Timeline 300AD-599AD

300 About this time Tiridates III, king of Armenia, adopted Christianity as the religion of his kingdom, making Armenia the first Christian state.
(CO Enc. / Armenia)

300 About this time Berbers from North Africa began to rule Ghana and continued for about the next 400 years. They are thought to have originated as nomads from the Middle East.
(ATC, p.113)

300 The Mayan city of Cancuen was already established by this time. Ruins of the city were discovered in 1999 in Guatemala.
(SFC, 9/9/00, p.A2)
300 Mayans began building on Cozumel Island off Mexico’s Yucatan peninsula about this time. The town of San Gervasio was built and inhabited through 1650. Cozumel covers 189 square miles, about the size of Lake Tahoe.
(SSFC, 9/25/05, E4)

300 In India about this time Vatsayana wrote the philosophical treatise “Kama Sutra” during the classical age of the Gupta period. One of its 35 chapters dealt with various sexual positions.
(SFEC, 3/2/97, DB p.32)
300 Iron-using people settled at Zimbabwe in central Africa about this time.
(Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.169)

300-400 See the reference for this period.

300-400 Historian Egami Namio in 1948 proposed the “horserider” thesis that cited equestrian goods and foreign culture elements as evidence that the ancestors of the Japanese imperial line had migrated from Korea about this time and conquered the northern part of Kyushu.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.36)
300-400 The book “Deipnosophistae,” The Dinner Table Philosophers, described the use of “happy baskets” for leftovers.
(SFC, 9/10/97, Z1 p.5)
300-400 The Circus Maximus in ancient Rome, expanded under Constantine in the 4th century CE, had an estimated seating capacity of 250,000. The largest of hippodrome in Rome, a U-shaped stadium with a low wall running in the middle around which chariots raced, it seated an estimated 150,000 spectators at the time of Julius Caesar in the 1st century B.C.
(HNQ, 8/29/99)
300-400 As long ago as the 4th century, an Egyptian scientist named Papp suggested there should be a science called heuristics to solve inventive problems.
300-400 During this time the 1st French church dedicated to the Virgin Mary was built in the 4th century on the hill site of the later Chartres cathedral.
(Hem., 10/97, p.83)
300-400 Saint Nectarius of Auvergne (also known as Nectarius of St-Nectaire, Nectarius of Limagne, Necterius of Senneterre), venerated as a 4th century martyr and Christian missionary, was one of the seven missionaries sent by Pope Fabian from Rome to Gaul to spread Christianity there. Nectarius was accompanied by the priests Baudimius (Baudenius, Baudime) and Auditor (Auditeur); tradition states that they were all brothers.
300-400 During this time Ammon Scholasticus, Greek lawyer, worked in Panopolis, Egypt. In 1997 Prof. William H. Willis (d.2000) of Duke Univ. completed an archive of his papers: “The Archives of Ammon Scholasticus.”
(SFC, 7/19/00, p.B2)
300-400 During this period Kuqa on the silk road in western China was a Buddhist center of learning.
(SFEC, 11/22/98, p.T5)
300-400 In Ireland the Staigue Fort with circular drystone walls was built about this time on the Iveragh peninsula.
300-400 By the 4th century El Mirador, the most powerful city in the Preclassic Maya world, had become a ghost town.
(Arch, 9/00, p.28)
300-400 The Syriac monastery of Mar Mattai was established near Mosul.
(Econ, 5/14/16, SR p.3)

300-467 The well-run government of the Gupta Dynasty existed during this period.
(ATC, p.35)

300-525 During the Gupta Dynasty, India trades with the Eastern Roman Empire, Persia, and China.
(ATC, p.24)

300-645 Yamato Period of Japan. The Yamato clan had taken root in the Nara basin and gave rise to the people called “Japanese.”
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)(Hem, 9/04, p.41)

300-700 Goths, Huns, Avars, Serbs, Croats, and Bulgars successively invade Illyrian lands.
(www, Albania, 1998)

c300-1000 During the 4th-10th century, Orhon Turks were prominent in Mongolia.

300-1300 During this period the Anasazis inhabited the Canyon de Chelly and the Canyon del Muerto in northeast Arizona.
(SFEC, 11/29/98, p.T8)

301 King Trdat III declared Christianity to be the state religion. Armenia became the first country to adopt Christianity. Not long after the Armenians adopted Christianity in their homeland around the biblical Mt. Ararat, on the eastern border of modern-day Turkey, they dispatched priests to Jerusalem.
(MH, 12/96)(SFEC, 3/22/98, p.A25)(AP, 5/12/11)

301 San Marino traced its roots to this time and later claimed to be the world’s oldest republic. It was founded by stonecutter Marinus of Arbe.
(WSJ, 1/16/06, p.A1)(SSFC, 12/19/10, p.M2)

303 Feb 23, Emperor Diocletian ordered the general persecution of Christians in Rome.
(HN, 2/23/98)

303 Apr 23, St. George, dragon-slaying knight, died. He was made the patron saint of England in the 14th century. George, later fired by the Pope as mythical, was tortured and beheaded at Nicomedia. He was a soldier who was reported to have risen to a high rank under Diocletian.
(HFA, ’96, p.28)(AHD, p.552)(MC, 4/23/02)

303 St. Devota (b.~2893), a Corsican martyr, died. Sainte-Devote was killed during the persecutions of Diocletian and Maximian. Monaco celebrates her feast day on Jan 27. In 1820 she was named a principal patron saint of Corsica.
(SSFC, 1/27/13, p.N3)

303 Lactantius, an early Christian writer, said that Romula, mother of Roman emperor Galerius, encouraged her son to persecute Christians in this year.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.29)

304-305 Massive persecution of the Christians under Diocletian.

305 May 1, Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Jovius of Rome abdicated. Constantius I Chlorus (Flavius Valerius Constantius) became Western emperor. Galerius (Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximianus) became Eastern emperor.

305 San Gennaro, a pious bishop, was beheaded by Roman Emp. Diocletian. In the 14th century Naples began celebrating the miracle of San Gennaro, whereby the city’s archbishop shakes a vial allegedly containing blood from Gennaro.
(SSFC, 11/6/05, p.A2)

306 Jul 23, Constantine was proclaimed Caesar of the west by the army, while Severus, the former Caesar, was proclaimed Augusta of the west by Galerius.
(HN, 7/23/98)

306 Oct 28, Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius was proclaimed emperor of Rome.
(MC, 10/28/01)

307 Nov 11, Flavius Valerius Severus, compassionate emperor of Rome (306-07), died.
(MC, 11/11/01)

309 Feb 16, Pamphilus Caesarea, Palestinian scholar, martyr, was beheaded.
(MC, 2/16/02)

309-310 Apr 18, St. Eusebius began his reign as Catholic Pope. He ruled for just 4 months in either 309 or 310.
(PTA, 1980, p.62)(WUD, 1994 p.492)(HN, 4/18/98)

310 Roman Emperor Constantine built a defense tower at Eboracum on the banks of the River Ouse in what later became the English city of York.
(SSFC, 4/13/14, p.Q1)

311 Apr 30, Emperor Galerius recognized Christians legally in the Roman Empire.
(MC, 4/30/02)

311 May 5, Gaius VM Galerius (~50), emperor of Rome, died in Dardania.
(SFC, 6/23/97, p.29)(MC, 5/5/02)

311 Jul 2, St. Miltiades began his reign as Catholic Pope.
(SC, 7/2/02)

311 In Austria a Roman gladiator school flourished at Carnuntum 28 miles (45 km) east of Vienna. This was a major military and trade outpost linking the far-flung Roman empire’s Asian boundaries to its central and northern European lands. Archeological digging at the site began around 1870 and by 2011 only 0.5 percent of the settlement was excavated.
(AP, 9/5/11)

311 At the consecration of bishop Caecilian of Carthage, one of the three bishops, Felix, bishop of Aptunga, who consecrated Caecilian, had given copies of the Bible to the Roman persecutors. A group of about 70 bishops formed a synod and declared the consecration of the bishop to be invalid. Great debate arose concerning the validity of the sacraments (baptism, the Lord’s Supper, etc.) by one who had sinned so greatly against other Christians.

311 The Donatists were a Christian sect that developed in northern Africa [Numidia] and maintained that it alone constituted the whole and only true church and that baptisms and ordinations of the orthodox clergy were invalid. The Donatists insisted that sinners must be re-baptized.
(WUD, 1994, p.425)(SFC, 9/19/98, p.C1)(Econ, 5/14/05, p.87)

311 Licinius (Valerius Licianus Licinius) became Eastern emperor. He was deposed and executed by Constantine in 325.

312 cOct 27, Prior to a battle between Constantine and Maxentius, Constantine experienced a vision of Christ that ordered him to ornament the shields of his soldiers with the Greek letters chi and rho, the monogram for Christ. Constantine won the battle and attributed his success to Christ. He became emperor of the West and an advocate of Christianity. [see Oct 28]
(MH, 12/96)(CU, 6/87)

312 Oct 28, Constantine the Great defeated Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius at the Mulvian Bridge. Constantine’s smaller army (about 50,000 strong) won a decisive victory there; while fleeing, Maxentius drowned in the river. Constantine was instantly converted when he saw a cross in the sky, with the inscription “In hoc signo vincit” (“In this sign you shall conquer”). [see Oct 27]
(HN, 10/28/98)(DoW, 1999, P.398)

312 Appius Claudius began construction of the Appian Way as a military highway.
(SFC, 8/2/07, p.E2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Via_Appia)

313 Jan 1, A 15 year cycle used in reckoning ecclesiastical calendars was established as a fiscal term to regulate taxes. It is called the Roman Indiction.
(CFA, ’96,Vol 179, p.23)

313 Apr 30, Co-emperor Licinius unified the whole of the eastern empire under his own rule.
(HN, 4/30/98)

313 Constantine met with the eastern emperor at Milan, capital of the late Roman Empire. They agreed on a policy of religious tolerance. The Edict of Milan legalized Christianity, but also allowed Romans religious choice.
(CU, 6/87)(ITV, 1/96, p.58)(SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T13)(SSFC, 3/21/04, p.M6)

313 Constantine wrote a letter to the proconsul of Africa in which he explained why the Christian clergy should not be distracted by secular offices or financial obligations. “When they are free to render supreme service to the Divinity, it is evident that they confer great benefits upon the affairs of the state.”

313 Nanai-vandak, a Sogdian agent, wrote that “The last emperor fled from Louyang [the eastern capital of China] because of famine and fire” due to nomadic invasions.
(AM, 9/01, p.50)

313 Maximinus II Daia, Eastern emperor, was killed at Tarsus.

314 Licinius declared Valens (d.314) as co-emperor during the war with Constantine. Licinius was deposed and executed by Valens.

314-335 Pope Sylvester I. A document from the 9th or 10th century called the “Donation of Constantine” was forged to show Constantine granting to Sylvester and his successors spiritual supremacy over all matters of faith and worship and temporal dominion over Rome and the entire Western empire.

316 Diocletian, former emperor of Rome, died. By this time there were about 30,000 converts to Christianity and some 33 popes had followed in the footsteps of St. Peter.
(ITV, 1/96, p.58)

317 Aug 7, Flavius Julius Constantius II, Emperor Egypt, Byzantium, Rome (337-61), was born.
(MC, 8/7/02)

320 In India the Gupta state began with the accession of Chandragupta I. His son and grandson were successful conquerors and extended the state across Northern India from sea to sea. The journal of the Buddhist monk Fa-hsien provides most of our knowledge of Gupta society.
(MWH, 1994)

324 Constantine chose Byzantium as his new capital. He moved his court to Byzantium and chiseled his name on the portal.
(ATC, p.24)(WSJ, 3/28/97, p.A1)

324 Licinius proclaimed Martinian (Marcus Martinianus) as co-emperor. Martinian (d.325) was soon deposed by Constantine.

325 May 20, An ecumenical council was inaugurated by Emperor Constantine in Nicea, Asia Minor. The Church Council of Nicaea (aka Iznik) in Asia Minor condemned the teaching of Arius, a Christian priest at Alexandria (d.336), who held that Christ was not divine in the same sense as God the Father. The council fixed Orthodox Easter as the first Sunday after the first full moon following the vernal equinox unless the date falls on the 1st day of Passover, in which case it moves to the next Sunday.
(WUD, 1994, p.80,81)(Sky, 4/97, p.56)(SFC, 4/25/97, p.A21)(HN, 5/20/98)

325 Aug 25, Council of Nicaea ended with adoption of the Nicene Creed establishing the doctrine of the Holy Trinity. The Council also decreed that priests cannot marry after their ordination.
(MC, 8/25/02)(SFC, 3/16/02, p.A3)

325 Emperor Constantine and his mother Helena reportedly announced the discovery of Christ’s tomb. The site became the Shrine of the Holy Sepulchre.
(Econ, 3/26/05, p.81)

325 Licinius (Valerius Licianus Licinius), Eastern emperor, was deposed and executed by Constantine.

325 Martinian (Marcus Martinianus) was executed by Constantine.

326 Jul 25, Constantine refused to carry out the traditional pagan sacrifices.
(HN, 7/25/98)

326 Constantine executed his son Flavius Julius Crispus, born to his 1st wife, under the persuasion of his 2nd wife Fausta.
(PCh, 1992, p.48)

326-330 The Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem was built by the Roman emperor Constantine. The church was rebuilt under Justinian (527-565).
(SFC, 12/26/96, p.B2)(WSJ, 4/5/02, p.A1)

330 May 11, Constantine renamed the town of Byzantium to: “New Rome which is Constantine’s City.” It became know as Constantinople.
(ATC, p.31)(HN, 5/11/98)

330 Constantine began the building of the Great Palace in Constantinople.
(SFC, 7/27/98, p.A8)

330 Ezana (Aezianas), ruler of Aksum (northeast Ethiopia), converted much of his realm to Christianity. During his rule he constructed much of the monumental architecture of Aksum, including a reported 100 stone obelisks, the tallest of which loomed 98 ft over the cemetery in which it stood and weighed 517 tons. Most of the obelisks were later destroyed, but one was hauled off by Italian forces after their 1937 invasion. It was returned in 2003.
(http://archaeology.about.com/cs/africa/a/aksum.htm)(SSFC, 11/9/03, p.A2)

330-379 Saint Basil of Caesarea. His followers erected monastic communities in Turkey.
(SFEM, 3/12/00, p.30)

330-1025 This is the period covered by John Julius Norwich, historian, in his Byzantium: The Decline and Fall.
(WSJ, 10/14/95, p.A-12)

331 Nov 17, Flavius Claudius Julianus, [Julian the Apostate], emperor (361-363), was born.
(MC, 11/17/01)

335 Oct 21, Constantinople emperor (Constantine the Great) enacted rules against Jews.
(MC, 10/21/01)

335 Byzantine Emperor Constantine built the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem on the hill of Golgotha, where his mother claimed to have found the remains of the True Cross. It was raised by the Persians in 614, reconstructed and again destroyed by Caliph Hakim of Egypt in 1009. It was rebuilt by the Crusaders.
(WSJ, 1/27/07, p.W13)

336 Dec 25, The first recorded celebration of Christmas on this day took place in Rome. By this year Dec 25 was established in the Liturgy of the Roman Church as the birthday of Jesus. [see 354] The Basilica of St. Anastasia was built as soon as a year after the Nicaean Council. It probably was where Christmas was first marked on Dec. 25, part of broader efforts to link pagan practices to Christian celebrations in the early days of the new religion. In 2007 Italian archaeologists unveiled an underground grotto, near St. Anastasia, that they believe ancient Romans revered as the place where a wolf nursed Rome’s legendary founder Romulus and his twin brother Remus.
(WSJ, 12/18/98, p.W15)(AP, 12/25/99)(AP, 12/22/07)

336 Arius, Christian priest from Alexandria and teacher of the doctrine of Arianism, died.
(WUD, 1994, p.80,81)

337 May 22, Constantine (47), convert to Christianity and Emperor of Rome (306-37), died. He had made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire and had the Chapel of the Burning Bush built in the Sinai Desert at the site where Moses was believed to have witnessed the Miracle of the Burning Bush. He was baptized just before death.
(V.D.-H.K.p.92)(PCh, 1992, p.48)(MC, 5/22/02)

337 Sep 9, Constantine’s three sons, already Caesars, each took the title of Augustus. Constantine II and Constans shared the west while Constantius II took control of the east.
(HN, 9/9/98)

340 Ambrose (d.397), later Bishop of Milan (374-397), was born about this time. He set to music the principal prayer of the Mass and, according to St. Augustine, set the fashion for silent reading.
(WUD, 1994, p.46)(WSJ, 5/10/96, p.A-8)

340 St. Jerome (d.420), Christian ascetic and biblical scholar, was born about this time. He was the chief preparer of the Vulgate version of the Bible. Jerome condemned the use of potions that caused sterility and murder of those not yet conceived. [Wired dates him 321-420]
(WUD, 1994, p.524)(Wired, 8/96, p.98)(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.13)

340-360 The Codex Sinaiticus, a manuscript of the Christian Bible, was written in the middle of the fourth century and contains the earliest complete copy of the Christian New Testament. For most of its history it resided at St. Catherine’s Monastery built (527-565) on Egypt Mt. Sinai. It left the monastery in the 19th century for Russia, in circumstances that were later disputed.
(Econ, 7/18/09, p.82)(www.codexsinaiticus.org/en/codex/default.aspx)(Econ, 3/26/05, p.80)

345 Dec 6, Nicholas of Myra (later Demre) died on this day in either 345 or 352. He reported as bishop to the Byzantine church in Constantinople. In 2005 Jeremy Seal authored “Nicholas: The Epic Journey from Saint to Santa Claus.”
(WSJ, 8/31/98, p.B1)(www.newadvent.org/cathen/11063b.htm)(Econ, 12/24/05, p.115)

346 Theodosius was born in Spain. He served as emperor East Roman Republic 379-395.
(WUD, 1994 p.1471)(SSFC, 3/21/04, p.M6)

347 May 14, Pachomius, Egyptian monastery founder, abbot (Coenobieten), died.
(MC, 5/14/02)

347 St. John Chrysostom (d.407), was born about this time. He was the ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople.
(WUD, 1994 p.264)

350 In Teotihuacan 3 men were buried amid lavish goods about this time. Their graves were discovered in 2002 in a tomb at the top of the 5th of 7 layers of the Pyramid of the Moon near Mexico City.
(SFC, 11/22/02, p.J2)

350 A new state with its capital at Axum in the Ethiopian mountains grew and controlled the coast of Eritrea and the sea trade route to southern Arabia. The rulers spoke a Semitic language and about this time conquered Kush, which broke in two, the kingdom of Dongola and the kingdom of Alwa. By the mid 500s, Alwa, Axum and Dongola had become Christian.
(Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.169)

350 The Huns invaded Persia.
(ATC, p.33)

350 In Sudan the last pyramid in the Egyptian tradition was built at Meroe about this time. The Meroe dynasty ruled Kush for more than 1,000 years until the kingdom’s demise in 350 AD.
(Arch, 9/02, p.55)(AP, 3/3/10)

352 May 17, Liberius began his reign as Catholic Pope replacing Julius I.
(MC, 5/17/02)

352 Sep 12, Maximinus van Trier, bishop of Trier, saint, died.
(MC, 9/12/01)

353-431 St. Paulinus, poet and Bishop of Mola: “For it is after the Solstice, when Christ born in the flesh with the new sun transformed the season of cold winter, and giving to mortal men a healing dawn, commanded the nights to decrease at his coming with advancing day.”
(WSJ, 12/18/98, p.W15)

354 Augustine (Aurelius Augustinus, d.430) was born in Tagaste, North Africa (modern Souk Ahras, Algeria). Augustine of Hippo, Church Father and philosopher, held that as long as the fetus was “shapeless” homicide laws did not apply because it had no senses and no soul. “Total abstinence is easier than perfect moderation.” He fused the New Testament with Greek philosophy. “Nothing is so powerful in drawing the spirit of a man downwards as the caresses of a woman.”
(http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/jod/augustine.html)(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.13)(HN, 11/13/98) (SFC, 3/16/02, p.A3)

354 Winter, Emperor Julian the Apostate came ashore at Hissarlik, the site of ancient Troy, and found a fire still burning on an altar to the Trojan hero, Hector.
(Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.50)

354 Pope Liberius decided to add the Nativity to the Church calendar and selected December 25 to celebrate it. [see 336]
(WSJ, 12/21/07, p.A19)

355 Donatus, bishop of Casae Nigrae in North Africa, died. He taught that the effectiveness of the sacraments depends on the moral character of the minister. In other words, if a minister who was involved in a serious enough sin were to baptize a person, that baptism would be considered invalid.

356 Feb 19, Emperor Constantius II shut all heathen (non-Christian) temples.
(MC, 2/19/02)

357 Apr 28, Constantius II visited Rome for the first time.
(HN, 4/28/98)

357 Aug 25, Flavius Claudius Julianus, the cousin of Constantius, beat the Alamanni in a Battle at Strasbourg. Chonodomarius was caught.
(PCh, 1992, p.48)(HN, 8/25/99)

359 Christians allegedly established a camp in Skythopolis, Syria, to torture and execute pagans from around Europe. This can only be a reference to the Arian Bishop of Scythopolis, Patrophilus, who cruelly abused Christian bishops exiled to his see under Constantius. These included Eusebius of Vercelli. It was not a death-camp, nor did it last 30 years, nor were pagans the victims.
(Arch, 1/05, p.70)(www.tektonics.org/af/crimeline.htm)

360 Feb 15, The first Hagia Sophia was inaugurated by Constantius II. It was built next to the smaller church Hagia Eirene in Constantinople. Both churches acted together as the principal churches of the Byzantine Empire.

361 Nov 3, Flavius Julius Constantius II (44), the 1st Byzantine Emperor, died. Flavius Claudius Julianus, Julian the Apostate, succeeded Constantius and tried to make paganism the official religion of the empire.
(V.D.-H.K.p.92)(PCh, 1992, p.48)(MC, 11/3/01)

362 Jun 17, Emperor Julian issued an edict banning Christians from teaching in Syria.
(HN, 6/17/98)

363 Jun 27, The death of Roman Emperor Julian brought an end to the Pagan Revival. Julian received a mortal wound in battle with the Sassanian Persians, whom he tried to conquer.
(HN, 6/27/98)(WSJ, 3/24/99, p.A27)

363 A devastating earthquake leveled half the city of Petra, the principal city of Nabatea.
(AP, 6/21/03)

364 Feb 17, Flavius Jovianus (~32), Christian emperor of Rome (363-64), died.
(MC, 2/17/02)

364 Feb 26, On the death of Jovian, a conference at Nicaea chose Valentinian, an army officer who was born in the central European region of Pannania, to succeed him in Asia Minor.
(HN, 2/26/99)

365 Jul 21, An earthquake, whose epicenter was in Crete, leveled the Egyptian Port of Alexandria as well as the Roman outpost of Leptis Magna in Libya. Some 50,000 people died. The ancient Egyptian city, known as Leukaspis or Antiphrae, was hidden for centuries after it was nearly wiped out by the tsunami. When Chinese engineers began cutting into the sandy coast to build the roads for a new resort in 1986, they struck the ancient tombs and houses of the town founded in the second century B.C.
(www.earthscape.org/r2/jos/vol1-1june1997/pg55.html)(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.18)(AP, 9/8/10)

366-384 Pope St. Damasus I located martyr’s graves and had verse inscriptions composed for their tombs. He transformed the catacombs into popular and venerated shrines.
(ITV, 1/96, p.58)

367 Much of Gortyn, the Roman capital of Crete, was destroyed be an earthquake. It was 1st inhabited around 3,000 BC and was destroyed by an Arab invasion in 824.
(AP, 9/30/05)

370-415 Hypatia, female mathematician born in Alexandria, Egypt. She was a professor of mathematics and philosophy at the Univ. of Alexandria. She lectured on Plato, Aristotle, astronomy, geometry, Diophantine algebra, and the conics of Apollonius.
(Alg, 1990, p.145)

374 Emperor Valentinian ended the parental right to kill their infants.
(SFEC, 2/13/00, Z1 p.2)

374-397 Ambrose served as the Bishop of Milan. Later proclaimed St. Ambrose.
(WUD, 1994, p.46)(SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T13)

375 Nov 17, Enraged by the insolence of barbarian envoys, Valentinian, the Emperor of the West, died of apoplexy in Pannonia in Central Europe.
(HN, 11/17/98)

376 Dec 25, In Milan, Ambrose, the Bishop of Milan, forced the emperor Theodosius to perform public penance for his massacre.
(HN, 12/25/98)

377 Niall of the Nine Hostages, warlord and head of the most powerful dynasty in ancient Ireland, was crowned king. He reportedly had 12 sons, many of whom became powerful Irish kings themselves. In 2006 scientists in Ireland presented evidence that he was the country’s most fertile male, with more than 3 million men worldwide among his offspring.
(Reuters, 1/17/06)(www.irishclans.com/articles/famirish/niall9hostages.html)

378 Aug 9, In the Battle of Adrianople the Visigoth Calvary defeated Roman Army.
(MC, 8/9/02)

378 Tikal saw the establishment of a new line of kings following its military victory over many cities of the Maya Lowlands. The 1st king was Nuun Yax Ain (Green Crocodile) and he claimed descent from a Teotihuacan lord that scholars later dubbed Spear-thrower Owl.
(Arch, 9/00, p.27)

379 In Milan the brick Basilica of St. Ambrose was begun.
(SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T3)

379-395 Theodosius I (c.346-395) served as emperor East Roman Republic.
(WUD, 1994 p.1471)

380 Theodosius I ordered that all people under his rule embrace Christianity.
(SSFC, 3/21/04, p.M6)

383 Aug 25, Flavius Gratianus (25), Emperor of Rome (375-383), was murdered.
(MC, 8/25/02)

384 May 13, Servatius (Aravatius), bishop of Tongeren, died at age 65.
(MC, 5/13/02)

384 Sep 9, Flavius Honorius, emperor East Roman Republic (395-423), was born.
(MC, 9/9/01)

385 Pope Siricius left his wife to become pope and told priests to stop sleeping with their wives.
(SFC, 3/16/02, p.A3)

385 Priscillian, bishop of Avila in Spain, was convicted of sorcery and executed by the Roman emperor Maximus.
(NH, 9/96, p.20)

386 Augustine (354-430) became a priest and soon after bishop of Hippo, a Roman city in what is now Algeria. He wrote “The City of God,” in which he laid out a plan of world history, showing how two cities vied with each other for dominance and would continue to do so until the end of time. One city was human- material, fleshly, downward-turning. The other city was divine- spiritual, turning upward toward the Creator of all things… An individual thinking being, Augustine said, does not make the truth, he finds it. He discovers it within himself as he listens to the teachings of the magister interiore, the “inward teacher,” who is Christ, the revealing Word of God. According to Augustine, St. Ambrose set the fashion for silent reading and marveled at the innovation.
(V.D.-H.K.p.94)(WSJ, 5/10/96, p.A-8)

386-535 The Northern Wei Dynasty is associated with the spread of Buddhism from India to China.
(AM, 9/01, p.49)

387 Apr 24, Bishop Ambrose baptized St. Augustine in Milan at the Baptistry of San Giovanni alle Fonti, later the site of the Duomo Cathedral.
(SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T12)

387 The Parthians and Romans agreed to settle the Armenian question by the drastic expedient of partition. The Sassanid kings of Persia (who had superseded the Parthians in the Empire of Iran) secured the lion’s share of the spoils, while the Romans only received a strip of country on the western border which gave them Erzeroum and Diyarbakir for their frontier fortresses.

388 Aug 28, Magnus Maximus, Spanish West Roman Emperor (383-88), was executed. His ambitions led him to invade Italy, resulting in his defeat by Theodosius I at the Battle of the Save in 388.