Timeline 1CE -299CE – 2

46?-120?CE Plutarch, Greek biographer and philosopher. He was the author of Plutarch’s Lives. The work was set up as a series of dual biographies that compared Greek and Roman statesmen.
(AHD, p.1009)(Wired, Dec. ’95, p.229)

48CE Claudius married his niece Agrippina.

c49CE The Church convened a council in Jerusalem about this time. The participants adopted the missionary principle of St. Paul, which stressed the universal scope of salvation.
(CU, 6/87)

50CE The “Periplus of the Erythraean Sea” was written about this time and indicated contact with the Somali coast of East Africa by the Egyptians and Ethiopians.
(NH, 6/97, p.43)

50CE Kushan ruled over Afghanistan under King Kanishka.

50CE Graeco-Buddhist Gandharan culture reach its height.

50AD-60AD The Didache, the earliest catechism of the Catholic church, was written about this time as teachings of the 12 Apostles to the gentiles. It was later discovered in a monastery in Constantinople and published by P. Bryennios in 1883.
(SFC, 10/27/11, p.E1)(www.earlychristianwritings.com/didache.html)

52CE Tradition in the State in the state of Kerala, India, has it that the Apostle Thomas converted Hindus to Christianity in this year.
(NG, 5/88, p.598)

52 St. Paul of Tarsus, Christian preacher, arrived in the port city of Ephesus (Turkey) about this time and spent 3 years there. Silt from the Kaistros River ended cargo shipping by the end of the first century. By 2007 the sea was 7 miles from the former port.
(SFC, 8/16/07, p.E2)

53CE Sep 18, Marcus Trajanus (d.117), 13th Roman emperor (Trajan’s Arch) (98-117), was born at Italica near Seville, Spain.

54CE Oct 13, Roman emperor Claudius I died, after being poisoned with mushrooms by his wife, Agrippina. Nero (37-68CE), son of Agrippina, succeeded his great uncle Claudius, who was murdered by his wife, as the new emperor of Rome. After the murder of his wife, Octavia, Nero descended deep into a religious delirium. His acts became wild and unintelligible and he was displaced by his soldiers with Galba after which he committed suicide.
(WUD, 1994, p.959)(V.D.-H.K.p.78)(AP, 10/13/97)(HN, 10/13/01)

56CE Tacitus, Publius Cornelius was born. He was the Roman author of the Histories (begins with the death of Nero), and the Annals (begins with Tiberius’ reign and goes to the end of Nero). Only a portion of the Histories survives (69-70CE). Of the Annals only those books dealing with the early career of Tiberius, and some treating the reigns of Claudius and Nero survive.

56CE Huan Tan, Go strategist, died. In his book “Xin Lun” (New Treatise) he advised that the best approach to the game is to spread your pieces widely so as to encircle the opponent.
(Econ, 12/18/04, p.128)

57CE Jan 8, A tablet with this date, making it Britain’s earliest dated hand-written document. Archeologists in 2016 said it was one among hundreds discovered during excavations in London’s financial district for the new headquarters of media and data company Bloomberg. It was an IOU in which one freed slave promises to repay another “105 denarii from the price of the merchandise which has been sold and delivered.”
(AP, 6/1/16)

57CE The King of Nakoku sent an envoy to the Eastern Han capital Loyang, the 1st recorded envoy to China from Japan.

59CE Agrippina became insane and was murdered by her son, Nero.

60CE Feb 10, St. Paul is believed to have been shipwrecked near Malta while enroute to Rome for trial for practicing Catholicism. The story is told in the Bible’s New Testament Acts of the Apostles, chapter 27. The event is marked in Malta every February 10.
(WSJ, 6/21/08, p.W8)(www.maltamedia.com/artman2/publish/out_about/article_5012.shtml)

60CE A comet appeared and was interpreted by the people of Rome to mean the impending death of their new emperor.
(NG, 12/97, p.105)

60CE Boudicaa, queen of the Iceni in Britain, burned Roman London. Boudicaa rose up in revolt against the Roman occupation of Britain. When Prasutagus, chief of the Iceni tribe, died without heirs, the Romans confiscated his lands. His wife and Queen, Boudicaa, protested and as a result was publicly scourged. Calling on all native Britons to rise against the oppressors, she then led them in revolt, killing 70,000 Romans and destroying several towns before she was defeated and captured. She killed herself while in Roman custody.
(NGM, 5/77)(HNQ, 8/5/00)

62CE Nero murdered his wife Octavia.

c62-113CE Pliny the Younger, Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus, Roman writer, statesman and orator. He described the death of his uncle, Plinius the Elder, at the 79CE eruption of Vesuvius in a letter to Tacitus.
(WUD, 1994, p.1106)(SFC, 9/1/97, p.A142)

c62-63 James, the “brother” of Jesus, was stoned to death for teaching the divinity of Christ. He had led the church in Jerusalem for the 3 decades following the death of Jesus. In 2002 a stone ossuary, looted from a Jerusalem cave, was found with an Aramaic inscription that read “James, son of Joseph, brother of Jesus.” In 1997 Robert Eisenman authored “James, the Brother of Jesus.” In 2003 Hershel Shanks and Ben Witherington III co-authored “The Brother of Jesus: The Dramatic Story & Meaning of the First Archeological Link to Jesus & His Family.” In 2003 the stone ossuary was declared a fake.
(SFC, 10/22/02, p.A12)(SSFC, 4/20/03, p.E2)(AP, 6/18/03)

c63CE The Norse Skalds Kaparmal are written. These have been translated and interpreted by the Frenchman Paul Du Chaillu.
(K.I.-365D, p.109)

64CE Jul 18, The Great Fire of Rome began. After the fire Nero began to build his Golden House in the center of the city.
(V.D.-H.K.p.78)(AP, 7/18/97)

64CE Jul 19, The Circus Maximus in Rome caught fire.
(MC, 7/19/02)

64CE Nero initiated the first persecution against the Christians. According to Seneca Nero sentenced hundreds of Christians to die by “tunica molesta,” a naphtha impregnated “shirt of torture.”
(CU, 6/87)(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.58)

65CE Jun 8, Jews revolted against Rome, capturing the fortress of Antonia in Jerusalem.
(MC, 6/8/02)

65CE Lucius Annaeus Seneca (b.4BC) (aka Seneca the younger), Roman intellectual, died. He was a Stoic philosopher and playwright and wrote a version of “Medea.” Seneca was Nero’s teacher. Nero had Seneca compose his speeches. Seneca and his colleague were ordered by Nero to contrive the murder of Agripinna. He was forced to commit suicide after the conspiracy of Caius Piso to murder Nero. His wife Paulina cut her wrists together with Seneca but Nero ordered that she be saved. Seneca’s blood did not flow well and he asked for poison which was refused. He then requested a hot bath to increase the blood flow and apparently was suffocated by the steam. “Luck is what happens when preparation meets opportunity.” Seneca’s writings included “On the Shortness of Life.”
(V.D.-H.K.p.80)(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.57)(SFEC, 8/2/98, Z1 p.8)(Econ, 10/4/08, p.54)(Econ, 12/20/14, p.96)

66CE Jan 26, The 5th recorded perihelion passage of Halley’s Comet.
(MC, 1/26/02)

66 Jewish Zealots called sicarii (from the Latin word for dagger) murdered Roman officials and high-ranking Jews whom they considered as enemies to Israel’s war of independence.
(NG, 11/04, p.76)(Econ, 10/27/07, p.33)

66-70 The Jews during this period laid in supplies and prepared to hide during their revolt against the Romans. In 2006 archeologists in northern Israel reported the discovery of chambers, linked by short tunnels, that would have served as a concealed subterranean home.
(AP, 3/14/06)

66-73 Roman general Vespasian’s army assaulted the forces of Jewish rebel Joseph ben Matthias at Jotapata in Galilee. During the Jewish revolt of 66-73 CE, Emperor Nero chose Titus Flavius Vespasianus (Vespasian) to subdue Judea. Vespasian was eminently qualified for this martial task. He was fresh from crushing a German rebellion, and as commander of Legio II, he had played a significant role in the conquest of Britannia (Britain) by Nero‘s predecessor. Joseph, meanwhile had assembled his own army from the rebel bands of Galilee and trained them in the Roman model. He also fortified many towns, the strongest being Jotapata, a natural fortress perched on a rock outcrop. It was surrounded on three sides by steep valleys that made attack virtually impossible. The only approach to the city was from a hilltop to the north, and that was blocked by a dry moat fronting a sturdy wall.
(HNQ, 12/4/00)

67CE Two monks entered China on the Silk Road and introduced Buddhism in Luoyang.
(NG, Feb, 04, p.28)

67CE Some 37,000 Jewish prisoners were held at the Roman stadium in Tiberias after they lost a naval battle on the Sea of Galilee.
(SFC, 6/18/02, p.A2)

c67CE St. Paul, Catholic apostle to the Gentiles and writer of many epistles, died. He founded one of the first Christian churches in Europe at Philippi in Macedonia. He was martyred by Nero and according to tradition invoked his right as a Roman citizen to be beheaded.
(WUD, 1994, p.1058,1081)(NG, 12/97, forum)

68CE Jun 9, Nero (31), Roman Emperor (54-68), committed suicide.
(AP, 6/9/97)(MC, 6/9/02)

68-69CE Galba reigned as the Roman emperor. He was a commander of Roman forces in Spain and acclaimed emperor by his 2 legions. When the praetorian guard accepted Galba, Nero committed suicide.
(WUD, 1994, p.1667)

69CE Jan 2, Roman Lower Rhine army proclaimed its commander, Vitellius, emperor.
(MC, 1/2/02)

69CE Jan 10, Roman emperor Galba adopted Marcus Piso Licinianus as Caesar.
(MC, 1/10/02)

69CE Jan 15, Servius Sulpicius Galba (70), 6th emperor of Rome (68-69), was murdered along with his newly adopted successor, Piso Licinianus. Marcus Salvius Otho (36) committed the murder and forced the senate to recognize himself as emperor.
(PC, 1992, p.37)

69CE Apr 16, Otho (32-69) committed suicide after he was defeated by Vitellius’ (15-69) troops at Bedriacum.
(WUD, 1994, p.1667)(HN, 4/16/98)

69CE Sep 1, Traditional date for the destruction of Jerusalem. [see Aug 29 70CE]
(MC, 9/1/02)

69 Dec 20, Vespian’s supporters entered Rome and discovered Vitellius in hiding. Vitellius, a Roman commandant of Rhine and the 7th emperor, was dragged through the streets before being brutally murdered. Vitellius had been acclaimed emperor by his legions in Germany in place of Galba. He was then killed in Rome fighting the supporters of Vespasian, the Roman commander of Judea. Gen. Vespasianus occupied Rome.
(WUD, 1994, p.1667)(HN, 12/20/98)(MC, 12/20/01)

69 Dec 21, Vespacian, a gruff-spoken general of humble origins, entered Rome and was adopted as emperor by the Senate.
(PCh, 1992, p.37)

70 May 31, Rome captured the 1st wall of the city of Jerusalem.
(MC, 5/31/02)

70 Aug 29, The Temple of Jerusalem burned after a nine-month Roman siege. The Second Temple of Jerusalem was destroyed by Rome’s 10th Legion and the Jews there were exiled. In the Jewish War the Israelites tried unsuccessfully to revolt against Roman rule. The destruction buried the shops that lined the main street. Archeologists in 1996 found numerous artifacts that included bronze coins called prutot. Carpenters from Israel’s Antiquities Authority used manuscripts of the Roman master builder Vitruvius to reconstruct contraptions used in the construction of the temple.
(SFC, 5/23/95, p.A-10)(SFC, 8/28/96, p.A10)(WSJ, 6/22/98, p.A20)(HN, 8/29/98) (SFEC, 3/28/99, p.T11)

70 Jun 5, Titus & his Roman legions breached the middle wall of Jerusalem.
(MC, 6/5/02)

70 Jul 1, Roman Emperor Titus assaulted the walls of Jerusalem with battering rams.
(MC, 7/1/02)

70 Aug 8, Tower of Antonia was destroyed by the Romans.
(MC, 8/8/02)

70 Aug 29, The Temple of Jerusalem burned after a nine-month Roman siege. The Second Temple of Jerusalem was destroyed by Rome’s 10th Legion and the Jews there were exiled. In the Jewish War the Israelites tried unsuccessfully to revolt against Roman rule. The destruction buried the shops that lined the main street. Archeologists in 1996 found numerous artifacts that included bronze coins called prutot. Carpenters from Israel’s Antiquities Authority used manuscripts of the Roman master builder Vitruvius to reconstruct contraptions used in the construction of the temple. In 2007 Martin Goodman authored “Rome and Jerusalem: The Clash of Ancient Civilizations.”
(SFC, 5/23/95, p.A-10)(SFC, 8/28/96, p.A10)(WSJ, 6/22/98, p.A20)(HN, 8/29/98)(SFEC, 3/28/99, p.T11)(Econ, 1/20/07, p.90)

70 Sep 7, The Roman army under Titus occupied and plundered Jerusalem.
(MC, 9/7/01)

70 Sep 27, The walls of upper city of Jerusalem were battered down by Romans.
(MC, 9/27/01)

70 The Gospel of Mark, the earliest chronicle of the life of Jesus, dates to about this time.
(SFC, 10/22/02, p.A12)

70 Josephus recorded that Vespasian and his son Titus plundered 50 tons of gold and silver during the Roman conquest of Jerusalem.
(SFC, 10/23/06, p.A15)

70 The Jerusalem mansion of Queen Helene, who came from a royal clan that ruled Adiabene (northern Iraq), was destroyed along with the rest of Jerusalem. In 2007 archeologists uncovered remains of the structure. Helene converted along with her family to Judaism when they came to Jerusalem in the first half of the first century AD.
(AP, 12/7/07)

70 A Roman punitive expedition forced the Garamantes of southern Libya to enter into an official relationship with Rome.
(AM, 3/04, p.28)

71 Vespasian and his son Titus paraded the treasure plundered from Jerusalem in triumph through the streets of Rome. They used the 50 tons of gold and silver to help finance the building of the Colosseum.
(SFC, 10/23/06, p.A15)

71 York became the Roman provincial capital of Northumbria. From the 9th to the 11th centuries it was dominated by Norse warrior-kings and was called Jorvik.
(SSFC, 2/23/14, p.M7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scandinavian_York)

73 Jewish zealots on Mount Masada chose to perish by their own hands rather than surrender to slavery under the Romans.
(SFEC, 3/28/99, p.T5)

73 When the Jewish rebellion against Roman rule was crushed, many Jewish refugees fled in all direction. Those who fled to Europe became known as Ashkenazim.
(Econ, 6/4/05, p.75)

75 The treasure plundered from Jerusalem in 70AD by the Romans under Vespasian and his son, Titus, was put on public display in the Temple of Peace in the Roman Forum and stayed there into the early 5th century.
(SFC, 10/23/06, p.A15)

76CE Jan 24, Publius A. Hadrianus, 14th Roman Emperor (117-138), was born. [see Mar 15]
(MC, 1/24/02)

76CE Mar 15, Hadrian, Roman Emperor (builder of Hadrian’s Wall), was born. [see Jan 24]
(MC, 3/15/02)

78CE Mar 3, Origin of Saka Era in India.
(SC, 3/3/02)

79CE Aug 24, Pliny the Elder, Roman naturalist, witnessed the eruption of long-dormant Mount Vesuvius and was overcome by the fumes as he tried to rescue refugees. The eruption buried the Roman cities of Pompeii, Stabiae, Herculaneum and other, smaller settlements in 13 feet of volcanic ash and pumice. An estimated 20,000 people died. The event was described by Pliny the Younger, the elder’s nephew, in a letter to Tacitus.
(HFA, ’96, p.36)(DD-EVTT, p.70)(AP, 8/24/97)(WUD, 1994, p.1106)(SFC, 9/1/97, p.A2)(HNQ, 6/16/98)

79CE Aug 25, Gaius Plinius Secundus, [Plinius Maior], Roman admiral, writer, died in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius. [see Aug 24]
(MC, 8/25/02)

79CE Nov 1, Pompeii was buried by eruption of Mt. Vesuvius. [see Aug 24]
(HN, 11/1/98)

79CE The Hindu calendar was updated to the solar year with this year as year 1. The original dated back to about 1000 BC.
(SFC, 1/1/00, p.A18)

80 The Roman Colosseum was inaugurated under Emp. Titus (Vespacian) with 100 days of gladiator combat. The poet Martial described one combat between Verus and Priscus. The amphitheater occupied the site of a large artificial lake, created by Nero for his Domus Aurea.
(SFC, 7/20/00, p.C3)(AM, 3/04, p.54)(WSJ, 1/25/05, p.D12)

80CE The Theater of Pompey was burned and restored by Titus and Domitian.
(RFH-MDHP, p.214)

81 Sep 13, Titus Flavius Vespasianus, emperor of Rome (69-81), died at 42.
(MC, 9/13/01)

81-96 The reign of Domitian. Soldiers under his reign earned an annual salary of about 1,200 sesterces.
(HNQ, 10/5/00)(AM, 5/01, p.36)

c81-138 Secret police agents in Ancient Rome were known as frumentarii. Growing out of an Augustine messenger service—the cursus publicus—frumentarii were originally just supply sergeants responsible for such mundane functions as the purchase and distribution of grain. However, under the reign of Domitian (a.d. 81-96), or possibly Hadrian (117-138), they were turned into intelligence officers and gradually became more involved in state security.
(HNQ, 10/5/00)

82CE Jul 27, Joseph of Arimathea, died and was buried in tomb he once lent to Jesus.
(MC, 7/27/02)

83CE In Syria the funeral Tower of Jambalik was built in Palmyra. In 2015 it was one of three funeral towers blown up by Islamic State militants. and.
(AFP, 9/4/15)

85-130CE Some 2000 letters on wooden tablets were excavated beginning in 1973 at Vindolanda in northern England from Roman soldiers stationed there.
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.14)

86CE Sep 19, Antoninus Pius, 15th Roman emperor (138-161), was born.
(MC, 9/19/01)

c90CE Luke, a Greek-born physician and contemporary of St. Paul, authored his Gospel about this time. St. Luke’s feast day is October 18.

95CE St. John the Divine established a Christian colony on the Greek island of Patmos after being exiled from Ephesus by Emperor Domitian. It is said that he wrote here the Book of Revelations in a grotto overlooking the main town. Greek Orthodox tradition says that he is the apostle John but that is not confirmed.
(SFEC, 1/18/98, p.T6)(WSJ, 6/28/02, p.W8)

96CE Jul 1, Vespasian, a Roman Army leader, was hailed as a Roman Emperor by the Egyptian legions.
(HN, 7/1/98)

96CE Sep 18, Domitian, Roman emperor, died. He was murdered and was succeeded by Nerva.
(V.D.-H.K.p.83)(MC, 9/18/01)

97CE Oct 27, To placate the Praetorians of Germany, Nerva of Rome adopted Trajan, the Spanish born governor of lower Germany.
(HN, 10/27/98)

97CE Sextus Julius Frontinus, Roman water commissioner, wrote of Rome: “The city looks cleaner, different, the air is purer and the causes of pollution that gave the air so bad a name with the ancients are now removed.”
(SFEC, 7/2/00, p.T1)

97-105CE Flavius Cerialis was prefect of Cohort IX of Batavians and the last occupant of the commandant’s house at Vindolanda. The cohort was transferred to the Danube to join Trajan’s forces gathering for the Second Dacian War.
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.17)

98CE Jan 27, Marius Cocceius Nerva (67), emperor of Rome (96-98), died.
(MC, 1/27/02)

98CE Cornelius Tacitus referred to the Baltic peoples in his book Germania. “In the East the Svebes washes the shores inhabited by the Aistian tribes (Aestiorum gentes).”
(DrEE, 10/12/96, p.2)

98-117CE Trajan, rules as emperor over Rome. His reign coincides with the apex of Roman territorial power. Along with his successor Hadrian, he converted the flexible frontiers of Rome to a line of fixed walls and forts.

c100CE Oct 31, The pagan Celts of Britain and Ireland celebrated Samhain on October 31 as the end of the season of the sun and the beginning of the season of darkness. It was believed that on this day the souls of the dead revisited their homes. Bonfires were lit to chase away evil spirits. When the Romans conquered Britain in the first century A.D., their fall harvest festival, Poloma Day, mixed with the traditions of Samhain to form a major fall festival at the end of October.
(HNPD, 10/31/99)
c100 The first Chinese dictionary was compiled about this time.
(ATC, p.33)
c100 Since before this time in the central-west section of Arabia, Mecca attracted desert dwellers due its fresh water well. It is in a desert valley surrounded by mountains and is a crossroad for two heavily traveled long-distance trade routes.
(ATC, p.56)
c100CE A Greek merchant was sent by the Romans occupying Egypt to investigate rumors of a booming trade between Indian Ocean ports. His report was written as: The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea.
(ATC, p.141)
c100CE Raban Gamliel in the first century is credited with arranging the Amidah, considered by many to be the most important prayer in the Jewish liturgy. Raban Gamliel was the most influential Rabbi in the period following the destruction of the Temple. This was a time when many different rabbis each had their own individual domains.
c100CE A mural was painted about this time at the Mayan ceremonial site of San Bartolo (Guatemala). It was uncovered by archeologist William Saturno of the Univ. of New Hampshire in 2001.
(SFC, 3/13/02, p.A4)(USAT, 1/16/04, p.10A)
100CE Dioscorides, a Roman physician, named the marijuana plant cannabis sativa.
(WSJ, 2/8/05, p.D7)

100-150 Archeologists in 1998 uncovered evidence of a pre-Columbian civilization from under the Pyramid of the Moon in Teotihuacan that was dated to this time. The skeleton of a man was found by a team led by Saburo Sugiyama. The most important and largest city of pre-Colombian central Mexico, the Nahuatl meaning of Teotihuacan was “Where Men Become Gods” or “The City of Gods.” Just north of Mexico City, Teotihuacan was planned at about the beginning of the Christian era and was sacked and burned by invading Toltecs in 650.
(SFC, 10/22/98, p.C2)(SFEC, 11/8/98, p.T10)(HNQ, 4/24/99)(SFEC, 9/19/99, p.A22)

100-200 Serdica was home to a Roman amphitheater. It stood on the trade road between the Danube and Constantinople. Known to the Romans as Serdica, it later became known as Sophia, the capital of Bulgaria.
(AM, 7/04, p.14)
c100-200 A report from London on 6/27/96 said that the British Library had acquired Buddhist texts that date back as early as the 2nd cent CE. The texts were believed to be part of the canon of the Sarvastivadin sect, which dominated Gandhara, now north Pakistan and east Afghanistan.
(SFC, 6/27/96, p.A12)
c100-200 Simon Ben Azzai, second century (A.D.) Jewish scholar: “In seeking wisdom thou art wise; in imagining that thou has attained it thou art a fool.”
(AP, 11/15/97)
100-200 Celsus, a second century scholar, thought that Christianity was a threat to the social order. He made some attempt to strip away its mythology and identify the historical Jesus.
(WSJ, 5/26/98)
100-200CE Poompuhar (southern India) grew during the reign of Karikal Cholan, the second-century Chola king who established trade ties with China, Arabia and the Roman Empire. In the 20th century remnants of brick buildings, water reservoirs, a boat jetty and Roman coins were found during undersea excavations.
(AP, 1/14/05)

100-400CE In the Canary Islands Roman artifacts were found in strata dated to this time. The islands were described by Plutarch and Ptolemy gave their precise location.
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.22)

100-700 During this period group of agricultural Indians (today called the Moche) inhabited the desert margin between the Andes and the Pacific in what is today called Peru. They raised huge monuments of sun baked mud where they laid their dead with fine gold and pottery. They irrigated crops such as corn, beans, squash, and peanuts. They ate llamas and guinea pigs and caught fish in the Pacific. [2nd source dated the Moche from 0-800] The Nasca [Nazca] Indians also inhabited this area about this time.
(NG, Oct. 1988, p. 510)(SFEM, 4/13/97, p.16)

c100-700 In Peru the Nazca Lines are a complex series of huge birds, animals and other figures etched into the ground by the Nazca culture some 225 miles southeast of Lima.
(SFC, 9/1/97, p.A14)

100BC-1500 In Vietnam the city of Hoi An was the principal port of the seafaring Champa kingdom, that embraced Indian culture. The kingdom withstood attacks from the Chinese, Vietnamese, Khmers and Mongols. Archaeological study in Hoi An in the 1990s proved that more than 2000 years ago Hoi An was an embryonic port town of the Sa Huynh people. From the 2nd to the 15th centuries, Hoi An was the main port of the Champa Kingdom. In these centuries, Hoi An became a prosperous commercial port town, very well developed and famous in Asia.
(www.hoianworldheritage.org/ehoian/cultural/lichsu_vh_chinh.htm)(SFEC, 4/26/98, p.T4)

100-1300 Time period of the Anasazi culture of northern Arizona, New Mexico, southern Utah and Colorado.
(WUD, 1994, p.53)

100-1300CE The Bir-Kot Shwandai site in northern Pakistan marks an urban settlement.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.C)

103 In Syria the four-storey funeral tower of Elahbel was built in Palmyra. In 2015 it was one of three funeral towers blown up by Islamic State militants.
(Reuters, 9/4/15)

103-105CE Apolodorus of Damascus built a bridge over the Danube for Emperor Trajan. It connected the Roman provinces of Moesia Superior and Dacia (the Yugoslavian and Romanian banks respectively).
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.26)

104 There was a fire in Rome. Emp. Trajan built massive baths over the Domus Aurea of Nero.
(WSJ, 1/25/05, p.D12)

105 Ts’ai Lun (Cai Lun), a Chinese government official (eunuch), told Emperor He about making zhi, i.e. paper. He used bark from mulberry trees and plant fiber pounded into pulp, which were then dried and matted into sheets. By the end of the second century, the Chinese were printing books on rag paper using wooden type.
(NG, Feb, 04, p.9)(SSFC, 5/26/13, p.F5)(Econ, 6/7/14, p.87)

106 King Decebal, the last king of Dacia, committed suicide. Rather than being captured only to be exhibited and humiliated at Rome, Decebalus committed suicide by slashing his own throat, as depicted on Trajan’s Column (spiral 22, panel b). He is famous for fighting three wars, with varying success, against the Roman Empire under two emperors. After raiding south across the Danube, he defeated a Roman invasion in the reign of Domitian, securing a period of independence during which he consolidated his rule.

105CE Flavius Cerialis, prefect of Cohort IX of Batavians at Vindolanda in northern England, was transferred to the Danube to join Trajan’s forces gathering for the Second Dacian War.
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.17)

106CE Nabatae, whose capital was Petra, became a Roman province under Trajan. The Roman city of Jerash was one of the 10 cities of the Decapolis.
(WUD, 1994, p.948)(SFEM, 4/11/99, p.8)(AM, 3/04, p.60)

c109CE Silk was carried by a caravan from China to Persia for the first time.
(ATC, p.33)

c111CE A Roman amphitheater was built at Nyon, Switzerland. An inscription at the site had a dedication to the emperor Trajan.
(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.10)

116 Hatra, a fortified city of the Parthian Empire and later part of Iraq, withstood a Roman invasion due to its high and thick walls. The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran.
(SSFC, 4/5/15, p.A7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parthian_Empire)

117 Aug 8, Marcus Ulpius Trajanus (Trajan), emperor of Rome (98-117), died.

117 Aug 11, The Roman army of Syria hailed its legate, Hadrian, as emperor, which made the senate’s formal acceptance an almost meaningless event. One of his first acts was to withdraw Rome’s army from Mesopotamia (modern Iraq).
(www.roman-emperors.org/hadrian.htm)(Econ, 7/19/08, p.94)

117 The Trimontium amphitheater was built in Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The area was later sacked by Attila the Hun and the site was covered in dirt until a landslide exposed it in 1972.
(SSFC, 7/16/06, p.G4)

117-138 The reign of Hadrian.
(HNQ, 10/5/00)

117-180CE Aulus Gellius, Roman writer.
(RFH-MDHP, p.214)

118 Jul 9, Hadrian, Rome’s new emperor, made his entry into the city.
(HN, 7/9/98)

120 Plutarch (b.~46CE), Greek historian, biographer, and essayist, died about this time. His work included “Lives of the Roman Emperors,” “Parallel Lives” and “Moralia,” a collection of seventy-eight essays.
(Econ, 12/22/12, p.26)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plutarch)

120CE-130CE Roman Emperor Hadrian ordered a great wall to be built in northern England along with a series of forts “to separate the Romans from the barbarians.” It extended for 73.5 English miles from the estuary of the river Tyne on the east to Solway Firth on the west.
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.15)

121 Apr 20, Marcus Aurelius (d.180), 16th Roman emperor, philosopher, was born. He authored the “Meditations.” [see Apr 26]
(V.D.-H.K.p.64)(HN, 4/20/98)

121 Apr 26, Antonius Marcus Aurelius, [Marcus A. Verus], Emperor of Rome (161-180), was born. [see Apr 20]
(MC, 4/26/02)

121-135CE The Temple of Venus and Rome was built in Rome.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.14)

122 Sep 13, Building began on Hadrian’s Wall.
(MC, 9/13/01)

122 Suetonius (b.~69), Roman historian, died about this time. His most important surviving work is a set of biographies of twelve successive Roman rulers, from Julius Caesar to Domitian, entitled De Vita Caesarum.

125 Lucius Apuleius, Roman philosopher and satirist, was born about this time. His work included “Metamorphoses” and “The Golden Ass,” which retold the story of Cupid and Psyche.
(WUD, 1994, p.74)(WSJ, 5/14/99, p.W8)(Econ, 2/9/13, p.82)

125 The Gospel of John dated to this time. A papyrus fragment mentioned Jesus.
(SFC, 10/22/02, p.A12)

126CE Aug 1, Publius Helvius Pertinax, Roman emperor (193 CE), was born.
(MC, 8/1/02)

129 Sep 22, Claudius Galenus (d.~199-217), Greek physician and scholar, was born. Some sources put his birth in 131. Galen went to Rome in 162 AD and made his mark as a practicing physician. Galen developed the first typology of temperament in his dissertation “De temperamentis,” and searched for physiological reasons for different behaviors in humans.


Timeline 300AD-599AD 4

410 St. Maroun, founder of the Maronite Christians, died in Cyrrhus region of Syria. The Maronite movement reached Lebanon when St Maroun’s first disciple Abraham of Cyrrhus, who was called the Apostle of Lebanon, realized that paganism was thriving in Lebanon, so he set out to convert the pagans to Christians by introducing them to the way of St Maroun.

411 Proclus (d.485), Greek mathematician and theologian, was born. [see 412]
(WUD, 1994 p.1147)(MC, 4/17/02)

412 Feb 8, St. Proclus, Patriarch of Constantinople, was born. [see 411]
(HN, 2/8/98)

413 Oct 10, Nicias, Athens politician (Peace of Nicias), killed at about age 57.
(MC, 10/10/01)

415 Archbishop Cyril of Alexandria sent a mob of religious police to stop Hypatia, an eccentric pagan ascetic and scholar. The mob kidnapped her, dragged her to a church, stripped and tortured her with broken shards of pottery. Her body parts were then butchered, put on public display and burnt to a crisp. In 2004 Jonathan Kirsch authored “God Against the Gods: The History of the War Between Monotheism and Polytheism.”
(SSFC, 3/21/04, p.M1)

418 Mar 10, Jews were excluded from public office in the Roman Empire.
(MC, 3/10/02)

418 Dec 27, Zosimus, Greek Pope (417-8), died.
(MC, 12/27/01)

419 Jul 2, Valentinian III, Roman emperor (425-55), was born.
(SC, 7/2/02)

420 Padua, Italy, was founded on the edge of the Adriatic.
(SFC,12/19/97, p.F3)

421 Feb 8, Flavius Constantine became emperor Constantine III of Roman Empire West.
(MC, 2/8/02)

421 Mar 25, Venice was founded on a Friday at 12 PM.
(MC, 3/25/02)

421-438 King Bahram V ruled Persia.
(MH, 12/96)

422-432 The Bible and the works of the church fathers were translated into Armenian.
(MH, 12/96)

425 Feb 27, Theodosius effectively founded a university in Constantinople.
(HN, 2/27/99)

425-550 The independent Yaftalee ruled in Afghanistan.

426 Yax K’uk Mo’ founded Copan in what is now western Honduras.
(AM, May/Jun 97 suppl. p.A)

427 Dec, The Patriarch of Constantinople died.
(Usenet, 3/4/97)

427 The Nalanda Buddhist center of learning was established in Bihar state, India, and continued to 1197. It has been called one of the first great universities in recorded history.
(Econ, 9/4/10, p.46)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nalanda)

428 Apr 10, John Nestorius from Antioch was consecrated as the new Patriarch of Constantinople by Emperor Theodosius.
(Usenet, 3/4/97)

428 The Arsacid (Arshakuni) monarchy of Armenia ended and control fell under the rule of the Persian Sassanids.
(MH, 12/96)

429 Roman Africa was invaded by the Vandals, barbarians who had fought and conquered their way across Germany, France, Spain and across the Strait of Gibraltar.
(Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.168)

430 Aug 28, Augustine (b.354) died in Hippo (Annaba, Algeria) with a Vandal army outside the gates of the city. His writings included “The Confessions.” In 1999 Garry Wills authored the biography “St. Augustine.” Augustine had developed the theory of a “just war” and said a nation’s leaders must consider among other things, anticipated loss of civilian life and whether all peaceful options have been exhausted before war starts. In 2003 Garry Wills authored “Saint Augustine’s Sin.” In 2005 James J. O’Donnell authored “Augustine: A New Biography.” Augustine turned against the spirit of intellectual inquiry once he found salvation. His dogmatic invective laid the foundations for centuries of intellectual tyranny by the Catholic church. In 2015 Robin Lane Fox authored “Augustine: Conversions and Confessions.”
(SSFC, 12/21/03, p.M6)(Econ, 5/14/05, p.86)(www.connect.net/ron/august.html)(Econ, 1/29/11, p.82)(Econ, 11/28/15, p.77)

431 The Council of Ephesus was held to deal with the heretics and heresies of the day such as Arianism and Apollinarianism. The council condemned Nestorianism, which taught that there were 2 person in Christ and that Mary was the mother of the human Christ but not of God. In 2009 Miri Rubin authored “Mother of God: A History of the Virgin Mary.”
(Usenet, 3/4/97)(PTA, 1980, p.86)(Econ, 2/21/09, p.84)

431 The Assyrians and Chaldeans broke from what was to become the Roman Catholic Church over a theological dispute.
(WSJ, 3/12/00, p.A10)

431 A great Mayan dynasty arose at Palenque and soon began trading with communities hundreds of miles away.
(SSFC, 12/7/03, p.C10)

432 About this time St. Patrick was consecrated a bishop and returned to Ireland as missionary. He established Ireland’s first monasteries and Irish monks made it their mission to copy all literature, sacred and secular, while barbarism swept the continent. This period is covered in the 1995 book “How the Irish Saved Civilization” by Thomas Cahill.
(SFC, 3/17/97, p.A20)(WSJ, 11/5/99, p.W12)

432 Flavius Aetius was appointed commander-in-chief of all the armies of the Western Roman Empire.
(ON, 4/12, p.1)

434-453 Attila the Hun was known in western Europe as the “Scourge of God.” Attila was the king of the Huns from 434 to 453 and one of the greatest of the barbarian rulers to assail the Roman Empire.
(HNQ, 12/19/98)

435 John Nestorius was banished from his monastery in Antioch by Emperor Theodosius II.
(Usenet, 3/4/97)

435-808 In Mexico Yaxchilan on the bank of the Usumacinta was occupied at least over this period. King Mah K’ina Skull III was one of the rulers during the construction of some 90 stone structures.
(AM, May/Jun 97 suppl. p.G)

437 Nov 30, A glyph in Copan [in later Honduras] records this date and mentions the 1st and 2nd rulers of the city-state.
(NG, 12/97, p.81)

438 Easter, In Ireland St. Patrick used the 3-leaf clover to illustrate the Trinity.
(SFEC, 3/15/98, p.D7)

438-457 The Persian King Yazdegird II ruled. He pressured the Armenians to accept Zoroastrianism and worship the supreme god Ahura Mazda. Mihr-Nerseh, the Persian grand vizier, promulgated an edict that enjoined the Armenians to convert.
(MH, 12/96)

439 Oct 9, Ancient city of Carthage was captured by Genseric the Vandal. [see Oct 19,24]
(MC, 10/9/01)

439 Oct 19, The Vandals, led by King Gaiseric, took Carthage and quickly conquered all the coastal lands of Algeria and Tunisia. Egypt and the Libyan coast remained in Roman hands. [see Oct 24]
(Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.168)(HN, 10/19/98)

439 Oct 24, Carthage, the leading Roman city in North Africa, fell to Genseric and the Vandals. [see Oct 19]
(HN, 10/24/98)

439 Oct 29, Vandals under Genseric occupied Carthage. [see Oct 24]
(MC, 10/29/01)

439 In Mauretania (now northern Morocco and Algeria) Roman rule ceased about this time when barbarian incursions forced the legions to withdraw.
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.)

440 Aug 19, Pope Sixtus III (432-440) died.
(PTA, 1980, p.88)

440-790 The Mayan city of Palenque flourished.
(AM, 5/01, p.49)

441 Bishop Patrick allegedly fasted for 40 days on a 2,500-foot peak later named Croagh Patrick in county Mayo. He allegedly banished snakes from Ireland during this time.
(SFCM, 10/14/01, p.23)

444 In Ireland St. Patrick selected the site for the Cathedral of Armagh. It later became Ireland’s ecclesiastical center and preceded the 360 churches that he established.
(SFEC, 3/15/98, p.D7)

449 The Armenians held a General Assembly to ponder the Persian edict that demanded conversion to Zoroastrianism. They chose to remain Christian and their leaders were summoned to Persia to answer to the king. The leaders opted to yield under heavy pressure but were renounced on their return home.
(MH, 12/96)

450 St. Benedict (d.547) was born in Norcia, Italy, about this time.

450 The Hun invasions of India began.
(ATC, p.33)

450 In Peru a tattooed Moche woman was entombed about this time, at a site later called El Brujo, with a sacrificed teenage slave and a collection of weapons and jewelry. In 2006 her mummy was discovered in a pyramid called Huaca Cao Viejo.
(SFC, 5/17/06, p.A2)

450-470 The Vakataka emperor Harisena, ruled over central India. He is recognized as bringing India’s Golden Age to its apogee. He oversaw the greatest building phase at the monasteries of Ajanta, where monks lived in rock-cut cells.
(LSA., pp. 10-16)

451 Apr 13, A Persian Army of 300,000 men under Mushkan Nusalavurd arrived at a place between her and Zarevand (now Khoy and Salmast in Iran) to face the Armenian forces.
(MH, 12/96)

451 May 26, The Battle of Avarair. Vardan Mamikonian, son of Sparapet (general) Hamazasp Mamikonian and Sahakanush, daughter of the Catholicos Sahak Bartev, led a force of 66,000 Armenians to face the Persians. Prior to battle Vardan read aloud the story of the Jewish Maccabees. Persian losses tripled the Armenian dead, but Mushkan won and Vardan was killed.
(MH, 12/96)

451 Apr 8, Attila’s Huns plundered Metz and continued moving south along the Moselle River.
(ON, 4/12, p.2)

451 Jun 20, Roman and Barbarian warriors halted Attila’s army at the Catalaunian Plains (Catalarinische Fields) in eastern France. Attila the Hun was defeated by a combined Roman and Visigoth army. Theodoric I, the Visigothic king, was killed. The Huns moved south into Italy but were defeated again. Some sources date this on Sep 20. Attila and his brother Bleda jointly inherited the Hunnish Kingdom, headquartered in what later became Hungary. Attila later murdered Bleda to gain full control.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Catalaunian_Plains)(V.D.-H.K.p.88)(ON, 4/12, p.3)

451 Sep 20, Roman General Aetius defeated Attila the Hun at Chalons-sur-Marne (Battle of the Catalaunian Plains). Many sources date this on Jun 20.

451 Oct 8, Council of Chalcedon (4th ecumenical council) opened. The Council declared that the two natures of Christ, divine and human, were united without change, division or confusion in Christ. This led to the formation of the Coptic Monophysite Church which continued to hold that Jesus had but one divine nature. Copt comes from the Arabic word for Egyptian.
(CU, 6/87)(SFC, 3/31/97, p.A9)(MC, 10/8/01)

451 The Armenians were the first Christians to take up arms in defending their right to worship.
(HN, 7/25/98)

451 Clan leaders of Armenia united to defeat the Sassanians at Avarair.
(CO Enc. / Armenia)

451 John Nestorius, former Patriarch of Constantinople, died about this time. Prior to his death he wrote his book “Bazar of Heracleids.”
(Usenet, 3/4/97)

451-484 Vahan Mamikonian led the Armenians in a 33-year guerrilla war. The Persian Sassanids underwent 3 rulers and pressure from the Ephthalites, White Huns, and when King Peroz was killed by the White Huns, his successor, Balash, sued for peace. Vahan demanded and was granted religious freedom.
(MH, 12/96)

452 Feb 4, The Mayan city of Tikal has a monolith in hieroglyphics that reports an inferior conjunction of Venus”.
(K.I.-365D, p.164)

452 Jun 8, Italy was invaded by Attila the Hun.
(HN, 6/8/98)

452 Pope Leo I met Attila the Hun on the banks of the Mincio and Attila agreed to make peace and spare Rome.
(PTA, 1980, p.90)

452 Attila the Hun died.

454 Sep 21, In Italy, Aetius, the supreme army commander, was murdered in Ravenna by Valentinian III, the emperor of the West.
(HN, 9/21/98)

455 May 31, Petronius Maximus, senator, Emperor of Rome, was lynched.
(MC, 5/31/02)

455 Jul 9, Avitus, the Roman military commander in Gaul, became Emperor of the West.
(HN, 7/9/98)

455 Jun 16, Rome was sacked by the Vandal army. Gaiseric looted and burned Rome for 14 days. He took the looted treasure, which likely included the 70AD plunder from Jerusalem, by ship to the temple of Carthage.
(V.D.-H.K.p.88)(HN, 6/16/98)(SFC, 10/23/06, p.A15)

455 Genseric, at the invitation of Eudoxia, Valentinian’s widow, sailed to Italy, and took Rome without a blow. At the intercession of Leo the Great, he abstained from torturing or massacring the inhabitants and burning the city, but gave it up to systematic plunder. For 14 days and nights the work of pillage continued. Genseric then returned unmolested to Africa, carrying much booty and many thousand captives, including the empress Eudoxia and her two daughters. The elder became the wife of his son Hunneric; the younger, with her mother, was eventually surrendered to the emperor Leo.

457 Feb 7, A Thracian officer by the name of Leo was proclaimed as emperor of the East by the army general, Aspar, on the death of the Emperor Marcian.
(HN, 2/7/99)

457 A Monophysite was named patriarch of Alexandria.
(SFC, 3/31/97, p.A9)

461 Mar 17, According to tradition, St. Patrick (b.c389), the patron saint of Ireland, died in Saul, County Down. Some sources say he died in 493AD. He was an English missionary and bishop of Ireland. In 2004 Philip Freeman authored “St. Patrick: A Biography.”
(SFC, 3/15/97, p.A16)(WSJ, 3/12/04, p.W13)(AP, 3/17/08)

461 Nov 10, Leo I the Great, Pope (440-61), died.
(MC, 11/10/01)

468 Mar 3, St. Simplicius was elected to succeed Catholic Pope Hilarius.
(SC, 3/3/02)

470 Chinese philosopher Mozi (b.391) died about this time. Mohism or Moism was an ancient Chinese philosophy of logic, rational thought and science developed by the academic scholars who studied under Mozi and embodied in an eponymous book: the Mozi. Mozi taught that everyone is equal in the eyes of heaven. For those in power he believed that it should be based on meritocracy, or those who are worthy of power receive power.

472 Aug 18, Flavius Ricimer, general of the Western Roman Empire, kingmaker, was born.
(MC, 8/18/02)

473 An ancient king in Sri Lanka constructs an impenetrable fortress atop a giant rock that rises 200 yards above the plains. The site is called Sigiriya.
(WSJ, 8/3/95, p.A-8)

474 Jan 18, Leo I, Roman Byzantine Emperor (457-74), died. He was succeeded by his grandson Leo II.


Timeline 300AD-599AD 5

473 An ancient king in Sri Lanka constructs an impenetrable fortress atop a giant rock that rises 200 yards above the plains. The site is called Sigiriya.
(WSJ, 8/3/95, p.A-8)

474 Jan 18, Leo I, Roman Byzantine Emperor (457-74), died. He was succeeded by his grandson Leo II.

474 Nov 17, Leo II (b.467), Roman Byzantine Emperor, died.

476 Aug 28, The western Roman Empire formally ended at Ravenna as the barbarian general Odoacer deposed the last of the Roman emperors, the young boy Romulus Augustus.
(ATC, p.32)(PC, 1992, p.52)

477 In Sri Lanka the usurper King Kasyapa I founded Sigiriya and built his castle atop a 550-foot outcrop. He had murdered his father Dhatusena.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.D)(Arch, 7/02, p.32)

477 Harisena, emperor of Central India dies.
(LSA., p. 12)

480 Boethius (d.524) was born in Rome about this time. He acquired an important post under the Ostrogoth King Theodoric, but later fell into disfavor and was imprisoned. In prison he wrote his famous The Consolation of Philosophy.

480 Hun invasions began to weaken the Gupta Dynasty in India.
(ATC, p.33)

483 Mar 13, St. Felix began his reign as Catholic Pope.
(HN, 3/13/98)

484 The Church of Mary Theotokos was built over the presumed site of a Samaritan Temple that is believed to be a copy of the Second Temple of Jerusalem at Mt. Gerizim in the Israeli occupied West Bank.
(SFC, 5/23/95, p.A-10)

484 The Armenians signed a treaty in the village of Nuwarsak with the Persians and Vahan Mamikonian was appointed marzban of Armenia.
(MH, 12/96)

485 Apr 17, Proclus (b.411), Greek mathematician, died in Athens.
(WUD, 1994 p.1147)(MC, 4/17/02)

485-505 In Armenia Vahan Mamikonian began his rule with services at the Cathedral of Dvin with the Catholicos Hovhan I Mandakuni presiding.
(MH, 12/96)

490 Oct 29, Petrus Mongus, patriarch of Alexandria, died.
(MC, 10/29/01)

492 Mar 1, St. Felix III ended his reign as Catholic Pope.
(SC, 3/1/02)
492 Mar 1, St Gelasius I began his reign as Catholic Pope (492-496).
(PTA, 1980, p.98)(SC, 3/1/02)

493 Mar 3, Odovacar, the Herulian leader, surrendered Ravenna to Theodorik, king of the Ostrogoths. Theodorik invited Odovacar to dinner and had him murdered. Theodorik united Italy as an Ostrogoth kingdom until 554. [see Mar 15]
(PCh, 1992, p.52)(V.D.-H.K.p.88)(SC, 3/3/02)

493 Mar 15, Theodoric the Great beat Odoacer of Italy. Odoacer, German army leader, King of Italy (476-93), died. [see Mar 3]
(MC, 3/15/02)

495 May 3, Pope Gelasius asserted that his authority was superior to Emperor Anastasius.
PTA, 1980, p.98)(HN, 5/3/98)

496 Nov 21, Pope Gelasius, an African by birth or descent, died. He changed the mid-February lottery rules for young Roman men so that they drew names of Catholic Saints to emulate instead of young girls for play. The Lupercalia pagan rite had been revived to bring good luck to the city following a plague. He named Feb 14 as St. Valentine’s Day.
(PTA, 1980, p.98)(SFEM, 2/9/97, p.11)(SSFC, 2/11/01, DB p.40)

496 In China the Shaolin Temple was built in the foothills of Mount Songshan in Henan province. It was later considered as the birthplace for Shaolin boxing, a combination of Buddhism and Chinese martial arts that evolved into kung fu (gongfu).
(SFC, 9/26/02, p.B3)

496 Clovis, king of the Salian or Merovingian Franks, became the first of the pagan barbarians to adopt Catholicism.

498 Nov 19, Anastasius II, Pope (496-98), (Dante Inferno XI, 8-9), died.
(MC, 11/19/01)

500 The northern California Emeryville Shellmound, CA-Ala 309, dates to about this time.
(Buckeye, Winter 04/05)

500 China’s Grand Canal between Beijing and Hangzhou was finished about this time.
(Econ, 10/12/13, p.16)

500 In England, the Anglo-Saxons brought Futhark from continental Europe in the 5th century and modified it into the 33-letter “Futhorc” to accommodate sound changes that were occurring in Old English, the language spoken by the Anglo-Saxons. An early offshoot of Futhark was employed by Goths, and so it is known as Gothic Runes. It was used until 500 CE when it was replaced by the Greek-based Gothic alphabet.
500 About this time the Ridgeway, the oldest road in Europe, wandered along empty, open ridges over Wiltshire’s Marlborough Downs in England. Invading Saxons gave this ancient track its present name: “The Ridgeway,” but even then it was already old beyond all memory. Fifty centuries earlier, Stone Age traders probably followed this track to barter stone axe heads with farmer folk in the valleys. These Neolithic merchants picked up The Ridgeway at the Thames River ford at Goring, then followed it westward and southward along the crest of the Downs, into what would become the counties of Berkshire and Wiltshire in the times of the Wessex kings. Since those first Neolithic peddlers, 200 generations have found their own good reasons to tramp along the Ridgeway track.
(HNQ, 7/29/01)

500 By this time the Chalchihuites culture (New Mexico) engaged in extensive turquoise mining and exporting raw turquoise to West Mexican centers like Alta Vista.
(Arch, 1/05, p.28)

500 By this time the Kaaba at Mecca housed more than 360 idols of the gods of various tribes. Protection of the Kaaba was organized by the Quraysh tribe, who encouraged other tribes to deposit their idols their for protection and a fee. During four months of each year the Quraysh forbade fighting and raiding along the trade routes and this allowed both merchants and travelers make their pilgrimages in peace for a fee.
(ATC, p.57)

500 The Manteno people inhabited the area of northern Ecuador about this time. It was believed that they ran a vast maritime empire and traded with the Aztecs in Mexico and made voyages of 3,000-4,000 miles. In 1998-99 a team led by John Haslett (34) attempted to duplicate their maritime voyages with a 20-ton, 60-foot balsa raft.
(SFC, 1/6/99, p.A8

500 About this time Nubians turned from their Egyptian-influenced religion to Christianity. A thousand years later the people of their region will convert heavily to Islam.
(MT, 10/95, p.10-11)

500 About this time the Indian monk Bodhidharma hit on the idea of Zen after staring at a wall for nine years.
(WSJ, 10/23/96, p.A1)

c500 The first settlers of Madagascar began arriving from the Malay Archipelago in the middle of the first millennium. DNA studies in 2012 indicated that the number of women in the first group of settlers numbered about 30.
(Econ, 3/24/12, p.84)

500 Teotihuacan people built a 60-foot pyramid about this time in what later became known as Iztapalapa, Mexico. It was abandoned after about 300 years, when the Teotihuacan culture collapsed. Archeologists began to unveil the site in 2004.
(AP, 4/6/06)

500 In Nigeria evidence of urbanization at the Yoruba city of Ife dated back to about this time.

500 In Peru a Moche pyramid from about this time at Dos Cabezas contained tombs that archeologists found in 1997. The tombs revealed people of unusual height along with miniatures of the deceased and the tomb’s contents.
(SFC, 2/15/01, p.A7)

500 Ancient Turks are believed to have originated in Mongolia about this time.
(Arch, 1/06, p.17)

500-600 Arabs about this time brought back home from India the numerals we refer to as Arabic numbers.
(SFEC, 1/23/00, Z1 p.2)
500-600 The Arabian city of Ubar, disappeared in the early 6th century. The event was later cited by Muhammad in the Quran. In 1992 a team of investigators announced the discovery of the long lost Arabian city of Ubar. George Hedges (1952-2009), a Hollywood litigator, and filmmaker Nicholas Clapp, participated in the find. Clapp later authored “The Road to Ubar: Finding the Atlantis of the Sands” (1999).
(WSJ, 3/20/09, p.A12)
500-600 In England the 6th century Gildas was the only historian whose work survived. He made no mention of King Arthur. He described the Picts as “Loathsome hordes, dark swarms of worms that emerge from the narrow crevices of their holes when the sun is high, preferring to cover their villainous faces with hair rather than their private parts and surrounding areas with clothes.
(WSJ, 3/27/98, p.W10)(AM, 11/04, p.41)
500-600 The monastic complex of David Gareja was founded in the 6th century by David (St. David Garejeli), one of the thirteen Assyrian monks who arrived in Georgia at the same time. His disciples Dodo and Luciane expanded the original lavra and founded two other monasteries known as Dodo’s Rka (literally, “the horn of Dodo”) and Natlismtsemeli (“the Baptist”). Part of the complex is also located in the Agstafa rayon of Azerbaijan and thus became subject to a border dispute between Georgian and Azerbaijani authorities.
500-600 The historical Bodhidharma (known as Daruma in Japan) was an Indian sage who lived sometime in the fifth or sixth century AD. He is commonly considered the founder of Chan (Zen) Buddhism, and credited with Chan’s introduction to China. Daruma’s philosophy arrived first in China, where it flowered and was called Chan Buddhism. Only centuries later did it bloom in Japan, where it is called Zen.
500-600 The rulers of Ghana stored grain in mud huts on high, steep land.
(ATC, p.106)
500-600 About this time Irish monks brought an alembic from the Middle East that was initially used to distill perfumes. They soon applied it to spirits and produced Uisce Beatha (water of life), better known as whiskey.
(WSJ, 8/14/02, p.D8)
500-600 In Laos a local legend describes a military celebration for which the stone jars of the Plain of Jars were created to ferment and store alcohol.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.E)
500-600 El Pital, a Maya regional hub on the gulf coast since c300 BC, suddenly became inactive. It was later suspected that a catastrophic flood hit the area.
(SFC, 9/14/00, p.C8)
500-600 The Picts of Scotland developed a script about this time made up of 30 symbols. In 2005 it still defied interpretation.
(AM, 11/04, p.43)

500-700 A Babylonian earthenware demon bowl from Seleucia-on-Tigris dated to this period.
(MT, 3/96, p.5)
500-700 The clay Lydenburg Heads from southern Africa, dated to this period. These earliest know South African sculptures were later exhibited at the Guggenheim.
(NYT, 6/7/96, p.B9)
500-700 Chronicles of the 8th century record the peaceful arrival of immigrants from Korea in the 6th and 7th centuries.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.38)
500-700 Evidence in 2005 suggested that Polynesians visited California during this period and transferred their canoe building technology to the local Chumash and Gabrielino Indians.
(SFC, 6/20/05, p.A5)

500-800 Curse tablets are widely used in this era. “Lead scrolls, used to place curses against lawyers, lovers, and horses, have been discovered in a Roman-era well at King Herod’s palace in Israel.”
(USAT, 10/28/94, 1A)

c500-1100 The Sinagua people lived in the area of Sunset Crater, Az.
(AM, 3/04, p.48)

500-1315 The Fremont Indians lived in Utah’s Range Creek Canyon during this period and etched into rock designs of animals and people.
(WSJ, 1/31/06, p.B6)

502-557 In China the Liang stele dates to this time.
(WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)

508 The Franks, led by Clovis, took Paris and made it their capital. Under Charlemagne, the capital was moved to Aachen and Paris waned, raided repeatedly by Norsemen during the 9th and 10th centuries.
(HNQ, 4/18/02)
508 Clovis, king of the Franks (later France), defeated the Visigoths and pushed into Spain.

510 Boethius began the translation of the works of Aristotle from Greek into Latin. He only completed the “Organon,” or works on logic.

511 Nov 11, Clovis (45), king of Salische France and founder of Merovingians, died. [see Nov 27]
(MC, 11/11/01)

511 Nov 27, Clovis, king of the Franks, died and his kingdom was divided between his four sons. [see Nov 11]
(HN, 11/27/98)

515 Boethius in his treatise on the Trinity writes “As far as you are able, join faith to

520 St. Benedict founded the Benedictine Order at Monte Cassino. From there monks went forth and created a network of monasteries all over Europe. The monks taught the values of agricultural living to the nomadic barbarians.
(CU, 6/87)

520 Guptas invent the decimal system in India.
(ATC, p.69)

521-597 St. Columba, Irish missionary in Scotland. The Irish monks of Columba preceded the Benedictines in Northern Europe, but their ascetic otherworldliness did not meet the needs of the practical barbarian people.
(CU, 6/87)(WUD, 1994, p.292)

523 May 6, Thrasamunde, king of Vandals (496-523), died.
(MC, 5/6/02)(http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15268b.htm)

524 Jun 21, Battle at Vezerone: Burgundy beat France.
(MC, 6/21/02)

525 By this time the Hun invaders have conquered India. The Gupta Dynasty ends.
(ATC, p.35)

526 May 18, St. John I, Catholic Pope (523-526), died.
(HN, 5/18/98)(SC, 5/18/02)

526 May 20, An earthquake killed 250,000 in Antioch, Turkey. This was the capital of Syria from 300-64BCE. [see May 29]
(MC, 5/20/02)

526 May 29, Antioch, Turkey, was struck by an earthquake and about 250,000 died. [see May 20]
(AM, 11/00, p.69)(SC, 5/29/02)

526 Aug 30, Theodorik the Great (72), King of Ostrogoths, died of dysentery. He was succeeded by his grandson Athalaric (10), who reigned until 534 with his mother Amalasuntha as regent.
(PC, 1992, p.54)

527 Apr 1, Emp. Justin named Justinianus co-emperor of Byzantium. [see Apr 4]
(OTD)(PC, 1992 ed, p.54)

527 Apr 4, In Constantinople, Justin, seriously ill, crowned his nephew Justinian as his co-emperor. [see Apr 1]
(HN, 4/4/99)

527 Aug 1, Justinus I, Byzantine emperor (518-27), died.
(PC, 1992 ed, p.54)

527-548 Empress Theodora, considered the most powerful woman in Byzantine history, ruled with her husband Justinian.
(ATC, p.24)

527-565 Justinian ruled the Byzantine Empire.
(WSJ, 4/5/02, p.W12)
527-565 Emperor Justinian built the St. Catherine monastery in Egypt’s Sinai Desert to house the bones of St. Catherine of Alexandria, who was tortured to death for converting to Christianity. The site was thought to be the place where Moses saw the Miracle of the Burning Bush.
(SFEC, 8/28/98, p.T6)(http://interoz.com/egypt/Catherines.htm)

528 Justinian assigned 10 men the task of condensing the 1,600 books of classic Roman law.
(ATC, p.43)

529 Justinian, ruling from Constantinople (517-565), promulgated the Codex Constitutionum, the chief source and authority of Roman law.

529 The new Justinian Code was composed of 4,652 laws. It extended the rights of women, children and slaves, and also called for harsher penalties for crime.
(ATC, p.43)

529 Justinian closed the Platonic academy at Athens.

529 The Monte Cassino monastery in Italy was founded by St. Benedict (450-547).
(V.D.-H.K.p.107)(NW, 10/28/02, p.16)

530 Oct 14, Dioscurus, anti-Pope (530), died.
(MC, 10/14/01)