Timeline 1CE -299CE – 3

129 Roman Emp. Hadrian visited Jerusalem. In 2014 archeologists discovered a large stone with Latin engravings bearing the name of Hadrian and the year of his visit.
(SFC, 10/22/14, p.A3)
129 Roman Emp. Hadrian allowed Palmyra to charge of its own finances.
(Econ, 5/30/15, p.81)

130 Antinous, the Greek lover of Roman Emperor Hadrian, died in the Nile. Hadrian insisted that Antinous be given the status of a god.
(Econ, 7/19/08, p.94)

132 Zhang Heng introduced an earthquake weathercock, a device that could inform the Chinese court of a distant earthquake.
(NG, Feb, 04, p.28)

132CE Jewish rebels occupied the mountain ridge of Hebron during the Bar Kochba revolt against the Romans. The remains of an ancient synagogue and mikveh are still visible.
(SFEC, 12/22/96, p.T2)(Econ, 7/19/08, p.94)

135 Chinese astronomers recorded what later became known as a supernova.
(SFC, 11/6/09, p.A7)

135CE Roman Emperor Hadrian sent 12 divisions under Julius Severus to quell the Jewish rebellion led by Simon Bar Kokhba, who was killed at Bethar. An estimated 600,000 Jews were killed. Hadrian ordered Jerusalem plowed under and Aelia Capitolina was built on the site. He barred Jews from returning and survivors dispersed across the empire. Judea was renamed Syria-Palestina.
(SFC, 12/26/96, p.C16)(PBS, Nova, 11/23/04)(PC, 1992 ed, p.41)

136-140CE Hyginus was pope. He was later proclaimed a saint.
(WUD, 1994, p.697)

138 Jul 10, Publius A. Hadrianus (b.76), Roman emperor (117-138), died. He was responsible for Hadrian’s Wall in Britain, begun in 122.

138-161 Antoninus Pius succeeded Hadrian to Rome.
(AM, 11/00, p.13)

139 Hadrian’s Mausoleum was built in Rome.
(SSFC, 5/1/05, p.F8)

c140CE Emperor Antoninus Pius ordered Hadrian’s Wall to be abandoned and a more northerly defense to be established. Remnants could later be seen of the Antonine Wall around Falkirk, Scotland. Roman troops advanced northwards into the Scottish lowlands, driving the barbarians back before them and establishing a new frontier called the Antonine Wall, named for the new Emperor, Antoninus Pius. The Antonine Wall was later abandoned, reoccupied, and abandoned a second and final time under the Emperor Marcus Aurelius.
(NG, 12/97, forum)(HNQ, 9/9/00)

c140 The Persians begin to frequently trade with the Romans and Chinese.
(ATC, p.33)

141 Mar 20, The 6th recorded perihelion passage of Halley’s Comet.
(MC, 3/20/02)

141-155 St. Pius I, pope, martyr.
(PGA, 12/9/98)

145CE A temple was completed in Rome as a tribute to Emperor Hadrian. In 1802 it became the site of the Rome stock exchange.
(WSJ, 12/13/96, p.B11A)

150 Claudius Ptolemy, a Roman citizen of Egypt, authored his “Almagest” about this time. It was a mathematical and astronomical treatise, written in Greek, on the apparent motions of the stars and planetary paths. Ptolemy of Alexandria published his theory of epicycles, the idea that the moon, the sun and the planets moved in circles around the Earth.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Almagest)(Econ, 2/7/04, p.75)

c150CE About this time the lateen sail was first used on the Mediterranean Sea.
(ATC, p.12)

c150CE The subterranean graveyard beneath the Appian Way had existed from about this time and probably originated as the private open-air burial ground of the noble Cecili family of Rome. About 200CE it became the first official Christian cemetery.
(ITV, 1/96, p.59)

150-200CE The Temple of Quetzalcoatl in Teotihuacan (City of the Gods) was built near what later became Mexico City. Quetzalcoatl was considered as the origin of all human activities on earth, the creator of land and time and its divisions.
(SSFC, 5/6/01, p.T9)(SSFC, 11/9/03, p.C7)

150-250 Acharya Nagarjuna, Indian philosopher, lived about this time. He founded the Madhyamaka school of Mahayana Buddhism.
(Econ, 1/8/11, p.43)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nagarjuna)

151 The Almagest by Claudius Ptolemy, roughly translated as “the Greatest Compilation,” was published around this time and became one of the most influential scientific texts in history. He argued that the cosmos consisted of concentric spheres with the Earth at the center.
(LAT, 3/30/05)(SSFC, 2/5/06, p.M1)

155 Feb 23, Polycarp, disciple of Apostle John, was arrested and burned at stake.
(MC, 2/23/02)

155 St. Pius I, pope, was martyred.
(PGA, 12/9/98)

156 Montanus of Phrygia (central Asia Minor) pronounced himself to be the incarnation of the Holy Spirit and that the New Jerusalem was about to come crashing down and land in Phrygia. His followers were called Montanists.
(Econ, 12/18/04, p.34)

158 Apulieus of Madaura (~124-~180), Romanised Berber and author of “The Golden Ass” (aka the Metamorphoses) defended himself at the Roman basilica in Sabratha (Libya) against charges of witchcraft in an oration known as Pro de se magia, or more commonly the Apologia. The Golden Ass is the only Latin novel which has survived in its entirety, and is an imaginative, irreverent, and amusing work which relates the ludicrous adventures of one Lucius, who experiments in magic and is accidentally turned into an ass.
(Arch, 9/02, p.47)(http://tinyurl.com/lrgfb8)

c160CE The Romans abandoned their garrison at Cramond, Scotland, and retreated to Hadrian’s Wall.
(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.14)

160-230 Tertullian, Carthaginian theologian.
(WUD, 1994, p.1466)

161 CE Mar 7, Marcus Aurelius became emperor on the death of Antoninus Pius [Titus Aurelius], age 74, at Lorium. Antoninus ruled from 138-161.
(HN, 3/7/99)(MC, 3/7/02)

161CE Aug 31, Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus, emperor of Rome (180-92), was born.
(WUD, 1994 p.297)(MC, 8/31/01)

161 At Badrulchau, Babeldoab, Palau, a field of 37 stone monoliths each weighing up to 5 tons was created about this time.
(SSFC, 3/1/15, p.L4)(http://tinyurl.com/o9hzey3)

166CE A Roman envoy arrived in China. This was their 1st recorded official contact.
(ATC, p.33)(Econ, 12/18/04, p.58)

167 Feb 13, Polycarp, a disciple of St. John and bishop of Smyrna, was martyred on the west coast of Asia Minor.
(HN, 2/13/99)

168 Claudius Ptolemy (b.~90), a Roman citizen of Egypt, died about this time. As a geographer and mapmaker he collected information from travelers and constructed maps of the then known world. His maps were forgotten as the Roman Empire declined and were not rediscovered until the early 1400s. Robert Newton in his book “The Crime of Claudius Ptolemy” (1977), called him “the most successful fraud in the history of science.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Claudius_Ptolemy)(ATC, p.15)(NH, 6/97, p.43)(LAT, 3/30/05)

180 Mar 17, Antonius Marcus Aurelius (58), [Marcus Verus], Emperor of Rome, died.
(MC, 3/17/02)

180 Jul 17, Christenen Cittinus Donatus Natzalus Secunda Speratus Vestia was sentenced to death in Carthage.
(MC, 7/17/02)

c180 Pausanius, traveler and geographer, wrote a description of Greece which we have and it is, so to speak, the first guide book known.
(WUD, 1994 p.1058)(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.58)(SSFC, 12/1/02, p.C3)

180 A Roman military transport ship was built about this time, as Marcus Aurelius passed the throne to the emperor Commodus. It later sank in the Rhine. In 2003 archeologists in the Netherlands unveiled the preserved ship.
(AP, 5/15/03)

180 A smallpox epidemic hit Rome and killed 3.5 to 7 million people including Emp. Marcus Aurelius. It was dubbed the Plague of Antonine.
(NW, 10/14/02, p.46)

182 Roman Emp. Commodus executed the brothers Sextus Quintilius Maximus and Sextus Quintilius Condianus for alleged conspiracy. Their Villa dei Quintili, several miles from the center of Rome and comparable to Hadrian’s villa in Tivoli, was identified in 1828.
(AM, 7/05, p.28)

c182-c251 Origen of Caesarea, a church father, urged Christians not to celebrate birthdays because they were a pagan custom.
(WSJ, 12/18/98, p.W15)

185 Dec 7, Emperor Lo-Yang of China saw a supernova (MSH15-52?).
(MC, 12/7/01)

188 Apr 4, Caracalla, [Marcus Aurelius Antonius], well-bathed Roman emperor (211-217), was born.
(MC, 4/4/02)

190 General Dong Zhuo seized power in China and placed a child, Liu Xie, on the throne.
(NG, Feb, 04, p.28)
190 The abacus was invented about this time.
(NW, 9/2/16, p.34D)

192 Dec 31, Lucius A.A. Commodus (b.161), Emperor of Rome (180-192), was murdered. His mistress Marcia, Chamberlain Eclectus, and praetorian prefect Laetus hired the wrestler Narcissus to strangle Commodus after they found their names on an imperial execution list.
(PCh, 1992, p.42)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commodus)

193 Mar 28, Publius Helvius Pertinax, Roman Emperor (192-93), was assassinated.
(HFA, ’96, p.26)(MC, 3/28/02)

193 Apr 9, The distinguished Roman soldier Lucius Septimius Severus was proclaimed emperor by the army at Carnuntum (Austria).

193 Apr 14, Lucius Septimius Severus (d.211), a native son of Leptis Magna in Libya, was crowned emperor of Rome. Under his rule the empire reached its greatest extent with almost 50 provinces.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Septimius_Severus)(SSFC, 6/27/04, p.D12)

193CE Jun 1, The Roman Emperor, Marcus Didius (61), was murdered in his palace.
(HN, 6/1/99)(MC, 6/1/02)

195CE Sho-saiko-to is a Chinese formula of bupleurum root, pinellia tuber, scutellaria root, jujube fruit, ginseng root, glycyrrhiza (licorice) root, and ginger rhizome. It is used to help prevent liver cancer.
(WSJ, 9/25/95, p.B7B)

197 Feb 19, Lucius Septimius Severus’ army beat Clodius Albinus at Lyon. D Clodius Septimus Albinus, Roman dignitary in England, died in the battle.
(MC, 2/19/02)

c197CE The sculpture of a lioness devouring a man made about this time was found in 1997 in the mud of the Almond River near Edinburgh, Scotland.
(SFC, 1/22/97, p.A9)(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.14)

198 Hatra, a fortified city of the Parthian Empire (later part of Iraq), withstood a second Roman invasion due to its high and thick walls. The trading center was surrounded by more than 160 towers.
(SSFC, 4/5/15, p.A7)(AP, 4/26/17)

199-217 Pope Zephyrinus led the Church.
(ITV, 1/96, p.59)

200 The first Runic inscriptions that have survived to the modern day dated from around this time. The Runic alphabet, also known as Futhark, consists of 24 letters, 18 consonants and 6 vowels.

c200CE The Forma Urbis Romae was a 60 by 45-foot map carved out of marble that detailed every building, room and staircase in 2nd century Rome.
(Wired, 11/98, p.117)

c200 Romans began making glass objects that included windows, bottles and drinking vessels.
(SFEC, 6/20/99, Z1 p.8)

c200 The Mishna, a section of the Talmud consisting of a collection of oral laws, was edited by Rabbi Judah Ha-Nasi in the Jewish city of Sepphoris.
(WUD, 1994, p.916)(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.64)

c200CE Pope Zephyrinus assigned his deacon, Calixtus (a former slave), to administer the large underground complex beneath the Appian Way. The subterranean graveyard had existed from about 150CE. This first official Christian cemetery probably originated as the private open-air burial ground of the noble Cecili family of Rome. From this time on it became known as the Catacombs of St. Calixtus. It extended over an area of 20 km., one 3-5 levels, and includes some 500,000 tombs.
(ITV, 1/96, p.59)

c200CE West African people called Bantu, which means “the people,” migrated into central and southern Africa.
(ATC, p.24)

c200CE Barbarian invasions and civil wars begin in the Roman empire.
(ATC, p.33)

200-300 A Roman bathhouse was constructed in Milan and its columns still stood in the 20th century.
(SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T3)
200-300 The Chinese scholar Wang Bi wrote an extensive commentary on the I Ching. He lived only to the age of 23. His commentaries dominate Chinese thinking on the I Ching until the Confucian revival in the 11th century. In 1997 an English translation by Richard John Lynn was published.
(NH, 9/97, p.12)
c200-300 Diophantus, a 3rd century Hellenistic mathematician, wrote a series of classical texts on Algebra called Arithmetica.
(SFEC, 4/5/98, Z1 p.8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diophantus)
200-300 In Laos evidence has indicated the presence of a Hindu Shrine at Wat Phu with prehistoric levels below.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.F)
200-300 Campeche (Mexico), from the 3rd century, was the principal town of the Maya kingdom of Ah Kin Pech (place of serpents and ticks).
(SSFC, 1/25/09, p.E4)
200-300 The original Polynesians arrived at Hawaii probably from the Marquesas. They brought with them edible plants and animals.
(SFEM, 2/8/98, p.10)

200-400CE A giant statue of Buddha was made at Bamiyan some 100 miles west of Kabul. It was destroyed by the Taliban in 2001.
(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.19)(SFC, 2/12/02, p.A16)

c200-400 Sealed royal tombs were found in 2 pyramids at the Yaxuna Maya site in Mexico.
(AM, May/Jun 97 suppl. p.H)

200-400 Christianity spread rapidly in Numidia and the diocese of Lamiggiga was established. It was later abandoned and just the name was used as an honorary jurisdiction for Catholic auxiliary bishops.
(SFC, 9/19/98, p.C1)

c200-700CE In Cambodia at Angkor Borei excavations were proceeding on what might have been the capital of the ancient kingdom of Funan.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.A,D)

200-1215 The Fremont people lived in Utah and etched into rock designs of animals and people.
(SFEC, 3/14/99, p.T8,9)

c200-1450 The Hohokam people lived in the area of Tucson, Arizona.
(SSFC, 3/31/02, p.C6)

202 St. Iranaeus around this time was Bishop of Lugdunum, Gaul, then a part of the Roman Empire (later Lyons, France). He was an early church father and apologist, and his writings were formative in the early development of Christian theology.

203 Lucius Septimus Severus (d.211), emperor of Rome, returned to visit home at Leptis Magna (Libya).
(SSFC, 6/27/04, p.D12)

205-270CE Plotinus was an Alexandrian philosopher in Rome and founder of Neo-Platonism, which strongly influenced the later Augustine, who taught of a mystical union with the Good through the exercise of pure intelligence. He founded Neo-Platonism, a religion that for a time rivaled Christianity. Neo-Platonism developed out of the philosophical doctrines of Plato in the fourth century B.C. Plotinus developed the spiritual side of Plato’s thought into a mystical philosophy teaching reunion with the One and that material things are unworthy. Saint Augustus, formerly a Neo-Platonist, brought some of his ideas into Christian theism.
(V.D.-H.K.p.93)(HNQ, 5/11/98)

211 Feb 4, Lucius Septimius Severus (64), emperor of Rome (193-211), died.

211-217CE The reign of the Roman emperor Caracalla (188-217). Coins were minted at the Jewish city of Sepphoris during the reign of Caracalla.
(WUD, 1994, p.221)(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.64)

215 Clement of Alexandria, a Church father, died. He cited early efforts to fix the Nativity on Apr 19, 20th or May 20.
(WSJ, 12/18/98, p.W15)

215 In New Zealand Taupo eruption, also known as the Hatepe eruption, took place about this time. It was the most violent eruption in the world in the last 5,000 years.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taupo_Volcano)(Econ., 4/11/15, p.24)c

c216-276 Manes, aka Manicheus or Mani, Persian profit and founder of the dualistic religious system called Manichaeism. It was a combination of Gnostic Christianity, Buddhism and Zoroastrianism and other elements. The basic doctrine was based on a conflict between light and dark, with matter being regarded as dark and evil.
(WUD, 1994, p.871)

217 Apr 8, Caracalla (b.188), [Marcus Antonius], Roman emperor (198-217), was murdered in his baths.

220 The Han Dynasty dissolved as Liu Xie abdicated. Three separate kingdoms became established: Shu in the west, Wu to the east of the gorges, and Wei in the north. The later classic “Tale of the Three Kingdoms” traced the collapse of the Han Dynasty.
(NH, 7/96, p.33)(WSJ, 9/16/99, p.A26)(NG, Feb, 04, p.28)
220 Cao Cao (65), skillful Chinese general and ruler, died. He built the strongest and most prosperous state in northern China during the Three Kingdoms period (208-280), when China had three separate rulers. In 2009 Chinese archeologists discovered his tomb in Xigaoxue, a village near the ancient capital of Anyang in central Henan province.
(AP, 12/28/09)

220CE At Baalbeck in the Bekaa Valley of Lebanon the Romans constructed an incomplete acropolis that contained a Temple of Jupiter and a Temple of Bacchus.
(SFEC, 4/13/97, p.T9)

220 The Kushan (Afghanistan) empire fragmented into petty dynasties.

222 Mar 11, Varius A. Bassianus (18), Syrian emperor of Rome (218-22), was murdered.
(MC, 3/12/02)

223 Ulpian of Tyre (b.~170), a Roman jurist, was murdered. He is remembered for the quote: “The sovereign is not bound by the laws” (Princeps legibus solutus est.).
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ulpian)(Econ, 8/9/14, p.69)

224-641 The Sassanid Dynasty ruled over Persia.
(ATC, p.32)

226CE The Iranians conquered the Parthians.
(WUD, 1994, p.1051)

c226 In Iran Zoroastrianism was revitalized as a state religion under the Sassanians.
(WSJ, 2/2/00, p.A24)

227-261CE The Sassanids (A.D. 227-651), ruled the Persian Empire despite attempts by the Roman Empire (27 B.C.-A.D. 476) and later the Byzantine (or Eastern Roman) Empire to conquer it. Bam was founded during the Sassanian Period along one of the East-West trade routes collectively known as the Silk Road.
(HNQ, 12/22/00)(SFC, 12/27/03, p.A12)

230 The St. Georgeous Church was built in Jordon. In 2008 archeologists found a cave under the church with evidence that it was used as a church by 70 disciples of Jesus in the first century after his death, which would make it the oldest Christian site of worship in the world.
(AP, 6/11/08)

230 In Tunisia a Roman coliseum was built in the town of El Jem that could hold 30,000.
(SFEC, 4/12/98, p.T5)

c230 St. Cecilia of the patrician Cecili family was martyred [possibly during the persecutions of Diocletian]. She lived in Trastevere where she reportedly sang hymns all day and so became the patroness of music. She was decapitated by Roman soldiers after 3 abortive attempts.
(WUD, 1994, p.237)(ITV, 1/96, p.60)

230 Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus (anglicized as Tertullian), early Christian apologist, died. He was a church leader and prolific author of Early Christianity. Tertullian was born about 150 and lived and died in Carthage (later Tunisia).

232-238CE In China tens of thousands of bamboo strips and wooden boards recording regional government matters during the Three Kingdoms period were found in an ancient well during construction in 1997 in the southern city of Changsha.
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.26)

235 Mar 18, Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander (b.208), Syrian emperor of Rome (222-235), was murdered.