Nutrition and Age: A Case Study on Illinois Senior Center

Nutrition is a significant determinant in for persons over 60 years. Careful assessment in nutrition is thus essential for a good feeding plan for the elderly. This article intends to use observation method to gather information concerning food for the persons over 60 years to as well as explaining the physiology of aging, weight loss, protein under-nutrition during this age and thus give a general diet recommendation for the persons above 60 years. From healthy fats to fiber, aging bodies need certain foods to promote good health.

A healthy diet, therefore, ensures the elimination of health problems commonly experienced by seniors, for instance, blood pressure, weight loss and reduced proteins in the body. The US Department of Agriculture gives a lot attention the importance of taking in low calorie foods and doing exercises to reduce chances of chronic diseases. It gives a guide on taking whole grain foods, colorful vegetables, and low fat dairy as well as lean meat. In assessing the need for proper nutrition for the aged, this study conducted a three-day observation in the Illinois Senior Center for to establish the types of food they give to the aged during the breakfast, lunch, dinner and finally supper.

On my first visit, during breakfast, the dining table looked a social hub since the people were merrily chatting but in low tones hence forming a rather comfortable environment devoid of distractions. I went across to interview the customers and throughout the conversations with them, joy was all over their faces. The waiters were welcoming, friendly and promoted a relaxed condition ideal for eating through directing the customers to their tables. They looked polite and attentive.

The breakfast was a selection of brown rice, eggs to fill the customers with energy for the day, greens, tea, mango juice, and corn. These foods are nutritionally considered as healthy and balanced in a diet. The same diet was in line with the core guidelines of My Plate guidelines which advocate for a balanced meal which should contain the four groups of food; whole grains, proteins, healthy plant oils, vegetables and fruits. A food diet that gives proper food nutrients according to the My Plate guidelines achieves the requirements of the body for the aged. The plan advocates for a selection of high fiber bread and cereals rich in carbohydrates to reduce constipation and energy provision, colorful fruit, and protein to fill oneself with power. Vegetables and whole grains are also in the program. The Center gave foods breakfast that fitted well into the MyPyramid recommendations.

Dining is one of the activities that are highly distracted by the environment, decorations of the dining area as well as noise within the surrounding. From what I saw at the Senior Center, the arrangement of furniture was beautiful and provided an ideal atmosphere for dining. There was ample lighting system, and the place is very serene. The Center was appropriately furnished providing a friendly and pleasant surrounding with modern, decorated and clean set of seats. The floor was properly done, and the white carpets and the arrangement of chairs into small groups of four made the area very decent.

At lunchtime, I picked on Larry, one of the aged persons in the Center and asked him why he loved attending the Illinois Center for meals. “Eating with other people is as significant as adding vitamins to one’s diet. Similarly, a social environment helps in the stimulation of the mind and for that reason; I get to enjoy the meals here. Once I like the meals, I am likely to it better.”

The meals served here were lean meat, brown rice, veggie stew with whole wheat noodles and mozzarella cheese. According to David, another aged person in the Center, “I loved eating alone, but I found it better to come and eat with others. Eating with a company of people took time strategizing, but the effort has paid off. I encourage other aged people to stick to healthy eating plans like the ones I get at this Center.” The same replicated during the dinner hours whereby a wholesome meal was served. They served them with roasted veggies, brown bread, cheese, sweet potatoes and grilled meat. It fell squarely within the guidelines of My Plate concerning the serving of foods in the four groups.

However, across the Illinois center was a restaurant that played deafening music. The seniors in the Center were a bit uncomfortable during the evening hours when the people went to drink in that restaurant since the noise was unpleasantly loud. So many seniors would opt out very quickly to avoid the noise, and the implication is that it affected the ability for the seniors to enjoy their meals at this time since the older people require a serene environment. Loud music for them becomes a problem.

Nutritionally the foods consisted of a balanced diet at each meal comprising of a pack of proteins like beans, eggs, chicken, fish, nuts and lean meat which were used interchangeably. There were cereals to like for the provision of Vitamin B12. They were also served with fruits and milk as well as bananas which helped in the delivery of calcium. Remember calcium is critical. Everyone requires calcium for the protection of bone health. The seniors need to bone up on foods rich in calcium like the low-fat dairy products. A calcium supplement that is paired with vitamin D was served at this Center. Foods fortified with Vitamin B12 were served to enable the seniors to get more diet supplements since their bodies have a reduced ability to absorb B12.

Eating foods that are rich in dietary fiber helps in staying regular reduce heart disease. One should eat a variety of fruits and vegetables each day since colored fruits and veggies contain high concentrations of vitamins, minerals and antioxidants. Healthy eating is not about having strict limitations or depriving oneself of foods one loves but rather about feeling great, have more energy and stabilizing the mood.

While the Center enjoys an excellent relationship with the seniors, they should come up with a fitness center to help the seniors have some aerobics to keep fit. They should share the love by joining them in the fitness keeping activities. These help the old to relax their mind. Above all, I also recommend that the Illinois Senior Center should have trip events with the staff and the seniors to have some fun.

Traumatic effects for children removed from their caregiver by the Administration for Children Services. Part 3


According to Child Welfare Information Gateway (n.d), governments have put into place various legislations to mitigate the impacts of Administration for Children Services. These legislations and policies govern the process of offering substantial care to the vulnerable children and adequately administering their care. The Child Abuse Prevention and treatment Act was incorporated to ensure sustainable welfare of all children. Klain and White (2013) stated that these legislations and polices has led to the improvement of the wellbeing and safety of children whoa are in short term foster care. They also contain legal aspects that address welfare of juveniles, their health and education. This is something that everyone could do for the world, so could you write essay for me? This post is like an essay about my attitude to the government. Lets do this together!

Various provisions are stipulated in the policies that are linked to the emotional and social welfare of the children under foster care. Provisions and opportunities in current policies linked to social and emotional welfare include: State Plan for Child Welfare Services (Section 422 of the Social Security Act), Section 422(b)(15) that obliges child welfare organizations to cultivate, in partnership with and in consultation with qualified healthcare personnel for the continuing oversight and direction of health care facilities, as well as psychological health services, for any child in adoptive care settlement. Mental Health Service plans for these children need to contain an explanation of how Federations will provide the services to those in foster care. Furthermore, States may possibly address the psychological health of children who have gone through maltreatment in accordance to provisions of the Act. A case in point, time-limited family reconsolidation amenities in Promoting Safe and Stable Families clearly contain mental health services in the Social Security Act (Worth, 2011).

Early and Periodic Diagnosis, Screening, and Assessment (EPSDT) are a typical Medicaid subsidy for youth and children, into their health plans. EPSDT guarantees that youngsters receive suitable medical, hearing, vision, and dental check-ups to detect and treat any complications as quickly as possible. It also comprises of mental fitness valuations and facilities. Since they are definitely qualified for Medicaid, all kids in foster care fit for title IV-E compensation are eligible to EPSDT (Adams, 2004).

Screening and Treatment of Trauma: Child and Family Services Improvement and Innovation Act of 2011 entails that organizations need to contain in their plans an explanation of how they will check for and treat sensitive trauma related with ill-treatment and removal for infants in foster care (section 422(b)(14)(A)(ii) of the Social Security Act) (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Children’s Bureau, 2015). Ascertaining the symptoms exhibited by youth when they arrive is acute for the developing of a treatment plan. It is similarly vital to have a comprehensive trauma history for every child. Even though children come to the care of the system because of a detailed allegation of abuse, cruelty and neglect are chronic in nature (Child Welfare Information Gateway, 2007). Child health personnel ought to have a sympathetic understanding of the numerous forms and frequencies of trauma children have faced, outside just the happening that triggered child welfare participation. Piloting wide-ranging practical assessments according to an unvarying program can aid caseworkers and overseers estimate whether or not treatment approaches are employed to cut children’s symptoms. Countries can contemplate assimilating trauma screening into the systematic screening actions conducted under EPSDT to meet the new condition (Worth, 2011).

Still, are these policies efficient? We do not disagree that the motive behind removal of children from parental care is positive, but the removal process is in itself traumatic. Yes, the process is necessary at times. Think of a case involving a physically disabled child taken away to specialized care. It enhances their education and improving their living standards, but anxiety fills their minds as well. ‘Must I leave home? Why is my condition necessitating so many procedures? Can’t I be assisted at the comfort of our home? Why is daddy/mommy allowing me go through this?’ This in itself leaves them with tremendous traumatic stress.

Training for both parents directly attached to the children and for professionals outside child welfare such as court personnel, private agencies, welfare agencies, guardians, and adoptive parents is critical because of sensitivity of the stage of development. It is important to give caregivers guidance on how to talk to talk to these children (Lawrence, Carlson & Egeland, 2006). At their early stages, under the age of six, children require full attention and understanding. Staff needs to be training on how to interpret body language, behavior and emotions of the children they care for because at age below 5 years, the children have not fully developed their communication systems (Perry et al., 2015). It might be a challenge to express their feelings. Not unless the caregiver is keen in noting behavior changes and body language they may misinterpret these feelings (Reiser-Danner, 2003).


Children in care are especially susceptible to childhood traumatic stress. Administrations for Children Welfare Systems, hence, are obliged to address their needs by treating not only the symptoms of the trauma but also the principal causes. A comprehensive tactic includes raising awareness, using authenticated screening and evaluation methods, provision of trauma specific mediations, engaging all participants in the recovery procedure. Shifting the structure’s emphasis to trauma informed practices improve results for affected children and relatives. Implementing of the recommendations and proposals in this brief will allow interested parties to foster specialized techniques and strategies to make sure children in care are capable of healing from past trauma and cultivate skills necessary to form resilience. Various policies and legislations have been passed to ensure that such children are given utmost care by the organizations taking their responsibility. With appropriate treatment and upkeep, they can draw on their capacity for flexibility and overcome the undesirable effects of trauma.

Traumatic effects for children removed from their caregiver. Part 2

Current ACS Practices

Bad experiences faced by children leading to traumatic reports have necessitated the creation of orphanages, agencies for adoption, United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), associations for supporting vulnerable children and other related organizations that support children who are considered as marginalized (Awake, 2008) these organization provide the children with welfare services and massively contributes towards the growth and development of the neglected children from abuse and exploitation. Administration for Children Services (ACS) provides early care, education services and juvenile justice. Some existing ACS practices include training of personnel that are directly and indirectly in contact with the children in order to equip them with knowledge and skills to carry their duties, carrying out evidence-based investigations in matters that demand so, and engagement of court and judiciary (Gootman et al., 2003).

The abrupt change when the children are taken to foster homes may be overwhelming. The process in itself of removal from the home by ACS is traumatic and can have permanent effects on a person’s life. When a child experiences a traumatic event, this event causes some impacts on the child. Regrettably, though, the transition process after a child is under to foster care can also be a very uneasy and nerve-wracking one. This is an experience children find difficult to process (Chesler, 2011).

Trauma Caused by the Removal of ACS

Traumatic experiences result from verbal, sexual or physical abuse or household dysfunction where they face domestic violence or their parents may have separated. In some cases, the caregiver may have been a drug addict, violent, or mentally impaired (Connecticut, 2016). Such experiences adversely affect their social, emotional, behavioral and mental health. They often feel insecure and develop a significant level of distrust in adults. In some cases, they develop cognitive and language problems, difficulty in their emotional and social functions, and academic failure.  Nonetheless, others may exhibit intense emotional upset, difficulties in eating and sleeping, withdrawal symptoms, aches and pains (Eva & White 2013). Moreover, they develop mental health challenges, distress, anxiety, depression as well as drug and substance abuse that may negatively affect their future parenthood (Jacobsen, 2012). Children who have had adverse childhood experiences are often reported to have higher chances of depression; they may attempt suicide, or turn to alcoholism and substance abuse in an attempt to vent their plight (Trayser, 2017).

The importance of the attachment stage between children and their parents

The ages 0 through 6 are the crucial part of a human’s life. This is also a fundamental part for in the child’s life where attachment is important and removal of the child by ACS means a disruption to this (Kimberly et al., 2011). Children ages 0 to 6 are also going through their most critical times when it comes to their development. An interruption such as a removal possesses a great threat to the successful completion of the developmental stage. In those ages the brain is developing its cognitive understanding of the world around them. The child at this age has developed an attachment with his/ her primary care taker. Removing a juvenile from their parent can have some negative effects on the attachment between the child and the parent; as well as the ability to build secure attachments with anyone in the future, because socio-emotional development has been interfered with (Administration for Children and Families & U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2011).

Immediate Impacts of Trauma on a Child

When a child experiences unwholesome trauma or stress, their autonomic nervous system is activated, resulting in increased heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure (Fawley & Merz, 2014).

Nevertheless, brain and neurological functions are also affected because endocrine and nervous system is affected. Hormone cortisol production is elevated thus facilitate the fight or flight response by reducing pain and inflammation. However, if the levels of cortisol stay elevated for an extended time, it results to negative physiological effects and neurological connections are capable of impairment. No wonder these children, regress in their development and behaviors when initially placed (Crawford et al., 2009).

Minor separation from caregiver, be it a day off or a month spent away from parent could cause anxiety. Separation that could necessitate a change in caregiver, which could last a week or more, affects the child’s reading ability (Levetthal & Brooks, 2000) A month long separation could lead to borderline personality disorder in their later stages of life

Children under one vary on how they express their anxiety (Rieser, 2003). Some may believe that children this age are too young to recall separation from their caregivers. Piaget’s stages of cognitive development states that those children under one experience separation anxiety. She mentions that separation anxiety is very important during this stage. Furthermore, she goes on to say the child is able to remember the separation from the parent as well as can become anxious when there are signs leading to a separation from their caregiver. Fawley and Merz (2014) mentioned, “When a child is exposed to extreme stress or trauma, the autonomic nervous system is activated, resulting in increased heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure.

Long term Impacts of Trauma on a Child

Certain grave effects of childhood trauma go unnoticed, unmentioned and therefore unsolved. In fact, research has exposed that traumatic involvements hold the possibility of resulting in not only strong but also lasting impression on the child’s brain development. The brain is an essential organ for animals, children included, for mankind decisions, compression, cognitive alertness and learning (Browne, 2012). Childhood traumas can go unnoticed but have consequences in the future such as poor academic performance. Such children, because of childhood trauma, develop incompetent cognitive capacities and eventually lead them in poor life progress (Widom, 2014). As soon as the architecture of the brain structure is affected by trauma, serious effects to the intellectual capacity, ability to manage and control behaviors, emotional experiences, and emotional experiences follows and eventually affecting their social relationships (Perry et al 2015).

The implication is even stronger after contemplating that 47% of children facing such distress do so by the age of 59 (Child Welfare Information Gateway, 2007). The negative effect is often mirrored in developmental delays, which can accurately be attributed to the tremendous amount of time as well as energy spent in coping with, responding to and coming to terms with the upsetting events. The longer the traumatic stress remains untreated, the distant they tend to stray from proper developmental pathways (Jacobsen, 2012).  Of course, accurate indicators of the impact are challenging to come by, and they vary from region to region.

There is no doubt that the scars carried into adulthood are tough to erase (Awake, 2008).

Traumatic effects for children removed from their caregiver by the Administration for Children Services


Children are said to be a gift from God and need to be shown intimate affection and love all the time by their parents and everyone in the society. Most of the parents deem it essential to show love to their children. They find joy in showing love whenever they put smiles on their baby’s face. Failure to show and cultivate love in the children often leads to unprecedented negative consequences on their development. They can be emotionally, psychologically and physiologically affected when they do not receive wholesome love and affection from their parents and the society. Children who come from backgrounds of unloving parents, and those who do not give them the affection they deserve often feel left out and this impairs their social and psychological productivity. Such children are reported to have increased levels of stress hormones, an indication that social and emotional neglect from their parents from infancy has detrimental consequences (Howard, Martin, Berlin, & Brooks-Gunn


In spite of all these undisputable facts, every day the welfare and safety of a large number of children across countries face threat of neglect and child abuse because of removal from their caregiver by specific professional groups or agencies (Child Welfare Information Gateway, 2007). This article pays close attention to the traumatic effects experienced during as well as after the separation by Administration for Children Services (ACS). How does such an absurd separation affect the growth of these infants? Are there any provisions in place to mitigate such impacts? What are the possible solutions to this dogma?

Intervention into the emotional feeling of children by provision of love and affection is an act that should be public shared and not only left as an exclusive obligation of a professional agency (Chesler, 2011). This paper aims at assessing the current practices for removal of children and identify if there is a need for them to be tailored in order to decrease the trauma the child experience during the ejection. It examines literature that leads to findings that indicate evidence of negative development of the child, which sets the stage for an argument of the effectiveness of such a separation.

Literature Review

Every community continuously emphasizes the need for parents to always be there for their children, to nurture and provide all the essential support. Parental closeness establishes a strong relationship between a child and their parents hence closely knitting the communal cultural and familial setup. At other times, the parents seek ways to run away from their primary obligations (Howard, Martin, Berlin & Brooks 2011). For instance, some countries like Japan has experienced an upsurge in the number of demises of infants who were left alone in parked cars or homes. In some circumstances the absent fathers or mothers were laying a bet at pachinko pinball machines. Until lately, few were held criminally answerable in such cases. Now, though, authorities are in the front line to ensure prosecution of seriously negligent parents (Roberts, 2008).

In the recent past, many cases of child exploitations has been reported in various countries including Japan. The increased levels of child exploitations ahs been attributed to neglect by the parents and the anxieties that has been embraced by the mothers who should be taking care of their children. Lack of communal support to the children and the inadequate quality attention and concern shown t the children by the general society has also been attributed as the cause of children abuse that has resulted in emotional and psychosocial traumas (Ruskin, 1913). Children in the modern day experience lack of attention and personal interest shown to them by society. Some children feel unwanted, unloved and they daily face hostile oppression from adults who show them no love or affection whatsoever (Browne, 2012). The Awake magazine (2008), gives a classical experience of a young child called Micah. Micah relates that nobody desires to be with him, not his friends or the adults in his society, he just does not feel comfortable interacting with them.  Such experiences are so discouraging and act as stumbling blocks for the growth and development of the child. Some of the major problems that most children go through in the modern society include the dreadful effects of poverty, the conflicts that result form economic constraints in the family and the society and bad health experiences resulting from diseases such as HIV and AIDS (Booth & Crouter, 2004).