46?-120?CE Plutarch, Greek biographer and philosopher. He was the author of Plutarch’s Lives. The work was set up as a series of dual biographies that compared Greek and Roman statesmen.
(AHD, p.1009)(Wired, Dec. ’95, p.229)
48CE Claudius married his niece Agrippina.
c49CE The Church convened a council in Jerusalem about this time. The participants adopted the missionary principle of St. Paul, which stressed the universal scope of salvation.
50CE The “Periplus of the Erythraean Sea” was written about this time and indicated contact with the Somali coast of East Africa by the Egyptians and Ethiopians.
(NH, 6/97, p.43)
50CE Kushan ruled over Afghanistan under King Kanishka.
50CE Graeco-Buddhist Gandharan culture reach its height.
50AD-60AD The Didache, the earliest catechism of the Catholic church, was written about this time as teachings of the 12 Apostles to the gentiles. It was later discovered in a monastery in Constantinople and published by P. Bryennios in 1883.
(SFC, 10/27/11, p.E1)(www.earlychristianwritings.com/didache.html)
52CE Tradition in the State in the state of Kerala, India, has it that the Apostle Thomas converted Hindus to Christianity in this year.
(NG, 5/88, p.598)
52 St. Paul of Tarsus, Christian preacher, arrived in the port city of Ephesus (Turkey) about this time and spent 3 years there. Silt from the Kaistros River ended cargo shipping by the end of the first century. By 2007 the sea was 7 miles from the former port.
(SFC, 8/16/07, p.E2)
53CE Sep 18, Marcus Trajanus (d.117), 13th Roman emperor (Trajan’s Arch) (98-117), was born at Italica near Seville, Spain.
54CE Oct 13, Roman emperor Claudius I died, after being poisoned with mushrooms by his wife, Agrippina. Nero (37-68CE), son of Agrippina, succeeded his great uncle Claudius, who was murdered by his wife, as the new emperor of Rome. After the murder of his wife, Octavia, Nero descended deep into a religious delirium. His acts became wild and unintelligible and he was displaced by his soldiers with Galba after which he committed suicide.
(WUD, 1994, p.959)(V.D.-H.K.p.78)(AP, 10/13/97)(HN, 10/13/01)
56CE Tacitus, Publius Cornelius was born. He was the Roman author of the Histories (begins with the death of Nero), and the Annals (begins with Tiberius’ reign and goes to the end of Nero). Only a portion of the Histories survives (69-70CE). Of the Annals only those books dealing with the early career of Tiberius, and some treating the reigns of Claudius and Nero survive.
56CE Huan Tan, Go strategist, died. In his book Xin Lun” (New Treatise) he advised that the best approach to the game is to spread your pieces widely so as to encircle the opponent.
(Econ, 12/18/04, p.128)
57CE Jan 8, A tablet with this date, making it Britain’s earliest dated hand-written document. Archeologists in 2016 said it was one among hundreds discovered during excavations in London’s financial district for the new headquarters of media and data company Bloomberg. It was an IOU in which one freed slave promises to repay another “105 denarii from the price of the merchandise which has been sold and delivered.”
57CE The King of Nakoku sent an envoy to the Eastern Han capital Loyang, the 1st recorded envoy to China from Japan.
59CE Agrippina became insane and was murdered by her son, Nero.
60CE Feb 10, St. Paul is believed to have been shipwrecked near Malta while enroute to Rome for trial for practicing Catholicism. The story is told in the Bibles New Testament Acts of the Apostles, chapter 27. The event is marked in Malta every February 10.
(WSJ, 6/21/08, p.W8)(www.maltamedia.com/artman2/publish/out_about/article_5012.shtml)
60CE A comet appeared and was interpreted by the people of Rome to mean the impending death of their new emperor.
(NG, 12/97, p.105)
60CE Boudicaa, queen of the Iceni in Britain, burned Roman London. Boudicaa rose up in revolt against the Roman occupation of Britain. When Prasutagus, chief of the Iceni tribe, died without heirs, the Romans confiscated his lands. His wife and Queen, Boudicaa, protested and as a result was publicly scourged. Calling on all native Britons to rise against the oppressors, she then led them in revolt, killing 70,000 Romans and destroying several towns before she was defeated and captured. She killed herself while in Roman custody.
(NGM, 5/77)(HNQ, 8/5/00)
62CE Nero murdered his wife Octavia.
c62-113CE Pliny the Younger, Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus, Roman writer, statesman and orator. He described the death of his uncle, Plinius the Elder, at the 79CE eruption of Vesuvius in a letter to Tacitus.
(WUD, 1994, p.1106)(SFC, 9/1/97, p.A142)
c62-63 James, the “brother” of Jesus, was stoned to death for teaching the divinity of Christ. He had led the church in Jerusalem for the 3 decades following the death of Jesus. In 2002 a stone ossuary, looted from a Jerusalem cave, was found with an Aramaic inscription that read “James, son of Joseph, brother of Jesus.” In 1997 Robert Eisenman authored “James, the Brother of Jesus.” In 2003 Hershel Shanks and Ben Witherington III co-authored “The Brother of Jesus: The Dramatic Story & Meaning of the First Archeological Link to Jesus & His Family.” In 2003 the stone ossuary was declared a fake.
(SFC, 10/22/02, p.A12)(SSFC, 4/20/03, p.E2)(AP, 6/18/03)
c63CE The Norse Skalds Kaparmal are written. These have been translated and interpreted by the Frenchman Paul Du Chaillu.
64CE Jul 18, The Great Fire of Rome began. After the fire Nero began to build his Golden House in the center of the city.
64CE Jul 19, The Circus Maximus in Rome caught fire.
64CE Nero initiated the first persecution against the Christians. According to Seneca Nero sentenced hundreds of Christians to die by “tunica molesta,” a naphtha impregnated “shirt of torture.”
(CU, 6/87)(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.58)
65CE Jun 8, Jews revolted against Rome, capturing the fortress of Antonia in Jerusalem.
65CE Lucius Annaeus Seneca (b.4BC) (aka Seneca the younger), Roman intellectual, died. He was a Stoic philosopher and playwright and wrote a version of “Medea.” Seneca was Nero’s teacher. Nero had Seneca compose his speeches. Seneca and his colleague were ordered by Nero to contrive the murder of Agripinna. He was forced to commit suicide after the conspiracy of Caius Piso to murder Nero. His wife Paulina cut her wrists together with Seneca but Nero ordered that she be saved. Seneca’s blood did not flow well and he asked for poison which was refused. He then requested a hot bath to increase the blood flow and apparently was suffocated by the steam. Luck is what happens when preparation meets opportunity.” Senecas writings included On the Shortness of Life.”
(V.D.-H.K.p.80)(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.57)(SFEC, 8/2/98, Z1 p.8)(Econ, 10/4/08, p.54)(Econ, 12/20/14, p.96)
66CE Jan 26, The 5th recorded perihelion passage of Halley’s Comet.
66 Jewish Zealots called sicarii (from the Latin word for dagger) murdered Roman officials and high-ranking Jews whom they considered as enemies to Israels war of independence.
(NG, 11/04, p.76)(Econ, 10/27/07, p.33)
66-70 The Jews during this period laid in supplies and prepared to hide during their revolt against the Romans. In 2006 archeologists in northern Israel reported the discovery of chambers, linked by short tunnels, that would have served as a concealed subterranean home.
66-73 Roman general Vespasian’s army assaulted the forces of Jewish rebel Joseph ben Matthias at Jotapata in Galilee. During the Jewish revolt of 66-73 CE, Emperor Nero chose Titus Flavius Vespasianus (Vespasian) to subdue Judea. Vespasian was eminently qualified for this martial task. He was fresh from crushing a German rebellion, and as commander of Legio II, he had played a significant role in the conquest of Britannia (Britain) by Neros predecessor. Joseph, meanwhile had assembled his own army from the rebel bands of Galilee and trained them in the Roman model. He also fortified many towns, the strongest being Jotapata, a natural fortress perched on a rock outcrop. It was surrounded on three sides by steep valleys that made attack virtually impossible. The only approach to the city was from a hilltop to the north, and that was blocked by a dry moat fronting a sturdy wall.
67CE Two monks entered China on the Silk Road and introduced Buddhism in Luoyang.
(NG, Feb, 04, p.28)
67CE Some 37,000 Jewish prisoners were held at the Roman stadium in Tiberias after they lost a naval battle on the Sea of Galilee.
(SFC, 6/18/02, p.A2)
c67CE St. Paul, Catholic apostle to the Gentiles and writer of many epistles, died. He founded one of the first Christian churches in Europe at Philippi in Macedonia. He was martyred by Nero and according to tradition invoked his right as a Roman citizen to be beheaded.
(WUD, 1994, p.1058,1081)(NG, 12/97, forum)
68CE Jun 9, Nero (31), Roman Emperor (54-68), committed suicide.
(AP, 6/9/97)(MC, 6/9/02)
68-69CE Galba reigned as the Roman emperor. He was a commander of Roman forces in Spain and acclaimed emperor by his 2 legions. When the praetorian guard accepted Galba, Nero committed suicide.
(WUD, 1994, p.1667)
69CE Jan 2, Roman Lower Rhine army proclaimed its commander, Vitellius, emperor.
69CE Jan 10, Roman emperor Galba adopted Marcus Piso Licinianus as Caesar.
69CE Jan 15, Servius Sulpicius Galba (70), 6th emperor of Rome (68-69), was murdered along with his newly adopted successor, Piso Licinianus. Marcus Salvius Otho (36) committed the murder and forced the senate to recognize himself as emperor.
(PC, 1992, p.37)
69CE Apr 16, Otho (32-69) committed suicide after he was defeated by Vitellius’ (15-69) troops at Bedriacum.
(WUD, 1994, p.1667)(HN, 4/16/98)
69CE Sep 1, Traditional date for the destruction of Jerusalem. [see Aug 29 70CE]
69 Dec 20, Vespians supporters entered Rome and discovered Vitellius in hiding. Vitellius, a Roman commandant of Rhine and the 7th emperor, was dragged through the streets before being brutally murdered. Vitellius had been acclaimed emperor by his legions in Germany in place of Galba. He was then killed in Rome fighting the supporters of Vespasian, the Roman commander of Judea. Gen. Vespasianus occupied Rome.
(WUD, 1994, p.1667)(HN, 12/20/98)(MC, 12/20/01)
69 Dec 21, Vespacian, a gruff-spoken general of humble origins, entered Rome and was adopted as emperor by the Senate.
(PCh, 1992, p.37)
70 May 31, Rome captured the 1st wall of the city of Jerusalem.
70 Aug 29, The Temple of Jerusalem burned after a nine-month Roman siege. The Second Temple of Jerusalem was destroyed by Romes 10th Legion and the Jews there were exiled. In the Jewish War the Israelites tried unsuccessfully to revolt against Roman rule. The destruction buried the shops that lined the main street. Archeologists in 1996 found numerous artifacts that included bronze coins called prutot. Carpenters from Israels Antiquities Authority used manuscripts of the Roman master builder Vitruvius to reconstruct contraptions used in the construction of the temple.
(SFC, 5/23/95, p.A-10)(SFC, 8/28/96, p.A10)(WSJ, 6/22/98, p.A20)(HN, 8/29/98) (SFEC, 3/28/99, p.T11)
70 Jun 5, Titus & his Roman legions breached the middle wall of Jerusalem.
70 Jul 1, Roman Emperor Titus assaulted the walls of Jerusalem with battering rams.
70 Aug 8, Tower of Antonia was destroyed by the Romans.
70 Aug 29, The Temple of Jerusalem burned after a nine-month Roman siege. The Second Temple of Jerusalem was destroyed by Romes 10th Legion and the Jews there were exiled. In the Jewish War the Israelites tried unsuccessfully to revolt against Roman rule. The destruction buried the shops that lined the main street. Archeologists in 1996 found numerous artifacts that included bronze coins called prutot. Carpenters from Israels Antiquities Authority used manuscripts of the Roman master builder Vitruvius to reconstruct contraptions used in the construction of the temple. In 2007 Martin Goodman authored Rome and Jerusalem: The Clash of Ancient Civilizations.”
(SFC, 5/23/95, p.A-10)(SFC, 8/28/96, p.A10)(WSJ, 6/22/98, p.A20)(HN, 8/29/98)(SFEC, 3/28/99, p.T11)(Econ, 1/20/07, p.90)
70 Sep 7, The Roman army under Titus occupied and plundered Jerusalem.
70 Sep 27, The walls of upper city of Jerusalem were battered down by Romans.
70 The Gospel of Mark, the earliest chronicle of the life of Jesus, dates to about this time.
(SFC, 10/22/02, p.A12)
70 Josephus recorded that Vespasian and his son Titus plundered 50 tons of gold and silver during the Roman conquest of Jerusalem.
(SFC, 10/23/06, p.A15)
70 The Jerusalem mansion of Queen Helene, who came from a royal clan that ruled Adiabene (northern Iraq), was destroyed along with the rest of Jerusalem. In 2007 archeologists uncovered remains of the structure. Helene converted along with her family to Judaism when they came to Jerusalem in the first half of the first century AD.
70 A Roman punitive expedition forced the Garamantes of southern Libya to enter into an official relationship with Rome.
(AM, 3/04, p.28)
71 Vespasian and his son Titus paraded the treasure plundered from Jerusalem in triumph through the streets of Rome. They used the 50 tons of gold and silver to help finance the building of the Colosseum.
(SFC, 10/23/06, p.A15)
71 York became the Roman provincial capital of Northumbria. From the 9th to the 11th centuries it was dominated by Norse warrior-kings and was called Jorvik.
(SSFC, 2/23/14, p.M7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scandinavian_York)
73 Jewish zealots on Mount Masada chose to perish by their own hands rather than surrender to slavery under the Romans.
(SFEC, 3/28/99, p.T5)
73 When the Jewish rebellion against Roman rule was crushed, many Jewish refugees fled in all direction. Those who fled to Europe became known as Ashkenazim.
(Econ, 6/4/05, p.75)
75 The treasure plundered from Jerusalem in 70AD by the Romans under Vespasian and his son, Titus, was put on public display in the Temple of Peace in the Roman Forum and stayed there into the early 5th century.
(SFC, 10/23/06, p.A15)
76CE Jan 24, Publius A. Hadrianus, 14th Roman Emperor (117-138), was born. [see Mar 15]
76CE Mar 15, Hadrian, Roman Emperor (builder of Hadrian’s Wall), was born. [see Jan 24]
78CE Mar 3, Origin of Saka Era in India.
79CE Aug 24, Pliny the Elder, Roman naturalist, witnessed the eruption of long-dormant Mount Vesuvius and was overcome by the fumes as he tried to rescue refugees. The eruption buried the Roman cities of Pompeii, Stabiae, Herculaneum and other, smaller settlements in 13 feet of volcanic ash and pumice. An estimated 20,000 people died. The event was described by Pliny the Younger, the elders nephew, in a letter to Tacitus.
(HFA, ’96, p.36)(DD-EVTT, p.70)(AP, 8/24/97)(WUD, 1994, p.1106)(SFC, 9/1/97, p.A2)(HNQ, 6/16/98)
79CE Aug 25, Gaius Plinius Secundus, [Plinius Maior], Roman admiral, writer, died in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius. [see Aug 24]
79CE Nov 1, Pompeii was buried by eruption of Mt. Vesuvius. [see Aug 24]
79CE The Hindu calendar was updated to the solar year with this year as year 1. The original dated back to about 1000 BC.
(SFC, 1/1/00, p.A18)
80 The Roman Colosseum was inaugurated under Emp. Titus (Vespacian) with 100 days of gladiator combat. The poet Martial described one combat between Verus and Priscus. The amphitheater occupied the site of a large artificial lake, created by Nero for his Domus Aurea.
(SFC, 7/20/00, p.C3)(AM, 3/04, p.54)(WSJ, 1/25/05, p.D12)
80CE The Theater of Pompey was burned and restored by Titus and Domitian.
81 Sep 13, Titus Flavius Vespasianus, emperor of Rome (69-81), died at 42.
81-96 The reign of Domitian. Soldiers under his reign earned an annual salary of about 1,200 sesterces.
(HNQ, 10/5/00)(AM, 5/01, p.36)
c81-138 Secret police agents in Ancient Rome were known as frumentarii. Growing out of an Augustine messenger servicethe cursus publicusfrumentarii were originally just supply sergeants responsible for such mundane functions as the purchase and distribution of grain. However, under the reign of Domitian (a.d. 81-96), or possibly Hadrian (117-138), they were turned into intelligence officers and gradually became more involved in state security.
82CE Jul 27, Joseph of Arimathea, died and was buried in tomb he once lent to Jesus.
83CE In Syria the funeral Tower of Jambalik was built in Palmyra. In 2015 it was one of three funeral towers blown up by Islamic State militants. and.
85-130CE Some 2000 letters on wooden tablets were excavated beginning in 1973 at Vindolanda in northern England from Roman soldiers stationed there.
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.14)
86CE Sep 19, Antoninus Pius, 15th Roman emperor (138-161), was born.
c90CE Luke, a Greek-born physician and contemporary of St. Paul, authored his Gospel about this time. St. Lukes feast day is October 18.
95CE St. John the Divine established a Christian colony on the Greek island of Patmos after being exiled from Ephesus by Emperor Domitian. It is said that he wrote here the Book of Revelations in a grotto overlooking the main town. Greek Orthodox tradition says that he is the apostle John but that is not confirmed.
(SFEC, 1/18/98, p.T6)(WSJ, 6/28/02, p.W8)
96CE Jul 1, Vespasian, a Roman Army leader, was hailed as a Roman Emperor by the Egyptian legions.
96CE Sep 18, Domitian, Roman emperor, died. He was murdered and was succeeded by Nerva.
97CE Oct 27, To placate the Praetorians of Germany, Nerva of Rome adopted Trajan, the Spanish born governor of lower Germany.
97CE Sextus Julius Frontinus, Roman water commissioner, wrote of Rome: “The city looks cleaner, different, the air is purer and the causes of pollution that gave the air so bad a name with the ancients are now removed.”
(SFEC, 7/2/00, p.T1)
97-105CE Flavius Cerialis was prefect of Cohort IX of Batavians and the last occupant of the commandants house at Vindolanda. The cohort was transferred to the Danube to join Trajans forces gathering for the Second Dacian War.
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.17)
98CE Jan 27, Marius Cocceius Nerva (67), emperor of Rome (96-98), died.
98CE Cornelius Tacitus referred to the Baltic peoples in his book Germania. “In the East the Svebes washes the shores inhabited by the Aistian tribes (Aestiorum gentes).”
(DrEE, 10/12/96, p.2)
98-117CE Trajan, rules as emperor over Rome. His reign coincides with the apex of Roman territorial power. Along with his successor Hadrian, he converted the flexible frontiers of Rome to a line of fixed walls and forts.
c100CE Oct 31, The pagan Celts of Britain and Ireland celebrated Samhain on October 31 as the end of the season of the sun and the beginning of the season of darkness. It was believed that on this day the souls of the dead revisited their homes. Bonfires were lit to chase away evil spirits. When the Romans conquered Britain in the first century A.D., their fall harvest festival, Poloma Day, mixed with the traditions of Samhain to form a major fall festival at the end of October.
c100 The first Chinese dictionary was compiled about this time.
c100 Since before this time in the central-west section of Arabia, Mecca attracted desert dwellers due its fresh water well. It is in a desert valley surrounded by mountains and is a crossroad for two heavily traveled long-distance trade routes.
c100CE A Greek merchant was sent by the Romans occupying Egypt to investigate rumors of a booming trade between Indian Ocean ports. His report was written as: The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea.
c100CE Raban Gamliel in the first century is credited with arranging the Amidah, considered by many to be the most important prayer in the Jewish liturgy. Raban Gamliel was the most influential Rabbi in the period following the destruction of the Temple. This was a time when many different rabbis each had their own individual domains.
c100CE A mural was painted about this time at the Mayan ceremonial site of San Bartolo (Guatemala). It was uncovered by archeologist William Saturno of the Univ. of New Hampshire in 2001.
(SFC, 3/13/02, p.A4)(USAT, 1/16/04, p.10A)
100CE Dioscorides, a Roman physician, named the marijuana plant cannabis sativa.
(WSJ, 2/8/05, p.D7)
100-150 Archeologists in 1998 uncovered evidence of a pre-Columbian civilization from under the Pyramid of the Moon in Teotihuacan that was dated to this time. The skeleton of a man was found by a team led by Saburo Sugiyama. The most important and largest city of pre-Colombian central Mexico, the Nahuatl meaning of Teotihuacan was “Where Men Become Gods” or “The City of Gods.” Just north of Mexico City, Teotihuacan was planned at about the beginning of the Christian era and was sacked and burned by invading Toltecs in 650.
(SFC, 10/22/98, p.C2)(SFEC, 11/8/98, p.T10)(HNQ, 4/24/99)(SFEC, 9/19/99, p.A22)
100-200 Serdica was home to a Roman amphitheater. It stood on the trade road between the Danube and Constantinople. Known to the Romans as Serdica, it later became known as Sophia, the capital of Bulgaria.
(AM, 7/04, p.14)
c100-200 A report from London on 6/27/96 said that the British Library had acquired Buddhist texts that date back as early as the 2nd cent CE. The texts were believed to be part of the canon of the Sarvastivadin sect, which dominated Gandhara, now north Pakistan and east Afghanistan.
(SFC, 6/27/96, p.A12)
c100-200 Simon Ben Azzai, second century (A.D.) Jewish scholar: “In seeking wisdom thou art wise; in imagining that thou has attained it thou art a fool.”
100-200 Celsus, a second century scholar, thought that Christianity was a threat to the social order. He made some attempt to strip away its mythology and identify the historical Jesus.
100-200CE Poompuhar (southern India) grew during the reign of Karikal Cholan, the second-century Chola king who established trade ties with China, Arabia and the Roman Empire. In the 20th century remnants of brick buildings, water reservoirs, a boat jetty and Roman coins were found during undersea excavations.
100-400CE In the Canary Islands Roman artifacts were found in strata dated to this time. The islands were described by Plutarch and Ptolemy gave their precise location.
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.22)
100-700 During this period group of agricultural Indians (today called the Moche) inhabited the desert margin between the Andes and the Pacific in what is today called Peru. They raised huge monuments of sun baked mud where they laid their dead with fine gold and pottery. They irrigated crops such as corn, beans, squash, and peanuts. They ate llamas and guinea pigs and caught fish in the Pacific. [2nd source dated the Moche from 0-800] The Nasca [Nazca] Indians also inhabited this area about this time.
(NG, Oct. 1988, p. 510)(SFEM, 4/13/97, p.16)
c100-700 In Peru the Nazca Lines are a complex series of huge birds, animals and other figures etched into the ground by the Nazca culture some 225 miles southeast of Lima.
(SFC, 9/1/97, p.A14)
100BC-1500 In Vietnam the city of Hoi An was the principal port of the seafaring Champa kingdom, that embraced Indian culture. The kingdom withstood attacks from the Chinese, Vietnamese, Khmers and Mongols. Archaeological study in Hoi An in the 1990s proved that more than 2000 years ago Hoi An was an embryonic port town of the Sa Huynh people. From the 2nd to the 15th centuries, Hoi An was the main port of the Champa Kingdom. In these centuries, Hoi An became a prosperous commercial port town, very well developed and famous in Asia.
(www.hoianworldheritage.org/ehoian/cultural/lichsu_vh_chinh.htm)(SFEC, 4/26/98, p.T4)
100-1300 Time period of the Anasazi culture of northern Arizona, New Mexico, southern Utah and Colorado.
(WUD, 1994, p.53)
100-1300CE The Bir-Kot Shwandai site in northern Pakistan marks an urban settlement.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.C)
103 In Syria the four-storey funeral tower of Elahbel was built in Palmyra. In 2015 it was one of three funeral towers blown up by Islamic State militants.
103-105CE Apolodorus of Damascus built a bridge over the Danube for Emperor Trajan. It connected the Roman provinces of Moesia Superior and Dacia (the Yugoslavian and Romanian banks respectively).
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.26)
104 There was a fire in Rome. Emp. Trajan built massive baths over the Domus Aurea of Nero.
(WSJ, 1/25/05, p.D12)
105 Ts’ai Lun (Cai Lun), a Chinese government official (eunuch), told Emperor He about making zhi, i.e. paper. He used bark from mulberry trees and plant fiber pounded into pulp, which were then dried and matted into sheets. By the end of the second century, the Chinese were printing books on rag paper using wooden type.
(NG, Feb, 04, p.9)(SSFC, 5/26/13, p.F5)(Econ, 6/7/14, p.87)
106 King Decebal, the last king of Dacia, committed suicide. Rather than being captured only to be exhibited and humiliated at Rome, Decebalus committed suicide by slashing his own throat, as depicted on Trajan’s Column (spiral 22, panel b). He is famous for fighting three wars, with varying success, against the Roman Empire under two emperors. After raiding south across the Danube, he defeated a Roman invasion in the reign of Domitian, securing a period of independence during which he consolidated his rule.
105CE Flavius Cerialis, prefect of Cohort IX of Batavians at Vindolanda in northern England, was transferred to the Danube to join Trajans forces gathering for the Second Dacian War.
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.17)
106CE Nabatae, whose capital was Petra, became a Roman province under Trajan. The Roman city of Jerash was one of the 10 cities of the Decapolis.
(WUD, 1994, p.948)(SFEM, 4/11/99, p.8)(AM, 3/04, p.60)
c109CE Silk was carried by a caravan from China to Persia for the first time.
c111CE A Roman amphitheater was built at Nyon, Switzerland. An inscription at the site had a dedication to the emperor Trajan.
(AM, Jul/Aug 97 p.10)
116 Hatra, a fortified city of the Parthian Empire and later part of Iraq, withstood a Roman invasion due to its high and thick walls. The Parthian Empire (247 BC 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran.
(SSFC, 4/5/15, p.A7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parthian_Empire)
117 Aug 8, Marcus Ulpius Trajanus (Trajan), emperor of Rome (98-117), died.
117 Aug 11, The Roman army of Syria hailed its legate, Hadrian, as emperor, which made the senate’s formal acceptance an almost meaningless event. One of his first acts was to withdraw Romes army from Mesopotamia (modern Iraq).
(www.roman-emperors.org/hadrian.htm)(Econ, 7/19/08, p.94)
117 The Trimontium amphitheater was built in Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The area was later sacked by Attila the Hun and the site was covered in dirt until a landslide exposed it in 1972.
(SSFC, 7/16/06, p.G4)
117-138 The reign of Hadrian.
117-180CE Aulus Gellius, Roman writer.
118 Jul 9, Hadrian, Rome’s new emperor, made his entry into the city.
120 Plutarch (b.~46CE), Greek historian, biographer, and essayist, died about this time. His work included Lives of the Roman Emperors,” Parallel Lives” and Moralia,” a collection of seventy-eight essays.
(Econ, 12/22/12, p.26)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plutarch)
120CE-130CE Roman Emperor Hadrian ordered a great wall to be built in northern England along with a series of forts “to separate the Romans from the barbarians.” It extended for 73.5 English miles from the estuary of the river Tyne on the east to Solway Firth on the west.
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.15)
121 Apr 20, Marcus Aurelius (d.180), 16th Roman emperor, philosopher, was born. He authored the “Meditations.” [see Apr 26]
121 Apr 26, Antonius Marcus Aurelius, [Marcus A. Verus], Emperor of Rome (161-180), was born. [see Apr 20]
121-135CE The Temple of Venus and Rome was built in Rome.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.14)
122 Sep 13, Building began on Hadrian’s Wall.
122 Suetonius (b.~69), Roman historian, died about this time. His most important surviving work is a set of biographies of twelve successive Roman rulers, from Julius Caesar to Domitian, entitled De Vita Caesarum.
125 Lucius Apuleius, Roman philosopher and satirist, was born about this time. His work included “Metamorphoses” and The Golden Ass,” which retold the story of Cupid and Psyche.
(WUD, 1994, p.74)(WSJ, 5/14/99, p.W8)(Econ, 2/9/13, p.82)
125 The Gospel of John dated to this time. A papyrus fragment mentioned Jesus.
(SFC, 10/22/02, p.A12)
126CE Aug 1, Publius Helvius Pertinax, Roman emperor (193 CE), was born.
129 Sep 22, Claudius Galenus (d.~199-217), Greek physician and scholar, was born. Some sources put his birth in 131. Galen went to Rome in 162 AD and made his mark as a practicing physician. Galen developed the first typology of temperament in his dissertation De temperamentis,” and searched for physiological reasons for different behaviors in humans.