Borgia, illegitimate son of Rodrigo Borgia Lanzol, later Pope Alexander VI (1492-1503), was born. He was made a church cardinal before his 20th birthday.
(SFC, 3/16/02, p.A3)

c1475 Andrea del Verrochio created his sculpture “Sleeping Youth.”
(WSJ, 1/29/02, p.A18)

c1475 Dieric Bouts, Flemish painter, created his painting “Virgin and Child.”
(SFEC, 12/19/99, DB p.42)

1475 Pope Sixtus IV celebrated the Holy Year by building the Sistine Chapel and the Sixtus Bridge over the Tiber River.
(SFC, 12/24/99, p.A15)

1475-1476 Petrus Christus (b. c1415), Netherlandish painter, died in Brugge.

1475 In China’s Yunnan province the old Jihong Bridge over the Lancang River was reinforced with 18 iron chains over the 280-foot chasm.
(SFEC, 10/6/96, T5)

1475 British fishermen lost access to fishing grounds off Iceland due to a war in Europe. The cod catch did not go down and it is presumed that they had discovered the cod-rich waters off Newfoundland, whose discovery was later attributed to John Cabot.
(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.23)

1475 The Olavinlinna castle was founded by the governor of Viipuri on the border between Sweden-Finland and Russia.
(SFEC, 4/11/99, p.T4)

1475-1495 An 11-piece set of tapestries were created with scenes from the Trojan War. They included “The Death of Troilus, Achilles and Paris.” They were later housed at the Museo Catedralicio, Zamora, Spain.
(WSJ, 4/11/02, p.AD7)

1475-1509 Italian architects invited by Ivan III built the Kremlin Cathedrals of the Assumption and the Archangel.
(DVD, Criterion, 1998)



The Fifteenth Century 1400-1449

1400 Feb 14, Richard II (33), deposed king of England (1377-99), was murdered in Pontefract Castle in Yorkshire.
(HN, 2/14/99)(MC, 2/14/02)

1400 Oct 25, Geoffrey Chaucer, author (Canterbury Tales), died in London.
(AP, 10/25/97)(WSJ, 9/18/00, p.A36)

c1400 “The Edifying Book of Erotic Chess,” in effect a manual of seduction, was published.
(Econ, 7/10/04, p.76)

c1400 The first gold balls were made of stitched leather which was soaked and filled with feathers.
(SFEC, 6/14/98, p.A12)

c1400 The Ahwahneechee, a Southern Sierra Miwok band, first began to inhabit Yosemite in California.
(SFEC, 5/18/97, Z1 p.4)

c1400 In Washington state the 6 yard deep Electron Mudflow came down from Mount Rainier where the town of Orting was later established.
(SFEC, 7/12/98, p.A22)

1400 From about this time Dubai became a major crossing point on int’l. trading routes in silk, pearls, spices and gold.
(WSJ, 6/20/06, p.C12)

1400 Plague broke out again in Europe.
(HN, 1/20/01)

c1400 Johann Gutenberg (Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg d.1468), was born in Mainz. He was the inventor of movable, metal type, a stamping mold for casting type, the alloy of lead, tin, and antimony for the cast letters, the printing press itself, and a printing ink with an oil base. The first books were printed around 1450 on rag paper.
(V.D.-H.K.p.153-154)(SFC, 2/15/97, p.D1)(WSJ, 9/14/00, p.A24)

1400 By the 14th century the population Ghent (Belgium) was about 65,000. North of the Alps only Paris was larger.
(SSFC, 12/11/16, p.G8)

1400 The Malaysian city of Malacca was founded and it was soon used by Zheng He, a Chinese Muslim from the Ming court, as a base for his treasure ships.
(Econ, 11/15/14, SR p.5)

1400 Mali (Africa) was under attack from all four sides and gradually weakened in power.
(ATC, p.120)

1400 In Cracow, Poland, the Jagiellonian University was re-founded with funds and a permanent income by the royal couple. [see 1364]
(WSJ, 7/13/00, p.A24)(PG-Comm)

c1400 The Toraja people came to Sulawesi (later part of Indonesia) by boat from a island to the southwest and settled on the banks of the Sa’dan River.
(SFEC, 6/11/00, p.T8)

c1400 In Wales Owain Glyndwr (Owen Glendower c1359-c1460) led the warriors of Gwynned in a bloody revolt against Henry IV. The event was marked by a comet.
(SFEC, 6/22/97, p.D2)

c1400 Stone buildings were erected at Zimbabwe in central Africa and continued to be enlarged until about 1830.
(Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.169)

1400s Kongo’s king, the Mani-Kongo, ruled six provinces and about two million people. The capital of the Kongo was Mbanza, built on a fertile plateau 100 miles east of the coast and 50 miles south of the Congo River in southwest Africa.
(ATC, p.150)

c1400-1425 Yong Le, the 3rd Ming emperor, created a permanent imperial residence in Beijing. Work was done by some 200,000 laborers and in time became the 8,886-room complex called the “Forbidden City.”
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R36)

1400-1450 http://www.donsweb.com/History/Timeline/12–1400-1450ad.htm

1400-1464 Roger Van Der Weyden, Flemish painter.
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1624)

c1400-1471 Sir Thomas Malory, English author. His work included “Le Morte Darthur.”
(WUD, 1994, p.868)

c1400-1474 Guillaume Dufay [Du Fay], Flemish composer. His work included the “Ecclesie militantis,” which has four texts going simultaneously.
(WUD, 1994, p.440)(WSJ, 7/29/97, p.A12)

1400-1500 The 15th cent Urbino Bible was produced.
(WSJ, 7/12/96, p.A9)

1400-1500 In China a Shang Xi 15th cent. painting portrayed “The Xuande Emperor on an Outing.”
(WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)

1400-1500 Europeans began producing ethereal sounds from wine glasses containing liquids.
(SFEC,12/28/97, DB p.17)

1400-1500 In 2005 Tim Parks authored “Medici Money: Banking, Metaphysics, and Art in Fifteenth Century Florence.”
(Econ, 4/23/05, p.81)

c1400-1500 The 15th century German “Housebook” was produced. It taught the rules and etiquette of jousting, and contained remedies, cooking recipes, information on love and horoscopes.
(SFEC, 1/10/99, p.T3)
c1400-1500 In Germany Cardinal Nikolaus Cusanus, philosopher, founded a religious and charitable institution complete with vineyard at Kues, across from Bernkastel on the Mosel River.
(SFEC, 4/30/00, p.T8)

1400-1500 The Vietnamese from the north pushed the Chams south and opened the port of Hoi An to foreign traders.
(SFEC, 4/26/98, p.T4)
1400-1500 Porcelain from this period was recovered from a sunken ship in the South China Sea in 1999. 10% of the 150,000 pieces were kept by the Vietnamese government and the rest was scheduled for auction on eBay.
(WSJ, 6/22/00, p.W10)

1400-1500 The city of Bagerhat was founded in southern Bangladesh by Ulugh Khan-i-Jahan as a Muslim colony.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.B)

1400-1500 In the Philippines Vigan historic town on Luzon was established by Chinese traders by this time.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.F)

1400-1500 Giovanni Spinetti of Venice built the first small piano called the spinet.
(SFEC, 4/20/97, Z1 p.5)

1400-1600 Researchers in 1997 announced that sometime in this period the Sauvignon Franc grape crossed with Sauvignon Blanc grape to produce the Cabernet Sauvignon grape.
(SFC, 6/4/97, Z1 p.4)
1400-1600 Hoi An, Vietnam, flourished at the end of the 2nd Cham (Vijaya) Empire of this time. It attracted Japanese, then Portuguese, Dutch and Chinese merchants.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.H)

1400-1850 This was a frigid period in Europe and came to be called the Little Ice Age.
(NG, 7/04, p.28)

1401 Jan 9, In Marienburg some 80 Lithuanian barons were baptized to Catholicism.
(LHC, 1/9/03)

1401 Jan 18, In Lithuania Vytautas and the country’s dukes submitted documents to Poland that Vytautas would rule Lithuania as a vassal to Poland and return the country to Poland upon his death.
(LHC, 1/18/03)

1401 Feb 19, William Sawtree, 1st English religious martyr, was burned in London.
(MC, 2/19/02)

1401 Mar 13, The 1st Samogitian uprising supported by Vytautas took place against the German knights.
(LHC, 3/13/03)

1401 Jun, Amir Timur, aka Tamerlane, invaded Baghdad. After the capture of the city, 20,000 of its citizens were massacred.

1401 In England King Henry IV passed the medieval statute De Heretico Comburendo.
(MWH, 1994)

1401 In Florence Filippo Brunelleschi and Lorenzo Ghiberti entered a competition to create a set of new bronze doors for the baptistery of the cathedral.
(Econ, 3/30/13, p.83)

1401 A Giro Bank was established in Barcelona, making it Europe’s first bank. At this time Barcelona was the capital of the Aragon Kingdom.
(Econ, 1/10/09, p.74)

1401-1428 Tomasso di Giovanni, Italian artist, also known as Masaccio. His only know documented work is the Pisa altarpiece of 1426.
(WSJ, 9/27/01, p.A16)

1402 Mar 2, In Marienburg Svitrigaila crossed over to the Knights of the Cross and promised to uphold the Salyn treaty that was broken by Vytautas.
(LHC, 3/1/03)

1402 Jul 20, In the Battle of Angora the Mongols, led by Tamerlane “the Terrible,” defeated the Ottoman Turks and captured Sultan Bayezid I. The Turks eventually regained control of the city and it remained a part of the Ottoman Empire for the next five centuries. Around 2,000 BCE the site of the present day city was a Hittite village known as Ancyra. It was conquered in 333 BC by Macedonians led by Alexander the Great. Because of its central Anatolian Plateau location on the Ankara River, it became an important commercial center. Angora’s name was changed to Ankara in 1930.
(HN, 7/20/98)(Ot, 1993, p.6)(HNQ, 4/15/02)

1402 Sep 3, Gian Galeazzo Visconti, duke and tyrant of Milan (1395-1402), died at 51.
(MC, 9/3/01)

1402 The English Bedlam institution, a former monastery whose named derived from Bethlehem, began to house the poor and incurably mad. From 1728-1853 it was presided over by a family of doctors all descended from James Monro. On 2003 Jonathan Andrews and Andrew Scull published their 2-volume study: “Undertaker of the Mind” and “Customers and patrons of the mad-Trade,” based on Monro’s Case Book.
(WSJ, 1/29/03, p.D10)

1402 In Scotland the Duke of Rothesay, son of King Robert III and heir apparent, died under mysterious circumstances while in the custody of Robert Stewart, the 1st Duke of Albany. Stewart had built Duane Castle at the end of the 14th century.
(SSFC, 11/23/03, p.C6)

1403 Feb 22, Charles VII, King of France (1422-1461), was born.
(HN, 2/22/98)(MC, 2/22/02)

1403 Jul 21, Henry IV defeated the Percys in the Battle of Shrewsbury in England. Henry IV fought down an insurrection from Henry Percy, the Earl of Northumberland and Ralph Neville, the Earl of Westmorland, the same men who had helped him overthrow Richard II. Henry Percy (39), [Harry Hotspur] was killed in the battle.
(WUD, 1994, p.1671)(MWH, 1994)(HN, 7/21/98)

1403 Gjergj Kastrioti (d.1468) was born. He became the Albanian leader known as Skanderbeg.
(www, Albania, 1998)(HNQ, 10/5/98)

1403-1413 The Ottoman Empire fell into 11 years of civil war between the 4 sons of Beyazid.

1403?-1482 Giovanni di Paolo, painter. He painted “Expulsion from Paradise.”
(AAP, 1964)

1404 Feb 9, Constantine XI Dragases, last Byzantine Emperor, was born.
(MC, 2/9/02)

1404 Feb 18, Leon Battista Alberti (d.1472), Italian humanist, architect (Della Pittura), was born in Genoa, the illegitimate son of a Florentine merchant.
(WSJ, 11/30/00, p.A20)(MC, 2/18/02)

1404 Sep 27, William of Wykeham, chancellor and Bishop of Winchester, died.
(MC, 9/27/01)

1404 In Wales Owain Glyndwr convened a parliament in Macchynlleth.
(SFEC, 6/22/97, p.D2)

1404-1423 China controlled the price of tea and was able to increase its stock of horses from 20,000 to 1,600,000.
(WSJ, 8/15/00, p.A24)

1405 Feb 14, Timur, aka Tamerlane (b.1336), crippled Mongol monarch, died in Kazakhstan. In 2004 Justin Marozzi authored “Tamerlane: Sword of Islam, Conqueror of the World.”
(V.D.-H.K.p.172)(http://au.encarta.msn.com)(Econ, 8/28/04, p.76)

1405 Andrei Rublev, Russian icon painter, painted the iconostasis of the Cathedral of the Gospel with Theophan the Greek; this was the 1st work executed in the classical Russian style, distinguished from the Byzantine by its great height and width and organization of multiple, varied icons along axes.
(DVD, Criterion, 1998)

1405 Admiral Zheng He, a Muslim eunuch, led a Ming dynasty fleet with 28,000 men through Southeast Asia to India and on to Africa and the Middle East.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R51)(WSJ, 11/18/06, p.P11)

1406 Apr 4, Robert III, King of Scotland (1390-1406), died.
(MC, 4/4/02)

1406 Nov 30, Pope Gregory XII, born Angelo Correr or Corraro, succeeded Pope Innocent VII.
(AP, 2/11/13)( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Gregory_XII)

1406 In Beijing the Palace of Heavenly Purity, later renamed the People’s Cultural Palace, was built.
(SFC,12/22/97, p.E7)

1406 The Signoria of Florence decreed that the city’s 12 guilds had 10 years to fulfill their obligations to decorate an exterior niche of the Orsanmichele guild center.
(WSJ, 12/22/05, p.D8)

1407 Oct 26, Mobs attacked the Jewish community of Cracow.
(MC, 10/26/01)

1408 Feb 14, Vytautas gave self-rule status to Kaunas, which was 1st mentioned in the summer of 1361.
(LHC, 2/14/03)

1408 Feb 19, Henry IV led a victory in the Battle of Brabham Moor that marked the end of domestic threats. The revolt of Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland, against King Henry IV, ended with his defeat and death at Bramham Moor.
(MWH, 1994)(HN, 2/19/98)

1408 Sep 22, Johannes VII Palaeologus, Byzantine Emperor (1376-77, 90/1404-8), died.
(MC, 9/22/01)

1408 A law was enacted making it illegal to translate any part of the scriptures into English. It was declared a capital offense to possess an English Bible.
(WSJ, 12/22/94, A-20)(WSJ, 4/4/01, p.A18)

1408 A marriage at the Hvalsey Church in the East Settlement was the last record of the Norse in Greenland.
(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.25)(AM, 7/00, p.66)

1409 Jan 9, Rene’ d’Anjou (d.1480) was born the son and 3rd child of Duke Louis II of Anjou and Yolande of Aragon at Angers in the Maine-and-Loire region of western France. King René, poet and wine lover, demonstrated how all our leaders ought to be.
(http://www.guice.org/reneharr.html)(WSJ, 2/13/04, p.A12)

1410 May 18, Ruprecht, Roman Catholics German king, died.
(SC, 5/18/02)

1410 Jul 15, Lithuanian-Polish forces defeated the Teutonic Knights at the Battle of Tannenberg, Prussia, thereby halting the Knights’ eastward expansion along the Baltic and hastening their decline. Vytautas and Jogaila with hired mercenaries from Belarus along with Tartars and Czechs defeated the Teutonic Knights between Grunvald (Zalgiriai) and Tannenberg southeast of Malburg. Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen and many of his nobles were killed. The war officially ended with the Treaty of Thorn in which the Knights gave up Zemaitija to Vytautas.
(COE)(H of L, 1931, p.52)(DrEE, 11/9/96, p.6)

1410 Andrei Rublev, Russian icon painter, painted the icon “The Old Testament Trinity,” which showed Abraham’s 3 angels. This is the only work known to be entirely his own.
(DVD, Criterion, 1998)

c1410 The French “Book of the Chase” depicted hunting dogs and snares.
(SFEM, 4/6/97, p.16)

1411 Feb 1, Lithuania, Poland and the Knights of the Cross signed the Torun Peace Treaty. Samogitia was returned to Lithuania. The Teutonic Knights had regrouped and gone to battle against Vytautas and Jogaila. Peace was signed at Torun and western Lithuania was returned, but not Klaipeda (Memel).
(Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 71)(LHC, 1/31/03)

1411-1437 Sigismund became the Holy Roman Emperor. [see 1433]
(WUD, 1994, p.1325)

1412 Jan 6, According to tradition, French heroine Joan of Arc was born Jeanette d’Arc, in the French village of Domrémy. When she was 12 years old, she began hearing what she believed were voices of saints, sending her messages from God. When she was 17, the voices told her to leave her village and save Orléans. Joan convinced the dauphin that she could lead French troops in resistance against their English invaders, and she was given a force of several hundred men to command, whom she led to victory at Orléans in 1429. Wearing her white enameled armor suit, she continued to fight against the English. Joan was captured by Burgundians and then burned at the stake by the English on May 30, 1431, for the offenses of witchcraft, heresy and wearing male clothing. The Roman Catholic Church recognized Joan of Arc as a saint in 1920.
(CFA, ’96,Vol 179, p.38)(AP, 1/6/98)(HNPD, 1/6/99)

1413 Mar 20, Henry IV (b.1367), King of England (1399-1413), died in the house of the Abbot of Westminster. He was succeeded by Henry V (b.1387).
(AP, 3/20/97)(www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/henry_iv_king.shtml)

1413 Iceland used dried fish for money.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1414 Feb 19, Thomas Arundel, archbishop of Canterbury, chancellor of England, died.
(MC, 2/19/02)

1414 Nov 16, A council of bishops opened in Constance Germany under Emp. Sigismund. When the council of Constance opened, Christians owed obedience to three different popes: Gregory XII of the Roman party, Benedict XIII of the Avignon party, and John XXIII, who had been elected after the death of Alexander V. John XXIII and Benedict XIII were deposed by the council, and Gregory XII voluntarily resigned. Then Martin V was elected pope on 11 November 1417 and he was regarded as the legitimate pontiff by the church as a whole.
(www.ewtn.com/library/COUNCILS/CONSTANC.HTM)(WUD, 1994 p.313)

1415 Jun 13, Henry the Navigator, the prince of Portugal, embarked on an expedition to Africa. This marked the beginning of Portuguese dominance of West Africa.
(HN, 6/13/98)

1415 Jul 4, Pope Gregory XII (1326-1417), born Angelo Correr or Corraro, stepped down in a deal to end the Great Western Schism among competing papal claimants.
(AP, 2/11/13)( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Gregory_XII)

1415 Jul 6, Jan Huss, Bohemian (Czech) religious reformer, was burned as a heretic at the stake at Constance, Germany. He had spoken out against Church corruption.
(NH, 9/96, p.23)(HN, 7/6/98)

1415 Aug 13, King Henry V of England took his army across the English Channel and laid siege on Port Harfleur.
(ON, 6/08, p.9)

1415 Sep 21, Frederick III, German Emperor (1440-1493), was born in Innsbruck Austria.
(MC, 9/21/01)

1415 Oct 25, An English army under Henry V defeated the French at Agincourt, France. The French had out numbered Henry’s troops, but Welsh longbows turned the tide of the battle. The French force was under the command of the constable Charles I d’Albret. Charles I d’Albret, son of Arnaud-Amanieu d’Albret, came from a line of nobles who were often celebrated warriors. His ancestors had fought in the First Crusade (1096-99) and his father had fought in the Hundred Years War himself–first for the English before joining the side of France. Charles’ own exploits in the ongoing conflict came to an end at the Battle of Agincourt. The decisive victory for the outnumbered English saw the death of not only Charles, but a dozen other high-ranking nobles as well. But Charles’ fate did not end the Albrets as his descendants went on to become kings of Navarre, and later, France. In 2005 Juliet Barker authored “Agincourt: The King, the Campaign, and the Battle.”
(MH, 12/96)(HN, 10/25/98)(Econ, 10/22/05, p.88)(ON, 6/08, p.10)
1415 Oct 25, Edward (b.1373), duke of York, died at the Battle of Agincourt.

1416 Feb 6, A Samogitian complaint against the Knights of the Cross was read at the Catholic Church Council at Constance.
(LHC, 2/6/03)

1416 Apr 2, Ferdinand I (52) the Justified, king of Aragon and Sicily, died.
(MC, 4/2/02)

1416 May 7, Monk Nicolaas Serrurier was arrested for heresy at Tournay.
(MC, 5/7/02)

1416 May 30, Jerome of Prague was burned as a heretic by the Church.
(HN, 5/30/98)

1416 Jun 15, St. Francesco de Paolo, was born.
(HT, 6/15/00)
1416 Jun 15, Joannes Argyropoulos, Greek scholar, was born.
(HT, 6/15/00)

1416 Nanni di Banco, guild member of the Masters of Stone and Wood, installed his “Four Crowned Martyr Saints” at the Orsanmichele guild center in Florence.
(WSJ, 12/22/05, p.D8)

1416 The Drepung Loseling Monastery was founded in Lhasa, Tibet, as a center for Buddhist teaching. It was the home for early Dalai Lamas and a place where multiphonic singing was nurtured.
(SFC, 10/10/96, p.E1)

1416-1469 Piero de Medici, son of Cosimo de Medici.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1417 Feb 23, Pietro Barbo, later Pope Paul II (1464-1471), was born in Venice.
(PTA, 1980, p.418)

1417 Nov 11, Martin V was elected pope and was regarded as the legitimate pontiff by the church as a whole.

1417 Donatello used central point perspective in his scene of St. George fighting the dragon.
(Econ, 3/30/13, p.83)

1417 Bibliophile Poggio Bracciolini stumbled on a work by Roman poet Lucretius in a monastery in southern Germany. Lucretius (~99BC-~55BC) had authored “On the Nature of Things” (De Rerum Natura), which laid out in 7,400 lines of Latin verse the radical philosophy of the Greek philosopher Epicurus (341BC-270BC). The work had disappeared in the Middle Ages and lay largely forgotten until Bracciolini found it. In 2011 Stephen Greenblatt authored “The Swerve: How the World Became Modern.”
(SSFC, 12/18/11, p.F7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucretius)

1418 Feb 25, At the Constance church synod the Orthodox Metropolitan of Kiev and Lithuania, Gregory Camblak, proposed a union between the Orthodox and Catholic church.
(LHC, 2/25/03)

1418 In China a book was published about this time titled “The Marvelous Visions of the Star Raft.” It documented some of the exploits of Admiral Zheng He, who roamed the oceans from 1405-1435.
(Econ, 1/14/06, p.80)
1418 In 2006 Liu Gang, a Beijing lawyer and amateur map collector, unveiled a map that proclaimed to be a 1763 copy of an older Chinese map dating to 1418. The map showed the world in 2 hemispheres, but its authenticity was questioned.
(SSFC, 1/22/06, p.A9)(Econ, 1/14/06, p.80)

1418 In Florence Brunelleschi and Ghiberti submitted plans for the dome of the Cathedral of St. Mary of the Flower. The cathedral had been under construction for 125 years and was designed to be capped by the largest dome since the golden age of ancient Rome.
(ON, 9/00, p.6)

1418 The Gawhar Shad Mosque in Meshed, Iran was completed by the wife of Shah Rukh.
(NG, Sept 1939, Baroness Ravensdale, p.353)

1418 The Church Council at Constance, Germany, begun in 1414, ended.
(WUD, 1994 p.313)

1418 In Spain an agreement with the city council of Madrid set a fee of 50 maravedis – medieval copper coins – per 1,000 sheep brought through the central Sol square and Gran Via street. In 1994 sheep farmers began parading their livestock through the city, along a route that once cut through undeveloped countryside on their way to winter grazing pastures in southern Spain.
(Reuters, 10/21/18)

1419 Jul 30, Anti-Catholic Hussites, followers of executed reformer Jan Hus, stormed the town hall in Prague and threw 3 Catholic consuls and 7 citizens out the window. This episode has been called “The Defenestration in Prague.” The out-the-window gentlemen all landed safely in a manure pile.
(NH, 9/96, p.23)(MC, 7/30/02)

1419 Aug 16, Wenceslas (b.1361), son of Charles IV and King of Germany, died. He served as King Wenceslas IV of Bohemia (1363) and King of the Romans (1376).
1419 Aug 16, Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, became king of Bohemia following the death of Wenceslaus IV, but was ejected by the Hussites due to the execution of Jan Huss.

1419 Sep 10, John the Fearless (48), Burgundy and French warrior, was murdered at Montereau, France, by supporters of the dauphine.
(HN, 9/10/98)(MC, 9/10/01)

1419 Dec 11, Heretic Nicolaas Serrurier was exiled from Florence.
(MC, 12/11/01)

1419 The marble Fonte Gaia in Siena was sculpted by Jacopo della Quercia.
(WSJ, 4/29/03, D5)

1419 An English army under Henry V captured the duchy of Normandy.
(ON, 6/08, p.11)

1419 Prince Henry (d.1460), as governor of Portugal’s southernmost province, attracted shipbuilders, cartographers and other nautical experts. His patronage was instrumental in stimulating European exploration in the first half of the 15th century.
(HN, 6/21/01)

1420 Mar 1, Pope Martinus I called for a crusade against the Hussieten (Bohemia).
(SC, 3/1/02)

1420 May 21, King Charles VI of France signed the Treaty of Troyes. It recognized all the territorial gains of King Henry V, gave Henry the daughter of Charles, Catherine of Valois, in marriage, and acknowledged Henry as the legitimate heir to the French throne.
(ON, 6/08, p.11)

1420 Jul 14, Jan Zizka (1360?-1424) led the Taborites in Battle at Vitkov Zizka’s hill (Prague). The Taborites beat forces under Sigismund, the pro-Catholic King of Hungary and Bohemia. This was part of the Hussite Wars (1419-1436).

1420 Jul, The Hussites agreed on the Four Articles of Prague, which were promulgated in the Latin, Czech, and German languages. In summery they stated: 1) Freedom to preach the Word of God. 2) Celebration of the Lord’s Supper in both kinds (bread and wine to priests and laity alike). 3) No profane power for the clergy. And 4) The same law for laity and priests.

1420 Dec 1, Henry V, King of England and de facto ruler of France, entered Paris.

1420 Siennese artist Giovanni di Paolo painted a tiny gold-ground triptych.
(SFEC, 1/11/98, p.D7)

1420 The main character of Janacek’s opera “The Excursions of Mr. Broucek” was cast into a setting of religious wars from this time and forced to fight with the Hussite fanatics in Prague.
(WSJ, 6/13/96, p.A12)

c1420 Francesco di Antonio, Florentine artist, painted “St. John the Baptist” and “St. Anthony Abbot.” The panels later made their way to St. Philip’s in the Hills parish in Tucson, Ariz.
(WSJ, 8/9/96, p.A8)

1420 Brewers in Bavaria about this time discovered a way to brew beer in the winter beginning the lager revolution.
(Econ, 8/27/11, p.71)

1420 In Greece the Bayezid Mosque was completed in the town of Didymoticho close to the Greek-Turkish border. In 2017 a fire ripped through the Ottoman mosque causing extensive damage.
(Reuters, 3/22/17)

1420 Prince Henry the Navigator (b.1394) gathered cartographers, navigators and shipbuilders in a fortress in Sagres, Portugal, to invent navigation technology to reach India, China and the Americas. He later sailed south of the Canary Islands to the great eastward curve of West Africa at Sierra Leone. The search for Prester John as an ally against the Muslims helped inspire his explorations. Henry began dispatching expeditions from the nearby port of Lagos. Although dubbed “Henry the Navigator” by English writers, he never embarked on the voyages of exploration he himself sponsored. Nevertheless, the prince helped advance European cartography and the accuracy of navigation tools as well as spurring maritime commerce.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)(HN, 3/4/98)(WSJ, 1/28/00, p.A18)(HNQ, 6/21/01)

1420 Portuguese sailors and soldiers begin fighting the natives of the Canary Islands, 800 miles southwest of the southern tip of Portugal.

1420 Scotland’s Duke of Albany died. The governorship of Scotland and Doune Castle passed to his son, Murdoch.
(SSFC, 11/23/03, p.C6)

1420-1433 Time of the Hussite wars in Bohemia.
(WUD, 1994, p.1671)

1420-1480 The Portuguese explored the west coast of Africa along the Gold Coast, so named because here could be found plenty of gold to buy pepper.

1420-1492 Piero della Francesca, painter, born in Borgo Sansepolcro, but trained in Florence. In Urbino under the patronage of Federico da Montefeltro, he produced some of his best works including the “Flagellation,” the “Resurrection” and “St. Apollonia.” His paintings incorporated the new aspect of perspective and earthly matters dominate over religious feeling.
(V.D.-H.K.p.130)(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.563)

1420-1500 The Paston Letters comprise 1,000 documents involving an English family over this period. The collection is held by the Univ. of Michigan and is being made electronically available under the Humanities Text Initiative (HTI) program that was begun in 1989.
(MT, 6/96, p.8,9)

1421 Mar, Admiral Zheng He of the Ming dynasty embarked on a voyage that took him to the east coast of Africa. In 2002 an amateur historian proposed that he continued his voyage around the world. [see 1431]
(SSFC, 3/17/02, p.A3)

1421 May 11, Jews were expelled from Styria, Austria.
(MC, 5/11/02)

1421 May 23, Jews of Austria were imprisoned and expelled.
(MC, 5/23/02)

1421 May 26, Mohammed I, Ottoman sultan (1413-21), died.
(MC, 5/26/02)

1421 Nov 18-1421 Nov 19, In the St. Elizabeth flood the Southern sea flooded 72 villages killing some 10,000 in Netherlands.

1421 Dec 6, Henry VI, the youngest king of England, was born. He acceded the thrown at 269 days of age.
(HN, 12/6/02)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_VI_of_England)

1421 In Florence the first recorded patent was granted for a barge with hoisting gear used to transport marble.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1421 In Vienna a medieval synagogue burned with its Jewish occupants. Its remains were found in 1996 in the Judenplaz during preparation work for the installation of a new statue for the Holocaust Memorial project.
(WSJ, 11/7/96, p.A18)

1422 Mar 30, Ketsugan, a Zen teacher, performed exorcisms to free the Aizoji temple.
(MC, 3/30/02)

1422 Aug 13, William Caxton (d.1491), 1st English printer, was born.
(http://en.thinkexist.com/birthday/August_13/)(WSJ, 5/12/05, p.D8)

1422 Aug 31, Henry V (b.1387), King of England (1413-22) and France (1416-19), died.

1422 Sep 6, Sultan Murat II ended a vain siege of Constantinople.
(HN, 9/6/98)

1422 Oct 21, Charles VI, King of France (1380-1422), died at 54.
(MC, 10/21/01)

1422-1482 Federico da Montefeltro, a distinguished warrior and scholar, commissioned 2 intarsia studiolas (1478-1483). A history of Federico and his studiola is in the 6/6/96 issue of “The Bulletin,” the NY Met museum’s newsletter for members
(WSJ, 6/6/96, p.A12)

1423 Mar 30, Lithuania and Poland reached an agreement at Kezmark with Emperor Sigismund, who agreed to recall Sigismund Kaributa from Poland.
(LHC, 3/30/03)

1423 May 23, Benedict XIII, [Pedro the Luna], Spanish Pope (1394-1423), died. He had been elected by the Avignon cardinals during the Great Western Schism.
(MC, 5/23/02)(PTA, 1980, p.402)

1423 Ghiberti’s sculpture of St. Matthew was installed at the Orsanmichele guild center in Florence.
(WSJ, 12/22/05, p.D8)

1423 Dick Whittington (b.1354), four times Lord Mayor of London, a Member of Parliament and a sheriff of London, died and gave all his money to charity.
(Reuters, 11/26/11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Whittington)

1424 Oct 11, Jan Zizka (b.c1370), Czech army leader (Hussite), died of plague.

1424 Dec 6, Don Alfonso V of Aragon granted Barcelona the right to exclude Jews.
(MC, 12/6/01)

1424 Masolino sculpted his Pieta.
(WSJ, 1/20/02, p.D8)

1424 A Portuguese navigation chart showed a land called Antilia in the vicinity of the West Indies.
(SFEC, 5/28/00, Z1 p.2)

1424 James I (1394-1437) returned from exile and was crowned King of Scotland.

1425 Feb 27, Moscow’s Grand Duke Vasilii died and his brother-in-law, Vytautas, became guardian of his son, Vasilii, and daughter, Sophia.
(LHC, 2/27/03)

1425 Jul 21, Manuel Palaeologus, Byzantine Emperor (1391-1425), writer, died. He ended his days after signing a humiliating peace with the Ottoman Turks.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manuel_II_Palaeologus)(Econ, 9/23/06, p.59)

1425 Aug 25, Countess Jacoba of Bavaria escaped from jail.
(chblue.com, 8/25/01)

1425 Donatello created his hollow bronze statue of St. Louis of Toulouse.
(Econ, 3/30/13, p.83)

1425 Robert Campin painted the altarpiece “The Merode Triptych.”
(WSJ, 1/14/00, p.W12)

1425 Dame Juliana Berner described fly fishing in her “Treatyse of Fysshynge Wyth an Angle.” [see 1496]
(SFEM, 11/7/99, p.6)

1426 Sep 18, Hubert [Huybrecht] van Eyck, painter, died.
(MC, 9/18/01)

1426 Hubert van Eyck (1385-1426) began work on “The Adoration of the Mystic Lamb,” later known as the Ghent Altarpiece. The 12-panel work was completed in 1432 by his younger brother Jan van Eyck. It was the first major oil painting in history.
(SSFC, 2/16/14, p.E6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ghent_Altarpiece)

1426 Vietnam provided a defeated Chinese army with boats and horses to carry home its soldiers.
(NG, May, 04, p.94)

1427 May 10, Jews were expelled from Berne, Switzerland.
(MC, 5/10/02)

1427 Gentile De Fabriano (b.~1378), Italian painter, died about this time. His work included “The Adoration of the Kings” (1423).
(WSJ, 12/19/08, p.W9A)( http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/06421a.htm)

1428 Feb 5, King Alfonso V ordered Sicily’s Jews to convert to Catholicism.
(MC, 2/5/02)

1428 Dec 22, Richard Neville Warwick, 2nd earl of Salisbury, was born.
(MC, 12/22/01)

1428 Fra Angelico (c.1387-1455), Italian painter and Dominican friar, created his “Madonna of Humility.”
(Econ, 12/17/11, p.148)
1428 John Wycliffe (1328-1384), English theologian and biblical translator, was posthumously declared a heretic and his body was exhumed for burning.
(WSJ, 4/4/01, p.A18)

1428-1430 Andrei Rublev, Russian icon painter, took part in painting the frescoes of the Andronikov Monastery’s Church of the Savior.
(DVD, Criterion, 1998)

1429 Jan 9, The conference at Luck began (Jan 9-29). Vytautas hosted a grand Congress at Luck ostensibly to unite the region against threats from the Turks to the south. Emperor Sigismund of Hungary agreed to the formation of the Kingdom of Lithuania and dispatched a crown from Hungary.
(DrEE, 11/9/96, p.6)(LHC, 1/9/03)

1429 Jan 10, Order of Golden Fleece was established in Austria-Hungary & Spain.
(MC, 1/10/02)

1429 Jan 23, At the Congress of Luck Emp. Sigismund of Luxembourg offered to crown Vytautas as King of Lithuania.
(LHC, 1/23/03)

1429 Apr 29, Joan of Arc led French troops to victory over the English at Orleans during the Hundred Years’ War. Legend has it that King Charles VII of France had a suit of armor made for Joan at a cost of 100 war horses. In 1996 a suit of armor was found and proposed to be Joan’s armor.
(ATC, p.107)(SFC, 6/19/96, p.A10)(AP, 4/29/98)(HN, 4/29/98)

1429 May 7, English siege of Orleans was broken by Joan of Arc.
(HN, 5/7/98)

1429 May 8, French troops under Joan of Arc rescued Orleans.
(MC, 5/8/02)

1429 May 9, Joan of Arc defeated the besieging English at Orleans.
(HN, 5/9/98)

1429 Jul 16, Joan of Arc led French army in the Battle of Orleans. [see May 9]
(MC, 7/16/02)

1429 Jul 17, The dauphin, son of Charles VI, was crowned as king of France.
(PCh, 1992, p.144)(MC, 7/17/02)

1429 Aug 26, Joan of Arc makes a triumphant entry into Paris.
(HN, 8/26/99)

1429 Nov 6, Coronation of Henry VI, King of England.
(HN, 11/6/98)

1429 Dec 21, Jacquemart de Blaharies, Tournay “heretic”, was burned to death.
(MC, 12/21/01)

1429 The beginning of coal mining in the Saarland (Germany) dates to this time.
(Econ, 3/1/08, p.71)

1429 Two monks reportedly went fishing in Russia’s northern Solovetsky Islands and soon established a year-round settlement usually referred to as Solovki.
(Econ, 12/18/04, p.83)

1429 The kingdom of Ryukyu was unified under the court at Shuri (later part of Naha, Okinawa).
(NH, 9/01, p.56)

1430 Jan 29, Andrei Rublev, Russian icon painter, died and was buried in the Andronikov Monastery. In 1966 the Russian film “Andrei Rublev” was made by Andrei Tarkovsky.
(DVD, Criterion, 1998)

1430 May 5, Jews were expelled from Speyer, Germany.
(MC, 5/5/02)

1430 May 23, Joan of Arc was captured by the Burgundians, who sold her to the English.
(AP, 5/23/97)(HN, 5/23/98)

1430 Jul 14, Joan of Arc, taken prisoner by the Burgundians in May, was handed over to Pierre Cauchon, the bishop of Beauvais.
(HN, 7/14/98)

1430 Oct 3, Jews were expelled from Eger, Bohemia.
(MC, 10/3/01)

1430 Oct 27, Vytautas the Great (b.1350), the ruler of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (1392–1430) which chiefly encompassed the Lithuanians and Ruthenians, died. He had been preparing for coronation but Polish forces interrupted the arrival of his crown to Trakus. He began to ride to Vilnius but fell from his horse and was returned to Trakus where he died at the age of 80. He was also the Prince of Hrodna (1370–1382) and the Prince of Lutsk (1387–1389), postulated king of Hussites.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vytautas)(H of L, 1931, p.58)

1430-1432 In Lithuania Svitrigaila served as Grand Duke.
(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1430s Jan van Eyck painted 2 works titled “St. Francis Receiving the Stigmata.” For a time he was considered the inventor of oil painting, but later lost that distinction. He is still regarded as the inventor of a type of landscape painting with figures in realistic scale that influenced the entire Northern school of painting. Only 9 signed and dated works survive. In 2001 painter David Hockney and physicist Charles Falco alleged that Eyck and other artists of this period began using optical devices to project pictures and produce detailed tracings.
(WSJ, 5/7/98, p.A21)(SFC, 1/5/01, p.C9)

1430 Hans Memling (d.1494), painter of the Flemish school, was born in Seligenstadt, Germany.
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.894)

1430?-1498? Cosimo Tura, Italian painter. He painted “Renaissance Nobleman.”
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1525)

1430-1516 Giovanni Bellini, Venetian painter son of Jacopo. He painted “Portrait of the Doge Loredano.”
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.136)

1431 Jan 1, Rodrigo Borgia Lanzol (d.1503), member of the Borgia family, was born in Xativa, Spain. His mother was the sister of Pope Calixtus III. He was elected Pope Alexander VI in 1492 and amassed a fortune by pocketing church funds. His reign helped inspire the Protestant reformation. He fathered numerous children including Lucrezia Borgia. Machiavelli based “The Prince” on him.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)(PTA, 1980, 424)

1431 Feb 21, The interrogation of Joan of Arc (1412-1431) began France.
(Sm, 2/06, p.38)

1431 Mar 3, Bishop Gabriele Condulmer (1383-1447) was elected as Pope Eugene IV (1431-1447).
(WUD, 1994 p.491)(PTA, 1980, p.410)(SC, 3/3/02)

1431 May 30, Joan of Arc (19), condemned as a heretic [as a witch], was burned at the stake in Rouen, France. A silent movie of her life was made in 1927 by Carl Theodor Dreyer.
(CFA, ’96, p.46)(WSJ, 1/23/96, p.A-12)(AP, 5/30/97)(HN, 5/30/98)

1431 Dec 16, Henry VI of England was crowned King of France.
(HN, 12/16/98)

1431 Andrea Mantegna (d.1506), Italian painter and engraver, was born.
(WUD, 1994, p.1534)(WSJ, 6/6/96, p.A12)(SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T11)

1431 Admiral Cheng Ho of the Ming dynasty led a fleet of 52 ships with nearly 30,000 men to the east coast of Africa. Shortly thereafter the Mings halted all voyages and begin to foster an attitude of antiforeign conservatism.

1431 Thai armies invaded and plundered the Khmer civilization at Angkor Thom in Cambodia. The court moved south of the great lake Tonle Sap and later to Phnom Penh.
(SFEC, 7/26/98, p.T6)

1431 Cosimo de Medici was arrested for seeking to elevate himself higher than others. With bribes he reduced his sentence from execution to banishment. His absence led to a financial crises in Florence and he was quickly invited back.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1431-1463? Francois Villon, French poet. The 1938 film “If I Were King” starred Ronald Colman and Basil Rathbone and was directed by Preston Sturges. It was about the French poet and revolutionary Francois Villon.
(WUD, 1994, p.1593)(SFEC, 8/2/98, DB p.49)

1431-1476 In Romania Vlad Tepes, aka Vlad the Impaler, the son of Vlad Dracul (Vlad the Dragon), was a 15th century gruesome Wallachian nobleman. Dracula means son of the dragon. He punished disobedient subjects and “unchaste” women by impaling them on sharpened logs, often dining amid the victims as they died. The family name changed to Kretzulesco and grew in stature with members upgraded to princes and princesses.
(WSJ, 10/30/97, p.A20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vlad_the_Impaler)

1432 Jan 15, Afonso V “the African”, king of Portugal (1438-1481), was born.
(MC, 1/15/02)

1432 Zeeland became part of the Low Countries possession of Phillip the Good (1396-1467) of Burgundy.

1432-1440 In Lithuania Zygimantas Kestutaitis served as Grand Duke.
(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1433 Apr 14, Liduina van Schiedam (53), Dutch mystic (Christ’s Bride), saint, died.
(MC, 4/14/02)

1433 May 31, Sigismund was crowned emperor of Rome.
(HN, 5/31/98)

1434 Mar 1, Jacoba of Bavaria married Frank van Borselen.
(SC, 3/1/02)

1434 May 30, The Battle of Lipany virtually ended the Hussite Wars. Prokopius leader of Taborites, died in battle.

1434 Nov 24, The Thames River froze.
(MC, 11/24/01)

1434 Jan van Eyck painted “the Arnolfini Marriage.” It is now at the London National Gallery.
(Cont, 12/97, p.60)(SFEC, 2/1/98, p.T8)

1434 The imperial kiln at Jungdezhen in south-central China produced 250,000 porcelain pieces.
(SFEC, 10/6/96, DB p.37)

1434 Nomadic Tuaregs seized Timbuktu, Mali, from invaders.
(AP, 4/1/12)

1434 Gil Eannes, Portuguese explorer, made the first successful rounding of Cape Bojador, off Western Sahara, in a lug-rigged boat.

1435 Sep 21, Treaty of Atrecht. Philippe le Bon of Burgundy and French king Charles II signed a treaty at Arras. Phillipe broke with the English and recognized Charles as France’s only king.
(MC, 9/21/01)(PCh, 1992, p.145)

1435 Oct 20, Andrea Della Robbia, sculptor, nephew of Luca, was born in Florence.
(MC, 10/20/01)

1435 In Sweden the main building of the Uppsala Cathedral was completed. Spires were added in the 19th century.
(SSFC, 7/26/15, p.M16)

1436 Jun 6, Regiomontanus (Johannes Muller), prepared astronomical tables, was born.
(MC, 6/6/02)

1436 The 350-foot high dome of Santa Maria del Fiore, the cathedral of Florence, by Filippo Brunelleschi was completed. The cathedral was consecrated by the Pope following 140 years of construction. In 2000 Ross King authored “Brunelleschi’s Dome: How a Renaissance Genius Reinvented Architecture.”
(Hem., 10/97, p.130)(SSFC, 12/24/00, BR p.12)

1436 Emperor Sigismund (1368-1437) was accepted as king of Bohemia.
(WUD, 1994, p.1672)(WUD, 1994, p.1325)

1436 Johannes Gutenburg of Germany invented the printing press with movable type.
(SFC, 7/26/04, p.F4)

1437 Sep 18, Farmers revolted in Transylvania.
(MC, 9/18/01)

1437 Dec 9, Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, died. Major Czech factions had accepted Sigismund as king of Bohemia prior to his death.

1438 Oct 20, Jacopo di Piero della Quercia (64), Italian sculptor, died.
(MC, 10/20/01)

1438 Jan van Eyck (1385-1440) painted his “Portrait of Cardinal Niccols Albergati.”
(SFC, 1/5/01, p.C9)

1438 Filippo Lippi created the painting “Woman with a Man at a Window.”
(WSJ, 12/14/01, p.W20)

1438 The Incas established an imperial state in the Andes (Peru) and Cusco was rebuilt. They went on to build over 25,000 miles of roads.
(SFC, 3/19/02, p.A2)(NG, Feb, 04, p.72)

1438 The shipbuilding firm of Camuffo was founded in Portogruaro, Italy.
(SFC, 4/14/06, p.D1)

1439 Jul 16, Kissing was banned in England in order to stop germs from spreading.
(MC, 7/16/02)

1439 Oct 21, Traversari Ambrosius (53), Italian humanist and leader, died.
(MC, 10/21/01)

1439 Oct 27, Albrecht II von Habsburg (42), king of Bohemia, Hungary and Germany, died.
(MC, 10/27/01)

1439-1440 Donatello (1386-1466), Florentine artist, completed his bronze statue of David about this time. It was commissioned by Cosimo de Medici.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R53)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_%28Donatello%29)

1439 Byzantium formally submitted to Rome. [see 330AD]
(WSJ, 11/14/95, p. A-12)

1439-1448 Felix V served as the last antipope. He was born as Amadeus VIII, duke of Savoye in 1383.
(MC, 9/4/01)

1440 Jan 22, Ivan III (the Great), grand prince of Russia, czar from 1462-1505, was born. He conquered Lithuania.
(HN, 1/22/99)(MC, 1/22/02)

1440 Feb 22, Ladislaus V Posthumus, King of Hungary and Bohemia, was born.
(MC, 2/22/02)

1440 Jun 29, Florentine troops fought the Milanese in the Battle of Anghiari. After the battle of Anghieri, Andrea del Castagno (1421-1457), a Medici protege, painted effigies of the hanged rebels.

1440 Oct 26, Gilles de Rais, French marshal, depraved killer of 140 children, was hanged over slow fire. A brilliant young French knight, he was believed to have cracked over the torture and death of his true love, Jeanne d’Arc, the Maid of Orleans (d.1431).
(MC, 10/26/01)

1440 Dec 22, Bluebeard, pirate, was executed.
(MC, 12/22/01)

c1440 The Book of Hours of Catherine of Cleves was made.
(SFC, 2/15/97, p.D1)

c1440 Lief Eriksson drew a map of America about this time. The “Vinland Map” was introduced in 1965 by Yale University as being the 1st known map of America, drawn about 1440 by Norse explorer Lief Eriksson.
(MC, 10/10/01)

1440 Eton, the top British public school, was established by Henry VI.
(Hem, 4/96, p.68)

1440-1492 In Lithuania Casimir served as Grand Duke.
(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1440-1870 This period is covered in the 1997 book by Hugh Thomas: “The Slave Trade, The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440-1870.”
(SFEC,11/16/97, BR p.4)(WSJ, 2/26/02, p.A22)

1441 Jun, Jan/Johannes van Eyck (b.1395), Flemish painter (Lamb Gods), died in Brugge.

1441 Portuguese kidnapped several noble-born Africans, who in turn offered African slaves to the captors as ransom. In 1998 John Reader published “Africa: A Biography of a Continent.”
(SFEC, 6/28/98, BR p.12)

1442 Apr 28, Edward, the son of Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York, was born in Rouen, France. He was crowned as Edward IV in 1461 and became the first king of the House of York (1471-1483). In a 2004 television documentary, records were found in the Rouen Cathedral archives which revealed that, from 14 July to 21 August 1441, the crucial five-week period in which Edward must have been conceived, Edward’s supposed father was away on campaign at Pontoise, several days’ march from Rouen (where Cecily of York was based), and that prayers were being offered for his safety. This was taken to suggest that the Duke of York could not have been available to father Edward.

1442 Jun 12, Alfonso V of Aragon was crowned King of Naples.
(HN, 6/12/98)

1442 The Pazzi Chapel in Florence was begun. Its design was suspected to be by Michelozzo di Bortalommeo, a follower of Brunelleschi.
(SFC, 1/2/97, p.C3)
1442 Al-Maqrizi (b.1364), Egyptian historian, died. His work included a history of Cairo. Maqrizi had begun a large work called the Muqaffa, an encyclopedia of Egyptian biography in alphabetic order. Another Egyptian historian, al-Sakhawi, believed this would require eighty volumes to complete, but only sixteen were written.
(SSFC, 7/24/11, p.F7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Maqrizi)

1443 May 9, Niccolo d’Albergati, Italian cardinal, died.
(MC, 5/9/02)

1443 Jun 5, Ferdinand, Portuguese saint, slave to Fez, died.
(MC, 6/5/02)

1443 Dec 5, Giuliano della Rovere, later Pope Julius II (1443-1513), was born in Liguria.

1443 After losing a battle near Nis, Skenderbeg with a group of Albanian warriors defected from the Ottoman army and return to Kruja. Albanian resistance to Turkish rule was organized under the leadership of Skander Beg in Kruja. He was able to keep Albania independent for more than 20 years. A baronial museum in his honor was later was designed by the daughter of Enver Hoxha.
(CO, Grolier’s Amer. Acad. Enc./ Albania)(WSJ, 4/14/98, p.A21)(www, Albania, 1998)

1444 May 20, Bernardinus van Siena (63), Italian saint, died.
(MC, 5/20/02)

1444 Aug 26, In the Battle of St. Jakob an der Birs, fought near Basel in Switzerland, a Swiss force of some 1,600 soldiers stopped some 30,000 French mercenaries on their way to relieve a siege of Zurich.

1444 Nov 10, During the Hungarian-Turkish War (1444-1456), Sultan Murad II beat the Crusaders in the Battle at Varna on the Black Sea.
(DoW, 1999, p.217)

1444 Murad II, Ottoman ruler, abdicated and Mehmet II (13) briefly succeeded him until 1446.
(Ot, 1993, p.7)
1444 The Albanian people organized a league of Albanian princes in this year under George Kastrioti, also known as Skanderbeg. As leader of this Christian league he effectively repulsed 13 Turkish invasions from 1444 to 1466, making him a hero in the Western world.
(HNQ, 10/5/98)(www, Albania, 1998)
1444 Cossacks were first mentioned in Russian history.
(SFC,10/28/97, p.A8)
1444 Slaves from Africa were first carried to Portugal. Europe’s first modern-era slave market was established in Portugal. Lancarote de Freitas returned to Lagos, Portugal, with his small fleet of six ships and 235 Berbers, kidnapped from a region of West Africa (Mauritania).
(WSJ, 12/1/97, p.A20)(SSFC, 2/19/17, p.F6)(SFC, 10/31/18, p.E1)

1445 Giovanni di Paolo, Italian painter in Siena, painted “The Creation,” and the Expulsion of Adam and Eve from Paradise. In this painting Paolo depicted the universe as a set of nesting concentric spheres.
(NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.244)

1445 The Council of Florence ended. It established the date for the Great Schism between the Eastern and Western (Orthodox and Catholic) churches as July, 1054. An official date was needed so that talks could begin on reunion.
(WSJ, 7/16/97, p.A23)

1445-1510 Sandro Botticelli, Italian painter, was born in Florence as Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi. His work included “The Birth of Venus” “Madonna of the Eucharist” (c1472-1475) and “Portrait of a Man with a Medal.” His work “Venus and Mars” is at the London National Gallery. He belongs to the era of the Quattro cento, when artists were still struggling to break free of the rigid outlines of the Middle Ages. His solution was the use of curved lines. Vasari later claimed that Botticelli was a follower of Savonarola, the religious zealot.
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.173)(WSJ, 2/5/97, p.A16)(SFEC, 2/1/98, p.T8)

1446 Apr 16, Filippo Brunelleschi (69), architect, sculptor and goldsmith, died and was buried in the Cathedral of St. Mary of the Flower in Florence. In the 1490s Antonio di Tuccio Manetti authored “The Life of Brunelleschi.” In 1974 Isabelle Hyman authored “Brunelleschi in Perspective.”
(ON, 9/00, p.8)(MC, 4/16/02)

1446 Oct 9, The Korean alphabet known as hangul, created under the aegis of King Sejong, was first published. This day was later made a national holiday.
(AP, 10/9/07)(Econ, 10/10/15, p.40)

1446 In Scotland Sir William St. Clair, a grand master in the Knights Templar, founded the Rosslyn Chapel. It was built in the shape of a cross in the Pentland Hills outside Edinburgh. It became famous as part of the Dan Brown’s 2003 thriller “The Da Vinci Code.”
(SFC, 5/25/06, p.E2)

1446 Mehmet II, Ottoman ruler, was deposed and Murad II was recalled to the throne.
(Ot, 1993, p.7)

1446-1521 A Gothic choir with buttresses and pinnacles was added to the abbey Mont St. Michel off the coast of Normandy, France. It replaced one that had collapsed.
(WSJ, 10/7/06, p.P18)

1446-1523 The Italian painter Perugino, born as Pietro di Cristoforo di Vannucci, was a student of Pierro della Francesca and Andrea Verrochio. He won a papal commission for frescoes on the sidewalls of the Sistine Chapel along with Botticelli and Ghirlandaio. His work included the late weird allegory “The Combat Between Love and Chastity.”
(WSJ, 1/6/98, p.16)

1446-1524 Il Perugino (Pietro Vannucci), painter, worked in Umbria and died of the plague. His work includes: “The Baptism,” “Mary in Glory,” “Adoration of the Magi,” Martyrdom of St. Sebastian,” ” Madonna and Child,” and “The Virgin in Glory.”
(WUD, 1994, p.1076)(SFEM, 10/12/97, p.49)

1447 The winged altarpiece of Stephensdom in Vienna, Austria was completed.
(Hem., Dec. ’95, p.67)

1448 Oct 31, Johannes VIII Palaeologus (b.1390), Emperor of Byzantium, died.

1448 In China hyperinflation hit and paper money lost 97% of its value. China soon abandoned paper money.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1448 The Portuguese established the first European trading post in Africa.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1449 Jan 1, Lorenzo de Medici (d.1492), later know as Lorenzo the Magnificent, was born in Florence.

1449 Albanians, under Skenderbeg, routed the Ottoman forces under Sultan Murat II.
(www, Albania, 1998)

1449 Ashikaga Yoshimasa (14) inherited the office of Shogun, the chief military and civic leader of feudal Japanese society. His leadership focused on the arts and depleted the national treasury which led to social and political anarchy.
(ON, 7/01, p.3)

1449 Rodrigo Borgia Lanzol (b.1431), father of Cesare and Lucretia, arrived in Rome from Spain and Italianized his name from Borja to Borgia. His rise in the church was helped a great deal when his uncle became Pope Calixtus III.
(HN, 8/10/98)(PTA, p.424)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R4)(MC, 8/11/02)

1449 The giant Scottish bombard known as Mons Meg was built. It was retired from active service in 1680, after splitting her barrel while firing a ceremonial shot. She can still be seen in Edinburgh castle.
(HNQ, 6/20/02)



Timeline of The Fourteenth Century 1300-1399

1300 Jan 1, A Jubilee Year, the symbolic moment for Dante’s Divine Comedy. It marked the end of the Middle Ages and the beginning of the Renaissance. Pope Boniface VIII had issued a Papal Bull that declared a Rome Holy Year, “Giubileo.” The event was such a success that papal gendarmes had to execute several dozen people to bring the crowds under control. Pope Bonifacius VIII introduced Jubilee indulgences.
(V.D.-H.K.p.123)(WSJ, 4/2/97, p.A12)(WSJ, 1/13/00, p.A1)

c1300 The 18-acre Hatalacva Pueblo in Arizona contains the rare Tuzigoot Phase Southern Sinagua pueblo of this time.
(AM, adv. circular, p.2)

c1300 The Panum Crater at Mono Lake, Ca., erupted about this time.
(SFEC, 5/31/98, p.T4)

1300 The Arapaho and Cheyenne Indian Nations settled the Colorado area about this time.
(Time, 1990s Almanac CD)

c1300 Women’s corsets were first developed about this time. See the discussion by Marilyn Yalom in her 1997 book: “History of the Breast.”
(SFEC, 2/9/97, z1 p.3)

c1300 The Mississippian people, the largest pre-Columbian culture north of Mexico, built the earthen city of Cahokia about this time. The site, discovered in southwestern Illinois, probably served as a religious center and may have had a population of up to 80,000. The Mississippians arose around 800 AD and remained a powerful influence until about the time of the first European explorers. The loose-knit theocracy held sway over much of present-day Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Missouri, Ohio and, not surprisingly, Mississippi. They also had settlements extending sporadically into the upper Midwest and across the western plains. The largest of the earthen mounds at Cahokia, called Monks Mound, is 700 feet wide, 100 feet tall and 1000 feet long–representing a colossal public works program and a government stable enough to order the construction.
(HNQ, 1/29/01)

1300 A drought pervaded the southwest of North America.
(Sm, 3/06, p.74)

1300 Florence was established as the banker of Europe, and its coin, the florin, became the first international currency. Its citizens sought … a splendor of art and architecture belonging to all the people that would make their city the envy of people everywhere… The Medici family was most prominent here.

1300 In southern Germany a scribe identified as Menahem made about this time what came to be called the Birds’ Head Haggadah, the world’s oldest illustrated Passover manuscript.
(SFC, 4/22/16, p.A5)
1300 A Jewish merchant ransomed the body of Rabbi Meir, imprisoned in 1284, and buried him in Worms.
(NH, 9/96, p.24)

1300 The Oude Kerk church in Amsterdam dates to this time.
(SSFC, 1/7/01, p.T9)

c1300 In Tibet the Jonang Buddhist monastery was established. In 1997 Chinese authorities closed down the 700-year old monastery and sent the monks home after they refused to denounce the Dalai Lama.
(SFC, 1/29/99, p.E9)

1300s England recruited Flemish weavers with promises of “good beer, good food, good bed and good bedfellow.”
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1300 Paris, with its population between 200,000 and 300,000, was at this time the largest city in the world.
(HNQ, 4/18/02)

c1300s In Scotland the Dunrobin Castle in the northern Highlands dates top the early 1300s.
(SFEM, 1/31/99, p.6)

1300-1307 The Gladzor Gospels, Armenian illuminated manuscripts whose images are the work of five artists, T’oros Taronets being the only one whose name is known. These gospels are a defining document of the medieval Armenian church’s doctrinal independence.
(SF Chronicle, 5/12/1994, p. E-5)

1300-1358 Jean Buridan, Parisian theologian, attempted to resolve the problem with Aristotle’s law of motion with the idea of impetus, i.e. that a moving body does not need to be continuously pushed to stay in motion due to its impetus provided by a violent motion upon it.

1300-1377 Guillaume de Machaut, French poet and composer.
(WUD, 1994, p.629)(SFC, 2/15/99, p.E7)

1300-1400 In Cameroon the kingdom of Foumban began in the 14th century.
(WSJ, 9/23/06, p.A1)

1300-1400 Odoric of Pordenone spent 3 years in China in the 14th century.
(NH, 10/98, p.69)
1300-1400 The Romance of the Three Kingdoms, attributed to Luo Guanzhong, was written about this time. The historical novel was set in the turbulent years towards the end of the Han dynasty and the Three Kingdoms period in Chinese history, starting in 169 AD and ending with the reunification of the land in 280.
1300-1400 In China Kublai Khan made Beijing the imperial capital in the 14th century.
(AMNHDT, 5/98)

1300-1400 In Colombia the people of San Agustin, pressed by aggressive invaders, were forced to leave their lands and take refuge in the Amazon and Orinoco regions about this time. They left behind some 500 stone statues carved in accordance to their mythology.

1300-1400 In Egypt the nose of the Sphinx was lost in the 14th century.
(SFC, 5/26/98, p.A8)

1300-1400 In the 14th century “The Dunmow Flitch” prize was awarded in Dunmow, Essex, England, to any couple who could come after a year of marriage and truthfully swear that they never quarreled and did not regret the marriage and would do it over again.
(SFC, 12/26/96, p.C16)

1300-1400 In Europe the Brethren of the Free Spirit (aka Beghards) flaunted both moral law and church doctrine because they believed that their exalted station as saved Christians raised them above the ranks of ordinary mortals. The heresy was termed Antinomianism.
(WSJ, 1/28/98, p.A19)

1300-1400 The Kebra Negast, a 14th cent. Ethiopian text, claims that the Queen of Sheba came from Ethiopia to see Solomon and that he tricked her into sleeping with him and bearing him a son.
(WSJ, 5/2/97, p.A6)

1300-1400 The “Chronicle of the Morea” is a 14th century history of southern Greece.
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.58)

1300-1400 A family in Deruta, Italy, began producing majolica pottery. In 2008 the Grazia majolica factory was the 13th oldest family business in the world.
(SFC, 3/5/08, p.G5)

1300-1400 In Portugal a spiritual retreat for monks was built in Redondo. It later became the Hotel Convento de Sao Paolo.
(SFEC, 4/26/98, p.T6)
1300-1400 In Russia the Danilov Monastery was built 3 miles south of the Kremlin by Prince Daniel, founder of Moscow’s 14th century dynasty.
(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.36)

1300-1400 Vodka is believed to have originated in the 14th century in the grain-growing region that now embraces Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, and western Russia. It also has a long tradition in Scandinavia. The first written record of vodka in Poland dates from 1405 in the Sandomierz Court Registry.
(WSJ, 2/10/06, p.A14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vodka)

1300-1400 In Romania the Sihastra Monastery was founded in the 14th century.
(SFC, 12/7/98, p.A25)

1300-1400 Krusevac, Serbia, was the capital of an empire that included Yugoslavia, Albania and Greece.
(SFEC, 4/25/99, p.A28)

c1300-1400 In the early 14th century the Gottscheers settled in the Carniola region of what later became Slovenia. The Germanic people were sent there to till the land and pay taxes to the Carinthian counts of Ortenburg and to serve as a forward guard for the Holy Roman Empire.
(SFC, 6/16/99, p.A12)

1300-1600 Tombs with decorated pillars called phallic pillars by the locals are widespread among the Oromo of Somalia and Kenya, where they symbolize manhood and indicate interred men.
(NH, 6/97, p.45)

1300-1700 In Thailand kilns at Intrakil date from the Lanna kingdom of this time.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.G)

1300-c1700 The period of the Renaissance. The 1998 book “The Scholar in His Study: Ownership and Experience in Renaissance Italy” by Dora Thornton covered this period. In 1970 Prof. Charles Trinkaus authored the 2-volume work “In Our Image and Likeness: Humanity and Divinity in Italian Humanist Thought.” In 1985 Claude Palisca (d.2001) authored “Humanism in Italian Renaissance Musical Thought.”
(SFEC, 2/15/98, BR p.8)(SFC, 9/27/99, p.A26)(SFC, 1/23/01, p.C2)

1300-1850 Historical records and scientific data on oxygen isotope ratios of Viking teeth indicate a period of cooling temperatures called a Little Ice Age of Northern Europe.
(LSA, Spring 1995, p.32)

1301 Feb 7, Edward of Caernarion (later Edward II) became the 1st prince of Wales.
(MC, 2/7/02)

1301 Jul 4, Battle at Breukelen: Holland vs. Lichtenberg.

1302 Jan 27, Dante became a Florentine political exile.
(MC, 1/27/02)

1302 Mar 11, Romeo and Juliet were married on this day, according to Shakespeare.
(HN, 3/11/98)(MC, 3/11/02)

1302 May 18, The weaver Peter de Coningk led a massacre of the Flemish oligarchs at the French garrison (Brugse Metten).
(HN, 5/18/99)(SC, 5/18/02)

1302 Jul 11, An army of French knights, led by the Count of Artois, was routed by Flemish pikemen.
(HN, 7/11/98)

1303 May 20, France returned Gascony to England’s Edward I.
(HN, 5/20/98)(PC, 1992 ed, p121)

1303 Aug 31, The War of Vespers in Sicily ended with an agreement between Charles of Valois, who invaded the country, and Frederick, the ruler of Sicily.
(HN, 8/31/98)

1303 Sep 8, Anagni: French king Philip IV captured Pope Boniface VIII.
(MC, 9/8/01)

1303 In Egypt the Pharos Lighthouse at Alexandria was toppled by an earthquake.
(SFEC, 4/5/98, Par p.20)

1303 Enrico Scrovegni’s Padova (Padua) Chapel, begun in 1300, was completed. Giotto began painting a fresco cycle there with scenes from the Old and New Testaments. The decorations were completed in 1305.
(SFC,11/18/97, p.E7)(http://tinyurl.com/ylnhxa)

1303 The Baltic Sea froze over. The event is described by Barbara Tuchman in her book “A Distant Mirror.”
(NOHY, 3/90, p.127)

1303 Filippo di Amedeo de Peruzzi, Florentine banker, died. He had established bank branches in Naples, Paris and London and underwrote business ventures across Europe. The family went bankrupt when Edward III of England defaulted on his debts after losing the Hundred Years War.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)

1304 Jul 20, Francisco Petrarch (d.1374), Italian poet and scholar, founder of Renaissance Humanism, was born in Arezzo. He was educated at Avignon and saw himself as a Florentine, Italian, and man of the world. He was a poet and autodidact who never stopped studying until his death.
(V.D.-H.K.p.131)(HN, 7/20/98)

1304 The Hotel Pilgrim Haus was founded in Soest, Germany.
(SFC, 4/14/06, p.D1)

1305 Apr 2, French Queen Jeanne de Navarre (b.1273) died. In 1919 a “Book of Hours” prayer book, that was made for her, sold for a record price at Sotheby’s.
(http://tinyurl.com/zw23x5r)(Econ, 9/17/16, p.78)

1305 Aug 23, Scottish patriot William Wallace was hanged, drawn, beheaded, and quartered in London.
(HN, 8/23/98)(SFEC, 4/11/99, Z1 p.8)

1305 The House of Taxis operated a courier messenger service for rich European clients.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1305 Giotto (1267-1337) finished a cycle of frescoes, telling the story of Jesus and Mary, inside Enrico Scrovegni’s new chapel in Padua.
(SFC, 11/17/01, p.D4)(WSJ, 11/18/06, p.P16)

1306 Mar 25, Robert the Bruce (1274-1329) was crowned king of Scotland as the successor to King John.
(HN, 7/11/01)(ON, 2/08, p.6)

1306 Jul 22, King Phillip the Fair ordered the expulsion of Jews from France. They returned to Montpellier in 1319, having been recalled by King Sancho, who protected them in 1320 against the fury of the Pastoureaux.

1306 Aug 8, King Wenceslas of Poland was murdered.
(HN, 8/8/98)

1306 Pierre Dubois, a counselor for the Duke of Burgundy, called for a European federation.
(Econ, 1/3/04, p.39)

1306 English forces defeated Scottish forces under Robert Bruce at Methven near Perth. Bruce escaped to Rathlin Island.
(ON, 2/08, p.6)

1306-1307 The Baltic Sea froze over again. The event is described by Barbara Tuchman in her book “A Distant Mirror.”
(NOHY, 3/90, p.127)

1307 May 10, Forces under Robert Bruce of Scotland defeated the English at Loudoun Hill. Over the next few years Bruce gained control over much of the Scottish countryside.
(ON, 2/08, p.6)

1307 Jul 7, Edward I (b.1239), King (Longshanks) of England (1272-1307), died.

1307 Oct 13, The medieval order of the Knights Templar was suppressed by King Philip IV of France. Baphomet, a deity that the Knights Templar were accused of worshipping, is an Old French corruption of the name Muhammad. Subsequently it was incorporated into disparate occult and mystical traditions. Since 1856, the name Baphomet has been associated with a “Sabbatic Goat” image drawn by Eliphas Levi which contains binary elements representing the “sum total of the universe”.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baphomet)(HN, 10/13/98)

1307 Nov 18, William Tell shot an apple off his son’s head.
(MC, 11/18/01)

1307 Edward II ascended the English throne and had his former tutor, Piers Gaston, brought back to England and made him the Earl of Cornwall.

1307 Mansa Musa (d.1337), Mali’s greatest ruler, succeeded to the throne. He commissioned grand mosques.
(ATC, p.119)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R4,6)

1307 Poland tried to gain back the Kulm territory but in their struggle with the Teutonic Knights they lost Pomerania and their access to the Baltic.
(Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 69)

1308 Feb 25, Edward II was crowned King of England.
(AP, 2/25/07)

1308 May 1, King Albert [of Austria] was murdered by his nephew John, because he refused his share of the Habsburg lands.
(HN, 5/1/99)

1308 Nov 8, John Duns Scotus (42), Scottish-born theologian and philosopher, died in Germany. Scotus and his adherents came under attack by critics in the 16th century, giving rise to the term “dunce.”
(AP, 11/8/08)(www.catholic-forum.com/saints/saintj55.htm)

1308 Princess Isabella (12) married England’s King Edward II (23). In 2005 Alison Weir authored “Isabella: She-Wolf of France, Queen of England.
(Econ, 9/10/05, p.81)

1308 The “Parchment of Chinon” contained the decision by Pope Clement V to save the Templars and their order. The document was misplaced for centuries in the archives and found again by researchers in 2001. In 2007 it was published as part of the Vatican’s secret archive documents about the trial of the Knights Templar.
(AP, 10/12/07)

c1308-1385 Wang Meng, Chinese artist, his work included “Temple at Mount Taibai.”
(WSJ, 1/2/98, p.6)

1308-1708 The Gonzagas ruled over Mantua, Italy.
(WSJ, 10/10/02, p.D10)

1309 Apr 30, Kazimierz III de Great, King of Poland (1333-70), was born.
(MC, 4/30/02)

1309-1377 “Babylonian Captivity” during which the popes left Rome and took up residence at Avignon under the wing of the king of France.

1310 May 12, Fifty-four Knights Templar were burned at the stake as heretics in France. They had been established during the Crusades to protect pilgrims traveling to the Holy Land, but came into increasing conflict with Rome until Pope Clement V officially dissolved them in 1312 at the Council of Vienna.
(SC, Internet, 5/12/97)

1310 May 20, Shoes began to be made for both right and left feet.
(MC, 5/20/02)

1310 English forces under Edward II crossed into Scotland to regain control of the territory.
(ON, 2/08, p.6)

1310 In Korea a hanging silk scroll was painted with an image of Avalokiteshvara.
(SFC, 10/14/03, p.D1)

1311 Oct 16, The general Council of Vienne opened just south of Lyons. During the 2-year council Pope Clement V made the belief in the right to usury heresy and abolished all secular legislation which allowed it.
(Econ, 1/7/12, p.60)(www.dailycatholic.org/history/15ecume1.htm)

1312 Jun 19, Piers Gaveston, earl of Cornwall, was beheaded.
(MC, 6/19/02)

1312 Nov 13, Edward III, King of England (1327-77), was born. He later raped the countess of Salisbury.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_III_of_England)(WUD, 1994 p.454)(HN, 11/13/98)

1312 The Knights Templar were suppressed by Pope Clement at the Council of Vienna. Pressured by King Philip of France, Pope Clement reversed his 1308 decision and suppressed the order.
(AHD, 1971, p.724)(SC, Internet, 5/12/97)(AP, 10/12/07)

1312 Scots under Robert Bruce attacked Perth, held by the English, and gained control of the city and castle.
(ON, 2/08, p.6)

1313-1375 Giovanni Boccaccio, Florentine writer born in Paris. He learned classical Latin and studied classical Greek under Leonzio Pilato, who had spent some time in Byzantium where Greek works were still available. He traveled with Petrarch around southern Europe looking for ancient books and discovered a number of Cicero’s letters. Boccaccio wrote all of his major works in Italian, including IL Filostroto (the source of Chaucer’s Troilus and Criseyde) and the Decameron.

1313-1905 The four ancient Confucian texts, Ssu Shu, or “Four Books,” were used as subject matter for official Chinese civil service exams in China. The volumes reputedly contain direct quotations from Confucius.
(HNPD, 6/27/99)

1314 Mar 18, In France Jacques de Molay (b.1244), Grand Master of the Templars, was burned at the stake along with his aides. Surviving monks fled, with some absorbed by other orders.
(AP, 10/12/07)(www.templarhistory.com/demolay.html)

1314 Apr 20, Clement V, [Bertrand Got], pope (1305-14) who moved papacy to Avignon, died.
(MC, 4/20/02)

1314 Jun 24, King Robert I (Robert the Bruce) of Scotland with 6,000 men and 500 horses routed English King Edward II with his army of 20,000 at Bannockburn. Bruce secured Scotland’s independence from England and ruled until his death in 1329. A film “The Bruce” was made in 1995 on a $500,000 budget.
(AP, 6/24/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Bannockburn)(ON, 2/08, p.7)

1314 Nov 29, Philippe IV, the Handsome, King of France (1285-1314), died.
(MC, 11/29/01)

1314 England banned football (soccer) for being too violent.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1315 Nov 15, Swiss soldiers ambushed and slaughtered invading Austrians in the Battle of Morgarten. The Bundesbrief prevailed over a Habsburg army. Voluntary agreements among the cantons led to the formation of the Willensnation, a nation created by acts of free will by a diverse people.
(HN, 11/15/98)(Econ, 2/14/04, p.6)

1315 In France Parisian bakers were found guilty of mixing flour with animal droppings during the Great Famine.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)
1315 Louis X, Philip’s brother and successor, allowed Jews back into France for financial considerations. Jews were often expelled because of pressure from the Church, economic or political considerations, only to be readmitted at a later date.
1315 Italian immigrants in France began the Western silk industry.
(SFC, 3/11/00, p.B4)

1315 The Church of the Holy Virgin was built in Musutiste, Kosovo. In 1999 returning Albanians blew up the church in retaliation for the Serb destruction of their mosque.
(SFC, 9/7/99, p.A12)

1315 Scotland assaulted the English border city of Carlisle during the First War of Scottish Independence. Robert the Bruce was driven off with heavy casualties finally giving up when the siege tower got stuck.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Carlisle_%281315%29)(Econ., 4/11/15, p.52)

1315-1316 England experienced a great famine brought on by too much water.
(K.I.-365D, p.154)

1316 Mar 2, Robert II the Steward, King of Scotland (1371-90), was born.
(SC, 3/2/02)

1316 May 14, Charles IV (d.1378), later King of Bohemia and Holy Roman Emperor, was born in the House of Luxembourg.

1316 Jun 4, Louis X (26), King of France (1314-16), died.
(MC, 6/4/02)

1316 Nov 15, Jean I became king of France, and died 4 days later.
(MC, 11/15/01)

1316 In Lithuania Grand Duke Vytenis died at Skirsnemune while destroying castles built by the Knights of the Cross. Gediminas, brother of Vytenis, took over rule. He wrote a letter to the Pope that requested an end to attacks by the German orders. The Pope responded in accord but the Germans continued their pressure.
(H of L, 1931, p.33,34)

1316-1341 In Lithuania Grand Duke Gediminas pushed back the German orders and extended his territory to the east into Russia. He invited foreign crafts, trades people and engineers. Under his rule, Vilnius became the capital with 2 new castles and the southern and eastern border of Lithuania was extended to include Smolensk, Kiev and Minsk. His rule did not interfere with local languages, religious beliefs or rights. Gediminas wed one daughter to the Prince of Moscow, another to the son of the Polish King and a third to the Prince of Mozur.
(Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 52)

1316-1390 Albert of Saxony (aka Albertuccio or little Al), German Scholastic philosopher and physicist.
(NH, 5/97, p.59)

1317 Feb 3, Pope John XXII, under guidance from Gnesen Archbishop Borislav, offered Catholicism to Lithuania.
(LHC, 2/3/03)

1317 Apr 20, Agnes van Montepulciano, Italian mystic, saint, died.
(MC, 4/20/02)

1319 Apr 26, Jean II, the Good, king of France (1350-64), was born.
(MC, 4/26/02)

1319 May 8, Haakon V, King of Norway (1299-1319), died.
(MC, 5/8/02)

1319 Ani, capital of Armenia, was devastated by an earthquake.
(Econ, 6/17/06, p.59)

1320 Apr 6, Scotland declared its independence in the Declaration of Arbroath. In a letter to the Pope they said: “As long as only one hundred of us remain alive we will never on any conditions be brought under English rule.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Declaration_of_Arbroath)(Econ, 7/12/14, p.50)

1320 Oct 12, Michael IX Paleologi, emperor of Byzantine (1295-1320), died.
(MC, 10/12/01)

1321 Sep 14, Dante Alighieri, author of the “Divine Comedy,” died of malaria just hours after finishing writing “Paradiso.” The poem was completed in Italian rather than Latin. It helped make Italian the dominant linguistic force in European literature for the next few centuries. In 2006 Barbara Reynolds authored “Dante: The Poet, the Political Thinker, the Man.”
(www.newadvent.org/cathen/04628a.htm)(WSJ, 3/26/99, p.W2)(Econ, 12/2/06, p.84)

1322 Mar 23, In York, England, Roger de Clifford was hanged and left hanging in a cage outside a tower (Clifford’s Tower) for a year and a day. He had been involved in a rebellion against King Edward II’s favorite Huge Lord de Despencer, and ultimately against the King himself.
(http://tinyurl.com/qamdvyl)(SSFC, 4/13/14, p.Q5)

1322 Jun 24, Jews were expelled from France for a 3rd time.
(MC, 6/24/02)

1322 Arabian writers recorded ideas about artificial insemination.
(SFC, 3/21/98, p.E3)

1322 The Baltic froze over and a cold spell pervaded Europe.
(K.I.-365D, p.154)

1322 Zhao Mengfu (b.1254), Chinese calligrapher, died. His work included a hand scroll of “The Sutra on the Lotus of the Sublime Dharma.” Chao Meng-fu was a prince and descendant of the Song Dynasty’s imperial family, and a Chinese scholar, painter and calligrapher during the Yuan Dynasty.
(SFC, 11/10/12, p.F1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zhao_Mengfu)

1323 Oct 16, Amadeus V the Great, count of Flanders and Savoy, died at 74.
(MC, 10/16/01)

1324 Jan 9, Venetian traveler, merchant and writer Marco Polo (b.1254) summoned a priest-notary to his home in Venice and recorded his last will in Latin on a sheepskin. Polo left money to Church institutions in Venice, forgave outstanding debts, and freed his indentured servant, a Tatar he had named Peter. Polo left nearly everything else to his wife and three daughters.
(Reuters, 4/17/18)

1324 Feb 10, The pope officially chastised the Knights of the Cross for ill treatment of Catholics and for pushing pagans away from Christianity.
(LHC, 2/10/03)

1324 Feb 26, Dino Compagni, Italian silk seller, poet, chronicler, died.
(SC, 2/26/02)

1324 Mar 5, David II Bruce, king of Scotland (1331-71), was born.
(MC, 3/5/02)

1324-1325 Mansa Musa (Kankan Moussa), king of Mali, made the 3,500 mile pilgrimage to Mecca with gold valued at $115 million in 1999 prices. He traveled with a very large retinue that included 80 camels and 500 slaves. An Arab chronicler said he was surrounded by over 10,000 of his subjects.
(ATC, p.119)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)(SSFC, 4/11/04, p.D6)

1325 The Aztecs founded Tenochtitlan, later known as Mexico City, about this time.

1325 Ibn Battuta (20), a Muslim, left his home in Tangier to journey to Mecca. He traveled in Arabia, Asia, Africa, and Spain and recorded many exciting adventures. His travels lasted some 29 years were described in his book “The Rihla.” In 1986 Ross E. Dunn authored “The Adventures of Ibn Battuta” based on The Rihla.
(ATC, p.13)(SSFC, 11/13/05, p.F3)

1325-1382 Nicholos of Oresme, Parisian theologian agreed with Jean Buridan concerning the problem of Aristotelian motion and its resolution: i.e. that a moving body does not need to be continuously pushed to stay in motion due to its impetus provided by a violent motion upon it.

1326 Mar 5, Louis I (the Great), King of Hungary (1342-1382) and Poland (1370-1382), was born.
(HN, 3/5/98)(MC, 3/5/02)

1326 Osman I (1299-1326) captured Bursa in north-western Anatolia after a 10 year siege. Osman I (also known as Osman Gazi) is generally regarded as the founder of the Ottoman Turkish state.
(WUD, 1994 p.1018)(Ot, 1993, p.5)

1326 Richard de Bas, a paper manufacturer, was founded in Ambert d’Auvergne, France.
(SFC, 4/14/06, p.D1)

1327 Jan 7, Edward II of England was deposed. [see Jan 20, Feb 1]
(HN, 1/7/99)

1327 Jan 20, Edward II of England was deposed by his eldest son, Edward III. [see Jan 7, Feb 1]
(HN, 1/20/99)

1327 Jan 25, King Edward III inherited the British throne. [see Jan 7,20]
(MC, 1/25/02)

1327 Feb 1, Edward III was crowned King of England. [see Jan 7,20]
(HN, 2/1/99)

1327 Apr 6, Petrarch met Laura de Sade in a church at Avignon, and was inspired for the rest of his life. He wrote his finest poems about her beauty and loveliness… and about his later recognition that he had loved her wrongly, placing her person ahead of her spirit. This event has been taken to mark the beginning of the Renaissance
(V.D.-H.K.p.131)(MC, 4/6/02)

1327 Sep 21, Edward II of England died. He was believed murdered by order of his wife, Queen Isabella, and Baron Robert Mortimer.

1327 In Germany the Pfalzgrafenstein castle was built on the Rhine near the village of Bacharach.
(SFEC, 3/15/98, p.T5)

1328 Feb 1, Charles IV, the Handsome, King of France (1322-28), died.
(MC, 2/1/02)

1328 May 26, William of Ockham was forced to flee from Avignon by Pope John XXII.
(HN, 5/26/98)

1328 May 27, French king Philip VI Valois was crowned.
(MC, 5/27/02)

1328 Sep 26, Taqi ad-Din Ahmad ibn Taymiyyah (b.1263), a Sunni Islamic scholar born in Harran, located in what is now Turkey, died. He lived in Damascus during the troubled times of the Mongol invasions. As a member of the school founded by Ibn Hanbal, he sought the return of Islam to its sources: the Qur’an and the Sunnah. He had adopted the notion of takfir, denouncing as apostates Muslims whom he deemed wayward, a crime punishable by death.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ibn_Taymiyyah)(Econ, 7/14/07, p.30)(Econ, 7/25/15, p.69) (http://tinyurl.com/pfxhrq3)

1328 In Italy a monastery and church of St. Francis was built on the Isola Maggiore on Lake Trasimeno. In the 19th century it was converted into a castle by a Marquis for his wife Isabella.
(SFEM, 10/12/97, p.48)

1328 Moscow became the seat of the Russian Orthodox metropolitanate. Peter the Metropolitan moved from the capital Vladimir to Moscow.
(DVD, Criterion, 1998)(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.37)

1328-1384 John Wycliffe, English theologian and biblical translator. He was posthumously declared a heretic and his body was exhumed for burning in 1428.
(WSJ, 4/4/01, p.A18)

1329 Jun 7, Robert Bruce (b.1274), King of Scotland (1306-1329), died.

1329 In Korea a foundry was used to print books with metal type.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1330 Mar 23, Riga surrendered to the Livonian Order.
(LHC, 3/23/03)

1330 Jun 15, Edward the Black Prince, the eldest son of Edward III and Prince of Wales (1343-1376), was born. He was the first Duke created in England, the Duke of Cornwall.
(HN, 6/15/99)(MC, 6/15/02)

1330 Aug 25, Anti-Pope Nicolaas V overthrew himself.
(MC, 8/25/02)

c1330 In Japan retired Emp. Go-Fushimi authored a plea to the god of the Kamo shrine for help in gaining the thrown for his son, Prince Tokihito. Tokihito got to reign after a short delay when Go-Daigo refused to step down. Two years later Go-Daigo got the thrown back.
(SFC,12/15/97, p.E3)

1331 Ibn Battuta, Arab traveler and scholar, visited Kilwa. He described Kilwa as “one of the most beautiful and well-constructed towns in the world.”
(ATC, p.143)

1331 Na Prous Boneta was burned at the stake as a female heretic one hundred years before Joan of Arc.
(WSJ, 1/23/96, p.A-12)

1331 Bernard Gui, Inquisitor in Toulouse, died. He authored “Practica Inquisitionis Heretice Pravitatis” (Conduct of the Inquisition into Heretical Wickedness), a manual for Inquisitors in which he listed heretics including Cathars, Waldensians, Beghards, Jews and witches.
(WSJ, 1/18/08, p.W10)(www.languedoc-france.info/121207_guicathars.htm)

1332 Feb 13, Andronicus II Palaeologus, Byzantine emperor (1282-1328), monk, died.
(MC, 2/13/02)

1332 May 27, Ibn Khaldun (d.1406), Berber historian, was born in Tunis. He was also a social scientist and political activist and developed theories on economics and politics. He authored the “Muqaddimah” (introduction to history), that gave an in-depth analysis of the cyclical nature of the rise, maturation and decline of political regimes and economies. “Only tribes held together by a group feeling can survive in a desert.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ibn_Khaldun)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R20)(Econ, 1/28/12, p.68)

1332 Aug 12, Battle of Dupplin Moor; Scottish dynastic battle.
(SC, 8/12/02)

1332 Mansa Musa, King of Mali, died. His successors were not able to protect Mali’s vast territory and Berber nomads began attacking caravan routes in the desert and threatened to take Timbuktu. People from the southern rain forests attacked the southern boundary and to the west the Sohghai of the middle Niger River began to revolt.
(ATC, p.120)

1332-1370 Descendants of earlier Ghorid rulers reasserted control over Afghanistan.

1332 Mansa Musa, King of Mali, died. His successors were not able to protect Mali’s vast territory and Berber nomads began attacking caravan routes in the desert and threatened to take Timbuktu. People from the southern rain forests attacked the southern boundary and to the west the Sohghai of the middle Niger River began to revolt.
(ATC, p.120)

1332-1370 Descendants of earlier Ghorid rulers reasserted control over Afghanistan.

1333 Mar 2, Wladyslaw IV, the Short One, Great, duke, king of Poland, died.
(SC, 3/2/02)

1333 Nov 4, In Florence, Italy, the Arno River flooded causing some 3,000 deaths.
(Econ, 11/1/08, p.97)

1333 The Kamakura Shogunate of Japan fell.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)

1333 The Black Death erupted in China.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R54)

1333-1573 The Ashikaga (or Muromachi) Period of Japan.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)

1334 Aug 30, Pedro, the Cruel, King of Castilia & Leon, was born.
(MC, 8/30/01)

1334 Emperor Godaigo of Japan temporarily regained power.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)

1334 Heinrich II of Hesse (Germany) commissioned an illuminated manuscript called The Willehalm Codex.
(SSFC, 5/2/04, p.M2)

1335 Charles I of Hungary-Croatia, Casimir III of Poland and John of Bohemia met in Visegrad, Hungary, and agreed to create new commercial routes to bypass the staple port Vienna and obtain easier access to other European markets.

1335 In Macedonia the Orthodox church of St. Atanasie and the Holy Virgin in Lesok was begun. A monastery was added that played a role in Christian resistance to the Ottoman Empire.
(SFC, 8/22/01, p.A10)

1336 Feb 25, The Knights of the Cross sieged the Pilenai Castle in Samogitia. The defenders burned all their goods and committed suicide.
(LHC, 2/25/03)

1336-1405 Timur (aka Timur Lang or Timur Lenk or Tamerlane because of a lame leg) was a Tartar conqueror of a vast empire from southern Russia to Mongolia and southward to India, Persia, and Mesopotamia. After his death the empire fell apart. Prince Timur is a national hero of Uzbekistan.
(V.D.-H.K.p.169)(WUD, 1994, p.1451)(WSJ, 7/3/97, p.A4)

1337 Jan 8, Giotto (b.c.1267), Italian artist, died. His frescoes showed a new realism and vitality. Art historians later held that the Renaissance dawned in Florence with Giotto’s paintings. He cracked the formal stylization of Byzantine painting and reinvented the ancient art of creating depth on a flat surface. In 2000 art historians found evidence that Pietro Cavallini re-introduced depth in his paintings in Rome around 1190.
(www.mediacult.com/art/giotto/chrono.html)(V.D.-H.K.p.128)(WSJ, 11/113/00, p.A24)

1337 Jan 21, Charles V, the Wise, king of France (1364-80), was born.
(MC, 1/21/02)

1337 Edward III’s claim to the French throne sparked the Hundred year’s War between England and France.
(Econ, 8/24/13, p.75)

1337-1453 The Hundred Years War was a series of wars between England and France in which England lost all possessions in France except Calais.
(WUD, 1994, p.693)

1338 The founding of the Ashikaga Shogunate in Japan.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)

1340 Jun 24, The English fleet defeated the French fleet at Sluys, off the Flemish coast.
(HN, 6/24/98)

1340 Nov 28, In the Battle of Salado, Spain, the last Moor invasion was driven back.
(MC, 11/28/01)

1340 Nov 30, John, Duke de Berry, captain of Paris and art collector, was born.
(MC, 11/30/01)

1340 Double-entry bookkeeping was invented in Italy about this time. [see 1458]
(WSJ, 11/10/99, p.A20)

1340 A drought that lasted 1-2 centuries as measured from tree rings in the Sierra Nevada was centered on this time. It coincides with a Medieval warm period when Vikings navigated the waters surrounding Greenland. An earlier drought centered at 1126AD.
(NH, 9/96, p.38)

c1340-1400 Geoffrey Chaucer, English poet. [see 1343]
(WUD, 1994, p.250)(WSJ, 9/18/00, p.A36)

1341 Apr 8, Francesco Petrarch was crowned poet laureate on the Capitol in Rome. He had arranged two invitations to be crowned, one in Paris and the other in Rome (1340-1341). He chose Rome.
(V.D.-H.K.p.131)(MC, 4/8/02)

1341 Jun 19, Juliana van Falconieri, Italian saint, Swedish tenor, died.
(MC, 6/19/02)

1341 German Knights of the Cross negotiated acquisition of Tallinn from Denmark and took over all of Estonia.
(Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 61)

1341-1345 In Lithuania Jaunutis served as Grand Duke.
(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1342 Sep 26, John I, ruler of Poland, died.
(MC, 9/26/01)

1342 In China a tombstone in Yangchou marked the death of an Italian girl named Katerina.
(SFEC, 9/21/97, p.A23)

1343 The Peruzzi Bank, Europe’s biggest, collapsed following risky loans to English kings.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

c1343-1400 Geoffrey Chaucer, English poet. [see 1340]
(WUD, 1994, p.250)(WSJ, 9/18/00, p.A36)

1345 Mar 20, A conjunction of Saturn, Jupiter and Mars was thought to be the “cause of plague epidemic.”
(MC, 3/20/02)

1345 Jul 17, Jacob Van Artevelde, [Manner Man], Flemish broker, was lynched.
(MC, 7/17/02)

1345 Oct 31, Ferdinand I, the wise one, king of Portugal (built navy), was born.
(MC, 10/31/01)

1345 The Frisian victory over the Dutch on the beach at Warns was their last before the Dutch took over.
(WSJ, 5/13/98, p.A20)

1345 The Kramerbrucke merchant bridge was built over the Gera River at Erfurt, Thuringia, Germ.
(Hem., Nov.’95, p.114)

1345 A Florentine wool worker was hanged for holding a public meeting to organize colleagues.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1345-1377 In Lithuania Algirdas served as Grand Duke.
(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1346 Apr 16, King Stefanus IX of Serbia proclaimed himself czar of Greece.
(MC, 4/16/02)

1346 May, Edward III of England called for a fleet of 1000 ships and an army of 10,000 knights and soldiers to assemble at Portsmouth for an attack on his distant cousin, Philip VI of France.
(ON, 9/00, p.1)

1346 Jul 12, Edward III landed his army on the Normandy beaches unopposed.
(ON, 9/00, p.1)

1346 Jul 18, Edward III divided his army into 3 groups and began a march on Paris.
(ON, 9/00, p.2)

1346 Aug 16, Philip VI offered Edward III sovereignty over Aquitaine in return for peace. Edward rejected the offer and learned that Philip had raised an army of 36,000 that included 15,000 Genoese crossbowmen. Edward marched toward Flanders in order to meet with allies.
(ON, 9/00, p.2)

1346 Aug 25, Edward III of England defeated Philip VI’s army at the Battle of Crecy in France. The English overcame the French at the Battle of Crecy. The longbow proved instrumental in the victory as French knights on horseback outnumbered the British 3 to 1. At the end of the battle 1,542 French lords and knights were killed along with 20,000 soldiers. The English lost 2 knights and 80 men. [see Aug 26]
(WSJ, 8/3/98, p.A12)(HN, 8/25/98)

1346 Aug 26, During the Hundred Years War, King Edward III’s 9,000-man English army annihilated a French force of 27,000 under King Philip VI at the Battle of Crecy in Normandy. The battle is regarded as one of the most decisive in history. [see Aug 25]
(PC, 1992, p.128)(WSJ, 11/4/04, p.D10)

1346 Sep 3, Edward III of England began the siege of Calais, along the coast of France.
(HN, 9/3/98)

1346 Sep 28, Edward III and Philip VI signed a temporary truce. Their hostilities marked the beginning of the Hundred Years War, which only ended in 1453.
(ON, 9/00, p.2)

1346 Oct 17, English forces defeated the Scots under David II during the Battle of Neville’s Cross, Scotland.
(HN, 10/17/98)

1346 Nov 26, Charles of Luxembourg was crowned German king. He succeeded his father John of Luxemburg as King of Bohemia and Count of Luxembourg.
(PC, 1992 ed, p.128)

1347 May 20, Cola di Rienzo took the title of tribune in Rome.
(HN, 5/20/98)

1347 Aug 3, Six burghers of the surrounded French city of Calais surrendered to Edward III of England in hopes of relieving the siege.
(HN, 8/3/98)

1347 Aug 4, English troops conquered Ft. Calais. After an 11 month siege, French Calais fell to England’s King Edward III. English rule lasted for more than two centuries.
(WSJ, 11/6/95, p. A-1)(MC, 8/4/02)

1347 Oct, Sailors from Genoa arrived in Messina, Sicily. Plague had broken out earlier among the troops of the Kipchak Khan, who was besieging the Black Sea port of Kaffa. He catapulted dead bodies over the city walls. When Italian trading vessels in the harbor returned to Genoa, the carried the plague to Europe. The plague, an infectious fever caused by the bacillus Yersinia pestis, appears in several varieties: bubonic (which involves swelling of the lymph glands), pneumonic (which involves the lungs) and septicemia (which involves severe infection in the bloodstream).
(SFEM, 10/12/97, p.31)(HNQ, 1/20/01)(SSFC, 3/6/05, p.B4)

1347 Nov 20, Roman tribune Cola di Rienzi defeated nobles. Stefano Colonna, Roman senator, died in battle (SPQR).
(MC, 11/20/01)

1347 Dec 3, Pope Clemens VI declared Roman tribune, Cola di Rienzi, a heretic.
(MC, 12/3/01)

1347 Charles IV (1316-1378) of the House of Luxembourg was crowned King of Bohemia.
(WSJ, 10/19/05, p.D17)

1347-1350 The Black Death: A Genoese trading post in the Crimea was besieged by an army of Kipchaks from Hungary and Mongols from the East. The latter brought with them a new form of plague, Yersinia pestis. Infected dead bodies were catapulted into the Genoese town. One Genoese ship managed to escape and brought the disease to Messina, Sicily. The disease quickly became an epidemic. It moved over the next few years to northern Italy, North Africa, France, Spain, Austria, Hungary, Switzerland, Germany, the Low countries, England, Scandinavia and the Baltic. There were lesser outbreaks in many cities for the next twenty years. An estimated 25 million died in Europe and economic depression followed. In 2005 John Kelly authored “The Great Mortality: An Intimate History of the Black Death, the Most Devastating Plague of All Time.”
(NG, 5/88, p.678)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(SSFC, 3/6/05, p.B1)(SFC, 10/13/11, p.A6)
1347-1350 British limited records later suggested up to 50,000 victims were buried in less than three years in the Farringdon cemetery as the bubonic plague ravaged London.
(Reuters, 3/15/13)

1347-1354 John VI Cantacuzenus ruled over Byzantium. He then abdicated and became and monk and went on to deal with Rome over the unification of Christendom. [see 330 AD]
(WSJ, 11/14/95, p. A-12)

1348 Feb 2, The Knights of the Cross defeated a Lithuanian army at Streva.
(LHC, 2/2/03)

1348 Apr 6, Laura, the arch love of Petrarch died of the plague. Boccaccio retired from plague-stricken Florence, and in a country residence began to write the Decameron.

1348 Apr 7, Prague Univ., the 1st in central Europe, was started by Charles IV.
(MC, 4/7/02)

1348 Apr 23, King Edward III of England established the Order of the Garter, the first English order of knighthood.
(AP, 4/23/97)(HN, 4/23/99)(www.royal.gov.uk/output/page490.asp)

1348 Jun 9, Ambrogio Lorenzetti (b.1290), Italian painter of the Sienese school, died. His work included the 3 murals titled “War,” “Peace” and “Good Government,” in the Chamber of Peace of Siena’s town hall.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ambrogio_Lorenzetti)(WSJ, 12/1/07, p.W14)(Econ, 7/10/10, p.80)

1348 Sep 21, Jews in Zurich Switzerland were accused of poisoning wells.
(MC, 9/21/01)

1348 Nov 15, Rudolph of Oron, a bailiff in Lausanne, wrote a letter to the Strasbourg authorities in which he declared that certain Jews of Lausanne confessed to poisoning all the drinking wells in the Rhine Valley that somehow selectively killed only Christians.

1348 In Istanbul Genoese merchants rebuilt an old wooden lighthouse that dated from the 6th century. The Galata Tower was rebuilt in stone.
(Econ, 4/7/12, p.81)
1348 The Black Plague struck England and wiped out a third of the population.
(Econ 6/17/17, p.67)
1348 The Black Plague struck the Mediterranean Basin.
(SSFC, 11/13/05, p.F3)
1348 Accused of being a cause of the plague, the Jews in France were dragged from their houses and burned. Pogroms occurred throughout Europe. When the plague subsided, few Jews were left in Germany or the Low Countries.
(NG, 5/88, p.681)
1348 Plague arrived at Montpellier, France, in the spring and killed an estimated two-thirds of the 50,000 inhabitants.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R22)
1348 The population of Siena, Italy, dropped from 97,000 to 45,000 in a few months due to the Black Plague. Bernardo Tolomei, nearly blind founder of the Benedictine Congregation of Santa Maria di Monte Oliveto in the 1340s, died along with 82 of his monks after leaving the safety of his monastery to tend to plague victims in Siena. In 2009 the Vatican declared him a saint.
(SSFC, 3/6/05, p.B1)(AP, 4/26/09)

1348 The population of Siena, Italy, dropped from 97,000 to 45,000 in a few months due to the Black Plague. Bernardo Tolomei, nearly blind founder of the Benedictine Congregation of Santa Maria di Monte Oliveto in the 1340s, died along with 82 of his monks after leaving the safety of his monastery to tend to plague victims in Siena. In 2009 the Vatican declared him a saint.
(SSFC, 3/6/05, p.B1)(AP, 4/26/09)
1348 Ambrogio Lorenzetti (b.1290), Sienese painter, died. His work included the 3 murals titled “War,” “Peace” and “Good Government,” in the Chamber of Peace of Siena’s town hall.
(WSJ, 12/1/07, p.W14)

1349 Jan 9, In Basel, Switzerland, 700 Jews were burned alive in their houses.
(MC, 1/9/02)

1349 Feb 13, Jews were expelled from Burgsdorf, Switzerland.
(MC, 2/13/02)

1349 Feb 14, 2,000 Jews were burned at the stake in Strasbourg, Germany.
(HN, 2/14/98)

1349 Feb 22, Jews were expelled from Zurich, Switzerland.
(HN, 2/22/98)

1349 Mar 21, Some 3,000 Jews were killed in Black Death riots in Efurt, Germany.
(MC, 3/21/02)

1349 Apr 30, Jewish community at Radolszell, Germany, was exterminated.
(MC, 4/30/02)

1349 May 28, 60 Jews were murdered in Breslau, Silesia.
(MC, 5/28/02)

1349 Aug 24, Some 6,000 Jews, blamed for the Bubonic Plague, were killed in Mainz.
(MC, 8/24/02)
1349 Aug 24, Jews of Cologne Germany set themselves on fire to avoid baptism.
(MC, 8/24/02)

1349 Sep 10, The Jews who survived a massacre in Constance, Germany, were burned to death.
(MC, 9/10/01)

1349 Nov 1, Duke of Brabant ordered the execution of all Jews in Brussels. He accused them of poisoning the wells.
(MC, 11/1/01)

1349 Nov 29, Jews of Augsburg, Germany, were massacred.
(MC, 11/29/01)

1349 Dec 5, 500 Jews of Nuremberg were massacred during Black Death riots.
(MC, 12/5/01)

1349 In Belgium a church was built in Geel to honor St. Dymphna (Dimpna). According to Christian tradition she was the daughter of a 7th century pagan Irish king and his Christian wife who fled to Geel, Belgium following the death of her mother. Her father found her in Geel and struck off her head when she refused to return home and rebuffed his incestuous desires.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dymphna)(Econ, 7/11/15, SR p.3)

1349 Nearly all the Jews of Worms were murdered on false accusations that they brought on the plague by poisoning the wells.
(NH, 9/96, p.24)

1349 William of Ockham (b.1290), English Franciscan scholastic philosopher, died. He proclaimed that the only real things are singular entities like an apple or man, and that universals have no existence whatever; they are mere names. The divine and nature each has its own validity, but the one is vastly more important that the other, with the one determining salvation, and the other the mere comfort of the body during its life. [see 1290]
(V.D.-H.K.p.123)(WUD, 1994 p.996)(AP, 2/4/99)

1349 L’Aquila in central Italy was devastated by an earthquake.
(Econ, 10/27/12, p.80)

1349-1830 The eldest son of the king of France was referred to as the dauphine, as an honor to the Dauphine province after its cession to France.
(WUD, 1994, p.369)

1350 Mar 27, Alfonso XI of Castile (38) died of the black death while besieging Gibraltar.
(HN, 3/27/99)(PCh, 1992, p.130)

1350 Aug 22, Philips VI, of Valois, King of France (1328-50), died.
(MC, 8/22/02)
1350 Aug 22, John II, also known as John the Good, succeeded Philip VI as king of France.
(HN, 8/22/98)

1350 Sargis Pitsak, Armenian artist, produced illuminated manuscripts of the bible. Color picture “Souls Ascending the Heavenly Ladder to Christ,” featured in:
( SF Chronicle, 5/12/1994, p. E-1)

1350 The Fremont Indians, who had lived in Utah’s Range Creek Canyon since about 200, disappeared from the archeological record.
(WSJ, 1/31/06, p.B6)(Sm, 3/06, p.74)

c1350 At Powers Fort, Missouri, there was a Mississippian cultural-civic-ceremonial center consisting of a small village and four mounds.
(AM, Vol. 48, No. 3)

1350 Maori ancestors arrived at New Zealand on seven legendary canoes from Hawaii, the mother-island of the east Polynesians.
(NG, Aug., 1974, C. McCarry, p.196)

1350 Boccaccio met Petrarch in Florence.

1350 The leaning tower of Pisa was constructed. [see 1173]
(SFC, 8/13/98, p.C5)

1350 In Northumberland, England, Langley Castle was built with 7-foot thick walls on a wooded estate.
(WSJ, 2/27/98, p.B8)

1351 The east African Kingdom of Dongala became hemmed in by Muslim states such as Kordofan and Darfur and was forced to surrender to Egypt its territory north of the third cataract. Axum was harried by the Muslims of Funj and the people retreated into the mountains and developed into the isolated Christian kingdom of Ethiopia.
(Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.170)

1351 In England the Statute of Treasons was passed under which anyone who violated the wife of the heir to the throne was guilty of high treason.
(WSJ, 5/23/96, p.A-10)

1351-1767 The Ayutthaya Kingdom, a Siamese kingdom, existed during this period. The port city of Ayutthaya (Thailand) was one of the capitals of the kingdom until the Burmese invaded, sacked the city and left it in ruins. The capital was then moved to Bangkok. Prior to this Phananchoeng was the capital.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ayutthaya_Kingdom)(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.G)(WSJ, 4/21/05, p.D7)

1352 May 5, Ruprecht, Roman catholic German king, was born.
(MC, 5/5/02)

1352 Dec 18, Etienne Aubert was elected as Pope Innocentius VI.
(MC, 12/18/01)

1352 The Black Death by this year had killed 25 million people in Europe alone.
(NG, 5/88, p.678)

1352 Ibn Battuta decided to cross the Sahara Desert. The journey took two months to complete the 1,200 miles.
(ATC, p.112)

1352 The gothic Cathedral of Our Lady was begun in Antwerp, Belgium. It was completed in the 16th century.
(Hem., 7/95, p.27)

1353 King Fangum is believed to have established the Kingdom of Lan Xang (Million Elephants), the forerunner of the modern Laos state that was abolished during the communist revolution of 1975.
(AP, 1/6/03)

1353 In Laos Luang Prabang was founded. It was the royal capital of the kingdom of Laos and a center of Laotian Buddhism and court arts.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.E)

1353 Ibn Battuta spent a few months in Mali and left a full description of his experiences.
(Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.170)

1354-1720 Catalan conquerors ruled over Sardinia.
(SFEC, 1/30/00, p.T5)

1355 May 7, 1,200 Jews of Toledo, Spain, were killed by Count Henry of Trastamara.
(MC, 5/7/02)

1355 Nov 1, During the Hundred Years’ War (1337-1457) an English invasion army under Black Prince Edward (25) landed at Calais.
(DoW, 1999, p.213)(PC, 1992 ed, p.131)

1355 Dec 20, Stephen Urosh IV of Serbia died while marching to attack Constantinople.
(HN, 12/20/98)

1355 Charles IV, King of Bohemia, was crowned King of the Holy Roman Empire.
(WSJ, 10/19/05, p.D17)

1356 Sep 19, In a landmark battle of the Hundred Years’ War, English Prince Edward, the Black Prince, defeated the French at Poitiers. Jean de Clermont, French marshal, died in battle.
(HN, 9/19/98)(Econ, 8/24/13, p.76)

1356 Algirdas of Lithuania acquired Bryansk through inheritance and gave it to his son, Dmitry the Elder. Until the end of the century, the town was contested between Jogaila, Vytautas, Svitrigaila, and Yury of Smolensk.

1357 Apr 22, Johan I, King of Portugal (1383-1433), was born.
(MC, 4/22/02)

1357 May 28, Afonso IV (66), King of Portugal (1325-57), died.
(MC, 5/28/02)

1357 The 1999 novel “Timeline” by Michael Crichton catapults its characters to Medieval France and the 20th year of the Hundred Years War.
(WSJ, 11/19/99, p.W6)
1357 In Switzerland Konrad Mueller killed Heinrich Stucki. To atone Mueller promised to always pay to keep an eternal lamp lit. In 2013 a court in Glarus canton ruled that the current farm owner no longer has to pay $76 each year for oil and candles because Swiss mortgage reforms in the mid-19th century made the practice invalid.
(SFC, 1/9/13, p.A2)

1358 Jun 10, French Boer leader Guillaume Cale was captured.
(MC, 6/10/02)

1359 Jeanne de Clisson (b.1300), also known as Jeanne de Belleville and the Lioness of Brittany, died. She was a Breton former noblewoman who became a privateer to avenge her husband after he was executed for treason by the French king. She plied the English Channel and targeted French ships, often slaughtering the crew, leaving few alive.

c1359-c1460 Owain Glyndwr (Owen Glendower) of Wales, leader of a bloody revolt against Henry IV in 1400. The event was marked by a comet.
(SFEC, 6/22/97, p.D2)

1360 Mar 15, French invasion army landed on English south coast and conquered Winchel.
(MC, 3/15/02)

1360 Jul 25, Jews were expelled from Breslau, Silesia.
(SC, 7/25/02)

1360 Oct 25, Louis, founder of house of Anjou, was born.
(MC, 10/25/01)

1360 The vaulting of York Minster cathedral was completed in northern England. The first recorded church on the site was a wooden structure built hurriedly in 627 to provide a place to baptize Edwin, King of Northumbria.

1360 In Spain Francesc Castello was beheaded in front of his own bank following bankruptcy.

1360s The Flagellants of Thuringia engage in self mortification and refused to work.

1360-1754 Hanseatic traders brought prosperity to Bergen, Norway.
(SSFC, 6/5/05, p.F7)

1361 Feb 26, Wenceslas of Bohemia, Holy Roman Catholic German emperor (1378-1400), was born.
(SC, 2/26/02)

1361 Mar 21, Grand duke Kestutis was captured by the Knights of the Cross.
(LHC, 3/21/03)

1361 England enacted its first Corn Laws. They barred the export of corn in order to keep local grain supplies cheap.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)

1361 The Ottomans under Orhan crossed into Europe and captured Adrianople (Edirne), the 2nd major city of Byzantium. Murat I (Orhan) moved the Ottoman capital to Edirne in 1366.
(Ot, 1993, p.5)(http://www.osmanli700.gen.tr/english/sultans.html)

1361-1363 Plague broke out again in Europe.
(HN, 1/20/01)

1362-1363 A 202-pound stone with runic inscriptions, found in 1888 by Olaf and Edward Ohman, Swedish immigrant farmers in Kensington, Minn., seemed to describe how a party of Vikings had returned there after an exploratory survey, and found ten men left behind “red with blood and dead.” Ever since the discovery, scholars have debated the stone’s authenticity.
(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.25)(HNQ, 6/4/01)

1363 In Italy a portrait of St. Ambrose was believed to have been created by Giusto de’ Menabuoi. In 2018 it was stolen from the National Pinacoteca of Bologna. The thief was soon identified and three stolen paintings were recovered.
(AP, 5/4/18)

1364 May 20, Sir Henry Percy (d.1403), [Harry Hotspur], British soldier, politician, and rebel leader, was born.
(WUD, 1994, p.1069)(MC, 5/20/02)

1364 King Charles V (1337-1381) began his rule of France.
(HNQ, 7/14/01)(WUD, 1994 p.249)

1364 In Cracow, Poland, the Jagiellonian University was founded. [see 1400]

1365 The University of Vienna was founded by Duke Rudolph IV.
(StuAus, April ’95, p.2,17)

1365 A tax document lists the feudal property of Niccolo Acciaiuoli, head of a Florentine banking family. It included the castle of Agios Vasilios overlooking the road from Corinth to Argos in southern Greece. The territory had reverted to the Florentine family when the Franks defaulted on loans.
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.55)

1365 Basel, Switzerland, was wrecked by an earthquake.
(AP, 8/4/07)

1366 Oct 12, King Frederick III of Sicily forbade decorations on synagogues.
(MC, 10/12/01)

1366 Wang Meng painted “Dwelling in the Qingbian Mountains.”
(SFC, 4/4/98, p.C1)

1366 The Den Hoorn brewery was founded in Leuven (Belgium). In 1717 Sebastian Artois brought his name to the brewery.
(Econ, 12/17/11, p.124)

1366 Records indicate that cheese was weighed in Alkmaar [Netherlands] at this time.
(SFEC, 6/7/98, p.T10)

1367 Jan 6, Richard II, son of Edward the Black Prince, was born in Bordeaux. He served as king of England from 1377-1399.
(HN, 1/6/99)(MC, 1/6/02)

1367 Apr 3, Birth of Henry Bolingbroke, aka Henry of Lancaster and later Henry IV, King of England (1399-1413) in Lincolnshire.
(MWH, 1994)

1367 Apr 3, John of Gaunt and Edward the Black Prince won the Battle of Najara, in Spain.
(HN, 4/3/99)

1367-1383 Don Rodrigo Anes de Araújo lived during the reign of King Ferdinand I of Portugal. Araújo built a Castle and named it Araújo which can be found in all the ancient Galician maps. Araújo or Araujo or Arauxo is a Galician and Portuguese surname. The surname Araújo is of toponymic origin derived from a place in the Province of Ourense which is part of the Autonomous Community of Galicia in North Western Spain next to the Portuguese border where a Crusader Knight of French Noble descent, Don Rodrigo Anes, was rewarded with reconquered Iberian lands during the Reconquista.

1368 Feb 3, Charles VI, King of France (1380-1422), was born.
(MC, 2/3/02)

1368 Feb 14-1368 Feb 15, Sigismund (d.1437), son of Charles IV, was born in Nuremberg, Germany. He served as Holy Roman Emperor from 1433-1437.

1368 Tamerlane lost control of China as the Mings took over local power. The Ming dynasty overthrew Mongol rule and slammed shut the Jade Gate to caravan traffic to Central Asia.
(V.D.-H.K.p.172)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

c1368-1600 For several centuries after 1368 the Mongols were confined to their original homeland in the steppes, their energies mostly absorbed by internal rivalries.

1368-1644 The period of the Ming Dynasty in China. Classical Chinese furniture refers to furniture made during the Ming and early Ching (1644-1912). During the Ming Dynasty the Great Wall of China was extended and renovated with watch towers and canons.
(AAM, 3/96, p.9)(WSJ, 9/19/96, p.A18)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Wall_of_China)
1368-1644 “The Ming Dynasty” by Yang Xin is the 3rd section of Wu Hung’s 1997 “The Origins of Chinese Painting.” The period is marked by the emergence of the literati-amateur movement.
(WSJ, 1/2/98, p.6)
1368-1644 China extended its hegemony over the Ryukyu Islands legitimating 3 kings in exchange for submission to the Ming emperor.
(NW, 9/10/01, p.48)

1369 Mar 23, Pedro the Cruel, King and tyrant of Castile and Leon, was murdered. Enrique, the illegitimate son of Alfonso XI of Castile, killed his half brother Pedro I in the Castilian civil war and became King Enrique I “the Bastard” of Castile.
(SS, 3/23/02)(Reuters, 12/23/06)

1369 Hongwu, the first Ming emperor, established an imperial kiln at Jungdezhen in south-central China. It became a famous porcelain center.
(SFEC, 10/6/96, DB p.37)

1369 The goldsmith firm of Torrini Firenze was founded in Florence, Italy.
(SFC, 4/14/06, p.D1)

1369-1371 Plague broke out again in Europe.
(HN, 1/20/01)

1369-1405 Timur (aka Timur Lang or Timur Lenk or Tamerlane, so-named because of a lame leg) ruled from Samarkand.
(WUD, 1994, p.1451)

1369-1424 Muzio Sforza, father of Francesco, Italian condotierre (leader of a private band of mercenary soldiers).
(WUD, 1994, p.1308)

1370 Apr 11, Frederick I the Warlike, elector of Saxony, was born.
(HN, 4/11/98)

1370 Apr 22, The first stone of the Bastille was laid by order of King Charles V (1364-1380). The original design of the Bastille was merely a fortified gate, but it was later turned into a fortress by Charles VI. It began to be used as a prison in the 17th century. Following the storming of the Bastille on July 14, 1789, it was demolished.
(HNQ, 7/14/01)

1370 May 22, Jews were expelled (massacred) from Brussels, Belgium.
(MC, 5/22/02)

1370 Nov 5, Kazimierz III (“The Great”), king of Poland (1333-70), died at 61.
(MC, 11/5/01)

1370 Andrei Rublev, Russian icon painter, was born about this time.
(DVD, Criterion, 1998)

1370 Spain’s Prince Sancho de Castile (7) died. Spaniards for a long time believed Prince his uncle poisoned him to become king. In 2006 studies of the boy’s mummified body showed the boy died of natural causes.
(Reuters, 12/23/06)

1370-1404 Timour-i-Lang (Tamerlane) ruled over Afghanistan. Afghan resistance was active.

1371 Feb 22, David II Bruce (46), king of Scotland (1331-1371), died.
(MC, 2/22/02)

1371 May 28, John, the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy, warrior, was born in Burgundy, France.
(MC, 5/28/02)

1371 Dec 4, Reinald III (38), (“The Fat,”) duke of Gelre (1343-61), died.
(MC, 12/4/01)

1371 The queen of France sent the Queen of England several dolls dressed in the latest French fashion. The outfits were copied by English dressmakers and costumed dolls from France went wherever French ships sailed. They were called mannequins.
(SFC, 6/28/97, p.E3)

1371 Ubaid Zakani, Persian writer, died. His work included “Mush va Gorbeh” (Mouse and Cat), a match for Rabelais when it comes to mocking religion.
(WSJ, 2/8/06, p.A16)(www.britannica.com/eb/article-13737)

1371-1435 Cheng Ho, eunuch admiral of the Ming dynasty, explored the Indian Ocean.

1372 Sep 21, Frederik I van Hohenzollern, monarch of Brandenburg (1417-40), was born.
(MC, 9/21/01)

1372 The 1st Ryukyuan emissaries reached Nanjing and presented tribute to the Ming emperor.
(NW, 9/10/01, p.56)

1373 Jul 23, Birgitta of Sweden, Swedish saint, died.
(MC, 7/23/02)

1373 Boccaccio began a course of public readings of the divine Comedy in the church of Santo Stefano in Florence. He accompanied the readings with commentaries, explaining to his largely illiterate audience of common people the meaning and relevance of what Dante had written. He encountered raging attacks of the learned against his program of bringing Dante to the attention and understanding of the common people.

1374-1375 Plague broke out again in Europe.
(HN, 1/20/01)

1373-1415 Jan Huss, Czech populist reformer. He challenged Church doctrine.
(WSJ, 4/4/01, p.A18)

1374 Jul 18, Francesco Petrarch (69), Italian poet (Italia Mia), died.
(SSFC, 7/25/04, p.E3)

1375 Dec 21, Giovanni Boccaccio, Italian poet (Vita di Dante), died at his home in Certaldo.
(V.D.-H.K.p.133)(MC, 12/21/01)

1375-1412 Queen Margaret I (b.1353) ruled over Denmark. In 1388 her rule extended over Norway and in 1389 extended to include Sweden.

1376 Apr 28, English parliament demanded the supervision on royal outlay.
(MC, 4/28/02)

1376 Jun 8, Edward (b.1330), the “Black Prince” of Wales, son of King Edward III of England and Queen Philippa of Hainault, died at Westminster Palace, Middlesex.

1376 Jul 22, The rats were piped out of Hamelin, Germany.
(HFA, ’96, p.34)

1377 Feb 3, There was a mass execution of population of Cesena, Italy.
(MC, 2/3/02)

1377 Jun 21, Edward III (b.1312), King of England (1322-1377), died. Richard II, who was still a child, succeeded his father. In 1966 H.J. Hewitt authored “The Organization of War Under Edward III.” In 1978 Richard Barber authored “Edward, Prince of Wales and Aquitaine.” In 1980 Michael Prestwich authored “The Three Edwards: War and State in England 1272-1377.” Lines of his 3rd and 4th sons, houses Lancaster and York engaged in the Wars of the Roses. In 2006 Ian Mortimer authored “The Perfect King: The Life of Edward III, Father of the English Nation.”
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)(ON, 9/00, p.2)(AM, 7/01, p.69)(HN, 6/21/98)(Econ, 4/15/06, p.84)

c1377-1446 Filippo Brunelleschi, Italian architect. He designed the dome of the Florence Cathedral.
(WUD, 1994, p.190)(WSJ, 6/6/96, p.A12)

1378 Mar 27, Gregory XI, [Pierre R the Beaufort], last French Pope (1370-78), died.
(MC, 3/27/02)

1378 Aug 9, Cardinals declared pope Urbanus VI lawless (anti-Christian, devil).
(MC, 8/9/02)

1378 Sep 20, The election of Robert of Geneva as anti-pope by discontented cardinals created a great schism in the Catholic church.
(HN, 9/20/98)

1378 Nov 29, Charles IV (b.1316), King of Bohemia and Holy Roman Emperor, died.

1378 Dec 18, Charles V denounced the treachery of John IV of Brittany and confiscated his duchy.
(HN, 12/18/98)

1378 Dec 31, Callistus III, [Alfonso the Borgia], Pope (1455-58), was born.
(MC, 12/31/01)

1378 Wenceslaus IV (1361-1419), son of Charles IV, became King of Bohemia following the death of his father. He served as Holy Roman Emperor until 1400, when he was deposed in favor of Rupert III.

1378 Wool workers in Florence revolted after being hit with production quotas.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R27)

1378 The last bishop on Greenland died. No replacement was sent.
(AM, 7/00, p.66)

1378-1417 The Great Western Schism split the Roman Catholic Church and involved 2 anti-popes at its height.
(CU, 6/87)

1379-1390 Khwaja Shams ud-Din Hafiz (b.c1310-1326), Persian poet, died.
(SSFC, 10/23/05, p.E3)(www.thesongsofhafiz.com/)

1380 Feb 11, Gianfrancesco Poggio Bracciolini, Italian humanist, was born.
(MC, 2/11/02)

1380 Jul 24, Giovanni da Capistrano, Italian monk, was born. He liberated Belgrade from the Turks and was later canonized a saint as San Juan de Capistrano. His name was applied to the southern California mission, best known for its annual convocation of swallows.
(MC, 7/24/02)

1380 Sep 8, Bernardinus of Siena, Italian saint, was born.
(MC, 9/8/01)
1380 Sep 8, Prince Dmitrii of Moscow defeated the Mongols at Kulikovo Field. This marked the beginning of the decline of Mongol control over Russian lands.
(DVD, Criterion, 1998)(http://fanaticus.org/dba/battles/Kulikovo/index.html)

1380 Nov 14, King Charles VI of France was crowned at age 12.
(MC, 11/14/01)

1380 Nov 16, French King Charles VI declared no taxes forever.
(MC, 11/16/01)

1380 In England Henry Of Lancaster at 13 married Mary de Bohun, daughter and co-heiress of Humphrey, the last Earl of Hereford.
(MWH, 1994)

1380 In France the rule of King Charles V (1337-1381) ended.
(HNQ, 7/14/01)(WUD, 1994 p.249)

1380 Iceland fell under Danish control.
(HNQ, 4/28/00)

c1380-1471 Thomas a Kempis, German monk and author: “Would to God that we might spend a single day really well.” “Verily, when the day of judgment comes, we shall not be asked what we have read, but what we have done.”
(AP, 1/28/98)(AP, 7/28/00)

1381 May 30, English peasant uprising began in Essex.
(MC, 5/30/02)

1381 Jun 14, The Peasant’s Revolt, led by Wat Tyler, climaxed when rebels marched on Jordan, plundered, burned and captured the Tower of London and killed the Archbishop of Canterbury. The revolt was a response to a statute intended to hold down wages during a labor shortage. The peasant demands also included access to privately owned land.
(HN, 6/14/98)(SFC, 6/20/99, p.A7)

1381 Jun 15, The English peasant revolt was crushed in London and Wat Tyler, the rebel leader, was beheaded.
(HN, 6/15/98)(MC, 6/15/02)

1381 When the peasant’s revolt subsided England’s King Richard II (14) reneged on his promises to the peasants, rounded up the surviving ringleaders and had them executed.
(Econ, 11/26/05, p.96)

1382 Mar 1, French Maillotin rose up against taxes.
(SC, 3/1/02)

1382 Mar 15, Conservative “Popolo Grasso” regained power in Florence, Italy.
(MC, 3/15/02)

1382 May 5, In the Battle of Beverhoutsveld, Belgium, the population beat a drunken army.
(MC, 5/5/02)

1382 Sep 10, Louis I, the Great, King of Hungary and Poland, died. Mary (1372-1395), daughter of Louis I, became queen of Hungary.
(PC, 1992 ed, p.135)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_of_Hungary)

1382 Nov 27, The French nobility, led by Olivier de Clisson, crushed the Flemish rebels at Flanders.
(HN, 11/27/98)

1382 John Wycliffe’s heresy hearing was interrupted by an earthquake that toppled the tower of Canterbury Cathedral.
(WSJ, 12/31/04, p.W6)
1382 The Bahri Mamluks, rulers of Egypt, were succeeded by the Burji dynasty, another group of Mamluks.
1382 Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406) arrived in Cairo following a turbulent political career in Tunis. He is best known for his Muqaddimah (known as Prolegomenon in English), which was discovered, evaluated and fully appreciated first by 19th century European scholarship.
(SSFC, 7/24/11, p.F7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ibn_Khaldun)
1382 In Romania Brasov Saxons built a castle at Bran, Transylvania.
(SSFC, 10/23/11, p.H6)

1383 Sep 4, Amadeus VIII, duke of Savoye, and the last antipope (Felix V (1439-48), was born.
(MC, 9/4/01)

1383 Ferdinand I (b.1345), king of Portugal (1367-1383), died.

c1383-c1436 Masolino, Italian artist. He worked with Masaccio on “Saints Jerome and John the Baptist,” part of an altarpiece for Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome.
(WSJ, 9/27/01, p.A16)

1384 Jan 30, Vytautas handed over Samogitia to the Knights of the Cross and promised to serve as a vassal to the order following receipt of Trakai.
(LHC, 1/30/03)

1384 Sep 2, Louis I, duke of Anjou and king of Naples (Battle of Poitiers), died.
(MC, 9/2/01)

1384 Oct 16, The Polish princess Hedwig was crowned King Jadwiga (d.1399) at age 10. She was crowned as king to make it clear that she was a ruler, not a consort.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jadwiga_of_Poland)(SFC, 6/9/97, p.A10)(SSFC, 10/2/11, p.N4)

1384 Dec 31, John Wycliffe, English religious reformer and bible translator, died.
(MC, 12/31/01)

1385 Jan 18, A Lithuanian delegation under Skirgaila arrived in Cracow to ask for the hand of Jadvyga on behalf of Jogaila.
(LHC, 1/18/03)

1385 Apr 12, Willem van Oostervant wed Margaretha (10), Philip the Stout’s daughter (Flanders).
(MC, 4/12/02)

1385 Aug 14, Jogaila and his brothers signed a treaty with Poland at Krievos Castle. Here he agreed to convert to Christianity and to seek the conversion of all of Lithuania and that then Lithuania and Poland would unite. The treaty also included an agreement to free all captive Catholics and to help Poland regain all the land it had lost to the German Knights. Vytautas urged Jogaila to go to Poland and leave Lithuania to be ruled by himself.
(H of L, 1931, p.48)(Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 68)
1385 Aug 14, Portuguese defeated Castilians at Aljubarrota and gained independence. John of Portugal defeated John of Castile.
(PCh, 1992, p.136)(HN, 8/15/98)(MC, 8/14/02)

1385 The Albanian ruler of Durrës invited Ottoman forces to intervene against a rival.
(www, Albania, 1998)

1385 In Italy Giovanni di Pietro Antinori branched from his family’s lucrative silk and wool business to join the Florentine wine makers guild. By 2008 the family business had vineyards in Hungary, Chile and California’s Napa Valley.
(SFC, 4/14/06, p.D1)(WSJ, 4/5/08, p.A6)

1386 Feb 2, Jogaila was elected King of Poland.
(LHC, 2/2/03)

1386 Feb 15, Duke Philip the Stout formed the Council of Flanders.
(MC, 2/15/02)
1386 Feb 15, Christianity was introduced to Lithuania when Grand Duke Jogaila and Vytautas underwent a token Baptism at the cathedral in Cracow. Jogaila had married Queen Jadvyga (12) and was crowned King in Poland. Together they began to rule from Cracow over Lithuania and Poland. Jogaila submitted to restrictions that no major decisions could be made without the authorization of the Polish nobility.
(Dr, 7/96, V1#1, p.5)(Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 69)(DrEE, 11/9/96, p.6)

1386 Mar 4, Jogaila was crowned King of Poland.
(LHC, 3/4/03)

1386 The Duomo Cathedral was begun in Milan. The Milanese boast that it took 500 years to build.
(SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T11)

1386 The Univ. of Heidelberg, the oldest in Germany, was founded.
(SFEC, 9/26/99, p.T8)

1386 The counts of Habsburg tried to reach their goals by military force but were again defeated by Swiss forces at the battle of Sempach.

1386 Sigismund (1368-1437), son of Charles IV, became King of Hungary by his marriage to Queen Mary of Hungary (1372-1395).

1386 The Earl of Suffolk, Michael de la Pole, was the first person to be impeached along modern lines of procedure.
(WSJ, 1/25/99, p.A19)

1387 Feb 17, Jogaila founded the archdiocese of Vilnius and provided land for the Bishop’s headquarters.
(LHC, 2/17/03)

1387 Feb 22, Jogaila issued a proclamation for all Lithuanians to accept Catholicism.
(LHC, 2/22/03)

1387 Mar 22, Jogaila gave Vilnius the rights of Magdeburg. Vilnius became the 1st self-governed Lithuanian city.
(LHC, 3/22/03)

1387 Jul 22, French Ackerman (c57), Ghent rebel, leader of Reisers, was murdered.
(MC, 7/22/02)

1387 Aug 9, Henry V, British king famous for his victory at Agincourt, France, was born. [see Aug 29]
(HN, 8/9/98)

1387 Aug 29, Henry V, king of England (1413-22) / France (1416-19), was born. [see Aug 9]
(MC, 8/29/01)

1387 The Italian painter Fra Angelico (d.1455), Giovanni da Fiesole, was born about this time. His work included the “Annunciation.” The 1997 book “Fra Angelico” by John T. Spike was hailed as the art book of the year.
(WUD, 1994, p.57)(SFEC,12/797, Par p.6)

1387 Henry of Lancaster supported his uncle Thomas, Duke of Gloucester, in an attack on the government of Richard II.
(MWH, 1994)

1387-1388 Henry of Lancaster was a participant in the “Merciless” Parliament.
(MWH, 1994)

1387-1455 Fra Angelico, Giovanni da Fiesole, Italian painter. His work included the “Annunciation.” The 1997 book “Fra Angelico” by John T. Spike was hailed as the art book of the year.
(WUD, 1994, p.57)(SFEC,12/797, Par p.6)

1387-1456 Janos Hunyadi, Hungarian soldier and national hero. He was the father of Matthias Corvinus.
(WUD, 1994, p.693,1672)

1388 Mar 12, Pope Urban VI authorized Poznan’s Bishop Dobrogost to establish a Vilnius archdiocese.
(LHC, 3/12/03)

1388 The counts of Habsburg tried to reach their goals by military force but were again defeated by Swiss forces at the battle of Naefels.

1389 Jan 10, Jogaila authorized the Bishops of Vilnius to build churches and urged believers to donate 10% for their upkeep.
(LHC, 1/10/03)

1389 Mar 31, Everhard Tserclaes, sheriff of Brussels, was murdered.
(MC, 3/31/02)

1389 Jun 15, Ottoman Turks crushed Serbia in the Battle of Kosovo. The Serbs were defeated by the invading Turkish Ottoman army at the Battle of Kosovo Polje, the “Field of Blackbirds.” In the battle, the Serb prince Lazar was captured by the Turks and beheaded. The Battle of Kosovo, in which the Serbs chose death rather than surrender, remains a permanent symbol in the Serbian national consciousness. Lazar’s bones were placed in the monastery at Gracanica in Kosovo. Albanians joined a Serbian-led Balkan army that was defeated by Ottoman forces at the Battle of Kosova. [see Jun 28]
(SFC, 12/29/96, BR p.7)(SFC, 3/3/98, p.A8)(WSJ, 5/5/98, p.A20)(HN, 6/15/98)(HNQ, 3/25/99)(WSJ, 3/25/99, p.A17)(www, Albania, 1998)

1389 Jun 28, The Serbs were defeated in the Battle of Kosovo at the Field of the Blackbirds. Sultan Murad, the Ottoman leader was killed in the battlefield by the wounded son-in-law of King Lazar. Serbs say that Albanians aided the Turkish invaders. Historical evidence shows that both forces were multinational and that Serbs and Albanian fought on both sides. [see Jun 15] In 1999 Ismail Kadare, Albanian author, wrote “Elegy for Kosovo,” in which he retells the story of the battle. Bosnian King Tvrtko and other Balkan princes along with Albanians fought under the command of Serbian Prince Lazar.
(WSJ, 5/7/99, p.A1,18)(SFEC, 7/23/00, BR p.7)

1389 Serbs, defeated by the Ottoman Turks, moved from Kosovo to the Krajina region of Croatia.
(WSJ, 4/22/99, A12)

1389 A French bishop advised the Pope that the Shroud of Turin, that had materialized in the village of Lirey a generation earlier, was a fraud.
(WSJ, 4/10/98, p.W6)

1389 Henry of Lancaster rejoined King Richard II.
(MWH, 1994)

1389-1402 Bayezid I (1360-1403) ruled as the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. He was the son of Murad I and Gulcicek Hatun.
1389-1464 Cosimo de Medici, Florentine merchant banker. The Medici family served as the world-wide tithe and tax collector for the Catholic Church.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1390 Jul 1, A French and Genovese armada sailed out against Barbary pirates.
(MC, 7/1/02)

1390 Nov 22, Hungarian nobleman Miklos Toldi (b.~1320) died. He was remembered as a legendary strong hero in Hungarian folklore who protects women and children. Poet János Arany based his famous Toldi trilogy on his legend.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mikl%C3%B3s_Toldi)(Econ, 9/19/15, p.48)

c1390 Jacques de Baerze made his statuette “Corpus Christi.” It was key work in the transition from medieval art to realism.
(WSJ, 4/9/99, p.W16)

1390 English king Henry IV spent a full year supporting the unsuccessful siege of Vilnius by Teutonic Knights with his 300 fellow knights. During this campaign Henry Bolingbroke also bought captured Lithuanian princes and then apparently took them back to England. King Henry’s second expedition to Lithuania in 1392 illustrates the financial benefits to the Order of these guest crusaders. His small army consisted of over 100 men, including longbow archers and six minstrels, at a total cost to the Lancastrian purse of £4,360. Much of this sum benefited the local economy through the purchase of silverware and the hiring of boats and equipment. Despite the efforts of Bolingbroke and his English crusaders, two years of attacks on Vilnius proved fruitless.

1390 Plague broke out again in Europe.
(HN, 1/20/01)

1391 Mar 15, A Jew-hating monk in Seville, Spain, stirred up a mob to attack Jews.
(MC, 3/15/02)

1391 Jun 4, A mob led by Ferrand Martinez surrounded and set fire to the Jewish quarter of Seville, Spain. The surviving Jews were sold into slavery.
(MC, 6/4/02)

1391 Aug 5, Castilian sailors in Barcelona, Spain set fire to a Jewish ghetto, killing 100 people and setting off four days of violence against the Jews.
(HN, 8/5/98)

1391 Aug 24, Jews of Palma Majorca, Spain, were massacred.
(MC, 8/24/02)

1391 Oct 30, Eduard, [Dom Duarte], King of Portugal (1433-38) and author, was born.
(MC, 10/30/01)

1391 China’s Bureau of Imperial Supplies produced 2-foot by 3-foot sheets of toilet paper for use by the emperor.
(WSJ, 9/10/03, p.B1)

1391 Ottoman Caliph Bayezid I sent boats to rescue Jews as they were being expelled from Spain.
(Econ, 12/19/15, p.67)

1391 Saint Bridget (1303-1373), Sweden’s first saint, was canonized. She was the founder of the Bridgettines nuns and monks after the death of her husband of twenty years.

1391-1425 Manuel II Palaeologus ruled the Byzantine empire.
(Econ, 9/23/06, p.59)

c1392 Sir Jean Froissart authored “The Chronicles of England, France and Scotland.”
(ON, 4/00, p.6)

1392 The University at Erfurt on the Gera River was founded. Erfurt is the capital of the state of Thuringia and Martin Luther later studied there.
(Hem., Nov.’95, p.114)

1392 The Chosun Dynasty was established. In 2005 Yi Ku (73), the son of Korea’s last crown prince, died alone of a heart attack in Japan. He was the last member of the Chosun dynasty that ruled Korea from 1392 until 1910.
(SFC, 5/9/01, p.C18)(AP, 7/24/05)

1392-1910 The Choson Dynasty ruled over Korea. [the article is about pojagi, Korean wrapping cloth]
(Hem., Oct. ’95, p.72)(WSJ, 8/13/96, p.A9)

1393 Henry of Lancaster returned to England as a hero.
(MWH, 1994)

1394 Mar 4, Prince Henry the Navigator (d.1460), Portuguese explorer and sponsor of Portuguese voyages of discovery, was born. [see 1420]
(HN, 3/4/98)(WSJ, 1/28/00, p.A18)

1394 Sep 17, In France King Charles VI decreed as an irrevocable law and statute that thenceforth no Jew should dwell in his domains. The decree was not immediately enforced, a respite being granted to the Jews in order that they might sell their property and pay their debts.

1394 Nov 3, Jews were expelled from France by Charles VI. The order, signed on Yom Kippur, was enforced on November 3. Jews continued to live in Lyons and papal possessions such as Pugnon. [see Sep 17, 1394]

1394 Mary de Bohun, wife of Henry of Lancaster, died. She and Henry had 4 sons and 2 daughters.
(MWH, 1994)

1394 Tamerlane conquered all of Afghanistan.
(WSJ, 11/16/01, p.W12)

1394 Seoul, Korea, was founded. The city celebrated its 600th anniversary in 1994.
(MC, 11/29/01)

1395 Tamerlane burnt Astrakhan to the ground. Astrakhan is situated in the Volga Delta, a fertile area that formerly contained the capitals of Khazaria and the Golden Horde. Astrakhan itself was first mentioned by travelers in the early 13th century as Xacitarxan.

1395 In Russia the ikon of Our Lady of Vladimir was brought to Moscow and placed in the Kremlin’s Assumption Cathedral for protection against the Mongol invaders under Tamerlane. A monastery, know as Stretenskii, was built on the spot where the Muscovites met the delegation from Vladimir.
(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.38)

1395-1455 Pisanello, an artist who painted with scrupulous realism.
(SFEC, 2/21/99, BR p.8)

1395-1456 Jacques Coeur, financial adviser to Charles VII of France. He ran a variety of businesses and sold luxury goods. He bankrolled Charles’ war in 1449 with nearly a ton of gold. His gothic mansion at Bourges had the family motto etched in stone: “To valiant hearts nothing is impossible.”
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)

1396 Apr 30, Crusaders and the Earl of Nevers departed from Dijon.
(MC, 4/30/02)

1396 Jul 31, Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, Brabant, Limburg, count, was born.
(MC, 7/31/02)

1396 Sep 25, A Christian crusade, led jointly by John the Fearless of Nevers and King Sigismund of Hungary, ended in disaster at the hands of Sultan Bajezid I’s Ottoman army at Nicopolis.
(HN, 9/25/98)(PCh, 1992, p.137)

1396 Sep 26, Sultan Bajezid I beheaded several hundred crusaders.
(MC, 9/26/01)

c1396 The tabla, a 600-year-old invention, was evolved from Arabian drums to accompany a fusion of Islamic Qawali singing and Dhrupad music composed for Sanskrit couplets usually recited in temples.
(SFC, 5/19/96,Mag, p.25)

c1396 The kirana style of Hindustani music began.
(SFC, 6/18/96, p.A17)

1397 Jan 13, John of Gaunt married Katherine Rouet.
(HN, 1/13/99)

1397 Jun 17, The Union of Kalmar united Denmark, Sweden, and Norway under one monarch. The alliance grew out of the dynastic ties of the Scandinavian countries of Denmark, Norway and Sweden in response to rising German influence in the Baltic. The Kalmar Union is a historiographical term meaning a series of personal unions (1397–1523) that united the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway (with Iceland, Greenland, the Faroe Islands and, prior to their annexation by Scotland in 1471, Shetland and Orkney), and Sweden (including Finland) under a single monarch.

1397 Jan 26, Vytautas signed a treaty with the Knights of the Cross but Samogitia was not included.
(LHC, 1/26/03)

1397 Aug 16, Albrecht II von Habsburg, king of Bohemia, Hungary and Germany, was born.
(MC, 8/16/02)

1397 In England Henry of Lancaster was made Duke of Hereford and then banished from the realm for a presumed conspiracy to murder the Duke of Gloucester.
(MWH, 1994)

1397 Spaten’s roots date back to this time. The company name comes from Munich brewing family Spaeth, which bought a 225 year-old brewery in 1622 ran the firm for seven generations.

1397-1475 Paolo Uccello, Italian painter. He painted battle scenes whose tilting spears put linear perspective to dazzling use.
(WUD, 1994, p.1534)(WSJ, 6/6/96, p.A12)

1398 In South Korea a wooden structure at the top of the Namdaemun gate formed part of a wall that encircled the Seoul. The two-tiered wooden structure was renovated in the 1960s, when it was declared South Korea’s top national treasure. In 2008 a fire destroyed the 610-year-old structure.
(AP, 2/11/08)

1399 Aug 12, The Battle of the Vorskla River (Ukraine) was a great battle in the medieval history of Eastern Europe. It was fought between the Tatars, under Edigu and Temur Qutlugh, and the armies of Tokhtamysh and Grand Duke Vytautas of Lithuania. The battle ended in a decisive Tatar victory.

1399 Aug 19, King Richard II of England surrendered to his cousin Henry Bolingbroke (Henry IV). Henry of Lancaster returned to England to claim his inherited lands. He marched with an army into Briston and captured Richard II and claimed the throne. [see Sep 29]
(MC, 8/19/02)(PC, 1992, p.138)

1399 Sep 29, Richard II (1367-1400) of England signed his “Cession and Renunciation.” His cousin, Henry of Lancaster, declared himself king under the name Henry IV. Richard had earlier introduced the lace handkerchief, triple-taxed the citizenry and stole the estates of his relatives. [see Sep 30, Oct 13]
(HN, 9/29/98)(SFEC, 10/29/00, Z1 p.2)

1399 Sep 30, British Parliament accepted Richard II’s “Cession and Renunciation.” [see Sep 29]
(HN, 9/30/98)

1399 Oct 13, Henry IV of England was crowned.
(HN, 10/13/98)

1399 Oct, Richard II was imprisoned at Pontefract Castle, where he died 4 months later. [See Feb 14,1400]
(MWH, 1994)(HN, 10/13/98)

1399 Dec 17, Tamerlane’s Mongols destroyed the army of Mahmud Tughluk, Sultan of Delhi, at Panipat.
(HN, 12/17/98)

1399 Guillame Dufay (d.1474), composer, was born.
(WSJ, 1/2/02, p.A15)

1399 Chersonesos in the southern Crimean peninsula, the Byzantine world’s largest trading outpost, was sacked by the Mongols.
(SFC,12/19/97, p.F6)

c1399 In Poland Queen Hedwig died in childbirth at age 25.
(SFC, 6/9/97, p.A10)

1399-1413 The reign of Henry IV of England (1367-1413). He was the first king of the House of Lancaster. During his reign insurrections occurred under Owen Glendower (c1359-c1460) with followers in Wales and the Percy Family in Northumberland (1403).
(WUD, 1994, p.1671)



The Thirteenth Century 1200-1299

1200 Jul 1, Sunglasses were invented in China.
(MC, 7/1/02)

c1200 In China the painting “Reading the I Ching in the Pine Shade” was made.
(NH, 9/97, p.)

c1200 Condesa de Dia was a female troubadour of this time. Her songs included “Of things I’d rather keep in silence I must sing.”
(WSJ, 5/14/97, p.A20)

1200 Bishop Albert, the head of a group of pilgrim knights, led 23 ships of armed soldiers up the Baltic to Livonian lands at the mouth of the Dauguva River.
(Ist. L.H., 1948, p.39-40)

c1200 Buttons were invented as a decoration to embellish hemlines, collars and the sides of sleeves.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R40)

1200 The Anasazi in southwest Colorado began building their cliff dwellings. Population was thriving. They were making corrugated pottery and handsomely decorated black and white pottery.
(HN, 2/11/97)

c1200 A drought hit the southwest (USA) around the Coso Mountains about this time. Shamanism and rain-making grew in importance and helped men counterbalance the importance of women engaged in food gathering when hunting declined.
(PacDis, Summer ’97, p.15)

1200 In Germany “The Nibelungenlied” (the Song of the Nibelungs) was written about this time. The epic poem of some 10,000 lines was based on tales that reached back to the 5th century destruction of the Burgundian kingdom by the Huns. In 2006 Burton Raffel wrote an English translation “Das Nibelungenlied.”
(WSJ, 10/28/06, p.P13)

1200 The Inca Empire conquered the area of Bolivia around this time and remained in control until arrival of Spaniards.
(AP, 12/17/05)
1200 The Pacajes formed part of the Aymara kingdom and developed around this time after the decline of the Tiwanacu people in the Andean highlands. In 2018 archaeologists found tombs at a Bolivian quarry containing remains from more than 500 years ago at a cemetery carved into limestone, which appeared to have been built by the Pacajes people. Their cities were conquered by the Incas toward the end of the 15th century.
(AP, 11/17/18)

1200 In 2007 Mexican archeologists discovered the ruins of an Aztec pyramid in the heart of Mexico City that dated to about this time.
(Reuters, 12/27/07)

c1200 Polynesians settled the 14 Cook Islands that included Rarotonga.
(SFEC, 1/5/97, p.T5)

c1200 The Sorbs, a Slavic people, settled in areas that later became Germany. They spoke a language similar to Czech.
(SFC, 11/8/00, p.B2)

c1200 In Tibet the Rakhor nunnery was established. In 1997 Chinese authorities ordered the nuns to leave and everything except the main assembly hall was destroyed.
(SFC, 1/29/99, p.E9)

1200s Persia introduced polo to Arabia, China and India.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1200-1250 The Longbow was developed from a Welsh bow that had been used against the English. During the numerous skirmishes with the Welsh, the English had witnessed the power of this weapon. An arrow from this weapon had a maximum range of 400 yards, could penetrate four inches of wood at closer range, and could kill an armored knight at 200 yards. The British would use it to destroy a French army at Crecy in 1346. This would be the world’s premiere weapon until the development of cannon (artillery) circa 1450.

1200-1258 Jean Buridan, a scholar whose theory of the earth was absorbed and defended by Leonardo da Vinci.
(NH, 5/97, p.59)

1200-1280 Albertus Magnus, the teacher of Thomas Aquinas. He wrote extensively on the form and behavior of the earth. “The Book of Secrets of Albertus Magnus” was edited by Michael R. Best and Frank H. Brightman in 1974. He and Aquinas created a synthesis of Aristotelian thought and Catholic theology.
(NH, 5/97, p.59)(AM, 5-6/97, p.10)(NH, 10/98, p.4)

1200-1300 Cesky Krumlov, 100 miles south of Prague, was founded about this time on the Vltava River on the main trading route between Bavaria and Italy.
(SSFC, 7/21/02, p.C5)

1200-1300 In England one farthing (a quarter penny) bought four cups of ale. The average daily wage was a penny or two.
(Econ, 2/14/15, p.74)

1200-1300 The Danes built a castle at Narva, Estonia.
(WSJ, 1/25/99, p.A1)

1200-1300 The Mont Orgueil Castle on the east coast of island of Jersey in the English Channel was built to withstand any French attack.
(Sky, 4/97, p.28)

1200-1300 In France the Abbey of Royaumont was established about this time.
(SFC, 9/8/97, p.D5)
1200-1300 In France the abbey on Mont St. Michel was established. In 1998 it was planned to remove the sand around the rocky island off the Normandy coast and re-establish its maritime character.
(SFEC, 5/10/98, p.T3)

1200-1300 In Germany the Mauseturm, Tower of Mice, was built downriver from Rudesheim on an islet on the Rhine in the 13th century. It was named after the plight of the 9th century Archbishop Hatto of Mainz.
(SFEC, 3/15/98, p.T4)
1200-1300 Burg Reichenstein, downstream from Assmannshausen on the Rhine, was the stronghold of the 13th century robber-knight Philip von Hohenfels who “robbed ladies, imprisoned the clergy, mistreated vassals and plundered merchants.”
(SFEC, 3/15/98, p.T4)
1200-1300 St. Gertrude, a German nun of this period, was an important Catholic mystic.
(WSJ, 12/26/97, p.A9)

1200-1300 In Limerick, Ireland, a 13th century castle was built overlooking the Shannon River.
(SFEC, 3/15/98, p.T11)

1200-1300 A mural at Massa Marittima, Italy, dating to this period, depicts a spidery tree with 25 penises and testicles hanging in the branches. “It’s a message from the Guelphs, telling people that if the Ghibellines are allowed power they will bring with them heresy, sexual perversion, civic strife and witchcraft.”
(Reuters, 12/7/04)
1200-1300 Rival Italian political factions and families collided in the 13th century at Montaperti, the “hill of death”.
(HN, 5/14/98)

1200-1300 Nichiren, a Japanese monk and reformer, founded a Buddhist school during this period. “When great evil occurs, great good will follow.”
(WSJ, 3/28/02, p.A20)

1200-1300 On the coast of Kenya the great palace and main mosque at Gede (Gedi) were built.
(NH, 6/97, p.41)

1200-1330 A Mayan city in Peten state (Guatemala), the “El Pajaral” site, dated to the post-classic period of this time. The ruins were found in 2000.
(SFC, 5/15/00, p.A13)

1200-1300 The Csango people of Romania’s remote eastern Carpathian mountains began settling around this time, dispatched by Hungarian rulers to defend the kingdom’s easternmost frontier.
(AP, 3/21/12)

1200-1300 Moses de Leon, a Spanish Jewish mystic, wrote the “Zohar,” in Aramaic. It was a mystical interpretation of the Torah disguised as a novel. The Zohar consists of mystical interpretations and commentaries of the Pentateuch, the first 5 books of the Old Testament. It became the major text of Jewish mysticism that came to be called the Kabbalah, as developed a few centuries later by Isaac Luria in Palestine. In 2003 a new translation was made by Daniel C. Matt, as part of a 12-volume new edition of the Kabbalah.
(WUD, 1994, p.1662)(WSJ, 5/22/98, p.W11)(SFC, 12/16/03, p.D1)

1200-1300 In Thailand the site at Prang Ku was probably one of 108 hospital sites built by the Khmer king Jayavarman VII.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.G)

c1200-1300 Sidi Bou Said was a 13th century Sufi holy man. A town 12 miles from Tunis was named after him. It was closed to non-Muslims until the 1820s.
(SSFC, 8/4/02, p.C12)

1200-1400 Timbuktu, a major trading center in the Malian Empire, reached a population of some 100,000 during this period.
(WSJ, 2/1/06, p.D12)
1200-1400 Stone birds from Great Zimbabwe were made in this period and later displayed as part of an African Art exhibit by the London Royal Academy 1995.
(WSJ, 11/16/95, p.A-18)

1200-1450 As many as 18,000 people in the iron-age center of Great Zimbabwe.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.72)

1200-1500 Bhaktapur, Nepal, rose to dominate the entire Kathmandu Valley region culturally and politically.
(SSFC, 9/21/03, p.C8)
c1200-1500 In 2005 researchers using mitochondrial DNA estimated that 3-6 individuals founded the Mlabri hunter gatherers of Northern Thailand about this time.
(Econ, 4/16/05, p.71)

1201 Jul 5, An earthquake in Syria and upper Egypt killed some 1.1 million people.

1201 Oct 9, Robert de Sorbon, founder of Sorbonne University, Paris, was born.
(MC, 10/9/01)

1201 The Germans founded the city of Riga in Livonia, now Latvia, and built a castle under the direction of Bishop Albert.
(Ist. L.H., 1948, p.39-40)

1201 Mongol leader Temujin (Genghis Khan) defeated Jamuka and an alliance of aristocratic clans that included the Tayichuid clan, which had enslaved him years earlier.
(ON, 8/12, p.8)

1202 Apr 28, King Philip II threw out John-without-Country, from France.
(MC, 4/28/02)

1202 Nov, The Fourth Crusade sacked Zara. The leaders of the Fourth Crusade agreed to sack Zara (present-day Zadar, Croatia)–a rival of Venice–as payment for transportation the Venetians supplied the crusaders. Zara, previously part of the Venetian republic, had rebelled against Venice in 1186 and since allied itself with Hungary, posing competition to Venice’s maritime trade. Unable to raise enough funds to pay to their Venetian contractors, the crusaders agreed to lay siege to the city despite letters from Pope Innocent III forbidding such an action and threatening excommunication. The fleet set sail in October of 1202, reaching Zara in Nov. Zara–the first Christian city to be assaulted by crusaders–surrendered after just two weeks. The army then wintered in the city and planned an attack on the Byzantine capital of Constantinople the following year.
(HNQ, 1/23/01)

1202 King John of England proclaimed the 1st food law, the Assize of Bread. It prohibited the adulteration of bread with ground peas.
(Econ Sp, 12/13/03, p.15)

1202 The English again attacked the Irish town and monastery at Clonmacnoise.
(SFEC, 8/1/99, p.T8)

1202 Assisi fought against Perugia in the Battle of Collestrada. St. Francis faced his first test in life as a soldier in this battle.
(SSFC, 3/25/01, BR p.6)

1202 The Hindu-Arabic numbering system was introduced to the West by Italian mathematician Fibonacci (Leonardo of Pisa). The Fibonacci series is a sequence of numbers where each new number is the sum of the previous two. Fibonacci wrote “Liber abaci” describing how algebraic methods developed in India and how they could be used in business and commerce.
(WSJ, 10/21/96, p.A18)(WSJ, 12/9/96, p.B8)(Econ, 5/15/04, p.80)(SFC, 8/25/08, p.A10)

1202 Court jesters made their debut in Europe. [see 1549]
(WSJ, 9/2/99, p.A12)

1203 The Fourth Crusade murdered 100,000 Orthodox Christians.
(WSJ, 7/16/97, p.A23)

1203 Arthur of Brittany, a political rival of King John of England, died while being held prisoner in one of John’s dungeons.
(ON, 7/04, p.1)

1203 King Sumanguru, ruler of a break-away Ghanian kingdom, overthrew the Soninke king and took over Koumbi. At about the same time a new kingdom to the east called Mali and ruled by Mandinke, was gaining power.
(ATC, p.113)

1203 Mongol leader Temujin (Genghis Khan) succeeded in assimilating the Tatars under his command. His forces defeated Toghrul, head of the Kereyid tribe, to whom he had been a vassal. Toghrul fled west to find sanctuary among the Naiman, where he was apparently slain after not being recognized.
(ON, 8/12, p.9)

1204 Apr 1, Eleanor of Aquitaine (81), wife of Louis VII and Henry II, died in Poitiers. In 1950 Amy Kelly authored “Eleanor of Aquitaine and the Four Kings.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eleanor,_Duchess_of_Aquitaine)(WSJ, 5/12/07, p.P10)

1204 Apr 9, The Venetians began their assault on Constantinople.

1204 Apr 12, The Fourth Crusade, led by Boniface of Montferrat, sacked Constantinople. Constantinople fell to a combined force of Franks and Venetians. The 4th Crusade failed to reach Palestine but sacked the Byzantine Christian capital of Constantinople.
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.)(NH, 9/96, p.22)(HN, 4/12/98)

1204 Dec 13, Maimonides (b.1135), Spanish-born Jewish scholar, died in Cairo. His books included the “Mishnah Torah,” the single most important Jewish book after the Bible and Talmud, and “Guide for the Perplexed.” In 2005 Sherwin B. Nuland authored “Maimonides.”
(www.newadvent.org/cathen/09540b.htm)(SSFC, 10/23/05, p.M1)

1204 Frankish knights established the principality of Achaia in southern Greece.
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.54)

1204 France won back Normandy but the people of the isle of Jersey chose to remain loyal to England. The Chateau Gaillard of Richard the Lionhearted was defeated and partly dismantled as punishment.
(Sky, 4/97, p.28)(AMNH, DT, 1998)

1204 Mongol leader Temujin (Genghis Khan) led his forces against the Naiman, a group of Turkic tribes dwelling on the steppe of Central Asia, and the last remaining independent steppe tribe.
(ON, 8/12, p.9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naimans)

1204 Venice won control over most of Albania, but Byzantines regained control of the southern portion and established the Despotate of Epirus.
(www, Albania, 1998)
1204 The rule of Venice over Crete dates to this year, when the Republic was awarded 3/8 of the Eastern Roman Empire for its role in supporting the Fourth Crusade.

1204-1205 Georgia’s Queen Tamara marched with her men to the rousing victory over the Turks at the Battle of Basiani where she is hailed with the cry, “Our King Tamara.”

1205 Jun 19, Pope Innocent III fired Adolf I as archbishop of Cologne.
(MC, 6/19/02)

1205 Jul 15, Pope Innocent III decreed that the Jews were doomed to perpetual servitude and subjugation due to crucifixion of Jesus.
(MC, 7/15/02)

1206 The city of Dresden, Germany, was founded.
(SFEC, 7/27/97, p.T6)

1206 Francesco di Pietro di Bernardone, later Francis of Assisi, renounced his worldly possessions.
(SFC, 10/4/99, p.A21)

71206 Mongol leader Temujin (Genghis Khan) summoned the largest kuriltai in the history of his people. He handed down a codification of his laws and reforms, the Yasa, and named his people the Great Mongol Nation. He took the title of Chinggis Khan (Genghis Khan) and over the next twenty years conquered northern China and all of Asia west to the Caucasus. The Mongols numbered about 2 million and his army about 130,000.
(ON, 8/12, p.10)(V.D.-H.K.p.169)(SFEM, 10/12/97, p.27)

1207 Sep 4, Boniface of Montferrat, leader of the 4th Crusade, was ambushed and killed by the Bulgarians.

1207 Sep 8, Sancho II, king of Portugal, was born.
(MC, 9/8/01)

1207 Sep 30, Jalal ud-din Rumi (Jelaluddin Rumi, d.1273), Persian poet and mystic was born in the area of Balkh, Afghanistan. He later fled the Mongol invasions with his family to Konya (Iconium), Anatolia. His work “Mathwani” (Spiritual Couplets) filled 6 volumes and had a great impact on Islamic civilization. He founded the Mevlevi order of Sufis, later known as the “whirling dervishes.” In 1998 a film was made about the Sufi poet’s influence on the 20th century. In 1998 Kabir Helminski edited “The Rumi Collection” with translation by Robert Bly and others. His work also included the “Shams I-Tabriz” in which he dismissed the terminology of Jew, Christian and Muslim as “false distinctions.” The poet Rumi was also known as Mowlana.
(SFC, 7/9/96, p.B5)(SFEC, 9/20/98, DB p.50)(SFEC, 10/25/98, BR p.6)(WSJ, 9/7/01, p.A14)(SSFC, 10/28/01, p.B7)(SSFC, 4/1/07, p.E3)

1207 Oct 1, Henry III, king of England (1216-72), was born.

1208 Feb 24, Francis of Assisi (26) decided to become a priest in Portiuncula, Italy.
(MC, 2/24/02)

1208 Mar 24, King John of England opposed Innocent III on his nomination for archbishop of Canterbury.
(HN, 3/24/99)

1208-1231 Tree ring data later showed that Mongolia enjoyed a string of wetter-than-usual years during this period.
(Econ, 12/8/12, p.82)

1209 King John of England was excommunicated by Pope Innocent III.
(HN, 10/19/98)
1209 England’s Cambridge University was established.
(AFP, 10/11/06)

1209 The Delhi Sultanate established Muslim rule in northern India.
(AM, 7/04, p.51)

1209 In Kinnitty, Ireland, the Kinnitty Castle was built. It was later converted to a hotel.
(WSJ, 2/27/98, p.B8)

1209 Pope Innocent III urged a crusade against the Albigensians. They were ascetic communitarians of southern France who viewed the clergy and secular rulers as corrupt. A war resulted that effectively destroyed the Provencal civilization of southern France.
(NH, 9/96, p.20)
1209 The Franciscan brotherhood received papal approval.
(SFC, 7/23/99, p.C8)

1210 Oct 18, Pope Innocent III excommunicated German emperor Otto IV.
(MC, 10/18/01)

1210 Nov 1, King John of England began imprisoning Jews.
(MC, 11/1/01)

1210 William de Braose fled Wales disguised as a beggar, to France. His wife and eldest son were captured and left to die in Corfe Castle.
(Econ, 12/20/14, p.34)(http://tinyurl.com/m5t6tvs)

1210 Francis founded the Franciscans, and demanded that his followers subsist entirely on what they can beg while preaching.

1211 In France construction began on the Reims Cathedral about this time and continued for 60 years.
(SSFC, 4/27/14, p.Q6)

1211 St. Francis reportedly landed on the Isola Maggiore, an island on Lake Trasimeno.
(SFEM, 10/12/97, p.48)

1211 In Latvia construction began on Riga’s Lutheran Cathedral.
(SSFC, 7/22/07, p.G5)

1211-1228 Vaulted halls called “La Marveille” were added to the abbey of Mont St. Michel off the coast of Normandy, France.
(WSJ, 10/7/06, p.P18)

1212 Jan 18, Queen Tamara of Georgia in Transcaucasia died after a 24-year reign during which her soldiers proclaim her “our King.”

1212 Jul 16, Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa marked the end of Muslim power in Spain.
(MC, 7/16/02)

1212 Jul 17, Moslems were crushed in the Spanish crusade.
(HN, 7/17/98)

1212 Aug 25, Children’s crusaders under Nicolas (10) reached Genoa.
(MC, 8/25/02)

1212 Jul 16, Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa marked the end of Muslim power in Spain.
(MC, 7/16/02)

1212 Jul 17, Moslems were crushed in the Spanish crusade.
(HN, 7/17/98)

1212 Aug 25, Children’s crusaders under Nicolas (10) reached Genoa.
(MC, 8/25/02)

1212 Stephen, a shepherd boy from Cloyes-sur-le-Loir, France, had a vision of Jesus and set out to deliver a letter to the King of France. He gathered 30,000 children who went to Marseilles with plans to ship to the Holy Land and conquer the Muslims with love instead of arms. They got shipped to North Africa and were sold in the Muslim slave markets.

1213 May 15, King John submitted to the Pope, offering to make England and Ireland papal fiefs. Pope Innocent III lifted the interdict of 1208. He named Stephen Langton Archbishop of Canterbury.
(HN, 5/15/99)(MC, 5/15/02)

1213 Sep 12, Simon de Montfort defeated Raymond of Toulouse and Peter II of Aragon at Muret, France.
(HN, 9/12/98)

1214 Apr 25, Louis IX, king of France (1226-1270), was born.
(HN, 4/25/02)

1214 Jul 27, At the Battle of Bouvines in France, Philip Augustus of France defeated John of England.
(HN, 7/27/98)

1214?-1294? Roger Bacon, English philosopher and scientist. He was imprisoned for alchemy in 1284.
(WUD, 1994, p.109)(HC, 1/9/98)

1215 Jan 6, King John met with disgruntled barons of northern England who demanded that taxes be lowered.
(ON, 7/04, p.1)

1215 Apr 19-26, During Easter week English barons assembled an army of some 2,000 men near London and demanded that King John address their call for tax relief.
(ON, 7/04, p.1)

1215 May 3, English barons led their forces on an attack of Northampton Castle. Loyalists to King John successfully defended the castle and the rebels returned to London.
(ON, 7/04, p.2)

1215 May 12, English barons served an ultimatum on King John (known as “Lack land”).
(MC, 5/12/02)

1215 June 15, The Magna Carta (“the Great Charter”) was adopted and sealed by King John, son of Henry II, at Runnymede, England, granting his barons more liberty. King John signed the Magna Carta, which asserted the supremacy of the law over the king, at Runnymede, England. Commercial clauses protected merchants from unjust tolls.
(CFA, ’96, p.48)(HFA, ’96, p.32)(AP, 6/15/97)(HN, 6/15/98)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1215 Aug 24, Pope Innocent III, following a request from King John, declared the Magna Carta invalid. The barons of England soon retaliated by inviting King Philip of France to come to England. Philip accepted the offer.
(ON, 7/04, p.2)(Econ, 12/20/14, p.34)

1215-1216 King John avoided rebel forces in the south but marched his army across the countryside subduing adversaries in the north, east and west. Scottish and Welsh armies raided the English borders.
(ON, 7/04, p.2)

1215-1250 Frederick II became emperor and renewed conflicts with the papacy. [see Nov 22, 1220, 1250]
(V.D.-H.K. p.111)

1215-1294 Kublai Khan founded the Yuan dynasty and reunited China for the first time since the fall of the T’angs in 907. He was the grandson of Genghis Khan and established the Yuan dynasty in China. He built a court of gilded cane at Tatu (later Beijing) that inspired Marco Polo and Coleridge. He enforced the use of paper money and had ships built to carry 1,000 men.
(V.D.-H.K.p.169)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)

1216 Jun 16, Pope Innocent III died. In 2003 John C. Moore authored “Pope Innocent III.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Innocent_III)(WSJ, 4/12/08, p.W8)

1216 Jul 11, Hendrik of Constantinople, emperor of Constantinople (1206-16), died.
(MC, 7/11/02)

1216 Oct 19, John, King of England (1199-1216) died at Newark at age 49. He signed the Magna Carta and was excommunicated in 1209. King John was succeeded by his nine-year-old son Henry. The Royal Menagerie was begun during the reign of King John.
(HN, 10/19/98)(SFEC, 10/10/99, p.T3)

1216 Oct 28, Henry III of England (9) was crowned. Regent William Marshal led him to agree to the demands made by the barons at Runnymede. Prince Louis, repudiated by the barons, returned to France.
(HN, 10/28/98)(ON, 7/04, p.2)(Econ, 12/20/14, p.35)

1217 Feb 18, Alexander Neckum de Sancto Albano (59), English encyclopedist, died.
(MC, 2/18/02)

1217 Aug 24, Eustace “the Monk”, French buccaneer, was killed in battle.
(MC, 8/24/02)

1217 Nov 6, The Charter of the Forest was sealed in England by the young King Henry III, acting under the regency of William Marshall, 1st Earl of Pembroke, as a complementary charter to the Magna Carta (1215) from which it had evolved.

1217 Nov 29, Arab traveler Ibn Jubayr (b.1145) died in Alexandria. His travel chronicle describes the pilgrimage he made to Mecca from 1183 to 1185, in the years preceding the Third Crusade.

1218 May 19, Otto IV (36), Holy Roman Emperor, died.
(PC, 1992, p.106)

1218 Aug 31, Al-Malik ab-Adil, Saphadin, Saif al-Din, brother of Saladin, died.
(MC, 8/31/01)

1218 The university at Salamanca, Spain, was founded by King Alfonso IX.
(SSFC, 6/8/03, p.C8)

1218 Simon IV de Montfort (b.1160), Norman knight and leader of the crusade against the Albigenses (1202-1204), died at the siege of Toulouse.
(WUD, 1994, p.928)

1219 Jan 16, Floods followed a storm in Northern Netherlands and thousands were killed.
(MC, 1/16/02)

1219 Nov 5, The port of Damietta (in the Nile delta of Egypt) fell to the Crusaders after a siege.
(WUD, 1994, p.365)(HN, 11/5/98)

1219 St. Francis d’Assisi journeyed to Egypt and met with the sultan to work for peace.
(SSFC, 9/29/02, p.D2)

1219-1221 Genghis Khan invaded Afghanistan. Destruction of irrigation systems by Genghis Khan turned fertile soil into permanent deserts.

1220 Apr 15, Adolf I, archbishop of Cologne, died.
(MC, 4/15/02)

1220 May 30, Alexander Nevski, Russian ruler (1252-63), was born.
(MC, 5/30/02)

1220 Nov 22, After promising to go to the aid of the Fifth Crusade within nine months, Hohenstaufen King Frederick II was crowned Holy Roman Emperor and King of Italy by Pope Honorius III.

1220 Construction began on the English Cathedral of Salisbury. It was inaugurated in 1258.
(MC, 9/20/01)(Econ, 12/20/03, p.29)
1220 Construction began on England’s York Minster Cathedral. It was completed in 1472.
(SSFC, 4/13/14, p.Q5)

1220 In France the main structure of Chartres cathedral was completed. In 2008 Philip Ball authored “Universe of Stone: A Biography of Chartres Cathedral.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cathedral_of_Chartres)(WSJ, 7/5/08, p.W9)

c1220 Genghis Khan made Karakorum his capital.
(SSFC, 3/27/05, p.F4)

1220 Klosters, Switzerland, a future ski center, has roots to this date.
(Hem, Dec. 94, p.76)

1221 Aug 6, St. Dominic, Italian founder of the Dominicans religious order, died.
(MC, 8/6/02)

1221 Sep, Rambertino di Guido Buvalelli (b.~1170/1180), a Bolognese judge, statesman, diplomat, and poet, died. He was the earliest of the podestà-troubadours of thirteenth-century Lombardy. He served at one time or other as podestà of Brescia, Milan, Parma, Mantua, Genoa, and Verona. Ten of his Occitan poems survive, but none with an accompanying melody. He is usually regarded as the first native Italian troubadour, though Cossezen and Peire de la Caravana may precede him. His reputation has secured a street named in his honor in his birthplace: the Via Buvalelli Rambertino in Bologna.

1221 Nov 23, Alfonso X (the Wise, d.1284), king of Castile & Leon (1252-84), was born. Also known as Alfonso the Wise, he served as king of Castile from 1252-1284. His manuscript “Cantigas de Santa Maria” is one of the most important of the period.
(WUD, 1994, p.36)(WSJ, 5/14/97, p.A20)(MC, 11/23/01)

1221 In France the Chateau de Bagnols castle was built. Guichard, Lord of Oingt, built the first three of its 5 round towers. It was restored in the 1990s by English publishing mogul Paul Hamlyn and his wife Helen.
(SFEM, 10/4/98, p.6)

1221 Emperor Frederick II issued a law that declared that violence could be committed against jesters without punishment.
(SFC, 12/897, p.A17)

1221 In Russia Nizhny Novgorod was founded.
(USAT, 10/9/98, p.12A)

1221 Genghis Khan razed the city of Bamiyan, Afghanistan, and exterminated its inhabitants.
(WSJ, 11/16/01, p.W12)

1221 Genghis Khan is said to have killed 1,748,000 people at Nishapur in just one hour.
(SFC, 5/25/96, p.B4)

1222 A group of professors broke free from the Univ. of Bologna, under the control of the Catholic Church, and created the Univ. of Padua, independent of Catholic constraints.
(SSFC, 3/25/07, p.G3)

1223 Jul 14, Philip II Augustus (57), King of France (1180-1223), died. Louis VIII succeeded his father.
(HN, 7/14/98)(MC, 7/14/02)

1223 Dec 25, St. Francis of Assisi assembled one of the first Nativity scenes, in Greccio, Italy.
(AP, 12/25/97)

c1224/25-1274 Thomas Aquinas born in Aquino between Rome and Naples. He was a pupil of the Benedictines in the monastery of Monte Cassino. After nine years Emperor Frederic II temporarily disbanded the monks at Cassino and Thomas went to Naples to study and joined the Dominicans. He tried to reconcile theology with the emerging economic conditions of his time.
(V.D.-H.K.p.119)(NH, 10/98, p.4)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R20)

1225 Nov 7, Engelbert I (40), the Saint, archbishop of Cologne, was murdered.
(MC, 11/7/01)

1225 Henry III came of age and reissued the Magna Carta and the Charter of the Forest (1217).
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magna_Carta)(Econ, 1/10/15, p.14)

1226 Oct 3, St. Francis of Assisi (b.1182), founder of the Franciscan order, died. He was canonized in 1228 and entombed in the St. Francis Basilica in 1230. In 1983 Olivier Messiaen premiered his opera “Saint Francis d’Assise.” In 2001 Adrian House authored “Francis of Assisi: A Revolutionary Life;” Valerie Martin authored “Salvation: Scenes From the Life of St. Francis.” In 2002 Donald Spoto authored “Reluctant Saint: The Life of Francis of Assisi.” [see Oct 4]
(AP, 10/3/97)(SFEC, 7/25/99, DB p.32)(SSFC, 3/25/01, BR p.1,6)(SSFC, 9/29/02, p.D2)(SFC, 10/3/02, p.A19)

1226 Oct 4, St. Francis of Assisi, founder of the Franciscans and one of history’s most famous nature lovers, died. [see Oct 3]
(MC, 10/4/01)

1226 Nov 8, Louis VIII (39), the Lion, King of France (1223-26), died. He was succeeded by Louis IX.
(HN, 11/6/98)(MC, 11/8/01)

1226 Following Prussian attacks on Polish lands, the Catholic Poles invited German religious-military orders to attack Prussia.
(H of L, 1931, p.25)(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1226 The last mega hurricane struck the gulf coast of Alabama. The mega hurricane seems to happen on average every 600 years.
(SFEC, 9/15/96, p.A10)

1226-1270 Era of King Louis IX. In France, the urban middle-class became a new, economic factor, and King Louis IX tried to control his vassals through his policy of increased centralization. It was the era in which the crusades were winding down, and the embassies of Franciscans and Dominicans to the courts of Mongolian princes were beginning.

1227 In Spain construction of the Gothic Cathedral in Toledo was begun.
(SFEC, 3/22/98, p.T11)

1227 Aug 18, Genghis Khan (Chinggis), Mongol conqueror, died in his sleep at his camp, during his siege of Ningxia, the capital of the rebellious Chinese kingdom of Xi Xia. Subotai was one of Genghis Khan’s ablest lieutenants, and went on to distinguish himself after the khan’s death. In Khan’s lifetime he and his warriors had conquered the majority of the civilized world, ruling an empire that stretched from Poland down to Iran in the west, and from Russia’s Arctic shores down to Vietnam in the east. Russian archaeologist Peter Kozloff uncovered the tomb of Genghis Khan in the Gobi Desert in 1927. In 2006 Zhu Yaoting, a Beijing academic, authored a biography of Genghis Khan.
(AP, 8/18/97)(HN, 10/29/98)(Econ, 12/23/06, p.61)

1227 In the Polish Kulm region there was a struggle with Prussia over land. The Poles called in the German Knights of the Cross (aka Teutonic Knights) for help in exchange for the lands of Kulm. The Knights arrived and began to fight Prussia in wars that lasted some 60 years.
(Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 41)

1227 Roman Emperor Frederick II was first excommunicated by the Catholic Pope because his growing empire threatened the independence of the papal states. [see 1239]
(AP, 5/5/06)

1227-1234 The Madrassa al Mustansirija was constructed in Baghdad by the Caliph al Mustansir. It became world epicenter of medical sciences and also taught theology, mathematics, jurisprudence, astrology and other subjects.
(WSJ, 9/20/08, p.W14)

1228 The Basilica di San Francesco was constructed in Assisi, Italy.
(WSJ, 3/25/99, p.A24)

1228 St. Francis of Assisi, founder of the Franciscan order, was canonized.
(AP, 10/3/97)

1229 Mar 18, German emperor Frederick II crowned himself king of Jerusalem.
(MC, 3/18/02)

1229 Apr 14, A scribe name John completed a religious text that overwrote a manuscript attributed to Archimedes that had been copied by a scribe in the 10th century. In 2006 scientists attempted to read the final pages of the Archimedes palimpsest, which contained text from his “Method of Mechanical Theorems.”
(Econ, 7/22/06, p.76)

1229-1241 Ugoodei, Genghis’ successor, reigned Mongolia over this period.

1230 Mindaugas began to rule over Lithuania. Mindaugas found resistance amongst some local rulers who called in German military orders for assistance. Mindaugas hosted the German magistrate who said that the only way to save Lithuania would be to convert to Catholicism and pass western territory over to the German Order.
(H of L, 1931, p.29)

1230-1253 King Wenceslas I reigned over Bohemia. His sister, St. Agnes, was canonized in 1989. Both are buried in the Convent of St. Agnes in Prague.
(SFC, 4/14/96, T-12)

1231 Guo Shoujing (d.1314), Chinese astronomer, was born. He developed water clocks with temperature compensation and escapements to provide high resolution time accuracy for astronomical observations, a “pinhole camera” to sharpen shadows cast by the sun and moon, mathematical tools for polynomial generation and interpolation, and other inventions for measurements.

1231-1322 The illustrated text of the Chinese Dharani Sutra of Great Splendor was created.
(SFC, 8/21/03, p.E2)

1232-1316 Ramon Llull proposed an artificial language that used 4 figures and 9 letters called his Ars magna. It was proposed as the perfect tool for Christian missionaries.
(Wired, 8/96, p.84)

1233 The Inquisition began and lasted into the 19th century.
(SFC, 10/30/98, p.A16)

1233 The Japanese royal family began to stain their teeth black in a fashion statement.
(WSJ, 9/2/99, p.A12)

1234 Ugoodei attacked and overcame the Chin (Juchen) dynasty of China.

1235 Jan 2, Emperor Joseph II ordered the Jews of Galicia, Austria, to adopt family names.
(MC, 1/2/02)

1235 Sep 5, Henry I, duke of Brabant, died. Brabant was a duchy later divided between Netherlands and Belgium.
(WUD, 1994 p.177)(MC, 9/5/01)

1235 Henry III received 3 leopards from Frederick II, the Holy Roman Emperor. They became part of the Royal Menagerie housed in the Tower of London.
(SFEC, 10/10/99, p.T3)

1235 In China a murder was solved when field men were told to lay down their rice sickles and flies landed on only one.
(SFEC, 9/28/97, Z1 p.2)

1235 The king of Mali, Sundiata, defeated Sumanguru at the battle of Kirina. From then on Mali replaced Ghana as the major power in West Africa. Sundiata established his capital at Niana on the upper Niger.
(ATC, p.113,118)

1235-1315 Raimon Llull, a Mallorcan Catholic Franciscan poet. He declared that his ecstatic Christian spirituality drew from the example of Sufis like Rumi.
(SFEC, 10/25/98, BR p.6)

1236 Jan 14, Henry III married Eleanor of Provence.
(HN, 1/14/99)

1236 Jun 29, Ferdinand III of Castile and Leon took Cordoba in Spain. Cordoba, Spain, fell to Christian forces. The last Islamic kingdom left in Spain is that of the Berbers in Granada.
(ATC, p.100)(HN, 6/29/98)

1236 Aug 22, The German Master Volkwin of Riga had prepared a large force of his Knights of the Sword to attack Lithuania. The Lithuanians learned of the planned attack and called for forces across the land to repulse the Germans. The Germans were lured to a marsh near the town of Siauliai and were severely beaten. Only a tenth of their forces were said to escape back to Riga.
(Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 41)(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1236 Dec 23, Philippus Cancellarius, French theologian and poet (Summa Cum Laude), died.
(MC, 12/23/01)

1236 Queen Rusudani (41), the daughter of Queen Tamara, fled Georgia as the unstoppable Mongol hordes ravished the area. She had been proclaimed “King” at the death of her brother.

1237 Feb 13, Jordanus of Saxon, 2nd father-general of Dominicans, drowned.
(MC, 2/13/02)

1237 Mar 23, Jan of Brienne, King of Jerusalem, Emperor of Constantinople, died.
(SS, 3/23/02)

1237 The Bishop of Riga sent a request to Rome that the Pope unite the German Knights of the Sword and Knights of the Cross into one order. The Pope agreed and the two orders agreed to fight under one magistrate.
(Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 41)

1237 The Knights of the Sword ended their activities in Livonia.
(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1237-1238 Batu Khan, a grandson of Genghis Khan, invaded Russia.
(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.28)

1237-1240 Lithuanians first made contact with the Mongols about this time, though for the next decade or two the Mongols did not consider Lithuanian-held territories a priority.

1237-1240 Mongols conquered Russian lands.
(DVD, Criterion, 1998)

1238 Feb 3, The Mongols took over Vladimir, Russia.
(HN, 2/3/99)

1238 Sep 28, James of Aragon retook Valencia, Spain, from the Arabs.
(HN, 9/28/98)

1238 The Knights of the Sword merged with the German Knights of the Cross.
(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1238 Mindaugas is mentioned for the 1st time. He ruled to 1263.
(H of L, 1931, p.29)(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1238-1263 The Byzantine Hagia Sophia church in Trebizond was built during the reign of Manuel I during this period. It was converted to a mosque in the 16th century.

1239 Jun 17, Edward I (Longshanks), king of England (1272-1307), was born. He became king of England following the death of his father Henry III. Edward I has been called “the English Justinian” because of his legal reforms, but is usually known as one of the foremost military men of the medieval world. His rule strengthened the authority of the crown and England’s influence over her neighbors. While successfully subduing Wales he died while attempting to conquer Scotland.
(HN, 6/17/00)(HNQ, 2/1/01)

1239 Roman Emperor Frederick II was excommunicated a 2nd time because his growing empire threatened the independence of the papal states.
(AP, 5/5/06)

1240 Apr 11, Llywelyn ab Iorwerth the Great, monarch of Wales (1194-1240), died.
(MC, 4/11/02)

1240 Nov 26, Edmund Van Abingdon, archbishop of Canterbury and Saint, died.
(MC, 11/26/01)

1240 Dec 6, Mongols under Batu Khan occupied and destroyed Kiev.
(MC, 12/6/01)

1240 A chronicle of the life of Genghis Khan and his successors: “The Secret Life of the Mongols,” was written about this time. A Chinese version was discovered by a Russian diplomat in the early 1800s. In 1982 Francis Woodman Cleaves produced a modern version.
(www.ezlink.com/~culturev/secret.html)(SSFC, 5/22/05, p.C3)

1240 Henry III ordered the Tower of London to be whitewashed.
(Hem, 9/04, p.28)

c1240-1302 Giovanni Cimabue, Italian painter and mosaicist. In 1998 a collection of his work was published with text by Luciano Bellosi. Cimabue was a teacher of Giotto. Many of his creations were damaged by a 1966 flood in the Church of Santa Croce in Florence.
(WUD, 1994, p.266)(WSJ, 12/3/98, p.W4)

1240-1630 The site of Thulamela in Kruger Nat’l. Park in northeastern South Africa had graves containing people with gold ornaments.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.71)

1241 Apr 9, In the Battle of Liegnitz, Silesia, Mongol armies defeated the Poles and Germans. In this year the Mongols defeated the Germans and invaded Poland and Hungary. The death of their leader Ughetai (Ogedei) forced them to withdraw from Europe.
(HN, 4/9/98)(TOH)

1241 Apr 11, Mongol armies defeated the Hungarian army at the Battle of Mohi. The devastating Mongol invasion killed half of Hungary’s population.

1241 May 25, 1st attack on Jewish community of Frankfort-on-the-Main, Germany.
(SC, 5/25/02)

1241 Dec, The Great Khan Ogedei died after completing the Mongol conquest of China and Korea. In April the Mongols routed the armies of Poles, Germans, and Hungarians, at Liegnitz and Mohi, within easy distance of Vienna. Only the death of Ogedei stopped their advance into Europe.

1241 A trumpeter in Krakow, Poland, was shot through the throat by an archer as he warned the city of a fast-approaching Mongol army.
(SSFC, 12/28/03, p.C6)

1242 Feb 12, Henry VII, Roman Catholic German king (1220-35), committed suicide.
(MC, 2/12/02)

1242 Apr 5, Russian troops repelled an invasion attempt by Teutonic Knights. Alexander Nevsky of Novgorod defeated Teutonic Knights
(HN, 4/5/99)(MC, 4/5/02)

1242 Jun 6, 24 wagonloads of Talmudic books were burned in Paris.
(MC, 6/6/02)

1242 In Italy the city wall of Montagnana were built.
(AMNHDT, 5/98)

1242 Batu, the grandson of Genghis Khan, established his “Golden Horde” at Sarai on the Lower Volga.

1243 Jun 26, The Seljuk Turkish army in Asia Minor was wiped out by the Mongols.
(HN, 6/26/98)

1243 A Charter granted permission for a fair at the monastery of St. Michael at Glastonbury Tor.
(Local Inscription, 2000)

1243-1254 Pope Innocent IV. He established canon law that recognized communities such as cathedral chapters and monasteries as legal individuals.
(WSJ, 12/23/99, p.A18)

1244 Aug 23, Turks expelled the crusaders under Frederick II from Jerusalem.
(HN, 8/23/98)

1244 Oct 17, The Sixth Crusade ended when an Egyptian-Khwarismian force almost annihilated the Frankish army at Gaza.
(HN, 10/17/98)

1244 The Cathars, a group of Catholic heretics, settled at Montsegur, France, in the Ariege region. They were besieged for more than a year and chose to burn at the stake rather than submit. Occitania was the ancient name for this region.
(SFEC, 12/8/96, p.T1)

1244 Sheikh Abu el Haggag, Tunisian born Sufi, died in Luxor, Egypt. His family was from Mecca and traced its lineage to Mohammed. He founded a Sufi mosque in Luxor and is buried there. An annual celebration in Luxor, called the moulid, celebrates his birthday. Egyptologists believe this event is related to the ancient Opet Festival from the 18th Dynasty.
(Arch, 7/02, p.36)

1244-1248 Mevlana Jalaluddin Rumi met Shams of Tabriz, a wandering dervish, and the two became mystical companions for 4 years until Shams disappeared. Rumi called his own writings “The Works of Shams of Tabriz.”
(SFEC, 10/25/98, BR p.6)

1245 Jul 27, Frederick II of France was deposed by a council at Lyons, which found him guilty of sacrilege.
(HN, 7/27/98)

1245 Thomas Aquinas was sent to Paris where he enrolled as a student of Albertus Magnus to study theology, philosophy, and history. In 1974 Michael R. Best and Frank H. Brightman edited “The Book of secrets of Albertus Magnus,” which contained a recipe for Greek Fire.
(V.D.-H.K.p.119)(AM, May/Jun 97 p.10)

1245 John of Plano Carpini was a Franciscan monk who set out on the instructions of Pope Innocent IV to gather intelligence. He was met by Mongol horseman and was brought to witness the enthronement of Guyuk Khan. He experienced a sudden hailstorm followed by a flash flood that killed 160 people.
(SFC, 4/14/96, T-10)(SFEM, 10/12/97, p.22)

1245 In Germany the Rheinfels castle was built by Count Diether V von Katzenelnbogen to protect the St. Goar tax collectors. It soon developed into one of the mightiest fortresses in the Middle Rhine region. His family was responsible for many of the Rhine castles.
(http://www.st-goar.de/734-1-geschichte-burg-rheinfels-1.html)(SFEC, 3/15/98, p.T5)

1245 In Flanders cottage weavers went on strike against cloth merchants.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1246 May 22, Henry Raspe was elected anti-king by the Rhenish prelates in France.
(HN, 5/22/98)

1246 The Spanish island of Mallorca was occupied by the Arabs and reconquered by the Catalans 750 years ago.
(SFC, Z-1, 4/28/96, p.6)

1247 Nov 22, Robin Hood died according to the 1400 ballad “A Lytell Geste of Robyn Hode.” The legend of Robin Hood is believed to extend into antiquity.
(MC, 11/22/01)(SFC, 2/17/04, p.A2)

1247 In London the Priory of St. Mary of Bethlehem was founded. It survived centuries of religious turmoil and eventually became an insane asylum. The word “bedlam” is a contraction of its name.
(Econ, 8/27/16, p.65)
1247 Zen monk Yishan Yining (d.1317), calligrapher and poet, was born in China.
(WSJ, 1/8/02, p.A16)

1248 May 15, Archbishop Konrad von Hochstaden laid the cornerstone for Köln (Cologne) cathedral. [see Aug 14]
(MC, 5/15/02)

1248 Aug 14, Construction of Cologne Cathedral began. [see May 15]
(MC, 8/14/02)

1248 Nov 23, Seville, France surrendered to Ferdinand III of Castile after a two-year siege.
(HN, 11/23/98)

1248 Sainte Chapelle in Paris was completed and commissioned by Louis IX to contain what was believed to be Christ’s crown of thorns.
(Hem. 1/95, p. 78)
1248 In Wales Carreg Cennen, a castle on a hilltop above Trapp, was built as a Welsh stronghold.
(SFEC, 5/10/98, p.T4)
1248 Subutai (b.~1175), an Uriankhai general and the primary military strategist of Genghis Khan and Ogedei Khan, died. He directed more than 20 campaigns in which he conquered 32 nations and won 65 pitched battles, during which he conquered or overran more territory than any other commander in history. He gained victory by means of imaginative and sophisticated strategies and routinely coordinated movements of armies that were hundreds of kilometers away from each other. He is also remembered for devising the campaign that destroyed the armies of Hungary and Poland within two days of each other, by forces over 500 kilometers apart. By any metric, he is one of the most successful commanders in history.

1249 Feb 7, The Christburg Peace Treaty forced the Prussians to recognize the rule of the Teutonic Knights. Within about 50 years the Teutonic Knights and Knights of the Cross had overcome most of Prussia and established German as the dominant culture and language. The German orders then turned to Lithuania.
(H of L, 1931, p.25)(LHC, 2/7/03)

1249 Oxford’s first college, University College, was founded by William of Durham. (The oldest part of the existing buildings dates from 1634).
(Econ, 5/21/05, p.16)(http://tinyurl.com/c6eny)

1249-1254 A civil war was fought in Lithuania. Mindaugas, the feudal ruler of Lithuania found resistance amongst some local rulers who called in German military orders for assistance. Mindaugas hosted the German magistrate who said that the only way to save Lithuania would be to convert to Catholicism and pass western territory over to the German Order.
(H of L, 1931, p.29)(TB-Com, 10/11/00)(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1250 Feb 8-1250 Feb 11, The Battle of Al Mansurah was fought between crusaders led by Louis IX, King of France, and Ayyubid forces led by Emir Fakhr-ad-Din Yussuf, Faris ad-Din Aktai and Baibars al-Bunduqdari.

1250 Apr 6, Louis IX (1214-1270), King of France, lost the Battle of Fariskur, Egypt, and was captured by Muslim forces.

1250 Apr 15, Pope Innocent III refused Jews of Cordova, Spain, permission to build a synagogue.
(MC, 4/15/02)

1250 Apr 30, King Louis IX of France was ransomed for one million dollars. The Mamluk dynasty exacted 240 tons of silver for his release.
(HN, 4/30/98)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R4)

1250 May 2, Toeransa, sultan of Egypt, was murdered.
(MC, 5/2/02)

1250 Dec 13, Frederick II (55), German Emperor (1212-1250), died.
(MC, 12/13/01)

1250 Nicolo and Mafeo Polo embarked on their own cargo ship for Constantinople.
(TMPV, P.4)(This date is questionable and is given as 1260 in other versions)

1250 China began manufacturing guns.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1250 The Anasazi in southwest Colorado fought a battle against unknown enemies. Number of kivas built greatly increased. Quality of workmanship in building decreased. People began to leave.
(HN, 2/11/97)

c1250 The Tsama Pueblo in New Mexico contained 1100 rooms and was occupied to the mid-1500s.
(AM, adv. circular, p.2)

1250 Florence, Italy, became a major center for commerce and industry.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

c1250 A supernova 650 light-years away should have been visible to observers on Earth according to scientists who analyzed evidence in 1998.
(SFC, 11/12/98, p.A12)

1250-1300 Maori ancestors arrived in New Zealand. By 2013 the country had lost 51 species of birds, 3 of frogs, 3 of lizards and one of a freshwater fish.
(Econ, 9/14/13, SR p.5)

1250-1350 The 1999 book by Lauren Arnold: “Princely Gifts and Papal Treasures: The Franciscan Mission to China and Its Influence on the Art of the West 1250-1350” covered this period.
(WSJ, 12/16/99, p.A20)

1250-1382 The Bahri Mamluks ruled Egypt.
(SSFC, 7/24/11, p.F7)

1250-1400 In the Upper Xingu region of Brazil’s Mato Grosso state thousands of people occupied 19 settlements in 2 clusters over this period according to archeological findings in 2003.
(Econ, 9/20/03, p.76)

1250-1517 The Mamelukes (aka Mamluks – Arabic for chattel), a military class initially composed of slaves, seized control of the Egyptian Sultanate and ruled until 1517.
(WUD, 1994, p.869)(Econ, 8/22/15, p.50)

1250-1540 Late postclassic period of the Maya.
(AM, May/Jun 97 suppl. p.B)

1251 The Polo brothers resided for a year in the dominions of the Western Tartar chief Berca, who dwelt in the cities of Bolgara and Assara. A war soon developed between Berca and Alau, chief of the Eastern Tartars. This war was won by Alau and the brothers were forced to travel east in order to skirt unsafe roads.
(TMPV, P.5)(This date is questionable and is given as 1261 in other versions)

1251 In Lithuania Mindaugas accepted Christianity with his wife, 2 sons, about 600 of his nobility and many of his people. An envoy was then sent to Rome to request the Pope’s formal approval for coronation which was granted. The German Order then worked closely with Mindaugas in establishing the first Bishopric in Lithuania and were in turn granted lands in western Lithuania (Zemaiciuose). Pope Innocent IV authorized Mindaugas to be crowned King.
(H of L, 1931, p.30,32)(XXIA, 7/21/99)

c1251-1254 The Polo brothers traveled to Persia and arrived at the province of Bokhara ruled by Prince Barak. They remained there for three years. (This date is questionable and is given as 1261-64 in other versions).
(TMPV, P.6)

1252 Apr 6, Peter of Verona (45), [Peter Martyr], Italian inquisitor died.
(MC, 4/6/02)

1252 The new “Round Table” jousting tournament appeared in England.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1253 Jul 6, Mindaugas was crowned as King of Lithuania.

1253 Aug, Pope Innocent IV, after much worry about the order’s insistence on absolute poverty, finally approved the rule of the 2nd Order of the Franciscans, the Poor Clares, founded by St. Clare of Assisi, the great friend of St Francis.

1253 A Franciscan friar journeyed to China to see the Great Khan.
(WSJ, 9/4/98, p.W12)

1253-1260 Ata-Malik Juvaini (b.1226) authored “The History of the World Conqueror,” an account of the life of Genghis Khan and his successors. Juvaini, in service to the Mongol governors, drew on the recollections of his father and grandfather. In 1997 J.A. Boyle published an English translation.

1254 Mar 12, Mindaugas granted Christian, Lithuania’s 1st Bishop, lands in Samogitia.
(LHC, 3/12/03)

1254-1324 Marco Polo was born in Venice.

1255 Mar 6, Pope Alexander IV permitted Mindaugas to crown his son as king of Lithuania.
(LHC, 3/6/03)

c1255 Duccio di Buoninsegna (d.1319), Sienese painter, was born.
(Econ, 1/17/04, p.75)

1255 Konigsberg (Kaliningrad) was founded on the Baltic Sea by the Bohemian King Otakar II, who came to help Teutonic Knights during their conquest of Prussia disguised as the Christianization effort called the Northern Crusades. It was annexed by Russia in 1945.
(Econ, 5/14/05, p.55)(www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Konigsberg)

c1255 The Polo brothers met an ambassador of Alau on his way to see the supreme chief of the Tartars, Kublai. The ambassador offered to take the brothers to meet the grand khan and the Polo’s accepted. (This date is questionable and is given as 1265 in other versions).
(TMPV, P.7)

1256 Thomas Aquinas received his license to teach. He became involved in the current questions of doctrine on two basic issues. He sided with the Nominalists as opposed to the Realists on the question of “universals”. The second issue was based on Aristotle’s notion of nature. Aquinas saw a distinction between spirit and nature but also a unity.

1256 Kublai-khan began his reign as the sixth grand khan, ruler of the Tartars. [see 1259]
(TMPV, p.108)

1256 France banned gambling with dice.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1257 In Nepal an earthquake destroyed almost all of the Kathmandu Valley. A Newar architect named Araniko (1245-1306) emerged during the reconstruction of palaces, temples and pagodas. He was later summoned by Kublai Khan to work in Beijing, where his work included the White Stupa of Miaoying Temple, completed in 1288.
(SSFC, 5/1/16, p.F4)(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Araniko)

1258 Feb 10, Huegu (Hulega Khan), a Mongol leader and grandson of Genghis Khan, seized Baghdad following a 4-day assault. Mongol invaders from Central Asia took over Baghdad and ended the Abbasid-Seljuk Empire. They included Uzbeks, Kazaks, Georgians and other groups. Some 200 to 800 thousand people were killed and looting lasted 17 days.
(ATC, p.91)(AP, 2/10/99)(SFC, 4/12/03, p.A1)

1258 Mar 26, Floris the Guardian, count-regent of Holland, died.
(SS, 3/26/02)

1258 Sep 20, The Cathedral of Salisbury, begun in 1220, was inaugurated.
(MC, 9/20/01)(Econ, 12/20/03, p.29)

1258 The Abbasids fled from Baghdad to Egypt following the Mongol invasion that ended the Abbasid-Seljuk Empire.
(Econ, 10/4/14, p.55)

1258 The first major incursion of Mongols from the Golden Horde under Burundai on the Lithuanian territories took place in winter of 1258. It was likely a reaction to Lithuanian incursions into Mongol-held territories. After raiding Lithuania and the Yotvingians, the next year, two tumens (20,000 men), under the leadership of Berke, attacked Poland (in what is known as the second Mongol invasion of Poland).

1258-1259 The Mongol invasion of Lithuania in the years 1258–1259 is generally seen as a Mongol victory, as Lithuanian territories have been described as “devastated” following the Mongol incursion, in what was “possibly the most horrible event of the thirteenth century” for Lithuania.

1259 Aug 11, Mongke, Mongol great-khan, grandson of Genghis Khan, died.
(MC, 8/11/02)

1259 Sep 27, Ezzeline III da Romano, gentleman of Verona, “cruel monster”, died.
(MC, 9/27/01)

1259-1282 Michael VIII Palaeologus governed over Byzantium from Constantinople. [see 330AD]
(WSJ, 11/14/95, p. A-12)

1259-1294 The great Kublai Khan, a grandson of Genghis, reigned.

1260 Mar 1, Hulagu Khan, grandson of Genghis, conquered Damascus.
(SC, 3/1/02)

1260 Sep 3, Mamelukes under Sultan Qutuz defeated Mongols and Crusaders at Ain Jalut.
(HN, 9/3/98)

1260 Sep 4, At the Battle of Montaperto in Italy, the Tuscan Ghibellines, who supported the emperor, defeated the Florentine Guelfs, who supported papal power.
(HN, 9/4/98)

1260 Oct 24, Saif ad-Din Qutuz (aka Koetoez), Turkish sultan of Egypt, was murdered.

1260 The people of western Lithuania (Zemaiciai) attacked the German Order of the Cross at a battle near Durbe Lake. This forced Mindaugas to turn against the Germans but he was not able to gain the full trust of the western Lithuanians.
(H of L, 1931, p.32)(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1260-1274 A large scale Prussian uprising took place against the Knights of the Cross.
(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1260-1294 The Mongol Empire under Kublai Khan reached its height.
(ATC, p.160)

1260-1348 Siena flourished as a univ. town and center for banking, trading, and art.
(SFEC, 6/29/97, p.T11)

1260-1368 The Yuan Dynasty ruled in China. The Yuan Dynasty was founded by Kublai Khan.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)(SFC, 6/25/98, p.A8)
1260-1368 In China musical productions known as Zaju became popular during the Yuan Dynasty. Zaju, an early form of opera, combined music, dance, song and speech into 4-act dramas with complex plots and characters.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1260-1390 Carbon-14 dating techniques in 1988 determined that the cloth of the Shroud of Turin dated to this period. E.T. Hall (d.2001 at 77) of Oxford Univ. led the testing, which was later held in question. In 1978 Walter C. McCrone (d.2002), chemical analyst, determined that the image was painted on the cloth some 1300 years after the crucifixion of Christ.
(SFEC, 2/1/98, p.A24)(SFC, 8/22/01, p.D2)(SFC, 7/29/02, p.B5)(www.tqnyc.org/NYC063363/)

1260-1555 In 2004 Diana Norman covered this period in her book: “Painting in the Late Medieval and Renaissance Siena.”
(Econ, 1/17/04, p.75)

1261 Feb 3, Samogitian fighters defeated the Livonian Knights of the Cross at Lielvarde.
(LHC, 2/3/03)

1261 May 25, Alexander IV [Rinaldo dei conti di Segni], Pope (1254-61), died.
(SC, 5/25/02)

1261 Aug 15, Constantinople fell to Michael VIII of Nicea and his army.
(HN, 8/15/98)

1261 Oct 9, Dionysius, the Justified, king of Portugal (1279-1325), was born.
(MC, 10/9/01)

1261 A great quarrel arose between king Alau, lord of the Tartars of the East, and Berca, king of the Tartars of the West based on a border dispute. A great battle was waged in which Alau was the victor.
(TMPV, pp. 336-340)

1262 Greenland formally came under the Norwegian crown.
1262 After a long and bloody conflict between the various families and clans, the Icelanders accepted the rule of the Norwegian kingdom.
(DrEE, 1/4/97, p.4)

1263 Feb 9, A Lithuania army under Treniota defeated the Livonian Knights of the Cross.
(LHC, 2/9/03)

1263 Aug 19, King James I of Aragon censored Hebrew writing.
(MC, 8/19/02)

1263 Oct 2, At Largs, King Alexander III of Scotland repelled an amphibious invasion by King Haakon IV of Norway.
(HN, 10/2/98)

1263 Nov 14, Alexander Nevski (43), Russian ruler (1252-63), died.
(MC, 11/14/01)

1263 In Lithuania King Mindaugas was assassinated along with his 2 sons by Duke Treniota.
(H of L, 1931, p.32)(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1263 In a Spanish court Rabbi Moses ben Nachman defended the legitimacy of Judaism against Pablo Christiani, a converted Jew, who argued for Christianity. The trial was set up by King James I of Aragon to please the pope. In 1982 Hyam Maccoby wrote “Judaism on Trial” and turned in into a play, “The Disputation” in 1999.
(WSJ, 3/23/99, p.A20)

1263-1264 In Lithuania Treniota served as Grand Duke.
(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1264 May 14, The Baron’s War was fought in England. King Henry III was captured by his brother in law Earl of Leicester Simon de Montfort at the Battle of Lewes in England.
(HN, 5/14/99)(PC, 1992, p.113)

1264 Aug 5, Anti-Jewish riots broke out in Arnstadt, Germany.
(MC, 8/5/02)

c1264 Vincent of Beauvais and the Speculum Maius: the compiling and adapting techniques of a thirteenth-century Dominican.

1264 Kublai Khan, grandson of Genghis Khan, moved his capital from Karakorum to what later became Beijing. Karakorum was all but abandoned and eventually destroyed by Manchurian invaders over the next century.
(SSFC, 3/27/05, p.F4)

1264 According to Marco Polo, Kublai Khan in this year sent a large body of troops to attack Japan, then known as the island of Zipangu. The two officers in charge, named Abbacatan and Vonsancin, failed to cooperate and the adventure failed.
(TMPV, P.255)

1264-1267 In Lithuania Vaisalgas (Vaiselga) served as Grand Duke.
(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1265 Jan 20, The 1st English Parliament was called into session by Earl of Leicester.
(MC, 1/20/02)

1265 Jan 23, The 1st English Parliament formally convened.
(MC, 1/23/02)

1265 May 9, Dante Alighieri, Italian poet (Divine Comedy), was born.
(WUD, 1994 p.367)(MC, 5/9/02)

1265 The coastal settlement of Caesarea (Palestine) was razed to the ground.
(Econ, 4/24/04, p.83)

1265-1308 Duns Scotus, the Franciscan “subtle doctor.” He stated that God is absolutely free, and absolute freedom means being free of reason’s necessity, as well as of all else. This was in opposition to Aquinas’ statement that what is logically necessary must necessarily be so.

1265-1321 Dante Alighieri, author of the Divine Comedy. His original surname was Durante. He died on Sept. 14.
(V.D.-H.K.p.124)(AHD, 1971, p.335)

1266 Feb 26, Charles d’Anjou, king of the two Sicilies, defeated Manfred (33), in the Battle of Benevento. Manfred, the bastard son of Emperor Frederik II, king of Sicily, was killed.
(PCh, 1992, p.114)(SC, 2/26/02)

1266 St. Thomas Aquinas penned his “Summa Theologica,” in which he attempted to reconcile theology with economic conditions. He argued that reason could operate within faith.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)(WSJ, 6/22/99, p.A22)

1266 King Kaidu of Great Turkey, a nephew of the grand khan, rebelled against the grand Kahn and numerous battles were fought. Kaidu eventually withdrew to Samarkand. Kaidu is also said to have had a very strong and valiant daughter, Aigiarm, who declared not to marry until she met a man who could conquer her by force.
(TMPV, pp. 317-323)

1267 Feb 9, Synod of Breslau ordered Jews of Silesia to wear special caps.
(MC, 2/9/02)

1267 May 10, Vienna’s Catholic church ordered all Jews to wear distinctive garb.
(MC, 5/10/02)

1267 Jul 26, The Inquisition formed in Rome under Pope Clement IV.
(MC, 7/26/02)

1267 Sep 1, Ramban (Nachmanides) arrived in Jerusalem to establish a Jewish community.
(SC, 9/1/02)

1267 Nov 26, Gozzolini Silvester, Italian hermit and Saint, died.
(MC, 11/26/01)

1267 Giotto (d.1337), Italian painter, was born about this time.
(V.D.-H.K.p.128)(WSJ, 11/113/00, p.A24)(www.mediacult.com/art/giotto/chrono.html)

1267-1269 In Lithuania Shvarno served as Grand Duke.
(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1268 Jan 21, Pope Clement IV gave permission to Poland’s King Premislus II to take over Lithuania and establish Catholicism.
(LHC, 1/18/03)

1268 Oct 19, Konradin von Hohenstaufen, duke of Zwaben, was beheaded. [see Oct 20]
(MC, 10/19/01)

1268 Oct 20, Konradijn Hohenstaufen, son of Koenraad IV, was beheaded in Naples. [see Oct 19]
(MC, 10/20/01)

1268 According to Marco Polo, Kublai Khan in this year sent a large force of infantry and cavalry to conquer the country named Ziamba, (Viet-Nam). His forces were under the leadership of general Sogatu. The king of Ziamba, Accambale, was advanced in years but resisted from his strongholds. The Tartars laid waste to the open country and then accepted to withdraw in return for a yearly tribute of elephants and sweet-scented wood.
(TMPV, P.260)

1269 Apr, The Polo brothers arrived at Acre.
(TMPV, P.10)

1269 Jun 19, King Louis IX of France decreed all Jews must wear a badge of shame.
(MC, 6/19/02)

1269 The capital of Morocco was moved north to Fez after the Almohad dynasty fell.
(SFEC, 7/25/99, p.T11)

1269 Nicolo Polo returned to Venice from Asia and his visit with Kublai Khan at Shang-tu, Coleridge’s Xanadu. He carried letters from the Khan asking that the pope provide 100 intelligent men, “acquainted with the seven arts.” Pope Clement IV had recently died and Nicolo waited for a successor.

1269 The Prince Facfur ruled the province of Manji in a peaceful and prosperous manner. He maintained at his court a thousand beautiful women, in whose society he took delight.
(TMPV, P.10)

1269-1281 In Lithuania Traidenis served as Grand Duke.
(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1269-1271 The Polo brothers waited two years in Venice for a new pope and then departed for Acre and then to Jerusalem with the young Marco Polo. The Polos continue their journey and reach Armenia. The legate of Jerusalem was elected Pope and assumed the name Gregory X.
(TMPV, P.12)

1269-1354 Huang Kung-Wang, Chinese artist. He painted the 20-foot-long hand-scroll “Dwelling in the Fu-Ch’un Mountains.” The work is part of the traveling exhibit from the National Palace Museum, Taipei in 1995.
(WSJ, 12/29/95, p.A-11)

1270 Feb 16, In the Karusa Ice war in Estonia, Lithuanian forces defeated the Livonian Knights of the Cross.
(LHC, 2/16/03)

1270 Aug 25, King Louis IX (56), King of France (1226-70), died on The Eighth Crusade, which was decimated by the Plague.
(PCh, 1992, p.114)(V.D.-H.K.p.110)(MC, 8/25/02)

1270 Oct 30, The seventh crusade was ended by the treaty of Barbary.
(HN, 10/30/98)

1270 Mongol hordes sacked Babylon and ended 1,500 years of rule over Eastern Jewry by the high Mesopotamian priest known as the Exxilarch.
(WSJ, 6/30/03, p.A1)

1271 Aug, Jacob d’Ancona, an Italian-Jewish trader, arrived at the harbor of Zaitun in southeast China, 4-years before Marco Polo arrived. He wrote a manuscript that surfaced in 1997, translated by David Selbourne, a British scholar. Jacob described printing with movable wooden type, paper money, free daily newspapers, mass-circulation booklets, use of gunpowder, the practice of foot-binding, and tea-drinking. He also noted a lot of pornography and a liberated female sexuality. He described a foreign community with some 2,000 Jews and a great number of Muslims as well as Africans and Europeans and the oncoming threat of a Mongol invasion. The book was titled “The City of Light” and covered Jacob’s travels from 1270-1273 through China, Syria, the Persian Gulf and India.
(SFEC, 9/21/97, p.A23)(SFC, 10/1/97, p.A12)

1271 Sep 17, Wenceslas II, king of Bohemia & Poland (1278-1305), was born.

1271 Nov 16, Henry III (b.1207), king of England (1216-71), died.

1271 Nicolo and Marco Polo obtained letters from the papal legate in Palestine, who was soon elected as Gregory X. The Khan’s request for 100 intelligent men could not be filled and the Polos departed Acre with two friars who soon turned back. The Polos continued on their own.

1271 The Polos were called back to Acre where the new Pope assigned two friars, Fra Nicolo da Vicenza and Fra Guielmo da Tripoli, to accompany them to visit the grand khan. They reached Armenia and heard that the soldan of Babylonia, named Bundokdari, had invaded Armenian territory. The friars feared for their lives and returned home.
(TMPV, P.12)

1271-1274 The Polos spent three and a half years traveling to the residence of the grand khan at Cle-men-fu. The grand khan was pleased with Marco Polo and employed him for the next seventeen years as a personal representative of the khan in state matters.
(TMPV, P.12)

1271-1368 “The Yuan Dynasty” by James Cahill is the 2nd section of Wu Hung’s 1997 “The Origins of Chinese Painting.” The period is marked by the emergence of the literati-amateur movement.
(WSJ, 1/2/98, p.6)

1272 Feb 24, Jacob, an Italian-Jewish trader, departed in haste from Zaitun, China. [see 1271]
(SFEC, 9/21/97, p.A23)

1272 Apr 17, Zita (Cita), Italian maid, saint, died at about age 59.
(MC, 4/17/02)

1272 Nov 21, Edward I was proclaimed King of England.

1272 Kublai-khan sent an army to the countries of Vochang and Karazan. The King of Mien and Bangala, in India, opposed the advance of the Tartars and a major battle was fought, wherein the Tartars were victorious.
(TMPV, P.192)(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)

1272 Forces of the King of Naples occupied Durrës and established the Kingdom of Arbëria, the first Albanian kingdom since the fall of Illyria.
(www, Albania, 1998)

1273 Oct 1, Rudolf of Hapsburg was elected emperor in Germany.
(HN, 10/1/98)

1273 Marco Polo crossed Afghan Turkistan.

1273 Kublai-khan assigned his general, Chin-san Bay-an, the “Hundred-eyed,” to invade the province of Manji under Prince Facfur. Facfur fled under attack and his queen was sent to Kublai-khan, who supported her in dignity.
(TMPV, P.211)

1273-1291 Rudolf I, King of Germany and emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. He founded the Hapsburg dynasty.
(WUD, 1994, p.1251)

1274 Mar 7, Thomas Aquinas (48), Italian theologian, saint, died.
(MC, 3/7/02)

1274 May 7, The Second Council of Lyons opened in France to regulate the election of the pope.
(HN, 5/7/99)

1274 Jul 11, Robert the Bruce, King of Scotland (1306-1329), was born in Turnberry, Scotland.
(HN, 7/11/01)(MC, 7/11/02)

1274 Upon Edward‘s succession to the English throne, he demanded Llywelyn ap Gruffydd pay homage to him before he recognized him as Prince of Wales.
(HNQ, 7/14/00)

1274 Thomas Aquinas was summoned before a council at Lyons to answer for his opinions. He was publicly chastised but not condemned.

1274 The first Mongol invasion of Japan. [see 1264]
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)

1274 Lal Shahbaz Qalandar (b.1177), born as Seyyed Shah Hussain Marandi in Marand (near the city of Tabriz) in Azerbaijan (then part of Iran), died. He had migrated to Sindh and settled in Sehwan and was buried there. He is also known as Shaikh Hussain Marandi. He was a Sufi in the regions that lie in the Sindh province of Pakistan.

c1274 Nadruva, Prussia, was the home of the pagan spiritual leader Krivis, who was dear to the Baltic people.
(H of L, 1931, p.25)(TB-Com, 10/11/00)(Petras Dusburgietis. Prusijos zemes kronika. Vilnius, 1985, p. 87)

1274-1277 The Knights of the Cross overcame the Prussian towns of Nadruva and Skalva.
(Petras Dusburgietis. Prusijos zemes kronika (Chronicle of the Prussian Lands). Vilnius, 1985, p. 189-196)

1275 May 23, King Edward I of England ordered a cessation to the persecution of French Jews.
(MC, 5/23/02)

1275 In England there was an earthquake at Glastonbury.
(Local Inscription, 2000)

1275-1292 Marco Polo left Italy for China. He lived there during the reign of Kubla Khan and learned about pasta, sherbet, and paper currency. During this time Marco Polo visited Hangzhou, called Kinsay in his writings, and described it as the finest and noblest city in the world.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)(SSFC, 5/7/17, p.F4)

1275-1325 The Henderson Site in New Mexico, USA, was occupied by about a 100 people in a village with about 50 large rooms. The Indians occupying the site were in between the Plains hunters and the Pueblo farmers and showed evidence of both cultures. They grew corn and regularly ate dog. After the corn harvest they abandoned their village each year to hunt bison. The site is being excavated by a team from the Univ. of Mich.
(MT, 12/94, p.2-3)

1276 Nov, Edward decided to force Llywelyn ap Gruffydd into submission in November of 1276. Edward was aided by Llywelyn‘s brother Daffydd ap Gruffydd and Prince Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn of Powys—both of whom Llywelyn had expelled for plotting his assassination.
(HNQ, 7/14/00)

1276 A 25-year drought began in the Four Corner region.
(HN, 2/11/97)(AM, 9/01, p.44)

1276-1299 Tree growth rings revealed that another drought occurred in the southwest US. This period corresponded with the abandonment of Anasazi dwelling sites in Arizona.
(Hem., 5/97, p.79)

1277 King Edward of England invaded Wales. Edward was aided by Llywelyn ap Gruffydd’s brother Daffydd ap Gruffydd and Prince Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn of Powys—both of whom Llywelyn had expelled for plotting his assassination.
(HN, 2/17/99)(HNQ, 7/14/00)

c1277 Invaders from central Asia conquered China.
(ATC, p.73)

1278 May 10, Jews of England were imprisoned on charges of coining. [see Nov 17]
(MC, 5/10/02)

1278 Nov 17, In England 680 Jews were arrested for counterfeiting coins. 293 were hanged. [see May 10]
(MC, 11/17/01)

1278 Work resumed on the Leaning Tower of Pisa, whose tilt had shifted from north to south. By 1995 it was 5.5 degrees off plumb.
(SSFC, 10/19/03, p.C3)

1278 Nestorian Christians under the governor, Mar-sachis, appointed by the grand-khan for three years, built three Nestorian Churches in the city of Chan-ghian-fu, in the province of Manji.
(TMPV, P.220)

1278 The co-principality of Andorra was created after long-running ownership disputes between the Bishops of Seu and the Counts of Foix. They agreed to recognize each other as co-princes of Andorra.
(Hem., 3/97, p.74)

1278 In Wales Carreg Cennen, a castle on a hilltop above Trapp, fell to English hands.
(SFEC, 5/10/98, p.T4)

1278-1477 In 2004 Tim Hyman covered this period in his book: “Sienese Painting: “The Art of a City-Republic.”
(Econ, 1/17/04, p.75)

1279 Mar 5, Lithuanians overcame Livonian forces at Aizkraukle.
(LHC, 3/5/03)

1279 In Germany the castle across the Rhine from Assmannshausen was first mentioned. It was restored by architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel in the 19th century and named Rheinstein.
(SFEC, 3/15/98, p.T4)

1279-1368 The Yuan, or Mongol, dynasty in China (1279-1368) was established by the great Kublai Khan (reigned 1259-94), a grandson of Genghis.

1280 Nov 15, Albertus Magnus (87), German leader and bishop Regensburg, died.
(MC, 11/15/01)

1280 By this time the Anasazi Indian culture of the American southwest, 15 to 20 thousand people, disappeared from the Four Corners region. All the Anasazi were gone from Mesa Verde. They probably moved south and broke up into present-day Pueblo tribes. Anasazi means enemy ancestors in Navajo. In 2017 DNA evidence revealed that the cliff-dwelling people had raised turkeys and migrated with them to the Rio Grande valley of northern New Mexico during a devastating drought.
(SFC, 5/19/96, T-1)(HN, 2/11/97)(AM, 9/01, p.44)(SFC, 3/17/17, p.A8)

1280 Liu Guandao, court painter, depicted the Mongol ruler Kubilai Khan hunting on a sandy, windswept landscape.
(SFEC, 10/6/96, DB p.37)

1280 Marco Polo visited the country of Ziamba (Viet-Nam). He noted that the king had 326 children, and that it was the custom for all young women to be proved by the king before being given in marriage. Marco noted the bounty of elephants, lignum-aloes, and black ebony.
(TMPV, P.261)

1280 St. Julien-le-Pauvre was built in Paris. It became a barn during the French revolution and is now a Greek Orthodox church.
(SFC, 9/1/96, T8)

1280 German merchants formed the Hanseatic League to facilitate trade.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)
1280 In Germany a spinning wheel invented in China was demonstrated in Speyer.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1280 About this time someone near Pisa, Italy, riveted 2 small magnifying lenses to form the 1st optical device that could be worn on the bridge of the nose.
(WSJ, 4/6/06, p.A12)(www.antiquespectacles.com)

1280 In the Netherlands Muiden Castle, 10 miles east of Amsterdam, dates to this time.
(SFEC, 1/31/99, p.T13)

1280-1354 Wu Chen, Chinese painter and master of calligraphy. He also mastered the play of void and presence at the heart of Chinese ink painting.
(SFC, 10/14/96, p.B3)

1281 Aug 14, During the second Mongol attempt to conquer Japan, Kublai Khan’s invading fleet disappeared in typhoon off of Japan. A Mongol army of 45,000 from Korea had joined an armada with 120,000 men from southern China landing at Hakozaki Bay. The typhoon destroyed their fleet leaving them to death or slavery.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)(EWH, 4th ed., p.369)(MC, 8/14/02)

1281 Osman I came to power at the age of 23 and began a steady campaign against the Byzantines until his death in 1324. He managed to capture many Byzantine fortresses, most notably Bursa, consolidating Ottoman power in the region. Generally regarded as the founder of the Ottoman Turkish state, Osman I (also known as Osman Gazi) led ongoing campaigns against the Byzantines in the 13th and early 14th centuries AD. Part of the migration of Turkic tribes into Anatolia, Osman was the son of Ertugrul, who had established a principality in present-day Sögüt, Turkey.
(HNQ, 2/19/01)

1281-1285 In Lithuania Daumantas served as Grand Duke.
(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1282 Mar 30, Furious inhabitants of Palermo attacked French occupation force in the “Sicilian Vespers.” The Mafia appeared in Sicily to revolt against French rule after a drunken soldier attacked a young woman on her wedding day.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(MC, 3/30/02)

1282 Mar 31, The great massacre of the French in Sicily, “The Sicilian Vespers,” came to an end. [see Aug 31,1303]
(HN, 3/31/99)

1282 Apr 28, Villagers in Palermo led a revolt against French rule in Sicily.
(HN, 4/28/98)

1282 Dec 11, Llywelyn ap Gruffydd (b.~1223), the last prince of an independent Wales, died after he was lured into a trap and killed at the Battle of Orewin Bridge by forces under Edward I.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Llywelyn_the_Last)(Econ, 11/24/12, p.63)

1282 Andronicus II Papaeologus became ruler over Byzantium. [see 330AD]
(WSJ, 11/14/95, p. A-12)

1283 In Germany the Marksburg Castle was built by the Katzenelbogans to defend the silver and lead mines of Braubach.
(SFEC, 3/15/98, p.T5)

1283-1289 Conwy Castle was built by Edward I during his conquest of Wales. It was constructed as part of a wider project to create the walled town of Conwy.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conwy_Castle)(SSFC, 1/27/13, p.N6)

1284 Apr 25, Edward II, king of England (1307-1327), was born.

1284 Jun 26, The Pied Piper lured away 130 children of Hamelin (Hameln, Germany). Robert Browning used this event for his poem “The Pied Piper of Hamelin” (1842).
(MC, 6/26/02)

1284 In England the eldest son of Edward I became the Prince of Wales.
(SFC, 7/23/97, p.A10)

1285 Mar 24, Lithuanian Grand Duke Daumantas (1281-1285) died.
(LHC, 3/24/03)

1285 May 10, Philip IV (Fair) succeeded Philip III as King of Spain.
(HN, 5/10/99)

1285 Oct 5, Philippe III, the Stout, King of France (1270-85), died.
(MC, 10/5/01)

1285 Oct 12, 180 Jews refused baptism in Munich, Germany, and were set on fire.
(MC, 10/12/01)

1286 Nov 22, Erik V Klipping (b.1249), king of Denmark, was murdered.

1286 Emperor Rudolph I abrogated the political freedom of Jews and imposed on them special taxes. Rabbi Meir Ben Baruch (aka Maharam), head of the Jewish community in Rothenburg, tried to lead group of Jews to Palestine but was arrested and confined in an Alsatian fortress. He refused to be freed for ransom and died in prison. The Jews of Rothenburg were then re-expelled to a ghetto beyond the city walls.
(NH, 9/96, p.24)

1286 Tartar Chief Nayan, kinsman of Kublai, attempted to gain independence from the grand-khan, and a war ensued.
(TMPV, P.108)

1286 Arghun, son of Abaga – lord of the east, engaged and defeated the army of Kaidu under Kaidu’s brother, Barac, in the plain of the Arbor Secco by the river Ion. Abaga died shortly after and Arghun was force to fight his uncle, the Acomat Soldan, who claimed succession. Arghun was initially defeated and captured, but escaped with the help of the Tartar baron Boga. They gathered forces and slew the melik Soldan, who was in charge of Acomat’s army. Later Acomat was captured and slain.
(TMPV, pp.325-334)

1287 Dec 14, The Zuider Zee seawall collapsed with the loss of 50,000 lives.
(MC, 12/14/01)

1287 China’s government issued IOUs with a face value of a fixed number of silver coins.
(Econ., 4/25/15, p.70)
1287 The forces of Kublai Khan overran Burma. The royal city of Bagan was abandoned under threat from Kublai Khan in the 13th century. The brick temple of Ananda Pahto is in Bagan. More than 4,400 pagodas and 3,000 other religious structures of bricks and stones were built in Bagan, Myanmar’s former capital, during a 243-year period from the 11th to 13th centuries, the result of extraordinary Buddhist fervor.
(SFEC, 10/22/00, p.T9)(DC, 10/10/98)(AP, 12/1/03)

1288 Feb 29, Scotland made it legal for women to propose to men. The Scottish Parliament passed a Leap Year Act whereby women could propose to men. The tradition had begun in 5th century Ireland.
(SFEC, 6/8/97, Z1 p.6)(SFC, 2/29/00, p.A1)

1288 Apr 24, Jews of Yroyes France were accused of ritual murder.
(MC, 4/24/02)

1288 Sep 29, Maud de Brabant (b.1224) died in Belgium.

1288 Kublai Khan was described by Marco Polo as being 85 years old and having reigned for 42 years. This would put his rule to begin in 1246.
(TMPV, P.108)

1288 Marco Polo related that the Christian King of Abascia (or Abyssinia) in Middle India decided to make a pilgrimage to Jerusalem but was dissuaded by his advisors. In his place he sent a bishop, who upon returning through Aden was picked up by the soldan of Aden and urged to become a Mohametan. The bishop refused and was forcefully circumcised. This later led to a war in which the Abyssinian king took the city of Aden and gave it up to pillage.
(TMPV, P.255)

1288 In Sweden a charter recognized the sale of a stake in the Stora Kopparberg copper mine to Bishop Petrus of Vasteras for his parish. In the 1970’s Stora sold its mining operations to focus on forest products and power. In 1998 it merged to become Stora Enso, a paper-packaging and timber firm.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(Econ, 12/18/04, p.105)

1289 Apr 29, Qala’un, the Sultan of Egypt, captured Tripoli.
(HN, 4/29/98)

1289 Oct 4, Louis X, the Stubborn, king of France (1314-16), was born.
(MC, 10/4/01)

1289 Eyeglasses were first recorded in Florence by a man named di Popozo.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R21)

1290 Jul 12, Jews were expelled from England by order of King Edward I.
(MC, 7/12/02)

1290 Aug 16, Charles of Valois married Margaret of Anjou.
(MC, 8/16/02)

1290 Oct 9, Last of 16,000 English Jews, expelled by King Edward I, left. The country was on the verge of bankruptcy. The debt to Jewish bankers was written off and all Jews were expelled from England. The Medicis and other northern Italian bankers were invited as a replacement.
(SFEC, 6/22/97, BR p.3)(MC, 10/9/01)

1290 William of Ockham (d.1349), English Franciscan scholastic philosopher, was born. He became known for the maxim called Occam’s Razor (Ockham’s razor): “Entia non sunt multiplicanda praeter necessitatem.” (Entries should not be multiplied unnecessarily). A modern version of this principle of logic might be: “The simpler, the better.” [see 1349]
(V.D.-H.K.p.123)(WUD, 1994 p.996)(AP, 2/4/99)

1290 The Ottoman Empire began.
(SSFC, 10/14/01, p.A3)

c1290-1361 Philippe de Vitry, French music theorist, composer and poet.
(WUD, 1994, p.1598)(SFC, 2/15/99, p.E7)

1291 Feb 8, Afonso IV, King of Portugal (1325-57), was born.
(MC, 2/8/02)

1291 Mar 5, Sa’ad al’Da’ulah, Jewish grand vizier of Persia, was assassinated.
(MC, 3/5/02)

1291 May 10, Scottish nobles grudgingly recognized the authority of English king Edward I.
(MC, 5/10/02)

1291 May 18, Acre, the last major stronghold of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, fell to the hands of Al-Ashraf Khalil and his forces from Egypt and Syria after a siege of 43 days. It had been in the hands of the Franks for 100 years. Egyptian Mamelukes (Mamluks) occupied Akko (Acre). The crusaders were driven out of Palestine. Khalil, al-Ashraf Salah ad-Din, the Mamluk King, conquered Akko and put an end to the Crusader’s rule in the Holy Land.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Acre_%281291%29)(Arch, 7/02, p.19)

1291 Aug 1, The Everlasting League formed and became the basis of Swiss Confederation. The people of the 3 small cantons (Uri, Schwyz and Unterwalden) formed a co-operative pact called the Bundesbrief following the death of Habsburg Emp. Rudolf I.
(Econ, 2/14/04, Survey p.6)

1291 The Catholic Franciscan order arrived in Bosnia.
(SFC, 4/15/97, p.A10)

1291 A law made by the Doge ordered that all glass furnaces be moved from Venice to Murano.

1291-1295 In Lithuania Butvydas served as Grand Duke.
(TB-Com, 10/11/00)
1291-1340 In Sweden a Gothic-style cathedral was built in the heart of Strangnas.
(AP, 8/1/18)

1292 Dec 9, Sa’di, great Persian poet (Orchard, Rose Garden), died.
(MC, 12/9/01)

1292 The Polos began their return journey to Europe. They accompanied a Mongol princess who was to marry Arghun Khan, ruler of Persia. The Polos arrived at the island of Java and then sailed for eighteen months in the Indian Seas to reach king Arghun. They learned that Arghun’s kingdom was being administered by Ki-akato, and that the Mongol princess should be delivered to Kasan, son of Arghun, then on the borders of Persia at the arbor secco.
(V.D.-H.K.p.171)(TMPV, P.12)

c1292 A “No Loitering” sign was engraved on rock at an ancient cemetery near Mill River, Mass., in the Phoenician language called Iberian Punic some 200 years before Columbus made his 1492 trip.
(SFC, 10/17/98, p.E5)

1293 The Polos arrived in Persia and found that Arghun Khan had died. His son Mahmud Ghazan now ruled Persia and married the princess. The Polos soon reached Trebizond on the southern coast of the Black Sea and were welcomed by a band of robbers who stripped them of most of their riches. Years later (1298) Marco Polo published in Venice “Il Milione,” The Travels of Marco Polo.
(V.D.-H.K.p.171)(WSJ, 9/4/98, p.W12)

1294 Feb 12, Kublai Khan, the conqueror of Asia, died at the age of 80.
(HN, 2/12/99)

1294 May 3, Jan I, duke of Brabant, Limburg, poet, died.
(MC, 5/3/02)

1294 Jun 30, Jews were expelled from Bern, Switzerland.
(MC, 6/30/02)

1294 Jul 5, Pietro di Murrone, a pious hermit, was elected as Pope Celestine V. He was so besieged by the political, social and religious challenges of the position that just five months later, on December 13, he became the first pope to resign, for which he was imprisoned by his successor, Boniface VIII. He died in the castle of Fumone, May 19, 1296.
(SFEC, 10/22/00, p.A20)(www.newadvent.org/cathen/03479b.htm)

1294 Historical records first mentioned the German town of Atterwasch. German plans to eliminate nuclear power by 2022 led to xxpansion of lignite coal mining in the region and called for the removal of Atterwasch and two nearby towns by 2025.
(SSFC, 11/30/14, p.A22)

1294 When Arghun died by probable poisoning after six years of rule, he was succeeded by his uncle, Ki-akato, who was able to seize power because the son of Arghun, Kasan, was far away. After two years Ki-akato was poisoned and his uncle, Baidu, a Christian, seized power. Kasan then assembled an army and marched against Baidu. Kasan was victorious and gained control over the Eastern Tartars.
(TMPV, pp. 334-336)

1294 The Great Geysir was discovered in Iceland and gave rise to the community named Geysir. Geyser became the generic name for all water spouts.
(SSFC, 7/17/05, p.D6)

1294 The Polos received news of the death of Kublai, the grand khan.
(TMPV, P.19)
1294 In Bologna two-thirds of the citizens were listed as guild members or their relatives.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1295 Marco Polo narrated his travels to master Rustigielo, a citizen of Pisa, from a prison in Genoa.
(TMPV, P.4)

1295 Jacobellus Barovier, founder of a glass-making family, was born. His sons, Antonio and Bartolomeo in 1348 registered as “fioliare” (glassmakers) in Murano, across the lagoon from Venice, Italy. The Barovier firm merged with the Murano-based Toso firm in the 1930s.
(www.henokiens.com/index_barovier_gb.php)(www.artglas.org/html/body_barovier.html)(Econ, 11/24/07, p.73)

1295 Vytenis began to rule over Lithuania. In response to German castle construction along the shores of the Nemunas River, Vytenis began constructing castles of wood in addition to those at: Junigeda, Bisena, Kolainis, Medvegalis, and Putenikis. He also reorganized the army and ruled to 1316.
(H of L, 1931, p.32)(Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 41)(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1295 Trieste became a Free Imperial City.

1296 Apr 27, England’s King Edward I defeated the Scots at the Battle of Dunbar. He deposed King John and exiled him to France.
(HN, 4/27/99)

1296 May 19, Pietro di Murrone, former Pope Celestine V, died in the castle of Fumone, where he was imprisoned by his successor, Boniface VIII.
(SFEC, 10/22/00, p.A20)(www.newadvent.org/cathen/03479b.htm)

1296 Aug 10, John the Blind, King of Bohemia, Count of Luxembourg, was born.
(MC, 8/10/02)

1296 England’s King Edward I invaded Scotland but his army was defeated by Scotsman William Wallace. After a series of battles England regains some control over Scotland.
(Reuters, 2/16/12)
1296 King Edward I of England stole the 458-pound Stone at Scone from Scotland. It was returned to Scotland in 1996.
(SFC, 11/16/96, p.A11)

1297 Jan 7, Francois Grimaldi (Francois the Crafty) of Genoa disguised himself as a monk and appeared at the fortress on the Rock of Monaco. Once inside he called his reinforcements and seized the place.
(SFC, 1/8/97, p.C1)(Econ, 12/24/05, p.84)

1297 Sep 11, Scots under William Wallace “Braveheart” defeated the English army at Stirling Bridge, Scotland. The 1995 epic film Braveheart dramatized the life of 13th-century Scot William Wallace. While many Scots and others praised the film for reviving the legend of the Scottish hero, just as many people criticized the film for its numerous historical inaccuracies. For instance, the Battle of Stirling Bridge is an excellent example of Wallace’s military genius and what led him to being knighted in the film and real life. However, in the film, the battle takes place on an open field. (Reportedly, when a local asked actor/director Mel Gibson why the battle was being filmed with such an obvious discrepancy, Gibson explained that the bridge got in the way. The local responded, “Aye. That’s what the English found!”) In addition, one of the film’s most intriguing twists is pure Hollywood invention. A calendar puts the lie to the tale of Wallace’s affair with Princess Isabella, wife of Prince Edward II, and his fathering of her child. Isabella and Edward II married in 1307, two years after Wallace’s execution. Her son, Edward III, was born in the years that followed.
(WSJ, 9/9/97, p.A1)(HN, 9/11/98)(HNQ, 3/19/01)
1297 Sep 11, Hugh de Cressingham, English treasurer, died in battle.
(MC, 9/11/01)

1297 Sep 12, The town of Olivenza (Olivença) came under Portuguese sovereignty with the Treaty of Alcanices. In 1801 it was ceded to Spain under the Treaty of Badajoz. In the 1815 Vienna convention Spain agreed to return it to Portugal, but this never happened.
(Econ, 8/31/13, p.14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olivenza)

c1297 In Hawaii a temple was built near the Kilauea Volcano that is believed to have been used for human sacrifice. The Waha’ula Heiau temple near Volcanoes National Park was one of the first temples built on the islands, supposedly by a foreigner, who brought brutal religious rituals to the islands.
(SFC, 8/12/97, p.A3)(SFEC, 9/7/97, p.T8)

1297 The people of Riga rose against the Teutonic Knights. The local Bishop asked Vytenis to help and the Knights were pushed back. This opened a northern trade route for Vytenis for weapons and supplies.
(Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 50)

1298 Mar 30, Duke Vytenis joined with Riga and its archbishop against the Livonian order.
(LHC, 3/30/03)

1298 Jun 24, Rindfleish Persecutions: Jews of Ifhauben, Austria, were massacred.
(MC, 6/24/02)

1298 Jul 2, An army under Albert of Austria defeated and killed Adolf of Nassua near Worms, Germany.
(HN, 7/2/98)

1298 Jul 22, King Edward I combined bowmen and cavalry to defeat William Wallace’s Scots at Falkirk.
(HN, 7/22/98)

1298 Jul 23, Jews were massacred at Wurzburg, Germany.
(MC, 7/23/02)

1298 Oct 19, Rindfleish: 140 Jews of Heilbron Germany were murdered.
(MC, 10/19/01)

1298 Tamerlane plundered Delhi, India.
(SFEC, 5/21/00, p.T8)

1298 The “Travels of Marco Polo” was published.
(WSJ, 9/4/98, p.W12)

1299 The Count of Holland gained control of the County of Zeeland, which had been under contention between Holland and Flanders.